.'

HERBERT BAYER WALTER GROPIUS ISE GROPIUS

THE MUSEUM

OF MODERN

ART·

NEW YORK • 1938

CONTENTS
"

Preface by Alfred H. Barr. Jr, The Background of the Bauhaus

1 II
Note 16

DESSAU BAUHAUS 1925-1928
Bauhaus Building Houses 101 108 110 r 12 1'16 124 The Masters'

by Alexander
Walter

Dorner

Gropius-Biographical

WEIMAR BAUHAUS 1919-1925
From the First Proclamation Teachers and Students 1923) 18 20 22 32 39 40 41 42 49 50 54 58 62 68 12 Press

Other Buildings in Dessau Architecture Deportmenl Preliminary Course: Albers Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nogy Furniture Workshop Metal Workshop: Lighting fixtures, et cetera

r 28
136 142 148 154 158 160 162 164 110 112 113 115 180 206 201 211

The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus
Copyrighl. 1938. by Tho Museum of Mod"r" Art. New York Printed in Ihe U niled Siale. 01 America Typography end cover delign by H erbe rl Bayer

by Wolter Gropius (Weimar, Preliminary Course: hten Klee's Course Kandinsky's Course Color Experiments Carpentry Workshop Stained Glass Workshop Pottery Workshop Metol Workshop Weaving Workshop Stage Workshop Wall-Painting Workshop Display Design Architecture

* Typography

Weaving

Workshop Printing, layout, posters

Workshop: Photography Exhibition Technique

Wall-Pointing Workshop: Sculpture Workshop Stage Wor.kshop Kandinsky's Course Paul Klee speaks Administration Extra-curricular Activities

Wall paper

Pointing, Sculpture, Graphic Ar+, 1919-1928 Administrative Changes, 1928 Spread

Typography and Loyout; the Bauhaus Weimar Exhibition, 1923 Extra-curricular Activiti,es Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nagy Preliminary Course: Albers Opposition to the Bauhaus Press Comments, 1923-32 The Bauhaus Quits Weimar: start at Dessau, April 1925

14 19
82 86 90 91 92 93

01 the Bauhaus

Ideo

Bauhaus Teoching in the United States Biographicol Notes by Jan·ef Henrich Bibliography by Beaumonf Index of Illustrations

Newhall

220 222
224

a fresh

91

*A. explained an poge 149 Ihi, and lollow;ng sections 01 the book are printed without capital leiter. is accordance wilh Bauhaus typographical practice introduced in 1925,

-TRUSTEES
A. Conger Goodyear, President JO.hn Hay Whitney, l st Vice-Presiden Samuel A. lewisohn, 2nd Vice-President Nelson A. Rockefeller, 3rd Vice-President Cornelius N. Bliss Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss Treasurer and

ARCHITECTURE COMMITTEE
Philip Goodwin, A.I.A., Chairman Mis.s Catherine Bouer, Director of Research and Information, United States Housing Authority John Cool;dge, Art Depa tment, Vassar College Prof. Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Jr., Wesleyan University Deon Joseph Hudnut. Graduate School

PREFACE
It is twenty yeors since Gropius arrived in Weimar to found the Bauhaus; ten years since he left the tronsplanted ond greatly enlarged institution at Dessau to return to private practice; live years since the Bcuhous was forced to dose its doors ojter a brief rear-guard stand in Berlin. Are this book, then, and the exhibition supplements it, merely a belated upon the tomb of brave events, which ginning our courses with gigantic renderings 01 Doric capitols, or ending them with elaborate projects for colonia! gymnasiums and Romanesque 5 yscrapers. The more radical American architects and designers in 1925, ignoring Frank Lloyd Wright, turned their eyes toward the eclectic "good taste" of Swedish "modern" and the trivial bod taste of Paris "modernistic." I is shocki ng to recall that only one year later the grea.! new Bauhaus buildi,ng at Dessou was completed.

01

Stephen C. Clark Mrs. W. Murray Crane The Lord Duveen of Millbank Marshall Field Edsel. B. Ford Philip Goodwin William S. Paley Mrs. Charles S. Payson Mrs. Stanley Resor Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Beardsley Ruml Paul J. Sachs Mrs. John S. Sheppard Edward M. M. Warburg Jr.

Design, Harvard University Winslow Ames, Di ector, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London George Nelson, Associate Editor,

The Architectural Forum Carl Feiss, Constructor and Coordinating Officer, Planning and Housing Division, School

wreath laid important in

their day but now 01 primarily historical interest? Emphatically, no! The Bauhaus is not dead; it lives and grows through the men who mode it, both teachers and students, through their designs, their books, their methods, their principles, their philosophies of art and education. It is hard to recall when and how we in America first began to hear of the Bauhaus. In the years just after the War we thought 01 German art in terms of Expressionism, of Mendelsohn's streomlined

01 Architecture,
Members

Columbia

University

Honorary

II is no wonder then that young Americans began to turn their eyes toward the Bauhaus as the one school in the world where modern problems of design were approached realistically in a modern atmosphere. A few American pilgrims had visited Dessau before Gropius left in I92S; in the live years thereafter many went to soy as studen s. During this time Bauhaus maleriol, typography, paintings, prints, theatre art, architecture, industrial objects, hod been included in American exhibitions though nowhere so importantly as in the Paris Solon des Artistes Decorateurs of 1930. There the whole German section was arranged under the direction of Gropius. Consistent in program, brilliant in installa ion, it stood like on island of integrity, caprice, in a melange of chaotic modernistic demons rating [what was not general-

Mrs. John Carter Mr. Philip Johnson

1

Honorary
Frederic

Trustees

Clay Bartlett

Frank Crowninshield Duncan Phillips Mrs. Rainey Rogers Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan

Mensch,

Einstein tower, Toiler's Masse Wiene's Cabinet of Dr. Co/igori. It

may not have been until after the great Bauhaus exhibition of 1923 tho reports reached America of a new kind of art school in Germany where famous expressionist pointers such as Kandinsky were combining forces with craftsmen and industrial designers under the general direction of the architect, Gropius. A little later we began to see some 01 the Bauhaus books, notably Schlemmer's amazing volume on the theatre and Moholy-Nagy's Ma/erei, Phofogra-

ly recognized at that time) that German industrial design, thanks largely to the Bauhaus, was years ahead of the rest of the world. And the rest of the world began 0 accept the Bauhaus. In America Bauhaus lighting fixtures and tubular steel choirs were imported or the des ig ns pi ro ted. Am eri co n 80 uhous stud en Is began to return; and they were followed, clter the revolution of 1933, by Bauhaus and exBauhaus masters who suffered from the new government's illusion that modern furniture, [lotroofed architecture and abstract po inting were

phie, Film.
Some of the yaung.er of us hod just left colleges where courses in modern orl began with Rubens and ended with a few superficial and often hostile remarks about von Gogh and Matisse; where the lost word in imitation Gothic dormitories hod windows with one carefully crocked pone to each picturesque casement. Others of us, in architectural schools, were be-

Alfred H. Barr, .Jr., Director Thomas Dabney Mabry, .lr., Executive John McAndrew, Industrial Art Frances Collins, Curator Manager of Architecture of Publications

Director and

incain. At some lime a delinitive wark an the Bouhaus should be written. Allred H. weaving. It is only eight years since the 1920's come 10 OI. And we can OISkif in modern times there have ever been so many men af distinguished tolent on the faculty of any other art schoolar cccderny. is by lor the most complete ond auIharitOilive occounr of the Bauhaus so lor OIttempled. and. have been spread throughout the world. but. for althaugh the expressionist end. Paul Gl'Otz. The exhibition has been organized and i'nstol'led by Herber! BO'yer with the assistance ol the Museum's Deportment 01 Archifectureand Industrial Art. And thaugh the building is naw adarned with a gO'bled roaf and the brilliont teochinq force has been dispersed there ore certcin methads and ideas developed by the Bauhaus which we may still ponder. Wh. Jo. Far reasons beyand the contral of any af the individuals invalved . All the material included in thee"hibifion has been lent 0. 10ter. a/ the Graduate Schaal of Desi. Jr. Mrs.Borr. ond Dessou.ft with bewildering rapidity. Professor WO'lter Grapius.1 the Museum's request. with the help of the Iotherload. a well-ordered. Mrs.intan Sherwood. even within its lield.molly o'rl. wha. prepored by Herbert Boyer under the general editorship of Professor Grapius ond with the generaus collobororion Oil a dozen Bauhaus leO'chers. tha most students should face the foci that their future should be invalved primarily with industry and moss production rother than with individua! cro ftsmansh ip: thot teochers in schools of design should be men who are in odvonce af their proiession rather than safely and academically in the reargua'rd.. In this way. the fundamental chO'rOicter I been established under Gropius' lecdershlp. Mr. Harvard University. tyoogrO'phy.nend yet I think we can now so:y without exaggeratian that the Bouhous building at Dessou was orchitecturally the mast impcr+ont structure OIlits decode. Many Bauhaus designs which were once five years ohecd of their time seem now.1 the Bouhous. ten yeors afterword.. Nevertheless this boak. book is being shown wilh. Bauhaus 1919-28.$I$. economic. one mOlYask. have assisted Mr. Mr..ing invited Professor Grapius.8 _ degenerate or bolshevistic. ond their colleoques to colbbaralein the book and its accompanying exhibition. the period during which Gropius wcs director. 192 5 -1928.. the Bauhaus principles. Also Miss Sora Bobbitt. thot a school of design shauld have on its faculty the purely creative and disinterested artist such D'S thaeosel pointer as a spiritual counterpaint to the practical technician in Ofder thatlhey mOly work and teach side by side lor the benef.'.ack Mountain Callege and formerly of the Bouhaus for their help in preparing the exhibitian. thai it is harder to design 01 lirst rote choir than to point a second rate painting-Oind much mare uselul. The Museum ossurnes lull respansibility far hav. the student orchilect or designer should be offered no refuge in the post but should be equipped for the modern world i. This baok is nat complete. l. ta have token on the character of periad pieces. camplete and corelully documented history prepored by a dispassionote autharity. During these five yeors much excellent work was done ond the internotionol reputcrion of the Bauhaus incraosad rapidly. . sociol. like the exhibition it is for the most pert limited 101 the first nine yeOirs of the institutian. formerly 0. artistic technical. lor same material could not be brought aut 0/ GermO'lny. photoqrcphy. con'eM.out I"a. The Museum ol Madern Art wishes to IhOink especiaUy Herbert Bayer lor his diHicult. elc. thOit the school OIldesign shauld.1 actian. as the Bauhaus did. It is divided into twa ports: Weimar. There are. Alexander Schawinsky. Boyer. extensive and painstaking work in assemhling and installing. Br. what have we in America today to lecrn lrorn the Bauhaus? Times change and ideas of what canstitutes modern art or architecture or educatian shi.en the book "'0" 0. lar instance. lartunotely far the purposes of this book.glO preu il "'0. These divisions ind icote more than a change of locotion andextema! circumstonces.licent achievements 01 the Bauhaus which are sa obvious thai they might be overlooked. modern synthesis wh' ch di sregards canven tionol dis!i nctions between the "line" and "applied" orts. Director * 9 'The work 01 . Bauhaus ideas. else thase who hove generausly lent moteriol 10 the exhibition ond contributed phatagraphs lor repraduction in the boak. for his supervision 01 the baok and exhibition. inlhi. Professor ol Art at BI. thot the study or rotionc] design in terms o] technics ond moteriols shauld be only the lirst step in the development 01 a new and modem sense 01 beauty. in some cases withaut the con senl af the artist. the lost live yeors 01 the Bauhaus cauld nat be represented. inlo 0. Bouhous designs. formO'listic experiments at Weimar were varied ond exciting. the ideo of 01 Bauhaus style Of a Bauhaus dagma as something /ixed and permanent was at all limes merely the inaccurate conclusion of superficial observers.slly. architecture. Ise Oropius lor her ossistonce in editing Ihe boak. thsotre. and Josel Albers. as Gropius has often insisted. spirtuol so thai he may function in society not as a decarOilor but as a vital participant. the exhibition ond laying out this baak.as 01' se¥ero·il 01 Ihe!e o'lilll.1 Ihe point 01 goin. thot thoraugh manual experience of moleriels isessenriol to the student 01 design-experience at [irs! confined to free experiment and then extended ta p-octicol shap work. And some of its ideas are no longer so useful as they ance were.' conlidered edviseble 10 dalele the IIom. but time and other circumstcnces ma:ke this impassible at present. This book on the Bouhous is published in canjunction with the Museum's exhibitian. Mr. BOIyer ond the Museum stoll. that because we live in the 20th century. Bauhaus men. Jahn W. it may be said thollhe Bauhaus really faund itsell only OIfter the move 101 Dessau. This book is primarily a collection of evidence -phatographs. Laaking bock we can appreciate more fully than ever certain magn.! 011 the student.n its various osoacts. 1919 -1925. which token together form one 01 the chiel cultural contributions of modern Germany. a!ftides and notes done an the lield 0.gn. bring tagether the various orts af pointing. This is history. BUI. Bul this inevitable pracess of obsalescence was even mare active in the Bauhaus while it still existed as on institution lor. Q!S volunteers. ond assembled here with a minimum or retrospective revision. Philip Jahnsan ond 01 the Bauhaus hod already Mr.

Hcnover. The Confusion 01 the Post. the adherents 01 the old art academies .lond School 01 Design Formerly Director 01 the l. the Bauhaus was like a red rag. elected by he ci irens . on the other stood men and women determined to learn from the debacle. January 22. 09 to note thot the some phrase wos used in on cttcck on Ihe exhibition 01 Impressionist ond Post-Impressionist Po.ondesmuseum. II is interest. even outside Germany.. As early as 1919 there was talk 01 "art-Bolshevism which must be wiped out" and even then there were appeals to the "notional German spirit" of artists who were to "rescue mature art. It was remarkable with what . " All citizens 01 Weimar THE BACKGROUND OF THE BAUHAUS by ALEXANDER DORNER Director of the Art Museum 01 the Rhode 1." on "Athens-on-the-Ilrn": anywhere in Germany it would have been much the some in the stormy cultural atmosphere following the catastrophe 01 1918.nli. but to those who clung to the post.. were drown to the Bauhaus as to a magnet. Yet this very tension and alertness may have contributed to the quick and clear-cut development 01 the Bauhaus. This reception was not to be blamed on the radi ional "spirit of Weimar. ot 8 p.. The latter." It was a feverish end tormented notion that drew such drcsfic distinctions between 'he old and new and mode peaceful growth impossible. On one side were aligned all those who could not understand that the pre-war world was dead.." a -0 unanimity post-war Germons found in every novelty a sign of some ideological program..War Period German opinion was divided into extreme factions. Germany II It was with such alarms that the people of Weimar greeted the appearonce of the Bauhaus in their midst. The committees. and to find a new way of life. are reques ed to ottend a public demonstro ion on Thorsdcv."Men and women 01 Weimar! Our old and famous Ar School is in donger! to whom the obodes 01 our art and cui ure are sacred. "Goethe lawn. and this fact in port explains the force of the attock launched against the Bauhaus. town living more in the post than in the present. of course. First to protest against the Bauhaus were.m. 1920.ngs at Ihe Metropolilo:n Museum in New York in 1'121.

Products academies of or the to had to make their way were there any positive. with the means 12 as . passed into private hands.1 ed Prallerhous . and of the bourgeoisie whom the academies supplied with art-an art carrying on the tradilion 01 eclectic architecture.. dared to banish all ornament from his buildings. however. Russia and Hungary. co 1. in the creation joined tagether in the role of which all artists ·01 croftsmen. at Ihe Weimor Academy of Arts the Industriol Prefabrication of Houses on a Unified Arlistic Basis. a Viennese portly trained in the United States." though equally contemporaries. These revolutionary movemens sessed were often no common mutually program hostile. But no one hod yet devised the means of absorbing. such as steel. II would have been unnatural for the young Gropius to have been entirely untouched by late Romantic influence. But. a country 01 Louis Sullivan and then Fronk Lloyd Wright were the lirst to insist that "form should follow function. the Belgian our times. both forms of unbridled individualism. amazing technical In America. either practically or esthetically. Purism and Dadaism. The Deutsche Werkbund The Werkbund ideo hod been in the I BBO's by William foreshadowed in reaction He of Morris In Germany. hot time who "art for art's 13 production developed in the industrial revoluion. proficiency. in Holland. politics and religion all formed one living whole. called for a new type of logical structure. the creative geniuses al the 19th century and early 20th In the '90'5. achieving a new productive cooperation between art and lile. by founding the Bauhaus. The disappearance of court Iile and coste rule spelled the disappearance of the principal mar e of these sto e manulacluries which. on the Continent and in the United States. were for the most port still romantic individualists . for a revival of meof moss But. toward the end of the century. would have nothing to do with machine production. called lor a fa urn 10 he cultural integration the great oeriods aependent on the accepted styles of the post. as well as pointers and sculptors. in some ways a retrogressive Romantic. But. and announced that the new malerials developed by modern science. consequently. mo- rality." Therewith the fallacy 01 Morris' "croltsrncn's culture" seemed to have been overcome. The progressive phases of Morris' hand- 01 art and econom- ics. The purpose of that struggle hod been to enrich art and extend its horizons. handicrafts. he differed from his contemporaries in the driving earnestness with which he attacked the problem of reconciling art and on industrialized society. wherein art. the depiction historical glory and decorative landscape-on or+ accepting almost any historical "style" eclectic stylistic melange. theoretically. and with the new moss demand. The ideo of the prefab- Henry von de Velde: Weimer Bouhous build· ing. different abstract and Constructivist movements. in Italy. somewhat proclaimed the Continent ond America began. from the very beginning. t 905 Students' s udio bUilding.) By 1900. "Moss production and division of labor must be made to produce quality. Hermann Muthesius sought 0 synthesis between the "machine style" and the Morris "arts and crofts" movement. To him. his concentration on the obsolescent techniques of handicraft brought about one of the very things he was trying to prevent-the isolation of the individual ortis -croltsmon able to produce made objects only for a select lew." Their work was a great contem porcries. (A the same time. was not to be achieved even by the Werkbund movement.. it was still the some Romanticism which lor a century hod been vaunting individualism in its struggle against academic traditions." sition to the academies and the academic ideas were It is hard to think of anyone at thought in any terms other than soke. who. In Germany there were Expressionism and Dadaism. until the handful of people who mode up the German Werkbund at last perceived this goal and directed their efforts award it steering clear bo h of the late academicism and the late Romantic Expressionism Adolf Laos. inspiration to their European 01 the French official tradition. the ideal was the Gothic cathedral. he was pre"Gropius' predecessor ond Crofts. rother. differentiated This "applied art" was carefully from "line art. As early as 1910 he and his moster. Morris. in France." who sow oeyond romantic experiments the purely personal and of artists trying to express carried further. In contrast wih England and its "arts and crofts" movement. The tide 01 Romanticism was rising to a new height in this post-war period. hod drafted a Memorandum on their individual views. tapestries and other decaro ive material destined lor the courts and upper classes. The cultural coordination against the artistic confusion of his day. because it hod token place isolated Irom lile and its practical demands. to glorify technology. Wal er Gropius. Mulhesius admitted: "We ourselves do not ~now where Wolter Gropius we are drifting. reinlorced concrete.n Germany presented a bewilderingly confused picture. aluminum. hod originally been intended 01 their Irain designers lor the royal manufacturies of porcelain furniture. The "modern posed art" movements which were opas well to he academies all over Europe 01 the post. the architect Behrens. the spirit of engineering in a art. Futurism. dieval He strove. Henry von de Velde of the engineer as the true architect It was the youngest of the Werkbund leaders. 01 monuments and pertrc] s in the grand manner. in solitude. they possave that 01 oppoartist. Cubism. sought but not found by Morris. At the first session of the Werkbund Theodar Fischer said. He founded the Deutsche Werkbund in 1907 in on eHart to effect real coopercrion between the besl crtists and craftsmen on the one hand. and linoleum. Called expressionism. began really to solve the problem. Nowhere clear suggestions for occupied with Art Nouveau ornament. and trade and industry on the other. Architects and designers.

