Resonating Valence-Bond Mechanism for the Superconductivity in K3C60


´ Departamento de Quımica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50.740-540, PE, Brazil 2 ˆ ´ Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, ¸˜ Recife 50.670-901, PE, Brazil Received 28 December 2009; accepted 22 February 2010 Published online 10 May 2010 in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/qua.22689

ABSTRACT: Density functional theory calculations in different cluster models, the largest one K38(C60)23 with 1,418 atoms, combined with the resonating valence-bond theory show that superconductivity in K3C60 involves interaction of C60 with Kþ, K0, and KÀ in octahedral interstices as well as immobilization of negative charges on positive tetrahedral K atoms. We found that the orbitals involved in the highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap are mainly from C60 and octahedral potassium atoms. We suggest that a K3C60 superconductor improvement can be achieved through potassium atom vacancy in octahedral C sites. V 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem 110: 2088–2093, 2010 Key words: DFT calculations; resonating valence-bond theory; K3C60

ollowing our previous studies on the superconductivity in YBCO [1–4], we now present a K3C60 superconductivity analysis within the framework of the resonating valence-bond (RVB) theory, a theory of the electronic structure of metals, developed 60 years ago by Pauling [5–8], which provides the basis for a detailed descrip˜ Correspondence to: A. C. Pavao; e-mail: Contract grant sponsor: Conselho Nacional ´ ´ Desenvolvimento Cientıfico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazil. de


tion of the electron–phonon interaction in relation to the atomic numbers of the elements and the composition of superconductors. The RVB theory successfully explains a number of superconductor properties; it is consistent with Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) theory [9], and it is directly connected to chemical properties that may be calculated by quantum chemical methods. It is based on the idea that pairs of electrons, occupying bond positions between adjacent pairs of atoms, are able to carry out unsynchronized or partially unsynchronized resonance through the crystal.

International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Vol. 110, 2088–2093 (2010)
C V 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The quadratic dependence of energy on strain leads to smaller amount of strain energy than in the absence of the phonon. 14]. and other electronic properties of K3C60. Superconductivity results from unsynchronized resonance of covalent bonds MAM M ! Mþ MAMÀ. and Mþ is decreased by removal of an electron. In the crystal. particularly the mixed valence systems where difference between oxidation states must be two units—given that at least two electrons are involved in each elementary charge transfer step [10. Electron pairs of the BCS theory (Cooper pairs) are appealing to chemists because there is no reason to believe electron pairs in superconductors should differ greatly from electron pairs in other systems. the normal electronic state of the crystal in the presence of a phonon involves a larger concentration of MÀ in the crests and a larger concentration of Mþ in the troughs of the wave. which is comparable in magnitude to the bond energy and is only about an order of magnitude less than the binding energy of a valence electron to the atom [7]. supplementing the information provided by the properties of the K3C60 system [17]. and in the expanded regions between M and Mþ. the electronic structure of the superconductor is described in successive steps that involve integrals of decreasing magnitude. respectively—and the K3C60 crystal structure determination provide a new opportunity to use the RVB theory to obtain additional insight into the nature of the electric conduction. which with ligancy leads to the average bond number for the bonds. the charged atoms are under strain. corresponding to the resonating structure Kþ. To analyze highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap. the troughs of the waves. K0. which correctly indicates that they are not directly involved in the unsynchronized resonance of the covalent bonds. the superconductivity mechanism involves the C60 interaction with octahedral potassium atoms in three different atomic charges. 11]. there is no charge separation for tetrahedral K atoms (Ktetr). and KÀ. tension for MÀ and compression for Mþ. as given by foregoing values of the change in effective radius. because unsynchronized resonance can take place in the crests between the M anions and neutral M atoms (which have a metallic orbital). and in the troughs between neutral M atoms and cations [8. which may have some ionic character. and in the expanded regions. 11 DOI 10. 110. Computational Details DFT theory implemented in Gaussian program [18] is used to calculate the different clusters used to model the K3C60 superconductor. The discovery that K3C60 and Rb3C60 are superconductors— below 19. Rough quantitative calculations of the energy of interaction of the electron pairs and the phonon can be made with use of the force constants for the bonds [13] and changes in the position of the minimum in the potential functions for a bond. On the other hand. which has introduced great clarification in the field of superconductivity [9]. we have performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations in eight different cluster models. potassium charge distribution. In the compressed regions of the crystal. two electrons with opposite spins and which occupy orbitals at adjacent atoms form a covalent bond. The RVB theory is equivalent to the conventional band theory of metals in many ways.1002/qua INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY 2089 . The strain is accordingly decreased for MÀ in the crests and increased for Mþ in the crests and decreased in the troughs. the interatomic distances are decreased. Confirming the RVB prediction. which allows electric charge to move through the crystal.3 15] and 28 K [16]. 12]. these covalent bonds resonate among alternative positions in the system. Then. we found that the HOMO–LUMO gap is defined mainly by C60 and octahedral potassium (Koct) orbitals. In RVB theory. We have also calculated that the HOMO–LUMO gap can be reduced through an octahedral K vacancy. NO. in that in the compressional regions the strain is essentially divided between MÀ and M. corresponding to the crest compressional waves of the phonon.RVB MECHANISM FOR THE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN K3C60 Cooper’s discussion [10] of the motion of electron pairs in interaction with phonons led to the development of the BCS theory. they are increased. as determined by the resonance energy. The effective radius of MÀ is increased by screening action of the added electron (decrease in effective nuclear charge). DFT has been successfully used to describe electronic structures VOL. As result. In addition. The stability of the crystal is increased by this electron–phonon interaction. and the amount of resonance energy is nearly as great. The effective radius of the neutral atom (M) is the value corresponding to the valence. but it has the advantage to describe in details the dependence of conduction properties on the identity of the constituent atoms [8. The valence bonds (electron pair) resonate from one position to another at electronic frequencies. First.

