# Basic Chemistry I

• A Ping-Pong ball moving at 30 km h1 (30 kilometers per hour). even though we often use the terms as if they were interchangeable. telephones. Quite clearly. for example. or people. we are very careful to specify the term mass rather than weight. whether they be books. is easily deflected by a soft breeze.• Matter • MATTER AND ENERGY All the materials that interest chemists—in fact. but a cement truck moving at the same speed is not. hamburgers. In setting down this definition. the mass of the cement truck is considerably greater than that of the Ping-Pong ball. Matter is defined as anything that takes up space and has mass. • • . Mass and weight are not really the same. all the things we can see or touch or feel—are examples of matter. pencils.

an object's weight also varies slightly according to its location on the earth. F = ma • • 100 g mass in your hand. A one-kilogram mass has a we 9.81 N at the earth's surface. When an object is dropped. Because of this. g. is defined as the newton (N). • • • W = mg For example. The measurement of mass (a process. even though its mass is the same in both locations. An object resting on the earth or moon exerts a force (its weight. and since they both experience the same gravitational acceleration. The apparatus used for this is called a balance. This means that if very precise measurements are made. oddly enough. called weighing) is actually performed by comparing the weights of two objects. Even on the earth the value of g has been found to vary slightly from place to place. such as the moon. the other of unknown mass. both pans contain equal masses. • where F = force.81 m s-2. In order to accelerate a body. one of known mass. a force must be applied to it. so the same object weighs only one-sixth as much on the moon as on the earth.. Force and mass are related to each other by Newton's equation (Newton's law). at the earth's surface. it accelerates because of the gravitational attraction of the earth. multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. W) that is equal to its mass. m = mass. and a = acceleration. m. the "push" downward represents a one-newton force. possessing units 1 kg m s-2. g = 9. At this point the contents of both pans weigh the same.• The term weight refers to the force with which an object of a certain mass is attracted by gravity to the earth or to some other body that it may be near. Figure 1.7 is a drawing of a traditional two-pan balance.' moon the gravitational acceleration is only about one-sixth of that on earth. that is. the derived SI unit of force or weight. we specify an object's mass instead of its weight when we wish to report the quantity of matter in the object. You can experience the magnitude of a one force by placing a large lemon (or any object with slightly more than • • . The object to be weighed is placed on the left pan of the balance and objects of known mass are added to the other until the pointer comes to the center of the scale. Thus a one-kilogram mass would have a weight (or experience a force downward at the earth's surface) of • • • For convenience.

they are almost always accompanied by either an absorption or release of energy. They are rugged. we generally measure mass in grams. An object can possess energy in two ways: as kinetic energy and as potential energy. Kinetic energy (K. and convenient.• In chemistry. When an object has energy.E. We also know that a truck moving at 80 km h-1 can do more work on a car than one traveling at only 5 km h-1. fast. Coal and oil possess energy because they can be burned and the heat that is liberated can be harnessed to do work. it can affect other objects by doing work on them. and equally important to us. These energy changes tell us a great deal about the nature of the chemicals that are reacting. The most modern electronic balances. the units of energy and work are the same. Most balances found in labs today function on the same principle. a truck moving at 30 km h-1 can do more work on the rear end of a car than a bicycle moving at the same speed. and make the measurement of mass a routine laboratory operation. • • • • • • For example. Thus. Energy itself is a difficult concept to comprehend. multiplied by its velocity. squared. A moving car possesses energy because it can do work on another car by moving it some distance in a collision. • • Energy • When chemical changes occur. we see that the amount of work a moving body can do depends on both its mass and its velocity. m.) is associated with motion and is equal to one-half of an object's mass. v. • • Energy is usually defined as the capacity to do work or to make things happen. • Potential energy (P. certain chemical reactions provide the energy that our bodies and our society need in order to function.E. because energy is so different from matter. an understanding of what energy is and how it can be transferred from one object to another is as important to those who study chemistry as an understanding of matter itself.) represents energy a body possesses because of the attractive or repulsive forces it . operate on a somewhat different principle. All you can do is examine the effects of energy on objects. Therefore. Because energy can be transferred from one object to another as work. as mentioned previously. You can't put energy in a bottle to examine it.