In the world of art his ideas stood alone amid the chaos 01 uncoordinated forces. it is osronishing to realize that it ever hod anylhing to do Goethe's garden neor We·imor house. but Gropius' insistence on solving the pr6blem on a: "unified artistic bosis" was a new move toward the synthesis of technology and ort. In 191 I he demonstrored Ihi 5 in his loctory building 01 AI/eld. agoinst relentless opposition and the economic difficulties of the inflation period. These buildings were the first 10 show cleorly the elemenls 01 a new orchitecturol style-free from traditional mossiveness.." Today. Set in charming surraundi:ng.. city and regional plonni. and debated the "entry 01 Expressionism into the Bouhous. To develop just such erective "ambidexterity" was the purpoSe 01 the Bauhaus. namely the functional foundation of design. with Expressionism. begaln 10 unite erective imoginolion wi. he was at work on a new project for ort educolion. While still at the Irani. a' croftsman and on industriol designer. ond Gropius' idea soon achieved reolizotion: modern ortisls. during the golden ero 01 Germain poelry. encouraged by the Grand Duke 01 Soxe. Gropiusextended his interests into the whole field of the orts. The Bouhousat DessolJ In 1925 the Bauhaus wos moved frO'm hostile vVeimor to hosoitable Dessau. 1918.sidence 01 the poets Harder." lis inlegral port. With equal perseverance he strug" gled to develop the rigihl program within the Bauhous irsell. At Ihe very slart he stood firm. a new generation of teachers hod been trained. Re. ond thus 10 develop a new sense of functionall design. Fortunotely. The press. The 'Early Bauhoius ot Weim. for no teachers were to be found with sufficient mastery of both phases.ng. OIlier the revol ution 01 November. Wielond.s.each of whom wos 01 once a creative ortisr. Schill . sometimes con/used the aims 01 the Bauhaus with Ihe "isms" seen elsewhere. but it must be remembered how very confused the world of art was when Ihe Bouhous begon. the first products of the new education quite naturally showed the influence of contemporary "modern" movements.th a practical knowledge 01 craftsmanship. for every student at the Bauhaus was trained by two teochers in each subject-by on artist and a master craftsman. Creative instinct combined with his strength 01 character mode his leadership unique. dishes. Because of the character of the artists on the faculty.un to make its woy. he took a most important and decisive new step. New ideas began to !low forth in abundance. Her a. Goethe's house. lamps. exploiting the new lightness of modern building construction. and ogOlin in 1914 in his oflice building at the Werkbund Exposilion 01 Cologne (both in collaboration with Adoll Meyer).Weimar who hod already discussed wilh him the possibility of his assuming the direclarship 01 the Weimar Art Academy. familiar with science and economics. Weimer Weimar. and from the Bouhaus of Ihis period derive many familiar adjuncts of conternpororv lile-sleel furniture. By this time. was just as full of chonging possibilities as our own "technical age. and the dual system of Instruction could be obondoned.re. and Dadaism. This division of instruction was unavoidable at the beginning. ond." By ochi evi ng this union in 1919 at the Bouhous.. the firsl and diHicult slag!e of development was over fairly quickly. r. considering whot fhe Bauhaus eventually become. No one woul:d have prophesied success for Gropius. Bulla speak 0'1 0' cut and dried "Bouhaus style" would be 10 revert 10 the cultural porolysis 01 the 19th century with its "free styles. the 'N otionol Convention ossembled and ooopted the Constitution al the new Germon Republic." We believe that we hove only gllimpsed the great potentialities of this technicol' a'ge. evidenced by 0.14 ricoted house wcs borrowed from the United States.mony showing lccction of Weimar and Dessou Goethe-Schiller Weimar monument. por+iculorlv Cubism. . Goethe.or Storting with mchilecture. modern textiles. loler. ond thai the 601uhous ideo has only beg. somewhat formalistic and crbirrorv attitude toward design. quite understandably. Gropius wonted to combine the Academy with the Weimar Arts ond Crohs School to creole a "consulting air 1 center for industry and the trades. af Lilzl and Niensc he. The spirit ·of tunctional! design wos carried even into the "line orts" and applied to architecture. 15 Mop of Ge. a center of clossic German cult . modern typography and layout.

Berlin 1907-1910 Assis ani a Peter Behrens. 1935 A. Harvard University Appointed Chairman 01 the Dapcrtrnern of 1938 Architecture. 1914. Wolter Grepius' mo. 1914 Fro'" 0 p~otogro. honoris COJSO. Architect. . Hochschule Jur Gestoltungl Resigno'ion Irom posl as Diredor 01 the 1928 Bouhous to resume private practice Member 01 Ihe board of the Reseorch In51.eM K~nsTgewerbeschule and the Grossherzogliche Socnsisene Hechschule fjjr 8ilo ende K~nsl Union 01 he two schools under the nome )919 Beuhcus 15100 liehes Bouhcus Weimar) The Bauhaus moves 10 Dessou w:th a I 1925 !eochers end students (Bauhaus Dessou." by 1929 University of Hanover Moved 10 London 1934 Went into partnership with Maxwell Fry. Berlin. nee Fronk. I B83 Studied architecture. Holl of Machinery. Born. tig. Berlin 1910-19]4 Privo e ercetice 1914--1918 Serveo in 'he German ormy Appo inled Director of the Grossherzoglic he 1918 Soch. Harvard UniversiTY Wolter Gropius and Adolf Meyer: Fogus Shoe-los Factory. 1903 Woller. 1911 Woher Gropius: Cologne ExposiTion 0' the German Werkound. ing. Front view. Administration Bu'Idig. bvno.GROPIUS.B. writer. AppOinted Senior Professor. ioined the Bauhaus comrnu~ity in 192'3 Woller Gropius cno Ado!! Meyer: Cologne E.A.R." 0' 1'123 I~e Gropius. Munich 1905-1907 Studied orchtecture.posi. Deportment of 1937 Architecture. Alfelo-on-theLe·ne. u e for Building Economy of he German Reich Appoinled "Dr.i. 'ion of the German We.1 important worh belore the Bauhaus 16 Wolter Gropius: Dieseldriven locomotive cor oesigned for a !irm On Don. 19 4 " ..I.

irst Bouhous seo Lyonal Fe ini ngar: Woodcut Irom Ihe proclomotion. withou the clcss distinctions which raise on orrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." is no essential between the artist and the craftsman. like the crystal symbol of a The . sculptors. 1919. There we must all Art is not a "profession. mus recognize anew of a building pain ers and sculptors the compasite choracter Only then will their spirit as on entity. 1919 the conscious. work be imbued with the architectonic which it has 105 as "solon crt. Architects. coopero ive eHort 01 all craftsmen.Eisenach. Together let us conceive and creote the new building of the future.t . between the Wolter Gropius 01 Berlin ond tha office 01 rnorschell 01 Weimar with the agreement 01 visieno] Republicon Government 01 Sore·Weimor sen. which will embrace architecture and sculpture and pointing in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers new faith. 1919 fir. turn to the crafts dillerence The artist pointers. Their noblest Was once the decoration of buildings.From the FIRST PROCLAMATION of the WEIMAR BAUHAUS: The complete building is the linol oim function 01 the visual arts. orchitect he Hoi. Let us creo eo new guild of craftsmen. is on exalted craftsman.Weimor. But proficiency in his croft is essential fa every artist. was can. moments beyond the conrol of his will.eo. Therein lies a source The contract lor the a ireclion 01 the lkIuho us eluded 01 Weimor April I. the oro. ter 01 Weimar. the g ace of heaven may couse his wor fa blossom into ort.. ond I." Architects.. In rare mo- 18 ments 01 inspire ion. [Sechof he of creo ive imoginolion.e Deoor ments Ministry 01 Store. Iram which they can be rescued only hrough Peter Rohl Program a' Ihe opening celebra ions 01 Ihe Bauhaus 01 'he German otiono T. Today they exist in isoloticn.

I wos old hal "during Ihe enrronce exc minations every oppliconl is locked up in odor room. some wi h e long beards 01 o· is s or osee ics. I· wos during the post-war years. His being odrni ted de oends on how well he d ascribes his reoc ions. Bauhaus members come Irom all social cIO'55es. 1920.eo war. who did nol lit into the new educo-io 01 line al e Bauhaus. most 01 rhem in eir early wen ies.or some vaccncies occurred on the stalls of Ihe two schcols ( he Academy 01 Picloriol Art and e Acaaemy a' Arts and Crohs] which Grcpius lc er united in .000. LOTHAR SCHREYER OSKAR SCHLEMMER WASSILY ANDINSKY The s udenl body was composed 01 two hundred Germans. rio. and L6sz16 Moholy. Oskor Schlemmer. lyonel Feininger and Gerhard More s in May. 1919. January. My €leona ic iUlire was lor from assured. 1922. Paul Klee. some still in unilorm.." This report. oul I decided 10 join the Bau ous a once. woo hirds 01 them were men. They were joined later by Adoll Meyer.09Y. led to bi ler conlroversy with the older genera ion 01 ortists in Weimar. wo Sudelen Germons and two Hung. They were Irom seven "en to lorty years old. lired my enthusicsrn.00). _ . Mos of the sludels hod to earn Iheir living. The Bauhaus budget in 1920:20b. 1919. I mode inquiries as to whal the Bou ous really wos. Replacement 01 cer oin members of Ihe old sloif. Thunder and ligh ning ore le loose uoon him a ge him inlo 0 so e of ogilo ion. Wossay andins y.orions. and Irom Au. hall 01 whom hod served in the ormy during the lost years 01 the g. April. and to this day I wonder w' 01 rnosr Bouhcus members ived On.he Souhaus. Some come from Ihe youth movemems. ornemented wilh Feininger's woodeu. three Ger ens from he Baltic coun rias.. 1921. This eno bled him !O hove three moslers opeointsd at he very beginning: Joho nes Uten. 1921. 01 hough il exaggerated 1 e oclual lac s. They mode a vivid cppecrcnce.+Ob marh ( 50. nor hand sourh. and Gropius herelore persuaded the Weimar Ministry 01 Education to cancel tuition lees. t 923. Furlh e rmore.WHO WERE THE TEACHERS? During the . June. 20 ADOLF MEYER FROM A STUDENT'S LmER When 1 sow the lirs Bauhaus proclamation. he managed 10 give some financial supporl to 'hose students w a produced saleable goods in ne Bauhaus workshops. LASZLO MOHOLY- AGY . But he happiness and fullness of those years mode US lorgel our poverty. PAUL LEE GERHARD MARC S LYONEL FEINI GER JOHA NES ITIEN WHERE DID THE STUDENTS COME FROM 7 The s udents ol the Weimar Bauhaus come Irom 011over Germo~y. SOme barelool or in sondols. lour een Aus rions.

At the very outset the new architectural spirit demands new conditions for all creative effort. In Germany. which isoI a ted a rtistic ph enomena (/' art pour art) and echniques or economics. Olbrich. Isolation 22 23 01 the 19th century sow the beginning of a protest against the devitalising influence of the Behrens and oth- academies. Since the academy trained a myriad of minor talents in drawing and pointing. The evolution 01 form. represents the interrelation of all phases 01 creative eHort. With the developmen of the academies genuine folk art died away. No longer can anything exist in isolation. and thus brought about his complete isolation from the community. in consequence.R GROPIUS WEIMAR BAUHAUSES nove the ". Its utter confusion mirrors on uprooted wo Id which has lost he common will necessary for all correlated ellor . for new cre- The decadence 01 architecture The character of on epoch is epitomized in its buildings.intings tOlally divorced from Clny relotion 10 on architectural entity. was being prepared for the "profession" of orchitec ure. logs for behind the ideas which engender it. von de Velde in Belgium. A vital architectural spirit. So long. all arts. therefore. lulled into a dream of genius and enmeshed in artistic conceit. but also upon he emergence 01 new philosophical concep s deriving from a series 01 intuitive perceptions. Unequipped to function successfully in the struggle for existence. in the linal analysis. New structural elements develop very slowly. useless. On the other hand. But the academy was too firmly established: practical training never advanced beyond dilettantism. all sought. the Deutsche Werkbund. Many 01 the heading. For this art-proletariat. the individual will remain enslaved and society will remain disordered. on the other hand. 01 a universal unity in which all opposing forces exist in a state 01 absolute balance. however. manual dexterity and the thorough knowl. painting. however. The solution depends on a change in the individual's attitude toward his work. as machine-economy remains on end in itself rother than a means 01 freeing the intellect from the burden 01 mechanical lobar. and.THE THEORY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BAUHAUS . they found themselves numbered among the social drones. and so for removed from life. In vilal epochs. fed upon false hopes and trained as one-sided academicians. Schooling alone can never produce crt! Whether the finished product is an exercise in ingenuity or a work of art depends on the talent of the individual who creates it. by virtue of heir schooling. The second half r DEE U"D AuFBAU DES STAAJUCIEN Published in 1923 al Ihe Bauhausverlag. whose wor reflects the attitude of the entire community. corogrop So thus deprived hem of vitality. its spiritual and material resources lind concrete expression. The founda ions of this attempt were laid neither wide enough nor deep enough to avail much against the old l'or! pour l'or! attitude. Only work which is the product of inner compulsion can have spiritual meaning. the basis 01 a reunion between creative artists and the industrial world. in the productive life of the nation. was condemned too life of fruitless artistic cctivity. finally. Rus~in and Morris in England. In contrast. and in the end discovered. for ol sen e nces been e 01 subadd- The dominant spirit of our epoch is already recognizoble although its form is not yet cleorIy defined. Bauhauses Weimar. lor the evolution of crchitecturol lorrn is dependent not only upon an immense expenditure 01 technical and material resources. the artist enriched all the arts and era lis of a community because he hod a port in its vocational life. proper only to the lileless machine. but the life-long preoccupation of a whole people. Munich. all techniques. The widespread view that art iso luxury is 0 corruption born of the spirit of yesterday. brought about the development 01 a great art-proletariat desined to social misery. certain other arts rellect only narrow sections any other worker who began at the bottom and worked his way up. The "academy" The tool of the spirit 01 yesterday was the A lew one occesien- "cccderrw. without being given the equipment of a real education -which alone could have assured it of economic and es he ic independence. fostered by the state. and because he acquired through cc ual practice as much adeptness and understanding as _WALTE. It has become mere scholarship. But lately the artist has been misled by the fa 01 and arrogant fallacy. The art of architecture and its . Architecture today has forfeited its status as a unifying art. arts and crofts (Kunstgewerbe) schools were founded lor the purpose of developing. the buildings themselves oHer irrelutable evidence 01 inner order or inner confusion. In the 19th century this dwindled to the production of individual po. ers in Germany. This downing recognition of the essential oneness of all things and their appearances endows creative effort with a fundamental inner meaning. omit ed.• ative eifart." It shut off the artist from the world of industry and handicraft. talented individuals trained in industry and handicraft. so alien to. In them. that art is a profession which can be mastered by study. in a new generation. In its plcce is rising the idea. have been ed. brev:ty. What remained was a drawing-roam art detached from life. and draughted and rendered "design" remained in the foreground. The old duolistic world-concept which envisoged the ego in opposition to the universe is ropidly losing ground. and. Mechanized work is lifeless. We perceive eve y lorm as the embodiment of an ideo.' by WALTER GROPIUS Translation 01 Idee und Aufbau . during Ihe -4 h year 01 Ihe Bauhaus a Weimar. were confined to a sort 01 drawing-pointing that hod no relation to the realities of materials. The fundamental pedagogic mistake 01 Ihe academy arose from its preoccupation with the ideo of he individual genius and its discounting the value of commendable achievement on a less exalted level. This quality cannot be taught and cannot be learned. 01 the artist Academic training. Lac of all vital connection with the life of the community led inevitably to barren esthetic speculation. sculpture or graphic a t. the great moss 01 Ihese individuals. whether the workman's or the crtis '5. not on the betterment 01 his outward circumstonces. edge which is a necessary foundation for all ere. can be taught and leorned. 01 life. of whom scarcely one in a thousand become a genui ne architect or painter. rooted in the enti re lile 01 a people. and the acceptance of this new principle is of decisive importonce ative work. des Sfaaflichen many branches should be not a luxury. The art of orchitsc ure is dependen upon the cooperation of many individuals. every piece 01 work as a manifestation of our innermost selves. Its abilities.

man discovers the immaterial space of inword vision and inspiration. 24 training 0/ all gifted individuals: a thorough prodicol. Through his intuition.. coupled with sound theoretical instrucfion in the lows of design. geometry of cons ruction 25 3. dynamics.nslrucl. Instruction I. 1.. processes of prohe merchants and and in speed. opics.Dearth of industrial designers Meanwhile. through his metaphysical powers. It is of them trained capacity in degree feel. The ultimote.. ocous ics equip him to give lile and shope to his inner vision. Observation in form problems (Formlehre): 2. Theory of color spring of 1919 the author Drawing of plans and building of models for all kinds of cons rue ions ship of the Grand Ducal Saxon Pictorial Art (Grossherzogliche Hochschule fur Bildende Kunst) as well as of Ihe Grand Ducal Saxon Academy for Arts and Crofts (Grossherzogliche Sdchsische Kunslgewerbeschule) and united them under he new nome of "Stote Bauhaus" (Staotliches Bauhaus). rhe au hor hod been with the Grand Duke on audience II. manual training in workshops actively engaged in production. The character and scope 01 teachings derive from the reolizc- into: lacked the insight 10 realize thO't apeHiciency and expense could be si- The simultaneously. Descriptive B. form? . Although we may achieve on awareness 0/ the inlinite we can give form to space only with finite means . who had himself suggested Gropius as his successor. Study 01 nature B. The heore icol curriculum of on art academy combined with the practical curriculum of on arts and crofts school was to cons itute the basis of a comprehensive system lor gifted students. A like concen ration of all our forces is necessary to give it form. the craHs-and more especially .ionin In an STONE Sculpture wor shop crolts (Werklehre): METAL Meal workshop and taols estimating. Since there was a dear h of artists adequately trained lor such work. a realize ion which is acby the brain and the honds. Conception and visualization are always multaneous. echnicians pearance.. The technicians and econamicalcould not satisfy hand masters moffer through the crofts. and dimensions . in the assumed the directorAcademy for So chsische A. Composition A. So monulocturers star ed to buy so-called "artistic designs. ly acceptable. At the some time. Elements all these lac tors in of boo -keeping. Theory of Saxe-Weimar to discuss his taking over the Academy for Arts and Crafts from he distinguished Belgian architect. Inst uc ion in materials B. Its credo was: "The Bauhaus strives to coordinate all creative ellort. on the proper faculties. the fulure Analysis of the designing process The objective of aU creative eHort in the visual arts is to give form to space . to reorganization. to school one or another they must 01'1 be thoroughly i . contrac ing CLAY Pottery workshop GLASS Stained glass war shop COLOR Wall-pointing war shop TEXTILES Weaving war shop I WOOD Carpentry war shop multaneously controlled only by planning and producing the indus rial object with the carelul cooperation 01 the artist responsible for its design. mind ond body.. goal 01 . 10 achieve. the unification of all troining in The brain conceive5 of mathematicol in terms of numbers space The art and design.A demand arose lor products outwardly attractive as well as technically . .. True creative work can be done only by the man whose knowledge and mastery of the physical lows 01 statics. We become OWOfe 01 space through our undivided Ego. the intellectual world and the world of the spirit function ond are expressed time. how can it be understood But what is and given a the war. Representation A.. Only the individual's 10 execute Building-in which no barriers structural and the decorative Human achievement depends coordination of all the creative not enough separately: at the some the Bauhaus ion of this. during summoned 10 A. Theory C. Henry von de Velde. Technique C. through the simultaneous activity 01 soul. AI the "State Bauhaus ot Weimar" the attempt was made lor the first time to incorporate a consisten program.. if distant. In 0 work of art the laws 01 the physical world. space. in a new architecture. In 1915.. Analysis of materials 01 space 01 design B. This conception of space demonds realization in the material complished world. Hoving asked full powers in regard for. and sito the Bouhous is he collective work of art-Ihe exist between oris. Bauhaus 01 Weimar Every lactar that musl be considered I. it was logical to establish the following basic requirements for educational system which is to produce actively creative human beings is implicit in such on analysis of the creative process." This was on ineffective substiute." the with the help of tools and machinery.' he industries-began 10 cost about for artists. and been accorded. to know and varies The guiding principle of the Bauhaus wos therefore the ideo of creating a new unity through the welding together af many "arts" and movements: a unity having its basis in Man himself and significant THE CURRICULUM The course of instruction at the Bauhaus is divided only as a living organism. lor the artist was 00 much removed lrorn he world about him and too little schooled in echnique and handicraft to adjust his concepions of form to the practical duction.