147 À0.130 À0. which can be correctly obtained with the one-electron DFT model. K17(C60)5.010 (C60)14 2.038 À0.1002/qua VOL.134 À0.193 K17(C60)5 66 0. COSTA. K9(C60)7. AND PAVAO from the Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data from the superconducting phase.148 K13(C60)5 89 0. and K13(C60)5. Table I presents the DFT calculations of the HOMO–LUMO energy gap and atomic charge distribution for the various cluster models considered in this study. We carried out calculations on very large systems using DFT. respectively.159 À0.132 K9(C60)4 74 and HOMO–LUMO energy gap has been a useful construction in quantum chemistry. It is interesting to observe in Table I that there is a sharp reduction of the HOMO–LUMO gap for the pure unit cell C60 (2. which is defined as the lowest energy gap originated from the electron–electron interaction of the Cooper pair and is responsible for the main characteristics of the superconducting state [22–26]. All distances were taken TABLE I HOMO–LUMO energy gap and potassium charge distribution.074 K13(C60)4 81 0.128 À0. and several materials. NO. K17(C60)9. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue.] of molecules.interscience. a comparative analysis of the HOMO–LUMO gap can be useful to correlate the superconductor state with the atoms involved in the electron transfer [4].099 K9(C60)7 76 0.148 À0.744 0.418 atoms.508 0.018 À0.544 0. but their high symmetry allowed calculations to be performed with relatively low computational demand. both occupied and virtual. the HOMO– LUMO gap is very small because the energy-level distance in the t1u ‘‘bands’’ is reduced to the collection of discrete levels in our large cluster.221 0. However.126 À0. we used the B3LYP functional.196 — — — — 2090 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY DOI 10. K9(C60)4.128 À0. but the purpose here is to describe the atomic charges distribution. which combines Becke’s three-parameter hybrid exchange potential (B3)[19] with the Lee–Yang–Parr (LYP) correlation functional [20]. As expected.24 A. 11 . the HOMO is separated from the LUMO by the so-called HOMO– LUMO energy gap. Results and Discussions In molecular orbital theory. but different clusters are also analyzed: K38(C60)23. see Figure 1.113 À0.˜ BASTOS.210 0. are responsible for many of the molecules’ properties.298 0.0340 0.290 À0. which is available at www. The observed modifications FIGURE 1. Cluster Gap (meV) Kþ oct K0 oct KÀ oct Ktetr K38(C60)23 39 0.214 0. The HOMO–LUMO gap is not the superconducting gap. Clusters are composed of large numbers of atoms. The cubic ˚ lattice parameter is a ¼ 14. 110.196 meV) when compared with the doped system K3C60 (ranging from 39 to 89 meV).015 À0. wiley. Here.675 0. Gray and black indicate octahedral and tetrahedral K sites.231 K21(C60)14 52 0. K38(C60)23.220 K17(C60)9 57 0. The effective core potential using the minimum base set LANL1MB of Hay and Wadt [21] was used for all atoms. The RVB theory effectively involves configuration interaction. We have considered the fcc unit cell of K3C60 as our cluster model (K21(C60)14. the largest cluster K38(C60)23 has 1. This is consistent with the lowest gap obtained for the largest cluster. The K21(C60)14 fcc unit cell cluster model.380 0. K13(C60)4. metals.099 À0. The frontier orbitals.