rather sizable quantities of heat are released. an exothermic change raises the temperature of its surroundings. when wood burns. It is usually easy to recognize whether a process is exothermic or endothermic. it reacts with oxygen from the air. sometimes called "chemical energy. • As we have indicated. These various forms of energy can be converted from one to another and therefore are ultimately equivalent. As the products of combustion are formed. Changes that absorb energy are termed endothermic. but a large bonfire produces much more. for example. releases only a very small quantity of energy. It represents the kinetic energy possessed by an object with a mass of 2." and the reaction causes this energy to be released into the surroundings as heat. For example. electricity. it is useful to use the term kilo joule (kj). sound. the total quantity of energy is constant. which is defined as 1 kg m2/s2 in terms of the SI base units. If there are no attractive or repulsive forces. Units of energy • Energy is transmitted from one body to another in a variety of ways. the body does not possess potential energy. In an isolated system. and/or heat. the wood and the oxygen are sources of potential energy. and an endothermic change causes its surroundings to become cool The total quantity of energy that an object possesses is equal to the sum of its kinetic energy and its potential energy. and when chemists measure energy. When a change (either chemical or physical) releases energy to the surroundings. • • • • • • • .0 kg traveling at 1 m/s. it is usually in the form of heat. called the law of conservation of energy. for example. This leads to a very important physical law.experiences with other objects. which states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. as light. it is called an exothermic change. The quantity of energy released or absorbed in a chemical reaction depends on the amounts of materials that react. chemical substances contain energy that can be released through chemical reactions. One kilo joule is equal to 1000 joules (1 kj = 1000 J). such as we believe our universe to be. The SI (System International) unit for energy is the joule (J). All forms of energy ultimately are transformed into heat. In this case. In referring to energies involved in chemical reactions. The burning of a match. It only can be changed from one kind of energy to another.

Luster. We also know that the rate of heat transfer depends on the difference in temperature between two objects. we place it in contact with something very hot. nearly all the chemical scientific literature used the calorie (or kilocalorie) in reporting energy changes. Another useful definition of temperature is that it defines the direction and rate of heat flow. if we read that a serving of mashed potatoes contains 230 Cal. Boiling point of alcohol is lower than water. by 1°C. as when a hot cup of coffee becomes cool. color. The calorie and kilocalorie are defined exactly by the relationships 1 cal = 4. we place it in contact with an object just slightly warmer. react with oxygen produce rust. the joule (or kilojoule) is now preferred and the calorie has been redefined in terms of this SI unit.184 kJ • Thus in terms of SI. the tendency to corrode. Iron has shiny surfaces. With the introduction of SI units. is a more appropriately sized unit for dealing with energy changes in chemical reactions. If we want to warm something slowly. initially at 15°C. If we burn magnesium.184 kJ. like the kilojoule. pull by magnet. For example. while temperature is a measure of the intensity of heat or hotness. we are being told that 230 kcal of energy are liberated when the body metabolizes this food. The original definition of the unit of heat energy called the calorie (symbolized cal) relied on the concept of temperature.• We know that heat always flows by itself from a region of high temperature to one of low temperature. • It has also been the unit used in nutrition for reporting the energy content of foods—the Calorie (written with a capital C) is the same as a kilocalorie. which we discussed earlier. Thus. bluish white color is emitted. Heat is energy. The calorie was defined as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water. For example. one Calorie of food energy is more properly expressed as 4. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Objects are recognized by their characteristics. The measurement of heat involves the concept of temperature.184 J 1 kcal = 4. It is important to remember that heat is not the same as temperature. Until recently. we might measure the heat liberated during the combustion of natural gas. magnetism. if we wish to heat it quickly. which is composed principally of the compound methane. The kilocalorie (kcal). or properties. boiling point • • • • • • • • .