Practical participation in buildings under construction and. The principal difference between factory production and handicraft lies not in the machine'ssuperiority over more primitive tools as on instrument of technical precision.Supplementary instruction lectures in fields relating to art and SCience. Concen ration on any particular stylistic movement is studiously avoided. Bu . under special circumstances. (2) that instruction in crofts and in the theory oflorm are fundamental: no opprentice or journeyman can be excused from either. in our time such creative versatility no longer exists and it is therelore impossible for one man to underta e a studen 's entire art education. Result: Journeyman's Diploma ion and representation-wi h he in ention of showing the desired identity of Form and Conen =deline the limits of the preliminary course. All the work produced consciously sought. to help him grasp the physical nature of materials and the basic lows of design. and it is therefore his best opportuni y for practical train ing. Synthesis is the only solution: coordinated instruction by two masters. In this union the old croft workshops will develop into industrial laboratories: from their experimentotion will evolve standards for industriol production.0 end in itself. it is by no means 0. The root 01 rhe evil exists rather in the Chomber of Crafts (Gesellenbrief der Handwer skammer) and. 2. Elementary instruction in problems ollorm. Productlon work in the workshop of the preliminary course. The creative possibilities become indispensable collaborators in the working life of the people. Instruction in crcjts and form problems In earlier centuries when there was no academic ins ruction in the crofts or arts. AI the Bauhaus. lasting half a year. It possessesor+is ic quality only in so for as any direct and logically developed expression of an individual which serves to loy the foundations of creative discipline can be called art. Therefore the Bauhaus is consciously seeking contacts with existing industrial enterprises. designed to horrnonize the physical and psychic qualities of the individual. as on ortist. while at the some ime he eeps in touch with the entire process of production from start a linish. cannot conllict course is done under the influence of ins ructors. Such a new productive union will give every individual that understanding 01 and desire lor cooperation which is essential to creative work. independent architectural training in the 01 Drowing from Nature Mathemetics PhysiC$ Mechanics Draughting c nd technical Construerien individuals vary. Instruction in a crolt in one of the war shops a her 5ig ning legal art ides 01 0 ppren ticesh ip. Instruction in orchitecture. for the old trades are no longer very vital ond a turning bock to them would therelore be on atavistic rnis eke. the discovery and proper valuation of the individual's means of expression sholl be sought out. During the entire curriculum a practical course in the fundamental relationships 01 sound. advanced instruction in lorm. Duro ion: depending on achievemen General coordination [Harmonisjerungslehre) and spe- cial circumstances. Thus. 0 seventh in volumes or abs ract space. a future generation of creatively gifted workers may once more achieve a new produc ive coordina ion. a fifth in sound. Sorting with the simplest tools and least complicated jobs. color and form is followed. lis chief function is to liberate the individual by breo ing down conventional po terns 01 thought in order to make way for personal experiences and discoveries which will enable him to see his own potentialities and limitations. With this in mind the Bauhaus has ruled II) that every apprentice and journeyman is taught by Iwa masters. a four h in materials. Every apprentice. One finds his elementary expressions in rhythm. Three yeor course. Croltsmanship and industry are todoy steadily approach ing one another and are destined eventually to merge into one. but in the fact that in Ihe faclory each operation involved in manufocturing a product is performed by a different man. The teaching of a croft is meant 10 prepare lor designing lor moss production. This training purposely combats the dilettantism of previous generations in the applied arts. on eighth in the relations between one and another. who work in dose cooperaion. by signing the articles issued by the Chamber of Crofts. a sixth in proportion. The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to erms with it. he inevitably has. one a craftsman. he gradually acquires ability to mas er more intricate problems and to work with machinery. 3. the use of machinery and the division of lobar must be maintained. with the feeling for war which. The preliminary course. But it would be senselessto launch a gifted apprentice into industry without preparation in a croft and hope thereby to reestablish he artist's lost contact with the world of production. engages himself to work through the lawfully prescribed period of apprenticeship. He would be stifled by the ma eriolisic and one-sided outlook predominant in lacto ies today. It'en. The Preliminary Course (Voriehre*J Practical and theoretical studies are carried on simultaneously in order to release the creoive powers of the student. Above all else. The teaching 01 a croft serves solely to train the hand and to ensure technical proficiency. Observecourse was develooed by Johannes a d enlarged at 'he Bauhous the courses he "od alreody been giving in 1918 in Vienna. because 01 he disastrous secession of art from the workaday lile of the people. Result: Moster's Diploma 01 the Chamber of Crofts and. lis aim is to odd to a many-sided education rather than to develop the specialized craftsman. Such instruction would still be the best. for especially talented journeymen. Bu if industry is to develop. For this reason collective work is not essential in he preliminary course. Result: Admission to one 01 the workshops. 21 in the preliminary Instruction in crafts Training in a croft is a prerequisite for collective work in arch itecture. II follows that Ihe Bauhaus does not pretend to be a crofts school. "post and present. the other an artist. under certain circumstances. A croft. and may gradually The preliminary . for the sake of mutual stimulation. or between the Synthetic sjudy 01 'pace ( Synjhetisehe Raumlehre) much too materialistic attitude of our limes and in the loss of can oct between the individual and he community. Nei her loctor is in itself responsible for the loss of creative unity which has resulted fromechnological development. he continued two to a third or fourth. however. Contact with industry is 26 Bauhaus Research Deportment. Work in ell the croft. Diploma of the Bauhous. Diploma 01 he Bauhaus. a third in color. under the technical. whereas the craft product is mode 01 the Studies in meterials. doubly trained.upervision 01 lhe r'espective mosters. Both subjective and objective abservotion will be cultivated: both the system 01 abstract lows and the interpretation of objective matter. The curriculum includes three departments (compare with the plan): '1. Free creative work in dillerent malerials Theory of form and color entirely by one person. he preliminary course wos required as preparatian ior wark in the workshops. ano her in light and shade. Architectural activity and experimental wark represent a continuation 01 ins ruction in crofts and form. students were taught independently by a master who was a craftsman as well as an artist. combined with procticol experiments with dillerent materials in the workshops lor beginners. whereas he factory worker never gels beyond the knowledge alone phose of the process. a craftsman and an artist.

the academic superciliousness of another day constantly dwindles. They are jnvited to collaborate both on the plans and the actual construction of buildings lor which the Bauhaus hos been commissioned. whose inner logic will be radiant and naked. The elements which constitute the "grammar" 01 creation are its rules of rhythm. with the formalistic use 01 29 mo ifs. Each of these departments in the course on the theory ollorm functions in close association with the workshops. lost touch with In this decadence architecture The lost and most important stage 01 Bauhaus new methods and materials. A corresponding knowledge of theory-which existed in a more vigorous era-must again be established as a basis lor practice in the visual arts. The most important condition for fruitful colloborcrion on architectural problems is a clear understanding 01 the new approach to architecture. must learn the specific language of construction in order 10 ma e others understand his ideo. The academies ceased to discriminate between them. activity with the collective war. confusing nature by their very origin they are wonts to riumph over Nature in a new unity. due far a. as well as to all the war shops. Forms and colors gain meaning only as they are related to our inner selves. of proportion. Drawing and planning. After hree years of thorough training. the architect was engulfed in academic estheticism. lor instance. Real unity can be achieved only by coherent restatement 01 the formal heme. and or -though antithetical. Theory is not a recipe for the manufacturing 01 works of art. the journeyman learn not only to extend their technical experience but also to consider. In fact. healing. As a matter of workshops journeymen should hove experience apprentice undergoes a work-test in the presence 01 a committee of established craftsmen. plumbing. industrial methods. comple ely foiled to do so. In the some measure. We wanl 10 create a clear. esthetic and decorative. and respect lor hard realities unites individuals engaged in a common work. he becomes a publicly certified journeyman. Without this knowledge.aa. The Bauhaus is consciously ormulating a new coordination of the means of cons ruction and expression. The musician who wonts to ma e audible a musical ideo needs for its rendering not only a musical instrument but also a knowledge of theory. gain new signilicance as auxiliary means of expression. having los contact wi h reali y.periman!"I' work was a lod of spcce and funds. The practical training which accompanies the studies in form is founded as much on observation. The opprentice is ocquointed with his future stock-in-trode-the elements 01 form and color and the lows to which they are subject. as it is on the creation 01 individual compositions. only then can we communicate our houghts. The academies. the individual's labor within the group should exist as his own independent accomplishment. Its chief concern has been with ornamentation. They have access 10 the The Re. especially in regord to the journeymon's creative ability. and hus has the means harmoniously to coordinate his independent. Collective architectural war becomes possible only when every individual. Vocabulary and grammar can be learned. its ultimate aim would be impossible. earn their living. The spirit creates lor itself a new lile other than the life 01 nature. a iginates in the creative powers 01 the individual. his ideo will never emerge from chaos. even if limited.From these contacts wi h industry the appren" tice and. theory is not the achievement 01 individuals bu 01 generations. Without this. whose task it might have been to cu!tiva e and develop such a theory. Man. No appren ices are admit1ed to the Research Deportment: only certified journeymen capable of working out by themselves technical and larmal problems. archi ecture. 10 complete their education with courses at technical and engineering arinciple.'" Depa'tme~1 o~ty per 'a tty re"tiled. The mind must now them and conlrol the hand if a creative ideo is to be mode visible. Hoving passed this. Only an apparent unity can be achieved if many helpers corry out the designs of a single person. to a further lest as "Bauhaus journeyman". technical chemistry. The new approach 10 architecture and to resolve the opposition and this process is consummated in the fight of the spirit ag!a'inst the material' world. Instead of studying the arbitrary individualistic and stylised formulae current at the ocademies. the unavoidable demands which industry makes on the individual a economize on ime and means. For collaboration in a group is not to be obtained solely by correlating the abilities and talents of various individuals. but the most essential element of collective construction. Thus everyone engaged in the war must understand the meaning and origin of the principal theme. we wont on orchitec ure adopted to our world of machines. round forms speak differently to us than do pointed or iagged forms. it provides the common basis on which many individuals are able to create together a superior uni. and t e planning of cities was no longer his job. radios and lost motor cars. statics. who creoles and const-ructs. These two activities are profoundly different.it is considered desirable lor promising architecture students. later. This raining opens the way for the creative powers of the individual. in order to enable them to study other crolts than their own. in carrying out their work. Ar draughting office adjoining the Research Deparlment. an architeclure whose function is cleorlv recognizable in the relation of its forms. estoblishing a basis on which dillerent individuals can cooperate without losing their artistic independence. physics. by repetition of its integral proportions in all parts of the work. schools. Used separately or in relation to one another they are the means of expressing different emotions and move. Instruction in architecture Only the journeyman who hos been seasoned by workshop practice and instruction in the study 01 form is ready to collaborate in buildIng. We must know both vocabulary and (machine work) in manufacturing other than those at the Bauhaus. Architecture during the lost few genera ions has become weakly sen imentol. . unencumbered by lying facades and tric eries. Red. the organic Iile of the created work. 28 Instruction in form problems Intellectual education runs parallel to manual training. In so for as the Bauhaus curriculum does not provide advanced courses in engineering-construction in steel and reinforced concrete. Every journeyman at the Bauhaus who is publicly certified is entitled. ments: hey have no importance of their own.t 01 work. mechanics. alter consultation with their masters. a slave to narrow conventions. so that they may have the experience of caopera ing with 011 the building trades and. Its vocabulary consists of the elements 01 form and color and their structural laws. ornaments and mouldings on the exterior of the building-os if upon a dead and superlicial moss-not as po of a living organism. on the exoct representation or reproduction of nature. thus losing their purely academic character. This kind of architecture we disown. prepared by proper schooling. is capable of understanding the ideo 01 the whole. as soon as he considers himself sufficiently advanced. he is given the mental equipment with which to shope his own ideas of form. the g ammor in order to speak a language. organic education is the course in architecture with practical experience in the Research Deportment as well as on actual buildings under construeion. evokes in us other emotions than does blue or yellow. at the some time. but the most important factor of all. Instruction in the theory of form is carried on in close contact with manual raining. the requirements of this test are more severe than the public test. of light values and full or empty space. on association which prevents their wondering off into academicism.

the ponderousness af the old methad of building is giving way 10' a new lightness and airiness. 01 movement. Its program consists in a new and clear formulation 01 all problems problems maintain a thorough understanding 01 all the questions agitating the rest of he world. such as the Montessori schools. In its origins the theater grew from a metaphysical longing' consequently it is the reclizotion af on abstract ideo.. They have been tested in the face of fierce oppositian. in which business men. Far this reason. ments of typical shope should be repeated in series.With the increasing lirmness and density ol modern materials-steel. Such cooperation would be a real demonstration of farsightedness. This the Bauhaus attempts 10 do. in the modulation of musical and sooken sounds. Architecture unites in a collective task all creative war ers. Standardization 01 units For this reoson the Bauhaus has set itself the task of creating a cenler for experimentation where il will try to assemble the achievements of economic. breaking thraugh old conventions. which has a kind of orchestral unity. the few extraordinarily gifted ones will suffer no limits 0 their activity. he must recognize as a guiding prinForm ele-· spirit 01 the new architecture wanls inertia. provide on excellent preparation for e constructive program of the Bauhaus since they develop the entire human organism. so that Ihe elfects of new experiments may be s udied. As on ex reme instance. in the end. from the simple a tison to the supreme or is . is closely related to architecture. which was on actual demonstration 01 new conceptions of housing as well as o] new technical methods. so in the theo er a multitude of artistic problems form a higher unity wi h a low of its own.. ortists who sense new creative values have hod practical training in the industrial world. technical and formal reseorch and a apply them to problems 01 damestic orchitee ure in on ellor a combine the greatest possible s ondordization wi h the greatest possible variation of farm.. street and means of transportation. Since a universally ooplicable method for he discovery of talent does not exist. A 31 student who has achieved technical perfection and absorbed all that the Bauhaus can teach him can be certified a master. This will does not yet exist today. light color and sound are investigated. A new 'esthe ic 01 the Harizontol is beginning to develap which endeavars to counteract the ellect of gravity. in busi- in production. the s age space and figures are given form. But even he construe ion of absolutely necessary housing is at a standstill thanks to the mo eshilt ecanomies o] our time. The power of its effect on the spectator and listener thus depends on the successful translation of the ideo into opticolly and audibly percep ible forms. The 10 units for industrial production generous cooperation will require the of all concerned. in engineering. to bolance controsts. The special space. The new types of schools emphasizing practical exercises. The Bauhaus keeps in touch with new experiments in educatian. After they have completed the course of practical ond formal instruction. 01 ere- a ion. the standardization ciple in the shaping of its character. The goal 01 the Bauhaus curriculum Thus the culminating point of the Bauhaus leaching is a demand lor a new and powerful wO'rking correlation of all the processes 01 modern life have been demonstrated. Every archi ect must unders and the significance of the city in order to be able to engage actively in city planning. overcome "simplicity in multiplicity" Since architecture is a collective art. echnicions and artists participoe to determine a standard type. training is given in body movements. Conclusion: the Bauha us in ed ucati on An organization bosed on new principles easily becomes isolated if it does not cons antly The lorer Bounous seal.goed by Q. In spite 01 all the practical difficulties.or Schler-i- mer. The artist and the technician must collaborate in carrying au this task. they will themselves possess the means for realizing those values immediately. must replace the paper work of design. For this reason the educational lield must be enlarged on all sides and extended inlo neighboring fields. instead 01 mere esthetic pleasure. in the broadest . c s- 01 his development must find for himself the field of activity best suited to him within the circle 01 the community. Any industrially produced object is the result of countless experiments. glass-and "with the new boldness of engineering. But when. The Bauhaus has token the first steps toward such colla bora ion with the building of on experimental house at its 1923 exhibition. The old conservative schools were opt 10 destroy the horrnonv within the individual by all but exclusive headwor . Ihey undertake independent research and experiment. It would. As in architecture the character eleoch unit is merged into the higher I'fe of the whole. All the building ports should be lunclionol limbs 01 the comprehensive organism which depends simultaneously on building. To on even grea er degree. the basis 0'1 the growing work of the Bouhous can never be too brood. Their fruitfulness and salutary effect on all phases ness. of long systematic research. many ideas and problems have evolved from the original ideo of the Bauhaus. of form. The majority become interes ed 01 building . The investigation tutes the finol sage 30 01 the of these problems consricourse in building. of he body. the individual in the course 01 peculiar to the stage. The gilted student mus regain a feeling lor the interwoven strands of practical and formal war. its welfare depends on the whole community. in the future. The Stage Thea rical performance. They will compel industry to serve their ideo and industry will seek out and utilize their com prehensive training. meaning 01 that word. The education of children when they are young and still unspoiled is of great importance. concrete. Modern pointing. the basis of collective education must be sufficiently brood to permit the development of every kind of talent. in art. hos released caun less suggestions which are still waiting to be used by the practical world. Nawhere are the fundamental problems 01 building studied as such. The Bauhaus heater see s to recover primordial joy for all the senses. the monument is only significant when it springs from the will of the whole nation. Its responsibility is 10 educate men and women to understand the world in which they live and to invent and creote forms symbolizing that world. The joy of building. 1922 . prove mare economical than he use of substitutes. At the some lime the symmetrical relotianship of parts ol the building and their orien otian oword a cen rol axis is being replaced by a new conception 0'1equilibrium which transmutes his dead symmetry o] similar ports in a on asymmetrical but rhythmical balance. Therefore the buildings which are to be thought of os autgrowths af modern technique and design may be canceived as an assembly 01 prefabricated and standardized par's so applied as a fullill the varying requirements 01 those to' be housed. During the first four years of constructive work.

.. 2 Plastic studies of composi ion. Exercise designed to develope sensa of touch a nd subjective leeli n9 . page 36). where he was directing a private school. in spite of various additions and changes made by other ins ructors.te' c I 32 Herber1 Boyer: Drowio9 in various medio 01 dlllerenl ledure5. wi h various materials (see plates..PRELIMINARY COURSE PRELIMINARY COURSE: IDEN The backbone of the Bauhaus system was the preliminary course. H. HoHmon: Drawing from ncture. page 35). Gropius hod met Itlen in 1918 in Vienna. especially: (a) represen atian of materials and (b) experimens with actual materials.. 1921 Drowing rnotericls of con'rosting . I Detailed study 01 nature (see plates opposite). I 'f2Q E. the foundations of which were laid by Johannes Itten. Vorious moterlo 5.0' . Diecltmonn: Cornposition using commonplace meteria 15. The following fundamentals of ltten's eachings were re ained in port a the Bauhaus. ond-s'mpressed by his theory of educo ion-Gropius called him to the Bauhaus as the first collaborator. 3 Analyses of old mosters (see plates.

_/ I '. Vorio~s moteriels di:ferer' ·n cho rcc er.. Ink.. 1922 N. no. tion 0' simolest olos rc ono rn hm'c :or"T1S. Wossiliefi: Compos> tion.01 . 1922 .. but I. -I 'I' rP. 1922 ()'~ "-.: J ! <:> '--Ludwig Hirsch'eld-Mocr: Li e drowing !curved shepes}.\ ~ ell (1'\ ) ~ 1"'" . 1922 Drawing showing chcrccteris ic structure 01 wood.J r .n c0r:'b. 1922 L Leuoesoori!.~ified by rh hrric errergemen.rschFelo·Moc~: Line dro .. Ink.Engs leld: Ludwig H. Exercise .. ~J I \/ . g f stroight n li es)..Mox Bronsle'n: Com ccsiion..

io ae onclvsis Light and al an Ann"nciotion. WEIMAR Apri /Moy. to mo e him s and on his own leet. he must have a "leeling" 'or wood. 1919. 1921 Johannes It en: Sluoy of hand positions while drowing the figure eig~'. This course Is intended to liberate . since it seeks a liberole him. each opere-nice nos to do his own design'ng_ No outside designs. to give eim on understanding 01 nctera's materials.i.es which underly all creative activit in he visual arts. for exernple.ecJled in he wor shoes. From Johannes Iiten'. As a -ncr er 01 principle. At the eonelusion of a second success lui 'riol period of . by Moster Frone e I HO'TIb rg. 11 he is to work in wood. eligible for examinations to become a [eu-nevmc . Urom Bibl. c. Consequently. The preliminary course concerns !he student's whole oarsonolity. he goes inlo the weaving wcrkshop. which is an essen!iol port a: the preliminary course.. 1919. and a acquaint him wiTh ne basic orincip.he studen 's cractive oower. 10 slone a d gloss and wool. may be e. This i-istrucrion is inra nded to enable the stude nl 10 perceive I he harmonious relationship of different rhythms a nd to ex press such !'ormony Ihrough Ihe use of one or several rncterio s. From Johanne. A student is lentotively admit ed in a a workshop o:ler a 5:X months' trol period if he has suHieiently rnostereo lorm and 1"10 erial. and makes i possible lor him a go'n a knowledge of both moteriol ond form through di rect experl ence.lho Ie). Tagebuch . oj 36 Erne I ·emeler. i will help him to unders and the 11'10 erial. . . MOSIer Franke or Grunewald also olfers instruction in Ihe study of form. The work 01 ad mosters. no. [l he has a tolen' ior wood. he musl know his material Ihoroughly. he goes lnto the carpentry shop: if his preference is for wo"en rnaleriols. KLn.:~ months 10 work in the preliminary course. combining and corr-posinq them to make their relationships fully opporen . 1922 Each Bauhaus student is at lirst admitted lor a trio period 0. Every new sludent arrives encumbereo with a moss 0: occumu oled inlormotion which he rnus abandon belore he cc n oc hieve perception ana knowledge Ihal ere really his own. Preporo ory work also involves exact depicfon of actual moter'ols.. . II a sludent draws or points a piece of wood rue to no ure in every de oil. 11'~"'s Toqeboc« Johannes It en: Georre'ric ana ys's of the Aoorafon of the Magi. c. not even designs mode by Bauhaus masters. 10 specialize in work wi'h one material only. Three years as a oopren ice maic.e hi". I q 19 From Johonnes Itter s Togebuch PRELIMINARY COURSE.mderstond its reloion to other rnoterinls. he work. such 0' Bosch."onths he is definitely cdmittsc 10 the wotlshop as on cporentice.ter Franc ke. with hese motericls as wei.-(- Johannes l'len: Diagrommarc onolysis o· the Adoration 0: Ihe Magi b)· Ma. He must 0150 .

(0) grovity and (b) he resis ing rncun ain Ibot octive foe crs]...d include<! in odcl'tion 10 Doesblirg. the octive line (oroduced by o moving point). see Cubism and Ab. which points toword the center of he eorr 0 cd the 00 once . Deesburg's precccupction with problems of pure lorrr was nol in harmony with he Bounaus ideal or educating the indivioJa' in the in erests 0' he whole co-nmunitv. intermediate or ronsitionol territory with linear forms giving the elfect of pia nes Paul lee: Active. . "00_ 20 21 and 2S _ Fer on Occe. Quo one mony others.I'll! Doinler Piet Monar~on ~'e erchireet J. . is expressed by (II) t e diogonol wolerfall (in ermediate loctor) which turns (III) he mill [passive foe or) 39 K. His irr'luence on a grouo 01 the students gradually waned. P. Ine active plene I pre- duced by 0 moving line). 1922 lee: Ac ive intermeoiote ond passive factors: (I) he wot8r:oll (active). in Ihe middle. in 19 7 a. (I) T e conllict of the t'. 1923 ·THEO VAN DOESBURG: Attracted oy tke endeavours 01 the Bouhou.KlEE'S COURSE Thea va Doesburg and C.The 'Sli'l" g'oup 10'0' lcrmeo 01 Leyae.. t~e principle eeters pure red. 140-t52. Schwerotleger: space. Theo von Deesburq ono severo otner or ists not belonging 10 I~e Bounous orgonized a section 0: he "Stij" mover-ient " in Weimar in 1922. The QQuhous puoli"'"o booh bv all the leodirg "Sr"[l" designers (B'b. A Ie . water and oir. nor with is emphcsis on technical Iroining. 38 Po. clue and vellow ood princi pie ccmpcsificnol device a co. 1921 StJdy in E.eful'v be anced o.ymme..seum of Modern Arl.1 Klee: Line 0 d plone: three stages. Mogeli : Cueic compcsition. von Easterlin: House lor on crtist.jl..n' c· Ine S'. though there is liHle doubt thai his vis: 10 Weimar he ped to clarify the problerr 01 creative design./.h the principle lorrn was the rec~o~gle. J.ry. (II) I e mil wheels (in ermea ia'e). (III) the :rip hommer (possive) Peul lee: Earth. 01 right. 1'136 np. he M.ad Arl. intermediate end ocssive icetors: tne wotermill.o Iorces. The "Sri]!' ar'it. Symbols 01 ths province of statics ore he plummet.~s devetoaed c s·y e in """"Iic.. Exercise in observeion 01 so ie-dynomic ra a ions.

