Comparing Total Quality Management And Six Sigma Anthony Williams Webster University

I will explain their principles and offer my limited opinion on which methodology is better suited to improve quality by specific industries. Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma. . automobile manufacturers and personal computer manufacturers are just some of those who have sought to improve quality of either there services or products. In this paper I will compare two quality improvement systems. Military units.Abstract Improving quality has been a major focus of organizations for at least the past 60 years. The diversity of organizations embarking on such a path is wide varied.

(Berry. 3) Many consider the fathers of the quality improvement to be Drs. Deming helped Japan rebuild their economy after World War II. 1991. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. (Berry.Improving the quality of goods and services produced long been an arduous effort for many organizations. p. p. 41) Some type of QIP is necessary for any company to compete competitively in today’s global economy. A QIP is a systematic method of producing products and services and providing customer service after the sale based on a understanding of the customer’s needs and reasonable expectations. Over the years many quality improvement process (QIP) or systems have published. 1991. Most QIPs follow some form of a Total Quality Model such as the basic one below (Berry. 40): . 1991. The principles of Dr. p.

in my opinion. This will always require some type of training.This basic model shows that a QIP should outlined steps that follow in chronological order. and quality assurance. Produce quality work the first time 2. 2010). The TQM model above can be defined by addressing five areas of focus: 1. Conceptual training exposes employees to the concept of quality and its impact. Have a strategic approach to improvement 4. 2010) Producing quality work initially is the first area of focus and arguably the hardest to implement. Focus on the customer 3. However. (Murray. . The most successful training programs typically provide training in four stages. The Total Quality Management (TQM) system has a more simplified model (Edrasoft) : TQM is a QIP is an approach that seeks to improve quality by taking into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees. Encourage mutual respect and teamwork (Murray. these steps should be simplified into a model that’s more easily comprehended by those having to follow it. These measures include quality design and development. quality improvement. Improve continuously 5. quality control and maintenance. This area requires buy-in from all areas of an organization from executive management on down.

You must continuously check or re-evaluate what you have implemented so far and act to improve it by re-planning and re-doing. p. don’t give it a name or slogan especially anything that can be abbreviated with three initials. If you must call it something. 79 . leadership training. The fourth suggestion is to not build a separate department that is responsible for implementing TQM. don’t have separate committees to deal with quality issues. 1994. & Willard. Before embarking on any improvement activity. 1994. the requirements of internal and external customers must be clearly defined. First. posters. & Willard. don’t appoint a chief of quality officer.80) Continuous improvement is the fourth area of focus. eliminate banners. A “mindset” is a long term behavior that can be learned and improved upon. Instead make TQM regular agenda items in meetings and committees that already occur. (Brown. “Programs” come and go. (Brown. provides basic tools and how to use them. such as “Air Force 2020”. buttons. 49) . Hitchcock. (Brown. Next. Reducing TQM to just another “program” instead of a “mindset” can be avoided by having a strategic approach. Hitchcock. The customer’s exact requirements must be determined. (Berry. addresses topics and aspects specific to job function. Finally. There are five suggestions to help TQM from becoming another fly-by-night program. This responsibility should be shared by all. 39) Focus on the customer is paramount because they are the ones who ultimately decide the success or failure of most companies in capital market. 1994. is for executive and managers to provide effective leadership. pp. Quality tools training. & Willard. pep rallies. 1991. The final stage. etc… Concentrate instead on the essence of process improvement. Every manager and employee should be measured on their quality and how well it satisfies their customers’ needs. give it a name consistent with your organizations long-term goals. special topics. You must continue to enhance the TQM process. p. p. Hitchcock.The next stage. Third. The third stage. 65) Improvements in quality should improve customer satisfaction.

spend time in the area where day-to-day work is done. followed up with concrete actions. Employee empowerment is the key to productivity. Decision Making 5.53) . Company Culture (Murray. and commit money and other resources to TQM. To increase the chances for training success training must use relevant examples. Methodology and Tools 6. (Brown. 7 . Training 3. be implemented at the top. All members must feel their inputs or suggestions are treated equally. p. and provide ongoing feedback. review customer satisfaction surveys. Employees should receive regular training on the methods and concepts of quality. pp. Executive Management 2. 1994. 184) The five area of focus for TQM are further enhanced by a number of key principles: 1.8) As it is in the focus area. & Willard. 1994. 1995. (McInerney & White. attend quality training. pp. To counter this. training is also a key principle that must be leveraged. consider suppliers as partners.The final focus area is encouraging mutual respect and teamwork. 2010) Top management must act as the main driver for TQM and create an environment that ensures it success. executives must spend time with customers. The opportunity for knowledgeable. be tailored to the organization. & Willard. motivated employees to provide ideas on quality efforts is enormous. 49 . Implementation of TQM should not be seen as something that should be delegate to others. Hitchcock. Hitchcock. (Brown. Customer Focus 4.