which are independent of the sample size. when a substance is heated or cooled. Later in our discussion of chemistry. for very accurate work. and intensive properties. it would occupy a volume of 20 cm3. It tells us.00 cm3. Examples of extensive properties are mass and volume—as the amount of a substance increases.are just some of the many properties that we use to recognize and classify different samples of matter. If we had 20 g of water. which is defined as the ratio of an object's mass to its volume. we must multiply by the second factor to eliminate the units grams.96 g. has a density of 1 g/ cm3. the temperature corresponding to a reported density must be specified.0°C its density is 0. which depend on the size of a sample of matter. at 25. so the density also changes with temperature. We call/use the density as a conversion factor in two ways Since we are given the mass of copper.).gr.9970 g cm-3. it would occupy a volume of 1 cm3. for instance. • Normally. because a substance will exhibit the same intensive property regardless of how much of it we examine. in this instance. Therefore. Liquid water. Another intensive property is density. It also tells us that if we have 8. intensive properties are the more useful. This means that the object's mass is packed into either a larger or smaller volume. Of the two. Notice that we have created an intensive property by taking the ratio of two extensive ones. its mass is 8. In this way two tables—one containing the specific gravities of substances and the other containing • • • • • • • . This means that if we had 1 g of water.00 cm3 of copper. or relative density. (For most purposes. we will encounter quite a few other intensive properties defined in a similar way.0°C (room temperature) the density of water is 0. its mass and volume also increase. • These properties themselves can be divided into two broad categories: extensive properties. its volume is 1. A property closely related to density is specific gravity (often abbreviated sp. which is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water. Some examples of intensive properties are melting point and boiling point. but the ratio of the water's mass to its volume is the same: 20 g/20 cm3 = 1 g/1 cm3 = 1 g cm-3.96 g of copper.00 g cm-3. its volume expands or contracts.9956 g cm-3.) Density provides a relationship between an object's mass and its volume. that if we have 1. while at 35. For example. we can take the density of water to be 1.

gr. • EXAMPLE 1. the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1°C.68 x 103 kg m3 Specific heat capacity An intensive property of matter associated with energy is specific heat capacity (sometimes termed specific heat). SOLUTION By definition: dhexan sp.668) x (1. Air moving over the oceans in winter never gets very cold.00 x 103 kg m-3. • EXAMPLE 1.05 g from room temperature . Water has a density of 1.00 g/cm3) = 0. What is the density of hexane in g cm-3 and in kg m-3.5-cm iron nail with a mass of 7.00 x 103 kg/m3) = 6.668 g cm-3 • Notice that in units of g cm-3 the numerical values of density and specific gravity are the same. hexane) x dwater = dhexan In units of grams per cubic centimetre dhexan = (0. Iron. (0. for example. hexane = -----------dwater Therefore (sp. It also means that a given quantity of heat will raise the temperature of 1 g of iron more than it will raise the temperature of 1 g of water. This means that it takes less heat to raise the temperature of 1 g of iron by 1°C than it does to cause the same temperature change for a gram of water. a solvent used for rubber cement. has a specific heat of only 0. • The large specific heat capacity of water is responsible for the moderating effect the oceans have on weather. gr. has a specific gravity of 0. and in the summer the air never gets very hot.10 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SPECIFIC HEAT • PROBLEM • dhexan = How many joules are required to raise the temperature of a 7.668) x (1. since they cool very slowly in winter and warm up slowly in the summer.the density of water in a variety of units—take the place of the many tables that would otherwise be needed to express the densities of substances in all those different units.452 J g-1 oC-1.9PROBLEM FINDING SPECIFIC GRAVITY • Hexane. The specific heat capacity of water is 4. In units of kilograms per cubic metre.184 J g-1 °C-1. Most other substances have smaller specific heats.668.00 g cm-3 or 1.

Physical and chemical properties • In speaking of the properties of substances. compounds. A chemical property. for instance. there are very few material that even approach being pure compounds— nearly everything is a mixture. When iron is exposed to oxygen and water. Reactivity is a chemical property that refers to the tendency • • . The three words that form the title to this section lie very close to the heart of chemistry. • Elements are the simplest forms of matter that can exist under conditions that we find in a chemical laboratory. they thus are the simplest forms of matter with which the chemist deals directly. COMPOUNDS. • SOLUTION • of a substance to undergo a particular chemical reaction. specific heat.(25°C) to 100°C? The specific heat capacity of iron is 0. magnetism. is not particularly helpful. it corrodes and produces a new substance called iron oxide — rust. We must therefore understand what they are and how to distinguish among them. review the significant figure rules for multiplication. is very reactive with water but quite unreactive toward the gas helium. A physical property can be specified without reference to any other substance. However. for example. Elements serve as the building blocks for all of the more complex substances that we encounter. states some interaction between chemical substances. All are composed of a limited set of elements. To solve this problem. We also say. from common table salt to extremely complex proteins. Sodium. we also distinguish between physical properties and chemical properties. there are 108 known elements. • specific heat capacity x mass x temperature change = heat energy ELEMENTS. without specifying "with what" or under what conditions. we must multiply the specific heat capacity by mass (g) and the temperature change (°C) to eliminate these units and obtain joules as the units of the answer. and mixtures in the laboratory. Density. because we work with elements. to say simply that a substance is very reactive.452 J g-1 oC-1. This is a chemical property of iron. At present. AND MIXTURES In nature. mass. on the other hand. that sodium is very reactive toward water. and volume are all examples of physical properties. Notice that the answer has been rounded to two significant figures. color. Do you know why? If not. but only a much smaller number will be of real interest to us.