. d: o C ·.~cpes if' ·On!!.hi·"...e '5 oggres've. mi~eo ""j'h bloc to receOe' colo" rri~ed w ·T~ '~' te tee a '0 00/0 nee r' E'oe'. I -t.KANDINSKY'S COURSE COLOR EXPERIMENTS l"d..rref'TI OJO __ohig Hi"d'relo.... 1922 0: b cd. 5im: 'lor . +en rr ixed '" 'tft co ors.rom Construcriono ono vsis..icn they ore '.ocnc... / / / I I 40 M.. linear o"olysis. V..·od: :"oef"'men-5 i" the 0 cni··es blod ond ..n' e c opacr '0 ~e oo'. Study .. oovonci"9 centrilugol o"d dy~om·:· o 0 ck is cossive: re~eo irg.od: ig 't'es of blod ono wni'e v."rg 0" recec"ng occor::l"ng c 'he order i~ .and "r-t~.!JOe r ir-t ccsed . Rosch: norure.'.ig 0: H'"c~ ~Io-I.. "n the c ..'es 'n +e Exre:r"rren"s ".. shoo'ng iro'T' cod to. H'rschi"iO-I. ..:I L Kerko\'ius: 5t d I :rom noture. Co or. 01"10 centricero sto·j-:. 1922 L~d.'h'..

crolt was e nee nrani. Toys.try hod any use 'or hondicrofls. They denied that ino u. 1923 . subjected 10 numerous otloch. 1923 '0 -<----t Morcel 1922 Breuer: Chcr. But Grcoius stud to his gJns. Marcel Breuer: Polished block table. ook. It st ove provide On ob. 1921 -<----f E. Each individual. even il ind'reclly.'luered wood. on the " g(ouno thet his insistence on the value of 'reining in a . light and dar.el Breuer: obi e.haus ·roining. Diedmann: Sed. even irom hose whe took e friendly in erest in his wor . trying 10 give crolt instruction in its own wer shops. Brigh Iy lae. Jesel A oars: Shelves lor mogazires.. Alma Buscher. his own woy toword he common aim.lic. In conlrost 10 other conlem'pcrary ert IC heels whose I ud e "Is were Iroi ned 10 learn from ekisling forms produced by artists 01 lorrner periods or by their own teachers.CARPENTRY WORKSHOP THE ROLE OF HANDICRAFTS AT THE BAUHAUS Grop'us we. accordingly. He concluded Irem his Hlot Ihe hendicroit 1001 and e 'ndll'riol r-iocnine dilfered in scale bu a in ~ind and Ihol even the most relined machine could be operoled proouclively only by 0 man whose unaers onoing 01 irs development derived 'rom is own Ihorough cnotvsis 01 the relntion between 001 and ma erio Hance he consid· ered 'nstruction in crohs el ne Beuhol!' a rneo ns 01 ochieving tnol unde-s a~ding and estebtished sirnulto eous schooling 01 hono end mind as the basic pedagogic principle 01 ell Ba". His iniliotive end erebccie delou's were no a be oostruc 'ed by 0 J hori otive outside eressura: no seeming harmony i style was 10 be ochieved premoturely by the odao ion 01 reody-mode forms.ec:tive education in design in which he institution as 0 whole perlicioc ed. the Bauhaus emphasized ine method of creative approach. rod a lind. These pedegogic melhods insured a slow orgon'c ceveloorr an and breught abou 1 ~e genu' ne Jnily 01 'or""1"l w hie ~ 01 Sou hous p'ao ue's one ined in lerer years. and even by Iriends oi Ihe Bauhaus who lailed to recognize in this variety a logical result 01 the director's edu(afonol pion. 1922 Mare. He sew mot there were no e eugh -nen Iroined as era'tsmen a supoly induS'ry wi h lne specialized wcr ers it needed and tho industry wcs herelor . 1923 Dressing 42 FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BAUHAUS "lid OTHER CONTEMPORARY ART SCHOOLS The discrepancy 01 form 'n Bauhaus produc s 01 the lirs' iew yeors was 01 en misin erpreled by the pres. -<----.

Diree tor. 1923 44 Moreel BreCler: Choir. 1923 Moreel Breuer: Bed. '00""'. Light o. Fobric seot ond bod res'. lemonwood ond wolnut. 1923 .d do·.-Josei Albers: Conletence toble.or Bouho us. 19"24 Wo ier Grooius: V/ei". ook.

which che roc erizes ~e King. 1925 J. Hor wig: Cess 1924 se. Knight moves on a right ongle: righ ong e surmoun ing square.. the most cctlve piece. • Morcel Breve: Kitchen cabinet..H. Wood locqvered in color. J. moves any number of space. ln sharp can rosl 10 he cube. sy". Bi.~. portly sloi ed bloc. Castle and Pow». Pc. ° moves 0 e square .'g: 1924 Chess se'. Horl". c hair. .~.. Red beechwood. cod. Nossell..n and Costte move on lines porollel to he edges of Ine board: expressed by the cube. Brigh-Iy locque ed .traight or diogo oily: ''''011 cube set diagonally on a larger cube. 1923 Alma Buscher: Nursery co-nrncda.bol of weighl and moss. Sioroge cobine's can 0150 be used as lobles. stroight or diog. a nd co''. 1924 AlMa Buscher: Ploy cu pboord in use.hop moves diagonally: cube wi h cross cu from op diagonal. King ° .. Ch"" !able. Quee. onolly: cylinder and boll.

Plywood locquered in two colors. 1925 Berlin.crc. cner .c . Sommerfeld 1922 house 'n Gloss ond wood lecouerec "n block a d white. orcel Breuer: Snowcose.e Breuer~ Wooden seol ond bod res·. Josef Albers: Sal'ned glo ss in the stair well. by Gropius. 1924 S oined gloss workshop. 1923 49 .. /·/.STAINED GLASS WORKSHOP Morcel Breuer: Desk boded with boo shelves. 102(... Fccr.

Lindig: Woter pitcher Pol'ery .. . e Oornburg. Lindig: Eorthsnwere iug. 1922 0.POTTERY WORKSHOP In Dornburg neor We'".. Decorated by Gerhard Morcb. OORNBURG. rkshop.or 0 tredtiono cO"ery cen er 0. town Ro ncntlc on Ine river SO" Ie. l.. One c· Goethe s :ovorire retree-s.'nolc: P cs er model 01 0 c:olf~e pot designeo 50 for moss prodJction 0.

Cost. Bog er: Connislers. Bogler: Earthenware ilchen containers designed lor moss preduct" on.ecJled by the Stcotliche Porte llcnrnc nuio 'ur..T urned. Undig: O. Eerthen· . Executed by the Al'asle Volk-tcdter Porzel. 1922 T.. b:ecuted by the Steingutlabr ik.igned ler Mon production. 1922 T. VeltenVordomm. Lindig. Berlin. 1923 RigM O.en'obrik. Cost. 52 -<1= O. 1923 O. BoHom T. Lindig: Left Cup. Ccccc set. 1923 . Bogler: Teopot. Right Morgorete Fried'onoer. E. Li~dig Col-ee set.. Porcelen oe.Left T. Bogler: CoHee mochine designed lor moss preduc'ion. Mugs. ore coliee pots designed for rross produc ion. 1923 O. Lind·g: Glozed eorthenwore cocoo po'.

Silverbronze wilh silver lining and ebony handles. ivory and quartz. Knau: Samovor wi h spirit lamp and small pot for teo essence. 1'123 Naum Sluh. 1923 J. 1'124 Noum Slutzky: Pendant.ki: S'Iver-brcr ae eo-glo . Jucker: Bross samovar lined with silver.ky: Ring with selling designea to permit c ho "ge 01 stones. 1924 J. 1922 J. Component ports and the whole... 1924 . wooa. 54 K. 19"22 ororne and brass. Copper.METAL WORKSHOP M. c. 1924 Morianne Brandl:. holders w] h ebony ~ondl es. Metal teapot. Silver. Pop: Steel and nideled brass /loor lamp. Pop: Woler pitcher. Kraie . .

R'l'weger and W. 1924 Josef Alber<: Gloss berr\. 1923 -1924 -)-- orionne Brondt: leo se 1924 Silver-bronze with ebo y hondles. 1923 . Wogenield: Gloss omp.ood en be I leet. Wei"".. Dishes wilh metoli rims cno . 192b Wolter Gropius: Lighting lixlure 01 tubular bu lb s.Morienne Brendl: Colieeeno teo pots designed for moss oroduction. 1923 Meto workshoo. Ti:mpe : Silver-bronze teo bol s ond ste nd. W'red throlJgh 0 silverbronze tube with in the gloss >ube.o'_ • JLC er o-id 56 W. Shede or mil~y gloss. Wired tnrough thin aluminum uoes. O.

\923 Ruth Holies: Woven cover. gray. Gray cod whi e. 01 e: Wall hanging.. white. 1923 . brown. Repeo ted paUer n odacled tor . Wool ond rayon.ne mod ucr'o n deriveo from handwoven cover 0' r i91.WEAVING WORKSHOP G n'ro Shoron-Stoln: Woven cover. Cotten..atl.1 58 59 Guntho Shcron-Stohl: Wall hanging_ c. Ye low.. 1924 '~l B. violet. \924 R uth Citroen- Vo lIent' n : Applique ond embroiaered honging lor child's room..

Ho ntschk: S".yrno woo _ Knotted In" reg. Martha Erps: SMyrna wool notted rug. 1927 60 61 G.' Gunlna Shcron-S olll: Topest rv... .

W. F'r51 produced in Jeno. 1'123 Oskor Schlemmer: F'g"r . 1922 Os: or Sch emmer: Design lor 0 scene 01 Melo.The Trioaic Ballet Os~or Schlerr ner . Herg': .io~. Secon(l Ve. of La. 1924 T. deiign' ..STAGE WORKSHOP . 1922 62 Osker Sch emmer: CosTume designs lor The Triadic Bollef.. Tlte Figurol Cabinet.01.' K~. Jr1 Scnmidt with F. 'ro rr.. Morioneltes :or The Adventure.'e Hunchback Kurt Se hrr In . 1923 . Schmidl: Sloge se lcr The Mecitooicol Bollel. PnOTomonloge. acution. Firs' produced in We'mor. or Ihe Pantomime of PIOCe5.... Bog '" and Georg Teltsc her: FigtJres 'or The Mechanical Bol/el.

.. goy a nd burlesque. Bollel in three acts: a climactic development.k eoncers "0"" [he Triadic Bolle. 1925 1 64 65 Oskcr Schlemmer: Farkas Maino. Theorelico drow·ngs.lerent oonce scenes in eighteen d. 19) A as or Schlemmer: Delinection of space by humc-i ["gures. donce scenes.Oskor Sc"I". on the 0 her. 1924y >.st~ "'es for t he Ih ree octs of The T'iodic 8011£11 . The! ird oct on on 0:1 bloc stage has a my. the meoning of which is inlensi:ied as iest becomes earnest The lirst oct.. [Irom Bib!. No.. The costumes consist 0' podded tigh s on one sioe and.r: Di. two mole and one femole... begun 01 Stut go rt in 1912. Tne -welve di. is do nced ago i nSI lemon-yellow stage 5£1'5. rigid pc pier-mocha forms...terious... :ortoltic cncrocter. The second oct is a restive ri uol on a pid stoge.: in cction U-Tneoler Co.Herent costumes are exacu ed by three dancers in 'urn. t A elonaer Scnow'ns~y: Top doncer and lop oancing robot.. PhotO'TlOrloge Oskor Schlemmer: The Triadic Ballet ( Dos Triodisc e Bolie 1"'). w'lh colored or me ollie surjcces.

1'124: "Ye low. He 1.lec'sd light compositions.triangle s. " 66 Osler Schlemmer: Figural Cabinet.and again in curved [ormsc i rc les. control woo successfully oc h'eved over w hot hod originally been occidental and by ths fme it was ready lor public disoloy. "After much e~per. They join. which hod begun cs a chance discovery during a <"'pie shcdowpay entertainment . innovation os follows in he Ber/iner Bersenkurier 01 A~g. down.. orcs ond wova-l ike ootterns. Scnwerdrfeger: efleded lig~1 compos'!"on THE REFLECTED LIGHT HIRSCHFELD-MACK Analogous 10 he obstroc' films of Egge"ng.9h' composi ions .1 produced lhese 0 the Weimor Bauhaus in 1922 and 10 er 01 the People's Theater (Volksbuhne) in Berlin. the process hod been matured technico Iy end oristicolly . rneva about on the dar boegrO\l nd of c tronsporent linen screen ..JS 2'\. green. Rich er ana Rutlmann were me reflected light cemoosilions (Reflel:tori.uo. sideways-in vorying tempi. blue. version The Later Schowinsky and Fritsch: Scene irorn The Circus. He oescribed hi. in glowing intensity. red.menl.. They opoeor now cs angular lorms . Firsl oroduced 01 the BouhoJ"ln4 '1. . Photomontage sqLores..1 j Ludwig Hi"chfeld-Mad: Color sor-ct' no in red Ludwig Hirschfeld· Iv oc : Cen er ond bollom R"flected .. polygon. and over opoings and coloro endings result. "A' tne Bo uhcus in We:mar we war ed 'or two yeors on the development 0: these re.. COMPOSITIONS OF Oskcr Schlemmer: in space FigJres lor The Tr'cdie Bo/let.che lichtspieIe) of Ludwig HirschfeldMod..

h collaboration of tne Bauhaus Architec ure Deportment) MOMY privc e residences Oskor Sch err mer. Weimor BauhoJs_ 1921-1922 68 Os or Schlemmer: Murals and relief in the entrance hall. 1922.. 1922 I buildi n9 by Gropi us 1 Room 01 'ne a-jury chibition in Berlin." Weimar.WALL-PAINTING WORKSHOP The following in eriors were exacu eo in color oy the wall-painting workshop: Theoler in Jana. by Kandinsky House 'Am Horn. Mural at the nead of Ihe stair we Weimar Bouhcus. 1923 (building by Muche wi. from design. 1921·1922 . 1921-1922 Oskor Schlemmer. Berlin.d House. Murcl in Irasca and oils in the entrance holl. 1922 I but Idi ng by Gropius 1 Otle House. 1922 (building by Gropiusl Somma r!e. Wei"'ar Bauhaus. Berlin.

circle. Paris: Colcimine used in voricu • ways Left wal]: Specie lily (Prolession): Set NOlionolity . Explonetion: 10 W. First 1Ioor: composition in dor~ blue. We'mor !lounous.. Herbert Bo er: Sgreliilo Right woll: R.." s. Ao· plication of exoeriments: ir Ih. Wei"..ond color. 1921-1922 Herbert Boyer: Design for murals in Ihe sloir well. . For experimentol purposes the woll-poinling workshop 01 Ihe Weimar Bouhous asks you 10 do the following problems: I.or Osker Sc hle-nmar: Reliel in Ihe entrance he II. explcin your dis!ri ution 0. 2. 1923 .. relotions:nip be~eer colors ond 'or.-oe:Questionnaire given to 011 Sauhau. colors. Various techniques. ground f oor. Second llccr: ccrr pos. Wei or Bouhcus. Weimar Bauhaus.: Fresco in Ihe woll-oo'nl. red and blue. members 10 investigate psychological relofionship belween ior-n . 1923 Herbert Boyer: M ural in he s:toir Nell. Menze.lion in brig hI red: squc reo Third floor: comoosi ion in lignt yellow· lriongl e. Fill in Ihese ) forms w'ln 3 colors: yellow.ng wer shop.. Each form should be completely filled by one color. II possible.

. 1924 Herbert Boyer: . 1924 Herbert Boyer:Open strae cor waiting room wi~h news sand.' DISPLAY DESIGN A 1nough here wos no speciiic wor shop for eXhibition technique. 1924 Exnibition tower odvertising eleelrcol orad ucls.i ). 1924 Herbert Boyer: K'os aesigned for the sole ana edvar+isemenl 01 a bro~d of cigarettes. ('I) le!'ers larmed by sma e. (3) loud soe c ker . Toothpaste lor so e inside and advert'sed Outside by ll) c lilm (projected Irom wi!. (2) e ectric sign. 1'124 Herbert Beyer: Herber Boyer: Exnibi ion eovi ion. Small bose supporting loll engule.. Colored odvertlsements lor various products on the roo'. suoerstructere w' h many diHeren colored Oleo.h·oilion POVI ion ot on ind~striol fair.rction. Revalv' ng spnere ceve-ed wi' e eel' c bulbs.. S'mple construct'on adopted 10 moss prod. lor posters. r in e' ec'ric bu lbs revo ve ccout the shalt.. Let. 1924 . eutlineo 12 Herber Bo ter: Proiect 'or small e. new ie ees were developed and 'urldomen a prnc'ple.ask d esignee jar Ihe sa Ie 0 d odvertisernent of newspc pers.

II: Fred Forba : Atalier. \II~en the -progr. " service to Ihe Bouno. Inquir ies concerning the Bauhaus settlement were answered by the 'Bouhaussiedlung G. Berlin. " Wolter Gropius arid Adolf Meyer: Model 01 proposed ocademy or philosophy..u"ve cotoalrcphe of infia'ion menaced this cc." IFro. 1922 .ed according 10 he needs of the inhobitan s. m. gord. o~d linen which hod belonged to Nopoleon. including the cons ruction 01 the heo er in Jano and the Sommerle!d residence in Berlin. ". Weimar.ARCHITECTURE W.. -:. Moln6r.nOJs. . but he wcs hindered in this by lac of understanding on the por of the authorities and by the eHects of iniloion.1i'Yi'Y Gropi IJS sold an historic Forni y heir oom-a si ver table service '0 therelore.eHlemen' wes also born [rcrn necessity. no. and typico near pie Three studios and adjacent bedrooms. 1913 WIll • .. He roised money privately 10 build the house "Am Horn" for the 1923 exhibitio .: Sammerle a House.h·ng the roorr s. 1921 . Architecture dBoortn"ent: General view of the Bauhous com"lluni'y planned lor Weimar.n produce wo' sold in the 8cuhous cont •• n. Gropius employed them on his private orchi ee ural cornrrussroos. 1921. OEPARTMENT I hod been Gropius' inten ion to reinlorce the courses i orchi eclure with a brood program of practical wor . do 'The Eleuhou.j.S. Nevertheless. The Th~rin9ian government leosed the lond surrounding the house "Am Horn" to the Bauhous ond on eloooro!e building scheme lor additional houses was drown up but the lu nds ior t heir construction were never lorl~coming.e"AmHorn. b.pore lime a.. leased lrom he S ate. A 'lege able ana frui' form. to be cultivo~ed in their . Thehou. was worked oy the Beuha. 1921 • ~ c % II: .e. 4FI n. kilchenet e and lavatory. * The correspondence between the Bou hous administration ond the various political regimes reveals both the bureoucrotic indolence and the tragic linenciol impotence which prostrated Ihe coun~ry at Ihe time. Drawing by F. ." 1923 !lower left). ne construction at these community buildings W05 to be directed by the Bauhaus and to orovids contracts for the worksho os. adjoining tne form. was the onl building comoleted. For he firs' time BeJhe". H.: S oatliehes Bouhaus. Drawing shows the various units or which he houses are compa. A plan was being evolved for single houses ond apartments for Bauhaus mem bers in a beautiful section of Weimar.I C WO"er Grapius and Adoll Meyer: Model ior e house 1921 ~ II: 0 > 14 THE ARCHITECTURE Architecture department: Standordized serial houses. wor sshops ectuelly collaborated in decororlnq and 'ur· ni. community. turn it oyer 1he students. • In crder fIIDlhing bu to use the lond I e director could. in order to assure the workshops scrne rnecsure 01 prccticol build'og expe ie ce. Archi aefure deportment: Below models showing variations of houses comoosed 01 standardised units' above plans."" and mooe the kitchen indepenoent of price Fluctuations in the morkels."" Bibl. hooi g thot i would mark he beginning of on ex ensive housing development. Grcoius.

. ... Herbert Beyer. " Welter Gropius one Adoll Meyer: Entrance (olioda a remodeleo municicc thee er Jeno.. .." Farkas Moine.. ' . Re'nforced concra-e.. Drawing by Wa rer Gropius end AdaIr Meyer: Proiect submit'ad to the Chicago Tribuna Cernpetirlon. Riaht: second 1I00r..... 1922 1922 For' os Molner: Pions lor "The Red C~oe.... 1922 '" ..For os Molnor: Pro' ec lor o house... "Tne Red Cube. 1922 - ( . ./~ " . ~ .... . 1922 1922 . Projec for a wood freme house." Lelt: lirst llocr. ~ For~os Mainor: a U-theeter Project lor Welter Gropius: Design lor o stucv..

