Chapter 20 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism European History

The people of France wanted stability and the Directory was not providing it. Only the army was able to offer stability and the values of the revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power and draws France into wars for conquest, while spreading many of the ideas and institutions of the Revolution and overturned the old political and social orders of Europe. Romanticism were new ideas which were spread because of the revolution and wars. Key Topics - Napoleon’s rise, his coronation as emperor, and administrative reforms - Napoleon’s conquests, the creation of a French Empire, and Britain’s enduring resistance - The invasion of Russia and Napoleon’s decline - The reestablishment of a European order at the Congress of Vienna - Romanticism and reaction to the Enlightenment - Islam and Romanticism The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte The biggest danger to the Directory was the Royalist, who wanted to restore the Bourbon monarchy. To preserve the Republic the antimonarchist staged a coup d’etat with the support of Napoleon on September 4 1797 and was successful. Early Military VictoriesTreaty of Campo Formio October 1797, the treaty crowned Napoleon over Austria. France also controlled Italy and Switzerland. Napoleon’s next focus was Britain. Napoleon decided to attack British interest in the Mediterranean by cutting off the British communications with India, damage British trade, and threaten the British Empire. Napoleon’s venture into Egypt was a failure. Constitution of the Year IIIA new constitution was proposed by Abbe Sieyes, and with the help of Napoleon another coup d’etat was successful. The proposed constitution dived the executive authority into 3 consuls. Napoleon pushed it and Sieyes aside and issued the Constitution of the Year III, it provided male suffrage, checks and balances for the government and established the rule of one man (First Consul) Napoleon. The Consulate in France (1799-1804) By 1799 most groups had achieved their goals. Hereditary privileges abolished, allowing for individuals to achieve wealth, status, and security for property. The peasants gained land and destroyed the feudal system. Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic OppositionNapoleon made peace with its Enemies, and by 1802 there was peace in Europe. Napoleon restored peace in France by using generosity, flattery, and bribery. He established a centralized administration and stamped out all rebellions by employing a

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secret police. The royalist wanted a return to the Bourbon monarchy. Napoleon seized the Bourbon Duke of Enghien accused him of plotting with the royalist in an attempt to assassinate Napoleon. The Duke of Enghien was innocent but by killing him, it put an end to the royalist plots and insure the Bourbons would not restore the monarchy. Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church-The Pope Pius III and Napoleon entered into a concordat (agreement) which stated the following: the refractory clergy were required to resign, the state named the bishops, paid their salaries, paid the salary of one priest in each parish, and the church gave up its claim on confiscated property. The Church wanted in return religious domination. Articles of 1802 established supremacy of state over church. The Napoleon CodeCivil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code) safeguarded all property, privileges based on birth abolished, employment of official based on merit not purchase, workers organizations forbidden, and all children could inherit. Establishing a Dynasty1804 a bomb attack on Napoleon led him to seize power and make himself emperor. He claimed in order to stop future attacks; he should create a dynasty, making future attacks pointless for his heir would be the next successor and securing the new regime. Napoleon was now called Emperor of the French instead of First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon’s Empire (1804-1814) Napoleon had conquered most of Europe putting an end to the Old regime and its feudal trappings. Napoleons success was due to his ability to amass large armies, because of the loyalty he had from the French citizens. Conquering an EmpirePeace of Amiens (1802) was a truce between France and Britain. France tried to secure its holding in Haiti, and it also regained Louisiana from Spain in 1800, which aroused Britain’s fears of France trying to make a new empire in America. In Europe Napoleon reorganized Germany which decreased Austria territory and enlarged Germany. British Naval Supremacy-Britain declared war on France in May 1803. William Pitt the Younger created the Third Coalition. Russia, Austria and Britain were to move against France. October 21, 1805 the Battle of Trafalgar the British destroyed the French and Spanish fleets just off the Spanish coast and put an end to all French hopes of invading Britain and guaranteed British control of the seas for the rest of the war. Napoleonic Victories in Central Europe- Napoleon forced Austria to surrender and occupied Vienna. December 2, 1805 he defeated the combine armies of Austria and Russia. The Treaty of Pressburg won major concessions from Austria, which Austrians withdrew from Italy leaving Napoleon in control of everything north of Rome. July 1806 Napoleon organized the confederation of the Rhine, which is a league of German princes. Napoleon raised the German states of Bavaria and Württemberg to the status of kingdoms, created new states and grand duchies, and subordinated the cities to French interests. On July 12, 1806, 16 German princes gathered in Paris and formally signed an act of confederation. The act dissolved their connection with the Holy Roman Empire and, in effect, allied them to France as satellites. As a result, Francis II, who had proclaimed himself emperor of Austria in 1804 when he foresaw the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, resigned his title of Holy Roman emperor, and the empire came to