" we would then have three phases: the ice (a solid). Mixtures differ from elements and compounds in that they may be of variable composition. such as oil and water. (As a result. A heterogeneous mixture. we define a phase as any part of a system that has uniform properties and composition. they are not considered to be pure substances. whenever 1. If we were to sample one portion of the mixture. • Mixtures can be described as being either homogeneous or heterogeneous. is not uniform (Figure 1.0 g of oxygen). For example. while some other part of the mixture would have the properties of oil. you probably know that water is composed of two elements: hydrogen and oxygen. it is always observed that only 8. we can detect the presence .) A solution of sodium chloride (table salt) in water is a mixture of two substances. the relative quantities of hydrogen and oxygen that combine are always the same. since the oil in one droplet has the same properties as the oil in another. A compound is characterized by having its constituent elements always present in the same proportions. Thus. Also. and the oil (another liquid). A homogeneous mixture is called a solution and has uniform properties throughout. 1. we say that it consists of a single phase. We know that by dissolving varying quantities of salt in water (or a bowl of soup). If we were to sample any portion of a sodium chloride solution. Thus. All samples of pure water contain these two elements combined in the proportion of one part by mass hydrogen to eight parts by mass oxygen (for example.. In all these examples. when hydrogen is allowed to react with oxygen to produce water. even if more than that quantity of oxygen is available. composition) as any other portion of the solution. all the oil droplets taken together would still constitute only a single phase. the water (a liquid). it would have the properties of water.0 g of hydrogen reacts. Most materials found in nature or prepared in the laboratory are not pure but instead are mixtures.0 g of oxygen are consumed.g.0 g of hydrogen to 8. we can obtain solutions with a wide range of compositions. If we added an ice cube to this "brew. This mixture consists of two phases: the oil and the water. • • • • • If we shook the mixture so that the oil was dispersed throughout the water as small droplets (as in a salad dressing).• Elements combine with each other to form compounds. we would find that it has the same properties (e.11).

For example. the chemical properties (and often. of course. is a reddishcolored metal. it has a density that is different from both sulfur and copper. Copper. After the reaction is over. it doesn't have the color of either copper or sulfur. The copper(ll) sulfide has the same shape as the coiled copper wire from which it was formed. but in the mixture we can still see traces of the properties of copper and the properties of sulfur. but when elements are combined to form a compound. a reaction takes place and a new substance called copper(ll) sulfide is formed. or chemical change.12 • (a) Alongside a crucible and its cover we see a coil of red-colored copper wire and yellow powdered sulfur. When mixtures undergo phase changes. There is another way that mixtures differ from compounds and elements. copper and sulfur are two elements. melts at a temperature of 0°C. a chemical reaction. It doesn't conduct electricity. we can't find anything that has the properties copper. for instance. Ice. (c) When the mixture of copper and sulfur is heated.of two or more phases because a boundary exists between them. they generally do so over a range of temperatures. a temperature that remains constant while the water undergoes the change from solid to liquid. Sulfur is a yellow nonmetallic substance A mixture of sulfur and copper is easily prepared. the copper and sulfur retain their individual properties. called copper(II) sulfide. that has new properties. Notice that its properties differ from both the copper and sulfur. and we can't find anything that has the properties of sulfur. very profound changes occur in both chemical and physical properties. the physical properties) of the components do not change. and is relatively resistant to corrosion. This phenomenon provides us with one experimental test to determine when we have obtained a pure substance. If the mixture of copper (Cu) and sulfur (S) is heated. • • Figure 1. and its chemical properties • • . solid to liquid or liquid to gas) at constant temperature. (b) When mixed in the crucible. The copper and sulfur combine to form a compound and this is accompanied by dramatic changes in the properties of the substances. We find a new substance.. When a mixture is prepared. a good conductor of electricity. • A useful feature of pure substances is that they undergo phase changes (e. The formation of the mixture has involved a physical • process—a process that has not altered the chemical characteristics of the components.g. takes place.