Poge ! rom Utopia. 1911 19 'F''0" .. 1924 01 Johannes IIten' Typo. 1111111 _ : Project lor cn.nd copperplo e enn a workshop equipped with' h' .R _=~=. Rel.. Woodcut.. nos.::!·•"..d presse s.. EurOpOi5c~e Grapnik.\~o:c~ 5 .5.' .!.TYPOGRAPHY AND LAYOUT Albums of Ii hogrophs ' Frovings [Bibl. 7) were printed were bound in he well . .... LyoneJ Feininger: Tille poge. L L •• n . The olbums equipped Bouhous bi d ery. on.!orced concrete. 1.' grophlcol design .opCrlmeol house. 1924 Morcel Breuer: Mode proposed cpor+nan] house.!E~N!.::M:. 1921 .eoenbiae"""""""uat ••••••• -. ..

Sioo/liehel Bauhaus in Weimar 1919. These Be u nous booes ore isted in 'n e tl ibliog. SlooJlicnes Bauhaus in Weimar 1919-1923 . Bauhaus in We." ""ber Junge Me"cnen. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION./923 BI : Tirle ooge. leiters should never be squeezed into an arbitrary shope-like a square..c.. Cologne. Munich). Communication ought not to lobar under preconceived esthetic notions. .rhcus activities duro ng 'he lirsl three yeors.cphy.in 9 Sloat Jiche.GY It must be cleor communication in its most vivid form.: . edoled oy Gropius ono Moholy. first of aU: absolute clarify in aU typographical work.0 series 01 becks os evidence at Inll 'otegro.t. is chiefly 0 record of Bo.r 1919-/923 STAATLICHES AUHAUS " mJill 1919 . in collobororion w'tn Karl Nierendori.. TYPOGRAPHY AS A. the iirst BoClhou.. Peo. ' c L Moho y. publicotion was issued by the newly founded BOClhous Peess [Bounousvar og). o~c.E BAUHAUSPR:ESS _.AUHAUS t-lt: .1923. A new typographic language must be ereated. byMOHOU~N A.1923 D:: .Nogy: Page loyout.. Bo u no us . Moholy-N09Y: -itle pc g". S TAA iLl CHES 'BAU. Weimor-Mun·ch [lcrer A'bert Longen Verlag.fJfC1919 :11923 . > The lu.on oi c~ll"ro oroo ern. Ionguo'ge whose logic depends on the oppropriale application of the processes of prinling.Nogy: Die pO'ge. Herbert Boyer: Cover design. [Irom Bibl.". THE 14 VOLUMES OF JH. Firsl Bauhaus book.l hero im 011he Bo uncus Press wos 10 lid i. HAUS IN WEIMAR 1919. -·~ ~ . The book.z :: w Specie] 0' I " . 1923 L Moholy. Clarity must be especially stressed for clarity is the essence of modern printing in contrasl 10 ancient picture writing" Therefore. L. 1924 80 81 THE BAUHAUS PRESS On the occosion ol Ihe 1923 exhioition. variety and a fresh approach to the materials of printing..Nogy. no. ~ . ad verti . combiningelosticity. a.

1923. J.. Grooius stoled . EXHIBITIONS IN THE MAIN BAUHAUS BUILDING." b~ilt o"d iurnished by the BOL.ie by BaJhoJs [orr-bond. wou d have oreferred to postpone 0 pu. w PROGRAM: Woller Gropius "Ar' ana Technics.. persons visi'ed he Bouhn u exhibitior I i Postea rds printed 1923 Exhibition lor Ihe George Teuscher LJdwig Hirsch:eld-Moc Herbert Boyer Herbert acyer Farkas Molner Lyonel Feininger Paul Klee Wa"i y Kondin.ky . h I"e workshoos.. which onimoted lne Bouhcus.] Every depot" rre'! I\"mmed w'lh oc i"ity in oroer 'hot Ihe exhibition mighr ce " tncrouqh presentation of he ideo." Tne e. lireoonee wi h m~. [This wos conlrory 10 the in'antions ol rne O.c disploy until rrore morure resu 's hod been oblcined. a New Unity Wossily Konoin. Ifoudev'Ue 'T1S och. and in the S a e Weimar: on II-e ground of Ihe Bouno~s sartlernern' (SiealungJ: "BAUHAUS ecturas: one-Iorrily house "Am Horn.onous ork. oesig s. murals. P.] poper Ion ern le. rei ecfed 'gol composilions works. pre- theoretical siudies'lhe imi.WEIMAR EXHIBITION.. in voroJS vestibules. 1923 In I 23 "T h~ri~gion Leg' slotiva Assemb y ILondtog) asked for 0 Bo~hous .shops. Bouho~5 oo'n'ing scu " ere. "Des . sro'rcases o"d rOO'05: 'nterncrionol e~h'b'lion of moderr orchilec'ure. Ouo.h Busoni.hibition inc Jded. hibi io -which would serve os o repor: on ""hot had been occomplished in iour yeo . Progrem: HinoeMi. o /' Entronce to Ihe 1923 Exhibition.dor. lecture with ii 83 cond uctac by H. who .. concerts Scherchen 'I s ogecrolt. relief.l'vol." ew Bu'ld'ng in Ho ono" Oskor Sch ernrr er.r' 00 isc ne BolIe'l he eloss mechanical C.'..~y Synlhe'ic Art" "O~ WEEK" J. e heme' "ART AND TECHNICS. Srrcvins~y 1 Mas 01 T e composers were presen' 0 t ne concer-s. A NEW UNITY. .. i the clossrccrns: useum 0 product a' he wc-r snops. Poster by Heroe" Boyer Oskor Schlemmer: Cover design fer prospectus 01 Ihe 1923 Exhibi ion ERSTE BAUHAUSAUSSTELLUNG IN WEIMAR 1923 Ff een 'ho~50nd "n Weimor..ory course. Krene .

He hod to recreole Ihe world around him with limited means in a limited space: a losk pre. All Bauhous workshops were busy for five months filling orders. forty·. Formulated desires 0: 0 new mon-the post-wor German -who hod not yel realized whol he needed. Their opinions reHeded h.bperimerto builoing house "Am Hcr-. 1919. Five hundred and twenty-si. 01 the University 01 Toronto. me Bauhaus had attempted 10 crystallize the s ill un. 1924 The 105 leipzig Fair was a distinct SUCCess. ' Weimar. Righi Ki·cnen . Floor pan 84 EXPERIMENTAL BUILDING "AM HORN" It is hord 10 recl'ze lodoy to what impassioned pronouncement.even of these students were not odm 'tted to he odyo nced courses. ord. Conservative critlcs mode much of Ihe lomous Weimar "Goelhehaus" as on orgumenl ogoin51 Ihe oppropri. Orders were received from obrood. from Austria.. s udents were trained in the Bauhaus between October. England.ledly counlered by a young unorejudisted Canadian." But Ihey were unexpec. the H.! experimento IBou hous buildi "g. in order to moin oin Ih" highest oossible 5 and. ceded 01 necessity by psychological reodjuslmen s. who observed thot Goe he's garden house in the Weimar pork was the only building in Weimar thot possessed a certoi ~ conge nia I relotionshi p to the Bouhnus. A large number 0 0 hers 001: only he oreliminory course. The house "Am Horn. conllict between their prejudiced conception of 0 ho me and Ihe eHect prod uced by a new type of house conceived in new terms. Hollond.. In 1923. LeH Corner 01 bedroom. Wookey. tne house "Am Horn." Weimar. Herbert Boyer: Poster lor 1923 exh:bition 85 WEIMAR. This man hod 10 cons rue 0 new way 01 life Irom Ihe debris 01 a wreded world-o way 01 life utterly dilierent from tnol 01 pre-war limes." inspired its critics. ona April. America. oteness 01 the "Hous am Horn. At this time more than fat)' firms were buying i)ouhou5 produc s a such on extent tho he scarcity or machinery and copi 01 ode i impossible 0 fill 011 orders. 1923 l~e The house "Am Horn Weimar. 1924. Miss G.

th~ heigh of the economic crisis in 1923. lis council waS composeo oll"e :ollo. Be' in Josef SIf'lygow. lions 01 a gro~o 01 poinlers and sculp ors on rips around Weimar. and Ihe biologist Hans Driesch. Pcris Hans Drieseh. ate.::. trombone bonia" traps. The" ite-Ies ivai" was a big yearly even. scholars and pointers who were in sympo'hy wilh the iaeols 01 Ihe Beuhcus generously canlr. Two <lay." :_ . PotscorArnold Schonberg. . Slavic. Ihe composer Bela Bartok.EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES The Bauhous bond storIed wilh ne musical ·mproviso. the pianist Rudoli Serki nit he violin i. but since il could never be successfully rons/erred to poper. EVERY MAN A MILLIONAIRE . Hirschield .. st'!l wet. Every outumn a troop 01 Bauhaus studer s we t out into the lie Ids to :Iy the amazing ites which they hao bui I..e interested in he school. Berl'n Adolf BU5Ch. . a m" lion marks in paper money equaled in volue one mark lorly-seven pfennigs in gold. Berlin Harber! Eulen berg. Accordlon-rnuslc and he pounding 01 chairs.auled their services far BOlJha~$ evenings.:. Thus tne Bauhaus strove to keep:n ouch wi h the besl and newes in other fielos of science ond or.ki.':... a man paid for his lund in billion mark noles.. The Hogue Peler Behrens. 0< THE FRIENDS OF THE BAUHAUS The cssociction nown cs "The Friends 01 Ihe Bounous proved of 'nvoluoble more: and linonciol help during he s'o''''y years of development.. Four months later one reckoned in billions.. Koiserswerth Edwin Fischer.. The one million ". loter it was iSSued with he in. In the summer. therll were parades 01 night through thll peaceful ~treets oi Weimar with pa'per la~ ems 01 thll students' own invention. This donee music soon become know~ all over Germany and wes played 01 or ists' festivals everywhere.. Vienna Hans Poeh.l Adolf Busch.~~~ . Vie~no -.. Berlage... Ihe rhythmic srncc ing 01 0 loble ond revolver shots in lime wilh Irog'ments of Gerrnen. Berlin Gerhart Hauptmann.ig. The lectures. ? -. Jewish and Hungarian fol songs would swing the com pony into 0 donce. money received In he morning hod to be disposed of before evening oi Ihe some day ier by Ihat ime il was likely to be valueless. When the BOJ aus &hibilion a' 1923 ooened. Vienna Adolf Sommerfeld. Serloge and Poelzig. tne writer Thecder Doubler.~.: Et . nrc Franz Werlel. concerts and dance recitals oroug" loge ner no only those ac uolly connec ed wilh Ihe Bauhaus bu also the townspeop. Agne endarl Josef Hollmann..:ng: H. . 1923 IffifHT Ludwig Hirschfeld-Moe : S Oonce Peter Rahl: design program. 1921 for 0 BAUHAUS EVENINGS 86 Archi ecrs. trumpet. !wo saxophones. lee. Leipzig Alberl Einstein. the physio-chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. even later when he ir>. Postcards desig ned lor kite-Iestivo Is and lantern poroaes by lee Mo n6r. Vi.Berlin Marc Chogoll. III this way they served as a link between Ine Bou ous and Ihe eornrnunitv.. Vienno Oskar Koka5Chko.. rumen otian wos exponded 10 include twa pianos. Feininger.Moe . l-e cancer Polucca." Among them wllre Such celebrities as the erch..ark note was oesig ned by Heroerl Boyer in 1923 lor the Srcte Bon k 01 nuring-o. P.iec 5 Oud. il remained goily impromptu.:-~'. clorinet.E MILLION MARK The rapid oevoluo ion of the German mark during he inllction year< led to incredible 9(0 esquens ss in dc'ly life.. Professor Freundlich 01 Ihe Einslein Insti u e.

Sfli less did ha t. Ale. Alter the lirs romon ic years 'hese clothes were discorded in accordonce wi h Gropius' opinion hot the artist 01 lodoy should wear conventional clothing. 1924: lmnroVlseel sketches at Bauhaus dances Marcel Breuer: Birlhday greerirgs 10 Woller Gropius Herbert Boyer: Poster for Bauhaus dance. Under Illen s inHuence he mode fantastic Bauhaus clothes: wide trouser. Oskor Schlemmer. they earned their livi ng a long the way as craftsmen. these unconvenliona and imaginative designs played on imporlan pori :n the develcpman of loy-out and typography. He wcs so wropped up in the fascinating los of discavering and shooing his own ego and his environ"'enl Tnc he scarcely observed the radical contrast between his own i Tensive existence and Ihe ordi· nary small-lawn liie which surrounded him. The poverty of a greot mony Bau hous oporen ices and journeymen maoe tne can een 0 vital necessity. he wonted 10 e. Etching One .noe'oend e nce 01 conve nlionol modes. narrow a Tha lee.ink of record'ng in word or pho ogroph I e life of those lirsl law colorful and exp osive years at the Weimor Bauhaus. Somewhat inl uenced by Dadaism. Some of he conteen work wcs done by the Bauhaus members hsmselves. and pori y throug" entnJsiosm for clothes inlenaeo to forecos :uture sty.tuoent did tailoring work.. Mostly on foot.onder Schowins y. loa. rnechonlcs or pointers. Top.e'.At/SivER Tne Bouh<iusier presenled a higfdy curious appearance fa the provincial eyes of he Weimar citizenry. For private celebrations. press in dress his entire . II W05 mode possible by the unseliish aid 01 Bauhaus members and Iriends. such cs birthdays. Lika so many generations of young Germon. were the oosters which oppscred in the Bou hous lobby every week to onnou nc a the dances. l-norovised. wi h· out creases. he fauna no ime for the task of observing and recording. like v090bonds. BaJhaus students went sou h to Italy. 1922: baHam. Every Saturday a Bauhaus donee was held eitner in Weimar or in one of the any nearby ccun ry inns. Marcel Breuer: Portrait 0: Josef Albers. seer] held by c pin. The greol enthusiasm 01 he eorly doys in Weimar found on outlet in soontoneous shows and parties lor which lontostic masks a nd costumes were irnprovi sad. high closed joe eT wi a bell. The Bauhaus canteen enabled the students 10 eot well lor lil1le mo ney. Aosorbed in living. PorI y Ihrough pure 'cotosy. a special kind of "gilt design" (Geschen grophik) Wa5 devalopec. 1923 .

as already indicated. we studied malerial more or less on a traditional handicraft bosis. began to work actively on . textiles and paint. 1924 Construc- ized design. in 1928.'he development of the preliminary course. but. In this way we tried.PRELIMINARY COURSE: MOHOL y. of corpenters and cabinet-makers. such as wood.ndepenoently and hU5 widened the scope 01 The ·eoching. the dillerent characteristics of flat groin and quarter-sowing. To this end we analyzed typical treatments end combinations of materials. Thus. (page I 16). " mode 01 heavy wood to be once projection of left half which is 01 light wcoo . Albers was formally oHered a posi ion as teacher at the Bouhous of er the ins ilulion hod moved to Desseu. Whole construction rests . Alber. Whe. metal. without anticipating Tomo G'ote: Study in balance cased On specific gro/ties of vcricus woods. . n perfeel ba a nee upon a sing e point. using no maIrmgard Sorenson-Popi~: Suspended construction. The students were intraduced to a simple and elementary. From hen on. and without workshop equipment. continued to teach in bOlh prelilTlinory classes until the closing of the Bauhaus in April. later of several combined materials. PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS wn Susoended construe ion. who hod been . bu appropriate use of the most imporfont croft materials. first of one material alone. Chorlot e Vic oria: S'udy in volume and space. Rig. and to learn the various methods of joining: pegging and screwing. Because 0. containers. This development is briefly described in my article on our more developed preliminary course ot Dessou. 91 We tried to apply our nawledge to the making of useful objects: simple implements.' a stud e "lot the Bo uhous. He too charge of fhe studies in moteriels and conti n ued this war: even w"en Moholy-Nagy was called to the Bou· • IlQUS shortly of erword to direct Ihe preliminary course. 1933. his unusual pedagogic gifts. as a fundamental training for later specialPoul Reichle: tion. and worked them out with our hands.eh he Souhous in Ihe spring of 1'12]. he directed the preliminary course during Ihe lirs! term. 1923 192+ chines and only simple everyday tools. Each aug . 1924 later work- shop practice. The war with materials in this course was 1923 planned to prepare the first semester students for later craft-studies in the various Bauhaus workshops. we expanded our practical work to allow more inventiveness and imaginoion. stone. to develop on understanding of the fundamental properties of materials and the principles of construction. we visited the workshops 01 box. split. . gloss. Gloss and calico. bent and laminated wood. nailing. end to on understanding of their relationships os well as the differences between them. glueing. choir and basketmakers. Soon. toys and even toy furniture.t ha. in order to learn the different uses of wood. Gropios and Monoly-Nogy left the Souhou. however. NAGY Owing 0 di!ferences of opinion 05 0 Ine cctuol conduct of the course ITTEN . About th's time Josef Albers. 'Ie Moholy· Nogy look over Ihe second term. For instance. of first. of coopers and cartwrights.