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an end. During the next two years several other German sovereigns joined the confederation. It collapsed in 1813, after Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Leipzig, and was replaced by the German Confederation established by the Congress of Vienna. On November 21 Napoleon issued the Berlin Decrees, forbidding his allies from importing British goods. By 1807 Napoleon mastered all of Germany with the defeat of Prussia in 1806 and the defeat of Russia 1807. Treaty of Tilsit Signed in July 1807, between France and Prussia (July 9), ending the War of the Third Coalition. Preliminary discussions were held by Napoleon of France and Alexander I, emperor of Russia, during a famous meeting on a raft on the Memel River (now Niemen River), on June 25, 1807. By the terms of the treaties, Prussia was forced to cede all its territory west of the Elbe River to Napoleon, who used it to create the kingdom of Westphalia. Prussia also relinquished to France the Polish territory it acquired in the partitions of 1793 to 1795, out of which Napoleon created the duchy of Warsaw; Danzig (Gdansk) was made a free city. Prussia joined Napoleon's Continental System, for the blockade of Britain, and closed its ports to British vessels. The Prussian army was reduced to 42,000 men. Prussian forts and provinces taken by the French were occupied until a war indemnity fixed at 120 million francs was paid in substantial part. The sovereignty of Napoleon's three brothers, Joseph Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte, and Jerome Bonaparte, as the kings of Naples, Holland, and Westphalia, respectively, was recognized. Russia obtained only a small portion of East Prussia. In effect, by the agreements, France and Russia divided the political control of Europe between them, an arrangement that lasted until 1812. The Continental SystemNapoleon planned to cut off all British trade with European continent and thus cripple British commercial and financial power. The Milan Decree of 1807 attempted to stop neutral nations from trading with Britain. Britain survived due to the North and South America markets and their control over the seas. However the Continental System hurt the other nations economically. France also had high tariffs protecting their nation which hurt the merchant further causing animosity and smuggling. European response to the Empire The Napoleonic Code was imposed on all nations Napoleon conquered. Serfdom and feudal rights abolished, churches lost their independence and toleration was practiced, and men gained more rights under Napoleon’s rule. German Nationalism and Prussia Reform Beginning of the 19th century the Romantic Movement began. One of its basic features was Nationalism which was a movement in which the nation-state is regarded as paramount for the realization of social, economic, and cultural aspirations of a people. Nationalism is characterized principally by a feeling of community among a people, based on common descent, language, and religion. Germans sought to establish a unified state based on Nationalism. The Wars of Liberation Spain- France and Spain were allies since 1796. However France armies were stationed in Spain to force Portugal to abandon its alliance with Britain. While station in Spain a revolt broke out in Madrid giving Napoleon the opportunity to depose the Spanish Bourbons with his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. Outraged peasants and the