each containing (we hope) one component. by incorrect theory about what occurred during chemical reactions. This process is called distillation. not surprisingly. For example. Even so.15). and they also are accompanied by drastic changes in properties. The resulting material was less dense than the original metal and thus appeared lighter. Ilustrasion of separating process Plogiston theory • • • • The early history of chemistry was marked. It had long been observed for example. A suitable solvent is then allowed to creep up the coating from a reservoir. and mixtures Since elements form compounds by chemical reactions. that when the combustion of wood took place. the different components tend to be lifted from the silica gel surface with different degrees of ease. Separating elements. was very light and fluffy. a small spot of a solution containing • • several components is placed onto one end of a glass plate that is thinly coated with a material such as silica gel. Such changes are what characterize chemical reactions. compounds. called chromatography. Another method of separating mixtures. too. decomposing compounds into their elements also involves chemical reactions. and the departure of the water leaves the salt behind as a solid • If we wished to recover the water as well. These observations led to the conclusion “something” which the German chemists . makes use of the different tendencies that substances have for being adsorbed onto the surface of certain solids. Metals also changed their appearance when heated in air. and a variety of methods have been devised by chemists for this purpose. Mixtures can be separated by physical processes in which the chemical properties of the components are not altered. It is one method that is used to obtain drinking water from sea water (the desalination of sea water). with the more strongly adsorbed components moving more slowly.14 and collect the water after it has condensed from the steam. This causes the components of the mixture to move through the silica gel at different rates. we could boil the mixture in an apparatus similar to the one in Figure 1. This technique is widely used today by chemists who synthesize new compounds. The result is a separation of the original spot into a set of spots. As the solvent flows past the spot. separating mixtures is not always an easy job. a mixture of salt in water can be left to evaporate. in thin-layer chromatography (Figure 1. For example.are entirely different.

the elements a always present in definite proportions by mass. the theory was salvaged by concluding that phlogiston simply had negative mass! • The reluctance to abandon the crumbling phlogiston theory demonstrates a general human phenomenon. and old ones become so thoroughly entrenched that it is often tempting to try to shore up a sagging theory rather than to dream up a new one that will do a better job of explaining all the observed facts. After his book. regardless the source the water. • The work of Lavoisier clearly demonstrated the importan of measurement. so that none of the products of reaction escape. in a pure chemical substance. Traite Elementaire de Chimie.0 g hyddrogen and 16. The Greek • . He also showed. This observations form the basis of the law of conservation of mass. a French chemist. that if a reaction is carried out in a closed container. If 18. This is one the most important principles in chemistry.0 g of hydrogen and 8 g of oxygen are always obtained. The law of definite proportions (also called the law position) states that. New theories are difficult to come by. meaning indivisible) did not originate with Dalton. In the substance water. Thus.0 g of water are broken down. These investigations led to another important chemical law. the law of definite proportions. It was Antoine Lavoisier (17431794). The Atomic Theory of Dalton • • • • • The real father of modern chemistry could well be considered the Englishman John Dalton (1766-1844). was lost by substances when they burned. He demonstrated by his experiments that the combustion process actually by the reaction of substances with oxygen. The concept of the atom (from the Greek atomos.Becher and Stahl called phlogiston. appeared in 1979. 2. through careful measurements. for instance the ratio of the mass of hydrogen to the mass of oxygen is always 1/8. who finally laid the phlogiston theory to rest and set chemistry on the proper course again. even today. the total mass of all substance present after the reaction has occurred is the same as before the reaction began. Even when it was pointed out that metals gain mass when they were heated in air. 1.0 g of oxygen are produced. which states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. many chemists were inspired to investigate the quantitative aspects of chemical reactions. who proposed his atomic theory of matter around 1803.0 g of water are decomposed. if 9.