measured and responded to consistently. There are various tools that can be used for this but the most effective are the seven Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools: 1. p. (Brown. Operational measures 6. 89) The methodology and tools principle ensures that non-conformances are identified. 1994. 88 . Employee satisfaction measures 5. Graph and control chart . Customer satisfaction can be measured by collecting data on customer complaints. & Willard. 1994. Cause-and-effect diagram 3. Scatter diagram 7. Regardless of what type of business it is engaged in every organization needs to measure the same type of variables. Pareto chart 2. Hitchcock.The principle of customer focus believes improvement in quality should improve customer satisfaction. & Willard. Hitchcock. Financial measures 3. Customer satisfaction measures 2. Stratification 4. Customer surveys and focus groups also provide relevant data on overall customer satisfaction. pp. Histogram 6. Customer complaints alone are not an adequate measure of satisfaction. Check sheet 5. These are: 1. Product/service quality measures 4. Public responsibility measures (Brown.89) Quality decision making should be made based on measurements.

2010) The organization must foster an environment where the total employee population is ready and willing to participate in building a culture of quality. Product and service organizations have traits that can be measured. p. measuring and improving processes. 2003. 23) So far I’ve discussed TQM and some of its focus areas and principles.Finally. This includes foster an attitude of trust. with top-management commitment critical. objective problem solving. & Meadows. p. 2002. 10) . While TQM may be one of the oldest and most widely known QIPs. it is far from being the only one. 2. Sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization. (Brue. the principle of company culture states that a company should aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality. 2001. (Berry. p. (Murray. (Breyfogle.7) Six Sigma was heavily inspired by other QIPs such as TQM and the work of Drs. 3. pp. Implementing Six Sigma. 5 . Efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results are important to an organization’s success. analyzed. Cupello. One of the newest QIP is Six Sigma. teamwork. (Breyfogle. and shared accountability. improved and controlled. 1991. Six Sigma doctrine believes: 1. Deming and Juran. Six Sigma is a philosophy that focuses on eliminating defects through practices and that emphasize understanding. Six Sigma is a business management strategy that seeks to improve the quality of products and services by identifying and removing the causes of defects or errors and minimizing the variation in manufacturing and services. 2) Like the QIPs before it.

pp. etc.Features that make Six Sigma different from other QIPs include a clear focus on achieving quantifiable financial returns. 2001. p.101) . pp. (Brue. Measure. 2. A six sigma process is one in which 99. Control the process by maintaining any changes you made and ensuring deviations are corrected before they cause defects. DMAIC is primarily used to improve an existing process. etc. to lead. (Breyfogle. Measure the current process and collect relevant data. and a commitment to making decisions on verifiable data rather than assumptions and guesswork. 5. The first is the DMAIC methodology where DMAIC is an acronym for Define. Use test runs where applicable. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a “sigma” rating that indicates is percentage of defect-free products. 31) The term “Six Sigma” originated from terminology associated statistical modeling of manufacturing process. 93 . specifically. 4. & Meadows. a special infrastructure of “Champions”. 2003. Improve the current process by using the data analysis and changing key variables by using experiments. Focus on defects that are a measurable characteristic of a process or its outputs that aren’t within the customer’s limits 3. new designs. Analyze the data determine cause-and-effect. (Breyfogle. Cupello. Define the problem and. “Master Black Belts”. Implementing Six Sigma. Try to understand why defects are generated and identify what reasons are causing them. Improve and control. Deming. Analyze. 37 .99966% of its products are expected to be free of defects or 3. Input from the customer is critical. the project goals.4 defects per million.39) Six Sigma projects follow one of two methodologies inspired by Dr. an increased emphasis on strong management support. The DMAIC project methodology has five phases: 1. 2002. Managing Six Sigma. “Black Belts”.

also has five phases: 1. optimize the design and plan for design verification to meet the customer needs. which is used for projects creating new products or processes. 4. Identify and measure customer needs specifying requirement characteristics that are Critical to Quality (CTQ). Analyze the options to develop and design alternatives to meet the customer needs. Analyze. 2010) The DMADV is the Six Sigma acronym for Define. 3. Define the design goals of the project that are consistent with customer demands. Measure. Design the details.The DMAIC methodology is illustrated below: (Lean Sigma Institute. The DMADV methodology. . Design and Verify. 2.