in that 56% of the atoms having been charged.00918 0. which predicts an increasing Tc with the lattice parameter [27]. Table I shows that there is no charge separation between tetrahedral potassium sites. In fact. Sometimes.00000 0. in a fairly good agreement with Pauling’s prediction. 110. two physical requirements must be satisfied for high-temperature superconductivity to be achieved: (1) metallic conductivity and (2) a mechanism that keeps electrons moving in the same direction. we have obtained 25.00000 0. as a result of Mþ being larger than MÀ. and ordering of these excess charges may result.40307 0. In a crest superconductor.00000 Kþ oct (HOMO) 0. tetrahedral potassium atoms are found to have the same atomic charge.16269 0. the superconductor temperature is kept low by the scattering of electrons by phonons. The opposite situation prevails for a trough superconductor.00000 0. As it is electron pairs. this effect is usually chaotic. The positive charges are able to 60 60 move synchronically because the negative charges are immobilized on Ktetr and are not available to participate in annihilation. the octahedral atoms are classified according to the RVB scheme.00000 0. that is. and KÀ occurs with coefficients 28. The rate of MÀM0 ! M0MÀ (electron pairs moving to the right on the phonon crest) is.13306 Kþ oct (LUMO) 0. whereas octahedral atoms systematically have three different charges. neutral. and KÀ) with C60 (C5þ . however. positive.00346 0.00000 0. the path of each charge is usually very short. the resonating structure Kþ.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0. resonating among Kþ. For the octahedral potassium atoms in the K38(C60)23 cluster. greater than that of MþM0 ! M0Mþ (holes moving to right on phonon trough) because the exchange integral is smaller for the hole motion than that of the electron pair. and C7þ ).1002/qua INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY 2091 .16139 K0 oct (HOMO) 0. the same mechanism that causes the conductivity of metals to decrease with increasing temperature. 50. The atoms Ktetr do not have much participation in resonances involving electron exchange with C60. Instead. The excess charges might change bond lengths in opposite ways. In the calculated clusters. the metallic conduction involves the interaction of Koct (octahedral potassium site.01737 À0. Orbital S PX PY PZ KÀ oct (HOMO) 0. Electron–phonon scattering can be kept at low levels by having the superconductive current supported both by crest and trough superconductors. excess negative charge is associated with the phonon. Table II shows HOMO and LUMO molecular orbital coefficients for both octahedral VOL.02256 0. and 28%.00436 0.02298 0.RVB MECHANISM FOR THE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN K3C60 TABLE II HOMO and LUMO molecular orbital coefficients for octahedral and tetrahedral potassium sites in the K21(C60)14 unit cell cluster.00000 0. that travel with the phonon. In Table I.02456 KÀ oct (LUMO) 0.01911 0. According to RVB theory. This is consistent with superconductivity in fullerides theory. However. respectively.00000 K0 oct (LUMO) 0. whereas trough superconductors are hyperelectronic metals. which causes the holes to fall behind the electrons following the phonons [8]. 44. NO. 11 DOI 10. which allows superconductivity to set in. K0. this mechanism is the electron–phonon interaction. there would be no current. The MÀ electrons ride the crest (higher density) of the phonons and the holes—Mþ—tend to ride troughs. However. an alternative mechanism is provided by RVB theory [8].01596 Ktetr (HOMO) À0. 60 C6þ .24350 0. separation of Mþ and MÀ by a large distance occurs. K0.00000 À0. leaving two neutral atoms. In the BCS theory. and it ends when a bond moves from MÀ to Mþ. there is good evidence that in a metallic element such as K.11997 0. and 25%. Metallic conduction results from motion of the charges from one atom to adjacent atom as directed by the applied field. If the holes moved as effectively as electrons do.01502 À0. Crest superconductors are hypoelectronic metals at the left of the periodic table.01993 in the electronic structure indicate important participation of the alkali metal. Generally.00000 0. According to Pauling. the charge of the superconducting current in a crest superconductor travels with the crest of the waves. and negative potassium atoms. respectively [17]. giving rise to crest and trough superconductors [8]. Pauling suggests that a mechanism somewhat different operates for K3C60 [17].00000 0. and a deficiency of negative charge is associated with trough. carrying a negative charge.00328 Ktetr (LUMO) À0.

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