. • The theory Dalton proposed can be expressed by the following postulates: are soft. 3. Dalton's theory was different because it was based on the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportions. laws that had been derived from many direct observations. is the distinctive appearance that metals have.philosophers Leucippus and Democritus suggested. • • SOME PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS The range of properties shown by the elements is tremendous. The ability to deform when hammered is called malleability. remain intact.c. that matter cannot be forever divided into smaller and smaller parts and that ultimately particles would be encountered that would be indivisible. At room temperature. copper wire. however. aluminum foil. The individual atoms themselves. And you are no doubt familiar with some of the properties that characterize metals. for instance. • One of the simplest methods of classification is to divide the elements into three categories: metals. were not based on the results of experiments and were little more than exercises in thought. and some metals. some are very dense and others have very low densities. Metals • 1. even if you haven't thought about them very much. size. and metalloids. such • . however. shape. two are liquids.  Metals are also similar in their abilities to deform without breaking when hit with a hammer and to stretch when pulled. With such variety. Matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms.g. A chemical reaction merely consists of a reshuffling of atoms from one set of combinations to another. One of these. for example. The elements in each of these categories have certain distinctive characteristics. and mass). These early proposals. Some are metallic and some are not. and some have properties in between. Some are hard and some  Everyone has seen metals of one kind or another—an iron nail. 2. some are gases. we have to look for ways to classify these properties so that it is possible to make some sense out of them..  All metals have both these properties to some degree. All atoms of a given element have the same properties (e. or a "chrome-plated" bumper on a car. nonmetals. which differ from the properties of all other elements. as early as 400 to 500 b.  They shine with a luster that is so characteristic that it's called a metallic luster. and the rest are solids.

Malleability is also a property that a blacksmith relies on when forging a horse-shoe. and attached to a pulling device on the other side. or chemistry students.  More than 70% of the elements are metals. uncombined with other elements. The metals mentioned previously (iron. in Chapter 1 we mentioned the reaction between sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride. can be hammered or squeezed into extremely thin sheets. that is. In Figure 3.3. aluminum. which might be steel. The metal is then drawn through the die where it undergoes a reduction in size and an increase in length. The metal to be made into wire. it can't be replaced rapidly. copper. In fact. for example. and the part of the object in contact with your hand becomes cooler.  If you have ever touched a metal object that has been lying in the sun for a while.1).  Everyone knows that metals are good conductors of electricity.as gold. and a silversmith uses the malleability of silver in hammering a design into a fine silver tray. but avidly with both oxygen and moisture. there are many differences. heat travels quickly from the neighboring parts of the object to replace it. This property is used in the manufacture of wire. or brass.  Gold leaf (Figure 3. we see a bar of sodium. but the element's bright metallic luster is revealed by the freshly cut slice of the metal. too.  There are other metals that are so reactive only chemists. . you know how very hot it feels.  Sodium is a very reactive metal that combines not only with chlorine. and although there are some similarities among them.  The ability of a metal to stretch when pulled from opposite directions is called ductility. One end is tapered. They are also good conductors of heat. heavily tarnished on the outside. is first formed into a rod. common table salt. fed through a die.  Some metals are quite common and we encounter them nearly every day in their elemental forms. For example. copper. some light can actually be seen passing through them. it feels much hotter than other objects alongside that are not metallic. The reason is that as your hand absorbs heat from the metal.  Nonmetallic objects don't feel as hot because when your hand removes heat.2. which is illustrated in Figure 3. ever have an opportunity to see them. and chromium) are only a few examples. consists of gold with a small amount of silver and copper that has been beaten into sheets that are so thin (about 90 nm) that they are translucent.