909) The DMADV methodology is illustrated below: (Lean Sigma Institute. 2010) Both Six Sigma methodologies identify several key roles for successful implementation: 1. Champions promote Six Sigma throughout the organization in an integrated manner and serve as mentors to black belts by removing barriers and dedicating resources. . (Breyfogle. 2. They’re responsible for setting up the vision and empowering other role holders. 3.5. Verify design performance. Executive Leadership includes the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other top management. 2003. They also devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. Master Black Belts act as in-house coaches by guiding and coaching black belts while working with champions to help overcome barriers and obstacles. 4. The black belt does analysis and works with others to put improvements in place. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. p. Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts by applying Six Sigma to specific projects. set up pilot runs and implement the production process. Implementing Six Sigma.

2002. Green Belts are employees who work on Six Sigma implementation along with their other job duties.87) I have reviewed the concepts and principles of two Quality Improvement Processes (QIP). The Six Sigma methodology is best suited for manufacturing processes in my opinion. Here defects are easier to quantify due to the ease of inspecting products output from a manufacturing process. the causes of the defects may be harder to identify.5. (Brue. While customer satisfaction is easy to measure. In this paper I have reviewed the Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Quality Improvement Process. I don’t believe either system is great fit for all organizations or industries. I believe TQM is better suited for organizations that provide services such as the banking industry. I feel defects or errors in the products provided by these types of organizations are more difficult to quantify. pp. And since many manufacturing outputs become inputs for other products. 11 .13. Its tools focus on gaining top-down commitment on improving quality and empowering lower-level employees to find areas of improvement in their daily tasks and acting on them. defects can be more easily traced back to the beginning cause or symptom. the older Total Quality Management and the newer Six Sigma. . TQM will most likely work best because it tends to focus on the mindset or culture of improving quality. They apply Six Sigma tools to solve chronic problems on projects within their regular job. 86 . insurance industry or military organizations. Six Sigma can be valuable in implementing collaborative alliances between builders and suppliers. I have discussed the principles of each methodology and offered my opinion on which method is better suited for a particular industry.

Retrieved February 19. Brue. Retrieved February 18. & Willard.. Managing the Total Quality Transformation. Managing Six Sigma. from Edrasoft. Cupello. D. (1994). Brown. Murray. M. G.Com: www.). from Six Sigma Institute: www.com Berry. The Total Quality Corporation. Implementing Six Sigma. Six Sigma for Managers. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2011. T. F. 2010. 2011. Retrieved Feb 20. S. New York: John Wiley & Sons. New York: McGraw-Hill. (n. (2010). Inc. Inc. F. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons..Bibliography Lean Sigma Institute. (2001). Edrasoft. Hoboken. M..edrawsoft.sixsigmainstitute. (2010). & Meadows. (1991). J.d. & White..about. B. Logistics/Supply Chain. (1995).com McInerney. from Total Quality Management: www. (2003). M. Breyfogle. F. (2002). New York: Truman Talley Books/Dutton. Hitchcock.com .. Breyfogle. Burr Ridge: Irwin Professional Publishing. Why TQM Fails and What To Do About It.

And since many manufacturing outputs become inputs for other products. Here defects are easier to quantify due to the ease of inspecting products output from a manufacturing process. The Six Sigma methodology is best suited for manufacturing processes in my opinion. Six Sigma can be valuable in implementing collaborative alliances between builders and suppliers. I have discussed the principles of each methodology and offered my opinion on which method is better suited for a particular industry. In this paper I have reviewed the Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Quality Improvement Process. defects can be more easily traced back to the beginning cause or symptom. .commitment on improving quality and empowering lower-level employees to find areas of improvement in their daily tasks and acting on them.

B. Hoboken. M. (2010).d. Burr Ridge: Irwin Professional Publishing. (2010). Breyfogle. The Total Quality Corporation. Cupello. M. Retrieved Feb 20. & Meadows. Inc. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Why TQM Fails and What To Do About It..sixsigmainstitute. & Willard. Implementing Six Sigma. D.Bibliography Lean Sigma Institute. Managing Six Sigma. F. New York: McGraw-Hill.).Com: www. (1991). New York: Truman Talley Books/Dutton. 2011. Breyfogle. J. S. Managing the Total Quality Transformation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved February 19..com . G..com McInerney.about. Hitchcock. Logistics/Supply Chain. (2003). T. Brue. Brown. Murray. (2001). F. from Edrasoft. (2002). (1994). from Total Quality Management: www.com Berry. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (1995). 2010. (n.. Inc. & White.edrawsoft. Retrieved February 18. F. Six Sigma for Managers. from Six Sigma Institute: www. M. 2011.. Edrasoft.