OPPOSITION TO THE BAUHAUS 011 1. unforlurolely.. t"Nt/i1 The Beuho"s worhhops o. olmosl presump'uou. toooy be 0 lyon cncchronisrn ond non.cience o~d technics? Where e se bu· nere in Wei". which opposed he sale 01 actual obiec s produced al publicly financed schools os unfair compe ilion wi h private enterprise" But he sole 01 Sou Ous design' in re'urn lor royolties on mo . .Iem can ne¥er eoo to tho I In"tl' of art ond -echnics 01 wnic.. It shou a be \rolued cs t. 1924: ·When I iirs become acquainted with "he oirr-s 01 the BOJMa. 0.. which should hove been a matter of course on the por of Governmen officials. the Bcuhcus is not consiste ." Ihe forerunner 01 the otionol Socialist Pony.'sc.urich.. lor your lelling words o..i"n.m. in 1924.d foes 10 judge for Ihe'T\selves is aims ond achievements" It is ossured o' respect in any cose. should rot proceed withou clashes of o oinio .lory au hori ies] they never succeeded in producing any convincing proal. !en. 0 des're whic . >iorvcrd Unive"ilv.! Quousque tandem? 14... 1938-1939" cno lecTurer 01 Unive.".4'.S'. cs be'ore. PRESS COMMENTS 1923-1932 The cri'Ic s 01 the Bo"~o~s snowed 0 tendency..'.. i. ibition of 1923 by he SW"5S0"1 historian.t'fl'/ r/ r". he odmi s the division of looor.... o crolts'T1cn O'd on or'. a schoo for crchitecture.'. they fo~ghl 't.lf years of ". .cns on tne '''0 S of heir rooms. " " And 0 r'er e ccrelo I scrut' ny of the resu I15 0010" ned in W"". /. ne·" methods ono raw forms. Gropiu.t oossible to soti. He lound it necessary alan early dote 10 prohibit poriticcl octivity of ony kind in the Bou hous. Ihe Beuhous is inco coble of improving indus rio orcdcction: 01 . 1922. and iocli Ily ond students he d themselves 01001 Irom participation in the work 01 any political party" AI hough the enemies 01 the school tried in every conceivoble woy a confirm their suspicions (they even went so lor as 10 order house. In Thuringio. the inslil~tion would cerlo:nly hove come to a premature end" The shortsiqhted olt"lude 01 the ere] srr-en 5 or gcnizct"ons in Germany wos one 01 he greo es obstacles ne Boynous encountered. Manager (Syndikus) of From 0 newspaper: From 0 letter Irom the Susineu the Bo uheus 10 the Director E!fJ(onenneirtet ano !Riln filr bit tnff= 1\aufJQu. recognizing he Bounces cs a natural i~ berween cror· and indJstry. itu ion w~er" the studen s themselves ere encouraged :0 create in'leOd of being o"g"t merely to repeot hot w "ch hod olreody been creoted" " " He Bounou. wor ing in C ose coooero ion." ". it 0150 took the sling out of the a tacks (foreseen from the storl!) of croll orgonizo ions. A chorocteris ic critico estimate coc ecr ed . Siegfried Giedion*.'" /.rre. However. Ihe formal inougurolion of 'he new • Cnorles Eliol Nor'on Lec'uter.3: "Aopren ices 01 rne f!o~ho.a-house searches by the ". Ins'eod 0..he Allgemeine Zeituog. tos of reviving orl" II ears oow ~ the borriers betwee n "no ivi d~ol oris. hous bu"ld'ng wi"1 10 e pace" Tne ~oro BOLhou< hcs ceCO'T1e a ro v"ng-cry ior friend ond foe" To do it jus'ice . theorelicolly as well os procticclly.'y the ne" desire lor a sys eMO'"C er! educotion. Thee von DOBsburg.. to narrow do. pursues wi h unusual ene gy Ihe seorcn for Ihe new ori~cipla5 which will hove to be found ii "ver the c-eo'ive urge "n numonity i.. wl>ich hod hitherto been indiilerent. It is IJnderstordoble cno ~u"'on tnol such on exoeriment. no mo·ter gooo. "'0 .il.enSe" " " " II Gropius wo nts his scnoc to figh ogoinsl d"le'tonlism in the arts.domen a Iy d'Herent opprooch. " .u ties 0: Ihis novel met nod or educotion begin here" The ouollsrr.apored designs much in he manner of a laboratory lor indus rial and crof use..c~ur9 and 0 pictoriol composition is no solution of Ihe problem 0: scoce_ " " " Modern orlist:c vitoli y has 01 los: come to deny oainting ond sculoture as such." (signed) Emil Longe nd}en mom contra" Bravo. caused iT to be a toded by all subsequent governments on Ihe grounds !hot he Socialists hod slorted il. oicol of Ihe parled.". .9 wrote: ~ "" " . The problem remo. ns. blind re:u..soired oy '~e BOJ~aus Exhibition a' 1923 Dr" Horkort. in Dos WerA. eoo 10 Inis goo 1_" " " 'e¥er'he Ie5S..or was a generot"on struggli.l no . the leoding orchitecturol periodicol i1 Czechoslcvc ic. e . 'he only ins!"tution concerned with Ihe inlegrotion 0: 0 e soects 01 contemporory cult. how a educo e human oei gs to rr eet the mas JrgeM needs in the fie d of industriol prodUCTion" T " rood chose" by the Bouro"s wi.. Slein Ho" Eisen (Stone Wood Iron).i1. u"t"l now. ins!"tut"on for crecticc expermen! in new moterio s.. Toooy. " _ " Bwt '~oi "s ~o! the main I". Ihe ex oerim en I oeg . Wolter Curl Behrendt" in the De. Grcpivs dreorns. homoered by tne cheap derision ond moliciOJs 0 tocks of he reoctionories. October 2. I have done my utrnos to further the development of Ihe Bou ous.. co. in the mOdS!01 presentooy cheos. 1923: "Aher 'hree and a no.. ii he assumes 'he machine to be '. the govern"'ent ron he gomut !rom Lei Sociclst to Ihe ' People's Potty. Z. It recog. 1 29/3/1924 MI //. 1823. The fact the the Bouhous hapoened 10 open during a Socialist regime (the progrom hod been initiated earlier und er the 00 ronoge of he Grand Duke of Soxe-Weimor). Decerroe 4 h. .us' oon n. hos no been forthcoming. Since October. Lac smilh Arno Muller. 05 0 whole it sho I not and mest not be otToded" I. hoo begun to ossert iTse ! in 0 countr" es in ne 'ieldS of ort.. I wOs not on y c-nczeo but e"Ihusiosfc. on the inauguration oi the Bounoes a Dessou.'r". 'The crchitac s ot tne Bo"hous propose 0 poi I ural cornpcsi+.. as 10ng 05 il is sti I concerneo w"tn the queslio~ 0: opplied or s or 'art' as such" Any ort school../ r/ r/. ond leo reo it es a MW :octor Ii ely 10 occa ero e thO decl'na of 'he erohs w"ich hod resulted from 20th century incus r'o development. suopor'ed by ·he bourgeoisie with ·~eir individ"olism o~d snoboery ana the"r purely decorotive point of view" L"ke any olner art school. this attitude hos enlo iled financial loss" Until recenlly il wos possible to overt the most pressing dongers..iation . within "ts own gro~o" "He Bouhous is under a "ng Ihe bold and...//. I. virt ro Iy 'ne onl. 19J4" no"" Technicol Drrec:rcr of Re:seorcn Station Su'folo Cr·)." her -he rose-co oreo 9 csses of COU"d'9SS enrhusicsrn nor he bod scsctoctes 0. could nol be denounced as competition wilh the hondicrofts" In con!ros' to t e above is a review of he e.. 92 Nt //. t e croorietor O"d monoger or a ceromics pont 01 Vel.e most it m"ght orovide fleW impulses.s are tough' by two rr esters.r". II is poss" p e TO stc te q"" te SODer y who' he 5oJhoJ5 's wor'h to Germany ono who! it "'oy be worth 'n rne '"lure. in these ti'TIes." n Ihe comprehensive BOJ~oUS p'ogrom "n order to make it liT in . why does he suppose a know:edge of tha croh 0 be essen "01 lor ind"s·riol monJioe ~re? Crcitsrncns ip ana industry hove a :ur... Kanl. Not only was this in accord wilh Ihe originol conceoHan 01 he Bauhaus. ere. the crof 5 ore nothing bul 0 luxury. 0: this s . Sa ptemb"r. we be'ieve. one of the many i·h d"f. but since Ihe odven of the new government he olliciol altitude... is open 0 cr"ticism in mony re.g for selr-e<pression ollered the pos· sibil'ty 01 develop" ng i!s creo live powers? Neither in Fro nce. 0 be reconciled with indus'riol me-roos of producfon" The 50u ho us is co~d uc·i n 9 Ihis seo rc h wilh sea nl su p port in On irr ooveri5~ed Gerrrony. ond even by oersonol diHerence.erent cu 'urol ideologies !nen current. Where else i the wor"d wos . nizes ono emphasizes Ihe common rool 01 a I 'he arts"" The op"nion of 0 GerMan rooe oooer. Planning Auoc.... ce of srre g h.'s. has changed inlo open animosity. "'fO·9 in the periodicol Die Kochel.'" /. The diff'{.. obtuse and so inllexible as consto ntly to endanger the growth 01 ths i nsfitution.6Top/erkunst (The orIs of tile and pottery): 'Spedal lee'".n Slovbo..or " is to be leored tnat his met~od o· tne Bcul-cus conno ovoid ereoting again Ihe scr-ie oongerous diJeHon:i. .o 1-10-5ee. Cooperation. COMm er Iin9 0 nih e exh ibition of 192. d be 01lowed to cant" nue unoer all circurnsrcnces. the a i ua a shown by su oerior ollie iols is malevolent. nor Eng 10nd nor 0 n yw h ere else wo.e I""t end.'e modern means of production.isterce Ihe Bo'uhoJ5 a! Weimor coiled "n ils Iriencls o.ng" The Bou ous is 01 net'onc i--noo"+c"'Ice' i co ocerr s ell Germany. . bu' 0 wall is no' 0 p.oec'S. Teig.. furthermore. produced object. notobly the Deportment of Fi once. n here by 0 few courogeous ond stecc lest men rernc ins 0 voluob e one in spite of 011 .."ty of hffolo.. 1926-_ "0.r at Da~''''cu'i Co ~. near Be./ -I' /Jf." ao .. Bul without ils nonpertisnn oHilude.goin$1 the 93 Bouhous! How long" . foresaw these dillicul ies.'J Character of the Bauhaus The Non·Political T~raughout its e~istence. he Bcuhous never forced its noturo growth. Ihe Bauhaus found itself •nvalved in the political convulsions 0' post-war Germany. never chose a coliey pre'T\oturely and preser ed tnereby its moin SOl. t here on "n.he problems it raises ond it shot.

,-J ....

~<CI'.. v.~
'tIO:b\
~1).\1.

\0<;' -ott'

~~.'11

. I 's "viae~i • at a 1undomentol improvamen in i dusrial production, which all i formed persons agree is nece ss crv, ceoencs largely on the wide.pread and enthusiastic oor+ic.pctien 01 cr-is s, The~ should not remain olcol Irom -h' s important lask b wt u nderto k" it a 5 he ma,t pr essi n 9 orcble-n ol rhe eress nJ dol'; for its be neiit they mus socrifica heir own p ecsnn inoividual praeecupo ions. "The Bouhous wonts to en isl on en ire generation crtists in a s nIggle 10 solve the erective problems 01 ind ~s',io Iism. It used to be mare or less e cha nce occur 'e nee [or a creative a rtist to Iind his way irlo a lac ary ord rnester the problems PJI to him. This will now be done censciocs yond 10 on ex-ent worthy 01 the importcnce 01 these proo ems. "The ceramics indus ry in oortlculcr, where esthetic ccnsiderorlons are so im oere!"ve ana where industrial requ ir arn e nts MOve had a porticu lady d svcstcf ng i nil u· enee on orrisrie quo ity. should lee obliged to pcrtlclpa'e in he elfor' mode 01 Weimor ond should be eoger 10 accept and develop who, has been begun there."

0'

cution in on e,hioit"on hon the one submned. A. 0 mo er of princ'ple, I am • ep icol obout the construe ion of houses 'or display purposes. but in this case it is a question a' a new tyoe of builaing, ihe r eolizo ion of which is Iikely to hove for-reaching CU Itural and econom ic ccnseq renees, Tna need lor a strictly economical ",ethod 01 ccnstruction. as we I as our altered way of life seem 10 call or" new treatment of Ine one·lam·ly house in which i cease. a be on imitc-ien of he villa with rooms oi equal s·.e. There is evidence tho a type 0; oe,ign is develap'ng whie~ orgonically unites saverol srno! rooms 0 rou nd a lorga one, tn us bringi n9 a bout 0 comp~ete che g9 in form as we as in manner of living, Of oil tne olans I have seen, none appeors 10 me to be so apt to clady and a solve Ihe aroblem as Ihe one suomitted by the Bou~o~s. me aligh "n which we f'nd ourselves as a cricn nece,si'ates ovr be'ng t~e first of 011 notions 10 solve Ihe new problems of bu! ding. These olons clear y go 101 toward blOl'ng 0 new loil.' The re otion between I.e Bcuhous ond ·he Sate Governmen presen'l'd a problem which conlron'ed almost all publiciy appointea airec crs of cultu 01 ·nstitution. in Ihe new democracy: how for the democro'ic orincip e of the VOt9 should be a Ilowed to i oteriera with non·politicol rT'ot ers. Koch. a de-nccrot'c Secretory 01 Slate finally settled tne dispute by declaring hot any ind of puolic vot"ng on questens of art was On obsu dity. The Deutscne WerAbuno'. u der the leodership of 'ts president. he crcbtact Hans P,oel.ig. aaopted the some point 01 v'ew, in a leiter addressed to the government of rhe iree s'o'e of Sare-Weimor: "The pLolic cor-iroversy now rog'ng around the BaJhous 01 Weimar is no local mot er: in more ways than one. it concerns all hose interested in I~e growth and dave]oamen! 01 our crt. I is always undesiroble to confuse pro olarr-s 01 art with portical trends. The fury of politico I ,\,ile iniec ed into oil aiscussion of the work and purpose 01 the Bouhaus impedes y real consideration of he greot and imper ant experiment be dly going Io...-.'ord here. We trust that the oilieiels and departments having jurisdiction over this motter will do their II 0' a prevenl poli icol pa .. ions from destroying on underta jng whien should not be meosured by personol a'rejud'ces or by considerctlons foreign to art, bi.t solely by its own s ,oignlforwardne5S a~d its own unimpeachable objec-

Dr.E. Red.lob. Nationol Art Director of Germcny, cornmenting On the p on. lor the House "Am Horn" to be eree 'ed for ' e proposed exhibitio" in 1923: "I nviled by he Director 01 the Ba IJ ha,",s 10 rnc ke a s a emen concerning ne plans for 0 house in the pro DOsed exhbitio n 'n 1923. I a1!irm hot I con hardly imagine. under present circum. o nces, a plan "'are suited for exe-

95

-<--...;
A FEW HEADLINES The Collop.e of Weimor Art Disintegration 01 the Staalliche Bouhou. in Weimar Swindle-Propoganda Storm over Weimar Stootliche Rubbish Bauhau. Scandal Save the Bouho U5! The Menace 01 Weimar The Art War in Weimor The p.".a ult on the Bou haus Culture Demolition in Weimar The Cultural Fight in TIluringia Protest 01 the Weimar Arti.ts

l{.,ltur .. lb"a" in ttt,uringen l
sne Dolfi'cf:ien oerl .. ltgen Oen 1166.... Oe. St .. Qtlicf:icn. tJa"",, .. 'e.

°

ftnnnpbUl~et.

It"

tives."

F. H. Ehmke, 0 wei nown ort teoc~er and poqrcpher, com menti ng on I ~e cover of th e book. Sioo/lienas 8auhous Weimar I Bib!. nc, 8). 1923: "Wholly concerned with shopwindow eHec s, or, il one wonts to be nasty sheer bluff; bru 01 in coloring. without rernament of form ... " Br'uno Tout. architect. com men ing on e Preliminory Course: 'The me 00 01 test'ng a studen by lal1ing him a.peri-

qibt r~ c~lIm
",:,,":... a,;j\lUll~T'

s.

J-Y·

me~' i"dependen'ly ord [·eely 01',," seems curious 0 the 10 mon; b~' :0' Ihe leocher it is he MOSI in!ollio e indico!ion 01 wh,,'hor a studen ~os ony creative obil"ty ond whether he con prol'to o y be oomitted to a speci'ied wor~shop. Tnis met nod of se ection 's, oerhc ps, one a' ..e most 'rrporton ochievemen-s of tne Bauhaus, Kole KoH in the 8 Uhr AbendbloH, Berlin,. February, 1924, ....o·e or 'Ie Bouho as donces: r 'The IImschlosschen [on inn) is lor au! i the country, in Ober .. ai-ncr. What a dercole pcelic nome. and w~ot a shod the. c eccrcred! Throug~ a norrow passageway one aene role, in 0 a dance holl 01 medium size, 0: "X urio nt ugli ness, The decorative rnu '0 I. dOle assuredly from 'he '80 s: 'hey represer rnoidens ploying the harp On some green meadow 'n porooise, Cor it be 0 he pupi's 01 l·on .. 1 Feininger, oi Kcndins y or Pou Klee Ore going to conee ~ere? Idle deuors disopnecred oiter or hour S en husics ic oorticipotion! In 'his throne-room 01 itsch [cheop bod 'oste 1 here is more reol yo"thlul erris ic atmosphere t~on in 011 'he sty'shly decorated nrtists' bolls of Berlin. All is arimitive 'here is nol the leas refinemenl, nor is there hot yown'ng blase o emeoncr nor tho overheo'ed ormosphere "hich necesstotes the stofoning 010 oolicemon in Iron 0; every dor~ recess 0' our bolls in Berlin. Everytl,ng bos bee!'! done by 'he BouhoJS srude nts themselves, Firs or 011, rhere is tne orchesirc. the bas ion bond thet I ever heorc raging' they ore musicions to Ihe'r finger ios. In inven 'on o,d glorious colori~g 'he costumes eave ior benind anything tho' con be seen 0' our periormonces .. , , T'e BOJhoJS ccmr-iunitv, mo. ers, journeymen, oppre tices, form a small islond ill 'he ocean 01 he Wei",or bourgeoisie. Four years 0: serious iobors have ot been oole ro oc custorn the Bauhous peop e lo '~e good 10 ~s of Weimot--ond vice verso ... :. S'x years 101e' the Solon des A,fisi e, Decoroleurs in Poris included on exnibirion 01 Ine Deuische Werklll/Md, organized under the direct'on 0: Wo er GropioJs with Ihe colloboro'ion 0; Herbert Boyer, Marcel Breuer ond lodislo~, Moholy-Nogy_ On ~is oecos'on Poul Fieren, wrote in the JOllrno/ des Deba1s. June 10, 1930: "In oil EJropeon coun r;es. he some ideas have been odvonceo, Ihe some e=lorts ore being moae_ In our own coun ry ney are too disper5ed, In Germany. 'hey ore more concen'ro eo; ods. and ind~s:riolis. are wor ing togelner i Ihe some spirit. The Bouhou. 0' DessoJ represents a woe generotion of explorer, co poble oi e'ploirng he numerous resources of modern 'ecilnics: it is 0 school and 0 laboratory at t"e some time, Germony hos reolized Ihe impor'once 01 the problem, which she has considered in connec ion wi'h the social reodjuslment now going on. And tho is ",hy, in h.. ni.ory of orchitecture ond Ihe 'naustriol orts 01 -he 20ln century, Germany will have the I"on', .hore," In June, 1924, Dr. August Emge, Prolessor 01 NO'ionol Economy onO P'lilosophy at 'he U nivers' yo' Jeno. oub-

96

ished !wo lactures ent'j ed The Conception of fhe 80uhcus I BioI. xu). Bo;ing his v·"w. on 1M theses set forth by Gropius in his essoy. The Theory olld Organization of fhe Bo"halJ' IBibl. xxx) D·, Enge compored -he 'esthe'ic synthesis" of the BouhoJ, wiT its "social synthesis." Ai er quoTiog the Grocius thesis .. -nechenired war is neiess, proper only 10 the ifeless machine ... _ Tne so ution aepends on 0 c ho ~ge in the individ JO s at'i'ud e 'oword his war. not o~ Ine ae erme'll oi his o~tword c' rcurnstonc es. Dr. tmge wri es: • A blun er rejec ion 01 Morxism ana kiMdred Utooras is inccncalvob e, I 's clear y sto'ad here -rot hormonious creation is or ethicol problem 10 be solved Oy he individ"o'.' later I,e alludes to the relcrlon 0: Ihe Bauhaus coneeolion to ·he contemporory world: "A movement which is limely in the ~est sense oi Ine word con not be said to deny history .... It is dHicult a delerm;ne jusl how the or+is: is o'leded by rrcditin-. Trodi'o~ must live in a no~-j conno' be cultivo\ed in him. 'Once spirt hos to en or mo erial forO": soY' Heg .. l, "t is lufl" to try to 'rnpose on it forms evolved by earlier cUlhJfes' hey ore Ii e ..... ithered lecves 'hrv", de by bJds which have oeen nc arisned lrom he some roots, I -nev be true even in a her lielos 0: endeovor thcr rrooilion ""US make itS9: let ho-menicusly, unoblrJsively ond subconsciouslv, bu- i' is esoeciol y opcloble 'n he reolm of ort. Es'nelic 'odi ion 's embod'ed 'n 5 le, But 0 s yle must be "nborn in tho o"is' ond generic to "Is epoch os were the great sty es 01 the post, All conscious a tempts \0 £loin insigh inlo 'he essence of a s·yle. 011 onil'c'o preservetion, eoo to on ~isloricol o!lituoe which is hos-ile 0 liie o nd consicerinq the MU Ti lic ity of choice, 10 a c hoos n 01 style, in One ond the some period."

I

The iollowing persons and sociefias par ic'pcred i • e flood 01 pretests ogoins tne discontinuance of Ihe Bauhaus 01 Weimor whic were addressed to the Government of the S a e of T uriogio: Prolessor Bernhard Pon~ok Dr. Mo~ Osborn Prafessor Dr. Hons Thoma Professor Josel HoHmonn Hugo von Hoffmonn. hoi Professor Oskor Kokosch a Professor Mox Reinhordt Arnold Schonberg Prolesso S rygows~i Fronz Werlel Grolin Kolkreuth Dr, N, Muthesius and many others

Professor Peter Behren. Prolessor lovis Corinth Proie .. or Alber Eins ein Dr. Alexo·nder Dorner J. J. P. Oud Professor Dr. C. Fries Dr, Gerhart Hauptmann Lud wig J usti Mies von oer Ro e Dr. Roland Schoch Hermann Sudermonn Prolessor Rohl's Prof. Dr. RiametSchmied Prolessor Hans Poellig

THE
From
0

BAUHAUS

QUITS
Weimar,

WEIMAR
26th, 1924

leiter to the Government

01 Thuringio
December

0"

Leogue 01 German Archi ee s (Blind Deu+sc er Archilekten) Architects Society "Architecturo et Amici ie." Amster. dom German Werkbund (Deutscher Werkbundl Austricn Werkbund (Osterreichischer Warkbund I Soci .. y 01 Social BJilding Trade, [Verbond Sozio er Boubetrieoe) Society of Ger on Art Critics (Verbond Deutscher Ku"'Tkritiker) Newsoooers from tne following continuo nee of the Bcuhcus: cities recom end he

Th e Director ond moslers 0' the S ote Bouhous 01 Weimar, comaelled by he otti"'oe of the Governmenl 01 Thuringio, herewith a "nou nce their d scislon to close I e insti tion creo ed by them on their own initiotive ond according to their conviction s, on the exoirotion dote 01 their contracts, thai is. April lirst, ninete~n hJn. d red 0 nd twenty./ive. W_e accuse the Government 01 Thuringia of hovi g per, mltted and approved the Irus rotion of cui urolly irnpor. ton ond olwoys non-political ellorls Ihrough the intrigues 0' has ile politico I porlies. , .. (signed by 011 the mostersJ From a leHer ta the Government Weimor, of Thuringia Jo "ory 13th, 1925

91

Beriin
BielFeld Weimor Dresden Dorms 001 Jeno Bremen Chemnitz Magdeburg Edun

Attocks on the Bou hous Th e lollow'og quercrion Irom on o"ic e by H, PIlug. prinled in T e ooli icol wee Iy "Die Tal" in 1932. de." ribes the "nceosi.'g ·... . orlore he Bou nous was forced to "'oge ogo,ns' 'ts odversories. "DiHe"en' vo Jo'ions moy be p aced on ~e role of the BaJhous 'n Ihe developMenl 01 moo ern orcni eC urol de"gn. bUI urdoubled y tha: role wo, 0 great one. The v:oJence of the oltoc s 'esti'ied a Ihe s'renglh and historical sig"'ficonce of Bounol.;s ideos. The polTcol otlocb ~od as their oosis psychologicol o~d phi osophicol re,entment. Those no longer oble or nol ya w'lling to chonge o.,d leorn, realized Ina Ihe Bauhaus ,1000 lor 0 new li'e and 0 new stye in 0 new lime. Philistines and reoctionories rebel ed. All the animosity Ihey could not ,,,,Iood e sew here wos oirac'ad ogo'ns he visib e embodirrent of what Ihey feared."