so do the . As you know. The more common variety is called graphite.9°C. which accounts for its use as the filament in electric light bulbs. they are usually found in compounds. you are not aware of their existence. and some are very soft. This is the form that we find in charcoal briquets and the lead in lead pencils. These are hydrogen (H2). combined with gold's high electrical conductivity. and chlorine (Cl2). Usually. because they are colorless gases and you can't see them. also.  Tungsten has the highest melting point of any element. The range of chemical reactivity of metals is very broad.  Oxygen and nitrogen occur as diatomic molecules. one of which is the fact that it doesn't tarnish when exposed to air and moisture. but bromine is a liquid and iodine is a solid at room temperature. Jewelry is made from gold for several reasons.  Just as the properties of the metals cover a broad range. The extremes of melting point are even more impressive. which occurs in nature in two different forms (Figure 3. mercury is the fluid commonly used in thermometers. Sodium is also a soft metal. Chromium and iron are examples of hard metals. Bromine (Br2) and iodine (I2) are also diatomic. and most are gases. gold and lead are examples of soft ones.  Besides chemical reactivity. molecules containing two atoms each. fluorine (F2).  Other nonmetals that you have encountered are oxygen and nitrogen. Other nonmetallic elements form similar molecules. instead.3. Sodium is typical of one extreme. Some metals are very hard. and neither is malleable or ductile. while gold is typical of the other.  One nonmetal that most people have seen is carbon. -38. we see it being cut with a knife.4).  This very low reactivity. Nonmetals  Most of the nonmetallic elements (the nonmetals) are rarely encountered in our daily activities in their elemental forms.  Mercury has the lowest melting point of any metal. 3400°C. in Figure 3. The less common and more valuable form of carbon is diamond. Neither has the luster of a metal. metals differ in certain physical properties such as hardness and melting point. which are the principal components of the atmosphere. which means that it is a liquid at room temperature. Graphite and diamond have properties that are quite different from those that we associate with metals. accounts for one of this metal's most important commercial uses: the plating of electrical contacts in computers and other electronic devices.

 The best known example is the element silicon. As we've seen. even as early as 1800. They certainly differ in appearance from typical metals such as iron or silver. There are others that are solids. In terms of outward appearances. the metalloids are much more like nonmetals than metals. • • 3. but their dark color gives them away. for example. Scientists. had accumulated significant quantities of information about the elements • .5. Besides differing in these physical properties. which are shown in Figure 3. which are very important. Two others are arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb). nonmetals differ from each other in their chemical properties. is extremely reactive while helium is inert (totally unreactive). These differences. will be explored in more detail later in the book. Metalloids  Metalloids are elements that have properties that are intermediate between those of metals and those of nonmetals.  Except for their electrical properties.  Fluorine.properties of the nonmetals. however. these elements have something of a metallic look about them. because they make possible all the microelectronic devices found in hand-held calculators and microcomputers. but not nearly as well as metals. some are gases and one (bromine) is a liquid. These semiconductor properties are especially valuable in the electronics industry.2 THE FIRST PERIODIC TABLE Chemical and physical properties like those described in the last section were discovered early on in the history of chemistry.  Metalloids are typically semiconductors—they conduct electricity. carbon is just one example.

Because Mendeleev had the good fortune of publishing first. • Thus. he is usually given credit for the periodic table. MCI. Na. • Early attempts at a classification of the elements met with only limited success. This resulted from the work of two chemists. CaCl2. and Sr follows Rb. existed for the most part as isolated and unrelated facts that needed to be correlated in some fashion before their total significance could be grasped. Mendeleev presented the results of his work to the Russian Chemical Society in the early part of 1869. Ca follows K. K. This knowledge. which is illustrated in Figure 3. and Rb in the list. he could pick out the elements lithium (Li). and so on. however. Mendeleev divided the list into a series of rows and stacked them so that those elements having similar properties are arranged in vertical columns. MgCl2. K.known to them. Be follows Li. where M stands for Li. potassium (K). a Russian named Dmitri Mendeleev and a German named Julius Lothar Meyer. and SrCl2. Each of these elements forms a water-soluble compound with chlorine that has the general formula. Mendeleev was a chemistry teacher. Although this is an interesting fact by itself. Na. and rubidium (Rb). but Meyer's table didn't appear until December of that same year. and while he was preparing a textbook for his students. Mg follows Na. The result was the first periodic table. For example. and it wasn't until 1869 that the forerunner of our modern periodic table was devised.6 • • • . they form another group of similar elements. Both worked independently and produced similar tables at about the same time. elements with similar properties occurred at periodic intervals. sodium (Na). These elements form the compounds BeCl2. what is especially significant is that if we examine the elements that immediately follow Li. Recognizing this. he discovered that if he arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weight.