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church, who took up gorilla war fare against France to regain the throne for the Bourbons with Britain’s support. Austria – Austria used Napoleons distraction with Spain, French was weariness and aid from German princes to renew its struggles against France. They failed and the Peace of Schonbrunn was established and deprived Austria of territory and Marie Louise the daughter of the emperor becomes Napoleons wife to beget an heir. The Invasion of Russia The alliance between France and Russia was unpopular in Russia because they were prohibited to sell timber to Britain, and Napoleon gave them no help against the Ottoman Empire. In 1810 Russia withdrew from the Continental System and prepared for war. France invaded Russia with more than 600,000 soldiers, Russia retreats with its 160,000 soldiers and destroys and kills everything while retreating (scorches and burn policy). As a result Frances soldiers lack food, water and had a low moral. Napoleon refuses to retreat and battles it out in Moscow, France lost 30,000 soldiers, Russia lost 60,000 soldiers. Napoleon gains nothing and on the return trip back to France most of his armies dies in the Russian winter, only 100,000 of the original 600,000 returned. European Coalition In 1813 patriotic pressures and national ambition brought together another coalition. Russia, Austria, Prussia and Britain defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Nations March 1814. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on the island of Elba. The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement Treaty of Chaumont March 9, 1814 provided for the restoration of the Bourbons to the French throne and to return France to its former boarders prior to 1792, and created the Quadruple Alliance between Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Territorial Adjustments The Quadruple Alliance agreed that no single state should be allowed to dominate Europe. France borders were returned to 1792. A series of states were also created to serve as barriers to French expansion such as the Netherlands. The Hundred Days and Quadruple Alliance March 1, 1815 Napoleon returned from Elba Island. France was still loyal to Napoleon and the people thought it safer under his rule as that of the Bourbons. Napoleon was declared an outlaw and the Quadruple Alliance sent out an army to crush him. Wellington (English) defeated Napoleon on June 18, 1815 at Waterloo in Belgium. Napoleon was exiled and sent to Saint Helena, an island off the coast of Africa, were he died in 1821. The Quadruple Alliance in 1815 was renewed and for the first time an alliance was used to maintain peace. The Romantic Movement Romanticism was a reaction against much of the thought of the Enlightenment. Romantic writers / artist saw the imagination as a means of perceiving and understanding the world. Romanics saw the world beyond that of empirical observation, data, and discursive reasoning. Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

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The movement has its roots in the individualism of the renaissance. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant raised questions about rationalism. Rousseau and Education Rousseau believed that society and material prosperity had corrupted human nature. In his book Emile were he stressed the difference between children and adults, and that children should be raised with maximum individual freedoms. Kant and Reason Kant wrote The Critique of Pure Reason and The Critique of Practical Reason. He believed all humans possess an innate sense of moral duty or awareness called categorical imperative. Romantic Literature The Romantic Movement peaked in Germany and England under the leadership of Madame de Stael and Victor Hugo. The English Romantic Writers English romantics believed poetry enhanced the creative process of the mind and was the highest of human acts. Wordsworth- William Wordsworth (1770-1850) important works are Ode on Intimations of Immortality. Wordsworth believed the process of maturation one loses childlike visions and closeness to spiritual reality Lord Byron- He rejected the old traditions and championed the causes of personal liberty. His writing includes Harold’s Pilgrimage and Don Juan. The German Romantic Writers Romantic novels were often sentimental and barrowed material from medieval romances. Ludwig Tieck’s wrote William Lovell and Schlegel Friedrich wrote Lucinde which attacked prejudices against women. Goethe- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther which was a series of letters between two lovers one of which was married. Authors admired his work because its emphasis on feelings and living outside social boundaries. Faust is his greatest work, were a man sells his soul to the devil to gain knowledge and breaks the pact by devoting his life to the betterment of mankind. Religion in the Romantic Period Romantic religious thinkers appealed to the inner emotions of humankind for the foundation of religion MethodismA revolt against deism and rationalism in the Church of England. John Wesley 17031791 was the leader and in 1739 he began to preach his ideas in open fields in England. By late 18th century the Methodist became its own separate church. Methodism stressed the role of enthusiastic emotional experience as part of Christian conversion. New Direction in Continental Religion The Genius of Christainity by Viscount Francois Rene de Chanteaubriand 1802 argued the essence of religion is passion Romantic Views of Nationalism and History Romanticism glorifies both the individual person and individual cultures.

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Herder and Culture Johann Gottfried Herder published On the Knowing and Feelings of the Human Soul he believed that people like plants over time (organically). Humans were different at different times and places. He wanted to preserve culture and not unify all cultures to create one culture. Hegel and History George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a philosopher. He believed that all periods of history have been of equal value, because it was necessary for each to occur in order for later achievements to happen. He also believed cultures are valuable because it leads to a clash with other cultures causing humans to develop. Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism Romanticism cast the Ottoman Empire and Islam in an unfavorable political light. However it allowed Europeans to see it in a positive fashion through art and literature allowing them to read famous works of art such as The Thousand and One Nights and Arabian Nights

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