Apoldo leipZig Homburg Munich Fron lort Stut gort Heilbronn Honover Korlsru e school 0:

We notify the Go~ernmenl of Th"ringio thot we, collebe-c ors at the Slole Bauhaus ot Weimor, sholl leave the Bauhaus together wilh the leaders of he Bouhous, because 01 Ih.. actions of the Slote Government .. _ [signeo by all Ihe studsnts ]

Also orolesting he discon inuonce of the Weimor wete the following publications: Germany: Die Tot Der Cicero e Weltb~hne Die Bou..... el Kunstchro i in Sc hO'Lkommer

Holland: Tefegrool. Bouwerbndig We .. kelo". Nieuwe ROI erdamsche Courant u s morkt Czechoslovo ;0: Progertageb'olt Hungory: A II ogyor, BJoopes
£I

S'"i/zerlond: eu" Zuricher Ze'tu Dos Werk

U. S. A.: The Freemon.

New York

Menaced by on uncompre enoing ond antagonistic go~ernment and co sciolI' 01 Ineir solidarity ana rights as tOenoers of the institulion, the d'rettor ond counci 0/ mo" .." decided, at Christm", time, 1924, on the dis50Iu"on 01 the Bauhaus in order to orestoll is destruction. In spile of 011 proohecies 0 The co Irory. h's, eo proveo to oe wi, e. The e'pril de corp~ whic h hoo g.rod uoily develooed among Ihe student. and masters withS ood this riol. or eir own occord the s'udent. infor ed the government that they stood with the direc or ond mo,ters and intended 0 leo'le w'th t em. This ~nited o-t"tud .. wos ",lIected in ne entire press and oecided 'he fUTure of he Bo"hoJs. Vorious cities, De .. ou, Fran _ For, Hogen, Monnhe'", DarMstadt opened ~e90tictionl with 0 view TOtron'planting Ihe Bouho~s, On • e 'ni ia. t;"e o· Moyor Hesse. Dessou. in the center of the midGer'T1an caol bel, iovi ad the en ire B.ouhous to reestob, lish itself there. This invitotion wos occepted ond. ofter carrying o ... their can roct. in We·mor. mosters ond t students Oiled a Dessou in the 'prj 9 of 1925 and t"'ere bego n the reorgon ilOtion of 1 he So u ho us,

ADVANTAGES
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FACULTY AND STUDENTS . The deporlment of architecture wo s considerably e nlorged a d l~e leochers of the Municipal School cooperoTed with it. 1925·192b A er eO. Dr. for industrial and manual pro· duction. Joost Schmidl. The Mayor or Dessou. A dapcrtmen 0: typography ond lev-out W05 added. Josef Albers. classroom ins ruction oak place in the rooms 01 he existing Arts and CroiJs SChool. was begun at once. The workshops were set up on a floor 01 the Seiler loctory. boths. ond lor a new building to house boih Ihe Bo~ ous and the Municipal Arts ond Cra.. The execution of oroetico experimen 01 work. the Bauhaus 100'05ronslerred Irom Weimar to De550 u: he 101'0lIy 5U poor1ed its orinci p . The principles 01 the Bauhaus were again c:lorilied: The Bauhaus is on advanced school lor creative work. however. Muche. Gerhard Moreks.1\g Weimar. Vie . Henceforth each workshop was directed by one moster. The Transitional Period al Dessau Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. Ihe Bouhc as hod to move into !"moorory quarters in Desseu. Herbert Boyer..es: and thanks to him it was able to develop relatively undisturbed for a number 0: years. Feininger. especially building. Ihe Junkers airolane worh moved to Dessou. remained wilh Ine Bouhous when it moved a Oe'50u. was established a handle I e sale to indus ry 0' mod "Is created in lhe Bauhaus workshops. wcs on eminently farsighted person.. were appointeo masters. and ateliers were provided for 'he artists in Ihe old a nd. os well 0' the development 01 model. end neorly 011 the Bouhous studan s moved Irorn Weimar a Desscu. Schlemmer. e"ll ply Art Museum. which hod 01. 2. Construction. THE NEW CURRICULUM 100 T e curricu urn underwent several changes: joi nt instruction by a crohsrncn and on orris was abandoned. one 01 hose notable individuals who demonstrote the imparlance 01 he smolt German cily os a celturo loctor.0 been placed under GrODi. a the t: me. pending he comole ion 0: its new bu'ld'ng 01 he and of 192b. Owing to his energy ond cour09". Especially noteworthy was he city's decision to odd to he Bouhous building proper a wing wi h twentyeight st dio opor men s.. Its ouraose is: I. the Bauhaus Ccrporo-icn. want 10 teach near Holle since there W05 no money or room to reinstall his ceramics workshop in Dssscu.. from Groaiu' designs. The in ellecluol. manual and technical raining 01 men ond women of creative talent [or a I kinds of erea ive war. udents. Kondinskv. from northwest. Moree Breuer. especiolly building and lntarier deeoroticn. Five former. He encouraged culrurol activity wHI the some tenacity. Fritz Hesse. Kle e.! supervision.' Almost all the former rnesters. A business organization. Gropius. NEW BUILDINGS The mayor !or seven 01 Dessou hod o oproved on appropriation houses with studios for the former Weimor mosier. On his initiative. Hinnar Scheaer.. . Mahaly-Nagy.lts School. laundry and ain'ng holl for he studen s. where wor c W05 imme· diotely begun in provisional quor+ars.

me ry and ihe ron is piece facade. Pia n of Ihe Bouha us: Ground Floor Considerations 10 be hp in mind in orgoni1ing a pion: proper orenrction to the sun . The total cost amounted to 902. situated between the auditorium and the dining hall. The wing which contains the Technical School (later Professional School).) leads to laboratory workshops and the classrooms. half below and half above ground. Material cnd construction 01 the project Reinforced concre e skeleton with "mushroom" columns. 0 The building consists of (see plate opposite): E. The . welded together. On gala occosions. and in addition each floor has a kitchenette. regular roofs hove the some type of insulation mentioned above.ol axis.. so that spectators can sit on ei her side with the stage betwee them. Air view. library. and 103 . on he upper floor.150. On the third floor. time-saving communication clecn-cu separation of 'he different par soil e whole flexibility. On the ground (Iirsl) 1I00r are the carpentry shop and the exhibition rooms. and thus all the space occupied by the dining hall. brick masonry.Cl c. On the lower floor 01 this bridge are the administrative offices of the Bauhaus. Steel window-sash with double weathering conlocts. The bridge conecting buildings I and 2 [oins this floor . about $230. The bridge (D. In the live upper stories there are twentyeight studio oportments for studen s. stage and di ni ng. metal workshop. The flat roofs designed to be wal ad on ore covered with asphalt tile. One must walk around tnis srrue ure in three-dimensiono character of its form and the function of its ports. and two lecture halls Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. ping. auditorium and vestibule can be cornbined into one large halJ lor the occasion. pointed with mineral paints. which contains scholarship stu-. Studio wing. On the second lloor. a large vestibule leading to the auditorium with 0 raised stage at one end. In the basement of he studio building there are ba hs.Wal er Gropius: De. carried on piers. View Iror. the architectural de- 102 ~- gymnasium and locker-room.00.southwesL 1925·1 '126 which can be connected to make a large exhibition hail. the weaving room.sou 60uhous. mo ing possible a reossignmen of roomuses. These ore housed in a three story block (with basemen ). Drainage by cast iron pipes inside the building. the sculpture room and the packing and storerooms. Ex erior finish of cement stucco. c.pointing war shop.000. A builaing express-n9 the modern splrir reiec s sym.200 marks. In the basement. or rouqhIy twenty cents per cubic foot. all the walls surrounding the stoge can be removed. instructors' rooms.hor .. no. are the printing plant. A Stucio wing B Auoitorium.000 cubic feet. room for models. containing the adminis ration ofIices and Professor Gropius' office. laid on insulation boards 01 "torfoleum" he tile (com- pressed peat moss).300 square feet. The dining hall communicates wi h the kitchen and several smaller rooms. A dents' quarters. covered with lacquered burlap and a cement top. the design and execution of all lighting fixtures by the metal workshop.ho' I C Laboratory worbhoo o Bridge lodmi~istrotion oHices) E Technical sc 00 (from B·o. The Bauhaus building was begun by the city of A characteristic bui ding of the Renaissance or Baroque nos a symme· rico I facade. The stage. on electric laundry. The cost of furnishing the building amounted to 126. In front of the dining hall is a spacious terrace. dining room and s udios was executed from designs by Marcel Breuer. which in turn leads to the sports areas. ii or90 nizotione I changes make this neeessory. The tubu. its classrooms and administrative quarters. only one story in height. can be opened on bo h sides. Lettering was execu ad by the printing workshop.) on the ground lIoor. 1925·1920 THE BAUHAUS BUILDING designed the bridge.lar steel furniture of the assembly hall. The interior decoration 01 the entire building was executed by the well. 1926_ The whole building occupies on area of about 28. the servants' quarters and the furnaces. w' h he entrance on Ihe cent'. portment. is connected with the by WALTER GROPIUS A. The two upper Iloors are connected with a bridge across the street. rooms for preliminary courses (grundlehre). hollow tile floors.500 marks. the dye-works. the wall-pointing workshop. the volume is approximately 1. stage. physics hall. and. T is leads to the upper story of . 27) Dessau in the autumn of 1925 and was cornpletely finished in time for the formal dedication in December. The view olieree 10 Ihe spectotcr as he drows near is 1I0t a a two-di· mensiono . a large lecture room. The auditorium (8.

The inaugural oddress was de ivered by NOTional Art Director [Raichsku nstwor"] Erwin Red· sleb who hod been born in Weimar and who hed. Corner 01 the workshop wing. was regorded as e greol cui urel event and brought mor a han 1500 visitors to Desscu. 1925·1921.=: Walrer Gropiu5: Desseu Bauhaus. Nigh view. The 'naugurel ce. Most 01 Inem believeo il hod been designeo by the o-chirae s and only executed by Ihe worhhops. 1925·1926 Welter Grooius: Dessou Souhous. 1925·1921. View towerd s age end. Staircase. the Beuhaus wos formally inaugure ed. from ! e very beginning..eore. as well as a do nee in he new cuilaing.. 1925·192b -<--. View from the steirecss toward the workshop s. 1925·1926 ° 104 Wol er Gropivs: Oesseu Sol/hous.-<---e On December 4. Desscu Beuhous. shown greel interest in the 80u ous.entotives were present a the Bauholls ooe ing in 1925. bridge and techn ico I school beyond. . motion pictures. Dining ream. Two thousand 0' ended a Bauhaus bell Ina evening. Six y pre ss .!. 1925-192b Wolter Gropius. The reopening of the Souhous under more orosperous condition.or hod been designed mainly oy he war . Oliice 01 the o: rector. lectures. Wolter Grapius: Desseu Bau~ou s. Re oorls in 'he press indicaled that only few c rilics understccc thaI he . 1921. Wolter Gropiuo: Dessou Beuhous.ebrotions i eluoed an exI.ibi ion.'"Iler.oos ·hemselves.

judio ouiiding. Balconies of the students' . View of studen s' studo build'ng from southeast. 1925-I92b Life 0 he in Dessou 801.uhoJs.ng n the studio Wolter Gropius: Dessc u Bcuhcus. 1915-192b .olter Grcp'vs: Desscu Bc.1'00' 106 Room w.

Dessc u. 1925·1921> A few hundred yards from Ine main Bauhaus building were three double houses and one single house built by l~e town of Desscu for the Bouhaus masters. Desseu. 1.925-1926 Wo'Ter Gropius: Studio in a mosler's house.. 1921> Wo or Grepius: Mo . Dessc u. rs' houses. Dessa u. 1926 .Wolter Gropius: View 01 masters' houses. Dessou.. Walter Gropius: Living rccrn in moster's house. hou se. The interiors were designed and executed by the Bauhaus workshops. 1925-1926 Woller Gropius: Dirac or'.

192& .!!5. By 1928 he hoc comole'eo 316 houses..}n in Torlen. ""or . View showing rodioling en ranees :or voricus vccotiono groups.~e. I'?29 Wolter Gropius: CilY Emoloymerl Ol'. Ciry Employment Olfiee Dessou. lnterior view. cs per: 01 0 -ew ho~s'ng crojec' ior Ihe city or Dassou. 0 co-nrnu-iity 0: wor~ers "OW. 1926 60 one-:omi y ~o ~.Woller Grocius. 1920 \"/0 I ler Gropi us: Desso W· Torten. 1926 Anonymous: d'. Generol . III Woller Gro oius: Dess'lJ' Torten. 1')'29 II D In Mid·Sa olember.. Wolt!!r Gropius wos the orchi'ec~. ployme~1 Or:ice.. Dessou.'ew..Jc!uro' sche. Sire pan. S'r.e of 'ypico I U nirs. using 5'oodord'zed units were peg.rs: DessouTor e«.. 1929 Wolter Grooivs: City EM.s e ons .e.'olei'ng "Minimal Wolter Grcpi. which we'" pori y lurnis' ed by th!! BouhOJ.. Desso~..

ec ural courses. Hennas Meyer become head of the Architedure Deportmen and. 1928 .chi dren: day . composition prevclenj in mod ern a rchitacture.Jer. porer+s . 10m'Iy lile (husbonowife. A project to house Bve Bouhous masters. Plan and i.v .once ho" and the itchen and bo hroorrunils are pia 'led wi n on eye a the d ua phases a. which enables Ine pupil a lorm conclusions on the bests of nis own ebse'voliol) 0 nd e~ periance.Marcel Breuer: Bernbcs Houses. beccusa 01 tne shorloge of lunds.l in Dessou 'n order wioen he scooe of the orchitedural troining. 1925 ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT Specie lists in Cons ruction. olden. Two lo. Tne pedagogic procedure Iollcwed in he oren. 1927 Hans Witwer: HOJse 'or Dr. seDOroled as we os co"nee'ed by Ihe en . A voriction 01 the pion below 'ndudes a stud'o unit. Director 01 the entire Bauhaus lor a shon oeriod. hus increasing !unlig t ono adding interest to the inlerior design.ometric drawing of small metal house designed for preiabrieotion.r. '0 HANNES MEYER. was the indUC'iv" method. The sew-tooth design of he roofs 0 "ows for clerestory wi ndows. 1928 112 Moreel Bre. how . An elle 01 wos mode to ne oort lrorr the rigid horzornc l=vertico. os in a o hers. Some oi t ~e po' nls 0: Gropius' program were never realized. alter Gropius left in 1928.. In 1927 Gropius succeeded in bringing he Swiss Hannes Meyer to Ihe Bouhous as ins raetor in Architec ure.ge rooms. S otics and Descriplive Geometry were oopointeo 10 he s a.nigh!).. Moyen.

.1. --L-- I' .' .. 114 \ ~ L!-. • ~. 1928 .. view... .r I .1 • fi . Bernou Isometric.. . r..... _.. '.. . . t »: . .. I I :. ../' ~ :~ ~l I I \ g.(' 'l~ . j~- -: \ \ 115 " .. He. . . I .nnes M e YIlf' Trede Union School..

In other words. Cu without wOS e Iromane piece of paper. For example: paper. through direct ex- Marg. and its potentialities in tension and compression. to rivet it. Technical education. Cut without woste from OnB sheet of po per.. If such training G. entails detours and in- . of course. At the some time we learn by experience its properties of flexibility and rigidi y. Industrial methods of treoling raw materials represent the results of 0 long technological developrnent. The study of the material must. To experiment of materials without practithan is at first more valuable innovations in the application or treatmaterial. or even material: we reinforce il by com- /\~ CONCERNING FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN by JOSEF ALBERS Learning through experiment Economy of form depends on function and material. has consisted chiefly in the teaching is given alone. As the course ocvonces the possibilities in the use 01 various materials os well cs their limitations are gradually discovered. linolly. but hardly creative po entialities. we fasten it in a multi ude 01 different ways. The learning ond opplication of estobl. uninfluenced and unprejudiced experiment.by undisturbed. for instance. monuol knowledge 01 the material we restric the use 01 tools. precede the investigation of lunction . But even when we evolve which are already in use. or with match-boxes.. For his paper standing upright. Therefore. by a free handling cal aims. Our aim is not so much to work differently as to work without copying or repeating others. 1921> forbidden. pas e it. The most 10miliar methods 01 using them are summarized: and since they are already in use they are for the time being in hondic oft lying fiat: the reason we try as a building JOSE F ALBERS. we have arthem independently. The twisting is outamotic resu It of lihi ng or stretching In order to insure first-hand.. . Hossenpllug . to pin it. we do not begin with a theoretical introduction: we start directly with the material. naturally. Study in plastic use 01 paper . Paper is usually posted: instead of posting it we try to lie it.ished methods 01 manufacturing develop discernment and skill. phonograph needles and razor blades. Sometimes the results represent men! of methods rived at of these experiments Exercise in transformofon on one plone 116 01 materials. These constructions must demonstrate the qualities and possibilities of the materials used by fulfilling he techn' col requirements set forth in the wording of the problem. The ability to construct inventively and to learn through observation is developed-at least in the beginning . is generally used edge is rarely utilized. Then. to sew it. and industry. therefore. in other words. Therefore our studies 01 form begin with studies plicated folding: we use both sides' we ernphusize the edge." Constructions To increase our independence of the traditional use of materials we solve certain given problems in technique and form by making original constructions out of a great variety of materials: out of corrugated paper and wire netting. perience and they are our own because they have been re-discovered rather than taught. We know thai this learning through experiment lakes more time.tures to produce: free ploy in the beginning develops courage. to train ourselves in "constructive thinking. alter having ried all other methods of fastening we may.i! Fischer: Study in materials combining similar and diHeren le. 4 feet hig h liT ation ond invention. We try to experiment.PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS S udy in plastic use of poper.. of established it hinders creprocesses.

We classify the appearance of the surface of o malerial as to structure.. CJr~ed laid. S'udy in plastic pacer use of 118 119 Study in plastic use of paper. -+ leet high First oUem pis 10 use cord. These exercises in textures alternate with the "construction" studies described above. . bend'ng. They are not concerned with the inner qualities 01 the material. Tronsformo'ion of a cone by cutt"ng. II trains the student in constructive thinking. so surface qualities.. It encourages the interchange of experience and the understanding of the basic lows 01 form and their contemporary interpretation. It is fostered by the recognition of quick and easy me hods. Texture Experiment with surface qualities is another method lor the study 01 form ond the development 01 individual sensibility. by the constant use 01 ready-mode and easily procured means. both tactile and optical. but no beginning can be straightfor. Learning in this way. with emphasis on technical and economical rather than esthetic considerations makes clear the difference between the static and the dynamic properties of moterials. hue and intensity. . stretching ond co""' pressi ng. Cut withou waste from one sheel 01 paper. As the proportion 01 ellort to achievement is a measure 01 the result. by the correct choice 01 tools.ward. which we differentiate carefully. facture and texture. Consciously roundabout ways and controlled mistakes sharpen criticism and promote a desire lor improvement. board plastically Study in plastic paoer use of . by the use of ingenious substitutes lor missing implements. rucMatchboxes S·udies in plastic use of Ii . Economy allobar is as important os economy 01 material. These qualities of surface can be combined and graduated somewhat as colors are in pointing. by the combination of several processes or by restricting oneself to a single implemen . that is to soy. It shows that Ihe inherent characteristics 01 a maleriol determine the way in which il . The sysleWerner tion.-«directions. Feis : Can. This sort a: exercise replaced I. an essential point in our teaching is economy. Economy is the sense of thriftiness in labor and material and in the best possible use 01 them to achieve the ellect that is desired.s to be used. It counteracts the exaggeration of individualism without hampering individual development.nol examinations S'udy -n plcs ic ~se of paper. Just as one calor inlluences another by its value. can be related. but with its appearance.

.ed in one plane ." but only i bolh are present. Through discussion 0/ the results obtained from the study of the problems of materials. To summarize briefly: the inductive method of instruc ion proposed here has as its goal selfdiscipline and responsibility toward ourselves..urioce which reveal how th .120 matic arrangement of surface quofities in scoles ond series makes one sensitive to the minutest differences and the subtlest transitions in the tactile qualities a/surfaces." published in Bib!. We discover what chiefly interests us: complicated or elementary form. toward the material and toward the work.l92b S ud yin illusory three dimensions Studies in plos ic use of paper. smooth 10 rough. he" exure" 01 pelished wood reveols both he "srruc re" Ismin) and he "lecture" (polishing l. olso in the visual quali ies of surfaces such as wide-meshed and norrow-rneshed: transparent and opaque. in stimulating cornpetition. polished to mot. geometric or arithmetric proportion. octuol and illusory Study in optical illusion . learn from each other cantinually. the hammered or polished surlace 01 me 01. free or measured rhythm. central or peripheral emphasis. no. "Texture" is a general term which refers to both "structure" and "Iccture. These ore chielly s uoies in the properties 01 wire. Transformation 01 a cylinder through cu ins and bending -<-6 Study 01 three dimensions. as students and teachers. These surlcce qualities co n be perceived usuo lIy by .ish' and ol'en by both sight a d touch. which reo veal how he row rna erial has been treated technically. 3D. 01 course. nos. beauty or intelligence. It develops lIexibility. 1928. such os hard to soh. or the wavy surioce 01 corrugo ed po per. clear and clouded. stroight·edged to shapeless. Examples: the stTvelura of high Iy polished wood co n be perceived by eye but not by touch: the fodure 01 0 orinled poge can be perceived by sensi ive IingeMi ps but.rlvre 01 0 carpet is eosily perceive" by both hand and eye. warm to cold. It helps the student. row material grow. or is [errn . 1927 S udy in plestic use 01 paper. symmetry or osymmetry. in choosing his vocation. such os: the grain of wood or the composite' ructur e 01 groni:".3) "Struetura' refers 10 those quo I itias al . "Foe ure' r.. to recognize which lield of work is closest to him. E. 2.d.Iars to those quoli ies of surioc . Flat wire nelling mTong. for more easily by the eyes: the le.hibi ion of 0 student's lirst semester work. For insronce. We must. Otherwise eaching is a sour bread and a poor business. It leads to economical form. such a. mysticism or science. We learn which formal qualities are important today: harmony or bclonce. we acquire exact observation and new vision.. (from "Werklicher Formunterricht.

cfionship Above G.earge Grosz. Hossenpllug: Study in between colors ond lorrns. eeP.G. Threedimensional "'f..929 re. Construction. Inverse use 01 colors ond forms. To' ner: S "dies in optical illusion. 1. Hessenpiluq: S udy in plostic use or gl055 Study in onticol F at wire netting il usicn. 122 G.els ccbsved by repetition oi wc-drnens'onct elements: circ.. 9 feet high 10".es ond ports of circles Deto il 01 construction right at 123 . Wooden stids lostened osether with r070r blades.

1928 -<--ci Merionne 6'endl: belence. 192a --(-- Werner Zimmermann: Censtruction. space relationships. Gothic rosettes. of the balance 01 tense contrary forces. etc. if invisible. Naturally.- . Corinthian copitols.NAGY -<----.teneo tegether with thin wire. or 01 the flow of interweaving space. just as we are equipped to experience colors or tones. For architecture is the functionally and emotionally satisfactory arrangement of space. unfortunately. for he has no ideo 01 the real ellect of pure space arrangement. They learn how to tell the "styles" of the great monuments of the pasthow to recognize Doric columns. Wire end tubes. Be/ew: An ettempt at graphic rronscription. 1928 Co. It will. 01 course. Hence a modern space composition is not a mere combination Klau. those who learn by the historical method can seem to know a 101 when all they have really learned is to classify and dote the monuments of the post. Pure space arrangement is not a mere queslion 01 building materials. But these are only the togs 01 architecture. Romonesque orches. how you live in it and how you move in it. long preparation is necessary bela e one can appreciate this essential character 01 architecture. just as in every other field. The way to learn to understand architecture is to have direct experience of space itself. differ in degree in diflerent people. 1923 S udy in 124 125 Gerde Marx: Study in tex ure. still learn architecture out of books. This capacity can be developed through practice and suitable exercises. as other capacities do. only a very few ever learn really to experience the miracle of esthetically arranged space. shapes which are ordered into certain well defined. Hinrlck Bredendied: Suspended cons ruction. In reolity. that is. Today spatial design is on interweaving 01 shapes..PRELIMINARY COURSE MOHOLY . but in principle space can be experienced by everyone even in its rich and complex forms.i THE CONCEPT OF SPACE by MOHOlY-NAGY We are all biologically equipped to experience space. 192a . shapes which represent the fluctuating ploy of tensions ond forces. Most people. In general the "educated" man today is incapable of judging works of architecture in 0 true way. Gloss tubes ia. Neumann: structien.

nor as a fixed enclosure. Wire and 126 SCOPE OF THE BAUHAUS Gropius: TRAINING Bri"ge '11u5 '0 ing vibration and pres. inouslry.on .es S odbrokers co I 'Iv u res. ond 51 ce experimental and productive work are of equal "rocticol impor once. NotlJrorfy the greet mojori y will be absorbed by the building odes.01 building stones. as a governable crea ion fo mastery 01 life. but as an orgonic component in living. As varieties of talent conno be dis ingui. or tho inestimobly u5elul spec.e 011 olike. men citizenship 01 all [orrns of creoti v e work. t e individual must be able to discover is proper sphere of activity in '~e course 01 ki.ind 01 tolenl on equal chance.boord is merely a prelude 10 the active joy 01 fashioning. 'ng uni e. not only how to mo~e 'ndustry odopt their i"provements and inventions. and rna e him leel the he drowing. But Ihere will always be a small mi ority of ou S onding ability whoss legitimate ambitions it would be lolly to circum. no..e l. That is. 1927 --: Construct. As soon as this erte has linished its communol tro'ning i will be free to concentrate on individual work. icribe.o . etc. Herelo.heo belore they monilest t emselves.other Lang' below Siegfried Grlesenscblog: Studies in texture.: George Gros~: ConS'rJC' ion. It wa nteo to help the lormol artist to recover the fine 010 sense of design and execution being one and e some. as on unalterable arrangement of rooms.cod . 321 12T . 1924 "W at tne Bauhaus peached in prcc ice wos I e com. not as a complex of inner spaces. not the putting together of dilferently shaped blocks and especially not the building of rows of blocks of the same size or of dilferent sizes. (Adopted from Bibl. con emporory problems. to be used as for as possible in expressing the artistic relations 01 created and divided space. artist as well cs orti. but also how to mo e 'he mochi. velopment. The primary means lor he arrangement of space is still space itself and the lows of space condition all es hetic creation in architecture. 29) Ab". And sinee all t hess com. Ho. architecture will be understood. rials. o. e the vehicle of their idees. I e oasis 01 thot lreining should be breod enough to give every .• hould have 0 common Iroini g. ".senp!iug. Below." {lrom Bibl. monding brains will have been through he some indus'rial mill they will know. ~Iotive reseo eh 0 which humon'ty owes the sort of vol. not merely as a shelter from the cold and from danger. Build. Building materials are only a means.ure 01 various mote. both monuol ond mentol war en in a common to s k. own de. ond their logical in erdepe dence on ana ana her in the modern world. an 0 tempt oj graphic transcription. 1927 G.

Designed lora dining room.ry. and wood.FURNITURE WORKSHOP Josef Albers: Wooden armchair wilh . it tokes on 'meaning only lrom the way it is used or as pmt .." but only the imprint 01 the owner's character. This voriction is possible only if the very simplest and most straightforward pieces are used: otherwise changing will mean buying new pieces. They hinder neither the movement of the body nor of the eye.. or. the man who lives in it.pring bod. drown in space. like a flower or 0 human being. Marcel Breuer (Irom Bibl. The architect. And so we halve furnishings. Morcel Breuer (Irom dos neue frankfurt. fn itself impersonal. a closed box. 1'1'25 lor Mo. the other holl. 01 a complete scheme.euer: Fold ing choir. The room is no longer a sellbounded composition. let our dwelling halve no porticulo:r "style. A complete scheme is no arbitrary composition either but rather the ourwcrd expression 01 our everyday needs: it must be able to serve both those needs which remain constant and those which vo.Folding. wooden teble. Hcssenplluq: . 1928 . Fobric seol. the new inferior should not be a sellportroit 01 the architect. 192b A piece 01 furniture is not on arbitrary cornoosition: it is a necessory component 01 our environment.l92b -(----'1f Mcreel B. 1·928 12. opporently immovable and built for eternity. os producer. 15) G. so to speak.rcel Breuer: Choir. no. One may conclude rhot any object properly and proctically designed should "IiI" in any room in which it is used as would any living object. rooms end buildings allowing as much change and os many transpositions and diHerenl combinations as possible. Melal lube. lnsteod they are more opened out. The pieces of furniture and even the very walls 01 Oi room have ceased to be massive and monumental. bad end arm rests. nor should il attempt to Iix in odvcnce the personol environment 01 the occupant. lor its dimensions OInddillerent elements can be varied in mony ways. creates only hall 0 dwelling.8 . 1927) 129 Moree I: B'·euer: Firs! tubuchoir.

Choirs by Marcel Breuer. 1916 Bouhcus. Berlin. AuditoriUM.rpentry Dessou worhhop. Morcel Morcel Brauer: Iurnitur e u its.Marcel Breuer: Tubular choirs. 1927 510 ndordiled Co. Dining room.ou Bauhaus..ln7 Morcel Breuer: Tubulor c airs. . Fabric seal and backrest. 1926 Woher Grcnius: De. 1926 Woller Gropius: De550u Bouhous Auditorium. Choirs by Marcel Breuer. 1926 130 131 Breuer: De!so~ Bedroom in Directors house. Fabric seal ond bod res. 1926 Marcel Breuer: Pisco or House.

Below: legs without seot. 1928 A Bou heus Moyie lo. these right •• -( Breuer who recognizes Beller and beller eyery yeor. Wood~n table wilh lubulor supports 1977 P. t926. I) Lotte Gerson: roder. 1928 Corpen'ry workshop: Drawer "nit for desk. (from Bio. er: Dining room cobir. S retched fabric sect. it. 1928 1924 Morcel Bre. . Bucking: Choir. 1928 133 -(- Marcel Breuer. no.ting Author: Operator: Life demanding Marcel fiye yean. Plywood seal. 1928 Child's . Mindon': Colopsi le srcc]. Fobric sect and bockrest. in the end we will sit on resilient air columns. 1.. right s. Hossenpflug: Folding choir. 30. 1926 Coroentry wor shoo: Desk composed 01 toble and drower unit.1921 T. no. 1926 132 1925 G.

wore were accepted by monufocturers. Dusseldorl were exhibited at: Lei pzig Spri 119Fa ir German Society of Women's Apporel and Culture. and designs in co lor lor tha lollowing firm" Nierendorf aw Art Dresden COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRY Gallery. During J 925 the workshops of Ihe D9 •• cu Bouhous executed orders lor lurn iture.t which the Bouhous hod rebelled cs on inodequo e macns or communicotion between designers ond industry. under Ihe direction 01 Mie.n. the production 01 tubulor steel furniture hos lo~en on . he lcctories oltan sent t eir tec nicicns a the Bouhous wor shops to keep them informed obou the development 01 designs. tedile lcbrics.. Income from royalties rose steadily.wivel choir. Monnheim. restcurcnt. .NI\ ARMLEHNSTUHL and for a number of private oportmen s.. Tokio The Bavarian Notional Museum.t wOS rei used on the grounds Ihol such exoerimenls were unir-rpor 001._I . Tokio. rnatol. 80. in vc rious lowns Kestner Society.. in t932 it elCeeded 30. Conversely.wos pursued on 0. and the Werkbund E. lamps. the Art Museum. This wos a greo improvement over he ineffective dependence on pc per orojects ogoin. The income was divided between Ihe Boubous Corporo ion ond the school itself. lig hting lidu res.and gI055-. 01 er !hi rtaen yeo r s. ad movea to Desscu. Design' lor rurni ure.Jhous workshops-to evolve designs soti.. Oronienboum The prcctico] objective of the BO.A.'I33I-lL ~'~1 ~~ _. Exhibition.000 mark s. Some poges from colcloqs olloclories prod uci n9 lurniture designed 01 the Souhous ~f ~ ~ Uncle Tom's Cobin. tremendous prooor1ions. exercising 0 decisive inlluenee on many other cscec s 01 interior design. 134 Moreel Breuer' S.. Corporation. purchased Bauhaus products for their res peetive collections. while the other 11011went to a welfore j"nd used 10 poy lor desig'ns which were considered voluoble but which could not be disposed 01 for the time being. The reque. Steel tubing and plywood THONET~ 135 Stahlrohrmobel Bouhous products Gesolei. The factories were Ihen olten visited by Bcuheus designers who 5 udied Ihe orocesses used and cooperated with technicions to simplify and improve the designs. Ar Museum Monnheim Werkbund Honover Trade Museum... including he masters' houses in Oessou and the new Bcuhous building. When a workshop considered a design ready for sale i wos rned over a the Business Menager or the Corporotion together with all the necessery drawings ond descriptions of the processes involved '0 tho contracts could be drown up. Todcv.AI er Marcel Breuer hod comole ed he :irsl steel cheir 01 Iha Bouhous. Berlin 1 1 . which poid the designer.. Berlin Fide" King Albert M"seum." Berlin Children's Home. the Trade Muse"m of Basel.position. but commercial nego iotions were and led by the Bauhou.. ROYA'LTIES Each worhhop hod the right to confer independently with indus rial [irrns regording technical problems. until. ('\lSlB!. Zwido" Showrooms of the 'A streets. van der Rohe. Ihe Monnesmonn Works were osked 10 pUI steel pipe at our dispose! lor furl her experimenls.foc!ory from formo and technical poi nts of view whic h shOllld t hen be soJ it ad to inbm dustry 'or prod uction . It hos spread all over the world. large scale only ofter the Bouhow. Gallery.1 (Kunstholle). Half the royalty paid the school wos credited 10 the Bo"ho"s lund.

In addition to these innovotions may be mentioned one which even today presents a very uselul solution 0'1 ane lighting fix ure prablem. From this originated the louvre sys em 01 concentric rings of metal and recen Iy. 1'l25 las Morionne Brandt: Fish COS5ero e. looking more like a dinosaur than a functional object. This principle 'nvolves the use of concentric gloss cyr nders to ovoid a glare. no. the use 01 aluminum.IJrl!. Kroie". 01 translucent plastics. with devices lor pushing and pulling.* But even this was a great victory. 1921. Choins hold globe whi e electric bulb i. ond T~rrpe: Ind'YiduQI se·.METAL WORKSHOP t Droug~l. Until my arrival the metal war' shop hod been a gold and silver workshop where wine jugs. were mode. samovars. It took quite a while a get under way the ind 01 work which later mode the Bauhaus a leader in designing lor the lighfng fixture industry. Jucker. for in their pride the gold· and silverSlT'ithsavoided the use a/ferrous metals. I remember the lirst lighting Ii ture by K.. 'ng chongl!d.. Josef Albers: Glo" set. Si ver-brome lineo w'ln 5i ver. 8. page II b. Egg boil e r .. Frosted end ploin gl055 g abe. 11121. calfee services etc . elaborate jewelry.. 1925 teo -<~ Morionne Movable Brandl: wo. room of the Desscv ·..ng melol orionne Brandl: FROM WINE JUGS TO LIGHTING FIXTURES byM OH01Y-N·AG·Y When Gropius acpoin ed me to toke over the metal workshop he asked me to reorganize it as a workshop lor industrial design. The metal workshop also handled 01 her probRl!prod~ced.. cojustobta witn 1925 .ln)·1925 M.1I fixture ref ector. Changing the policy 01 this war shop involved a revolu ion. done before 1923. especially in localities where the quic se tling of dus makes ordinary lighting inellicient. nickel and chromium plating and abhorred the ideo of making models lor electrical household appliances or lighting fixtures.shop. After this we developed lighting fixtures introducing such useful ideas as: the close-litting ceiling cop: combinations of opaque and frosted glass in simple forms echnicolly deterrn'ned by the action of light: securing the globe to the metal chassis. w. heavy strips and rods of iran and brass. lor it meant a new beginning." teo Morionne Brondl: Ugh ing (i.or. All 01 these were adaoted lor industrial production. etc. particularly for reflectors. Bib.

Dull aluminum reflector Iii by electric: bulb behind mi ror. We therefore selected lor young oppren ices problems from which the use of materials. 1928 139 138 Me 01 works op.ki: Chromium a~d Ira' ed gloss lighting fixture. 192& Marianne Brondl: M'rror lor shoving or rna eup. Hoo 5 suppor ing the globe are easily odjus able. c. speciol one.-«lems of industriol design: utensils ond household oppliances. 1915 Mor'onne Brondt: Night toole lorna with adjustable shcde. tools and machinery could be learned and which were at the some time of practical use. During those days there was so conspicuous a lack of simple and functional objects lor daily use thot even the young ap' prentices were able to produce models for industrial production (ash trays. involving simultaneously education and production.u reo 1914 Marianne Brondt: Wall fixture. Krojew. Dessce Marianne Brandt: Ind ustrially produced lamp shodes.) which industry bought and for which royalties were poid.. etc. 1925 Morionne fixture Brondt: Ceiling . teo holders. 1911> M. The function of the metol war shop was 0 . Marianne Brandt: Chromium and frosted gloss lighti ng fi.

. Aluminum shode. . DeS50J Melol wor shop: Adjustoble desk lomp..~- .. 1'126 Morie~ne BrondT: Lighling fixture lor wells or low ceilings.tures from BounolJs designs . 1925 Pages irom co ologs or loc cries monufocturing lighting fi.. ere. 1924 Merionne Brondr: Spun chromium lighling fixture ror corridors..:1_. Pnyrembel: Adjustoble ceiling Ii.Melol worhhop... _. --- .. Brondt cnd H. 1925 M..: ....

Lit Ie by little the attention of the outside world was oroused and museums began 10 buy. to be exparimental in a very comprehensive sense. They began amateurishly and playfully. and passessing olten a quite barbaric beauty. Now. this ploy with materials produced amazing results. but gradually something grew out of their ploy which looked like a new and indeoendent trend. Many students hod felt the sterility of the art academies and their too greot detachment from life. however. This freedom 01 approach seems worth reo taining lor every novice. to At the Bauhaus. 1927 . Red ond yellow sitk. They believed that only manual war could help them back a solid ground and put them in touch with the problems of their time. tex. Albers: c. Weaving . Technique was acquired as i was needed and 142 as a foundation for future attempts. It is no easy task to discord conventions. Si 1925 Anni Albers: Topestry. nalurally. those starting to work in weaving or in any other croft were fortunate to hove hod no raditionol training. Desscu Anni Albers: Doublewoven woll honging. It was a curious revolution when the students 01 weoving become concerned with a practical purpose. Ann._ elms. Courage is on irnportan factor in any creation. their fullness of color and texture.WEAVING WORKSHOP THE WEAVING WORKSHOP by ANNI ALBERS Any reconstructive work in a world as chaatic as post-wor Europe had. Previously they hod been so deeply interested in the problems 01 the material itsell and in discovering various ways of handling it that they had token no time for utilitarian considerations. i can be mos active when knowledge does nof impede it at too eorly o stage. a shift took ploce from free ploy with forms to logical composi- 143 t. however useless. Unburdened by any practical considerations. tiles striking in their novelty.. The weoving improvisations furnished 0 lund of ideas from which more carefully considered compositions Were later derived.I927 •••• Woven rug. What hod existed hod proved to be wrong-even its foundations.

Dessau lion. The changing moods 01 the time aHected the Bauhaus workers and they responded according to their ability. T "'0 shcdes of brown. more systemotic troining in the mechonics 01 weaving wos in roduced. Wool Gun ho Sheron-S Cur'oin me eriol.I: ing. Albers: Wall cover- ing. Tal' cotton. concentrotion on a definite purpose now had a disciplinary elfect. The work as a whole was the resul of the [oint efforts of a group. Berger: Textile. As 0 result. l"!P.JJ ll!l". wark by machine was lor moss production. Co Ion and reyon Anni Albers: Wall coverCotton Guntha Shcrcn-Stdlzl: Coot material.' ~e' feI ~. each individual bringing to it his interpretation 01 a mutually accepted ideo. Light-reflecting and soundabsorbing materials were developed. Ce. gray motericr. 144 more instincive than conscious and only in re- 145 trospect does their meaning become evidenl. helping 0 create new art forms and new techniques. and rcvon 011. While ce 'Icphc ne a nd colton . Ton... The whole 'ronqe 01 possibilities had been freely explored: .The desire to reach a larger group of consumers brought about a transition from handwork to machine-work: work by hand was lor the laboratory only. Weeving workshop. as well as a course in the dyeing 01 yorns. red. Bled. and cellophane leroL Wool A~ni Albers: Drooery moBlue end while. brown. Wool Anni Albers: blue. The physical qualities 01 ma erials become a subject of interest.lopnone a[. terio ._= .J"-~-. The interest 01 industry was aroused. Knotled rug. 1'127-t928 Ann. Many of the steps were . paper Iibre and cellophane Anni A bers: Drapery and rayon Drapery rno- OMi Berger.

Whi'e. Smy'no wool oed heme Ann. br'llion bi~e" red yellow. Co'lon. woo. Albers: Wo COlfer'og. 1925 . red.Lis Volger: Rug. royor ond wool 1\on. Heavy wool ond :ine hemp 146 141 Ott' Berger: Reg. Bloc end while. Ce oohone ond cotton I\nni I\loer5: no'ted rug. Grey. bloc" Smyrno. clock. I\lbers: Dreoery rr o'eriel.

BAUHAUSBOCHER lille ooge. magazines. y • jlJl.KOHLEPAPIER . stationery and even colling cords... typographical experimen~ the balance of thiS volume.~~ ~~ KINDE. ~'. especially because in german capitol initials are used lor all nouns. ~ SCHAUBU AG . eliminating capitols from books. beuhells werksiaiten.'" j herbert ooyer: cover oesign..IC '==::--..IICM]( """. 7 -.b gotijic alpfJallet customarily employed in german printing. with these common sense ecanomies in mind the bauhaus began in 1925 to abandon capitol letters and to use small letters exclusively. 1925 I..n lid a the bauhous war shop... for lants and type cases would be smaller.'Y'II L-M·O . we need only a single alphabet. will be printed without using capitol letters.M:...~_ 149 1924 - A hondbills.-. • . to recall this...._ . students.. and at the same time is less of a burden on all who write-on school children..:N eAUM .. .. the bauhaus had always used roman or even sans serilletters instead of the archaic and complicate.. ~0ftGSIUi' UNOu>LEI!IIllAII:._QPII!L5CHRj... so that printing establishments would save space and heir clients money...".~a.and lower-case letters. this step toward the rationalization 01 writing and printing met with outraged protests. catalogs. nevertheless the bauhaus mode 0' thorough alphabetical house-cleaning in all its printing.I. monoly-nogy: ~ . .IILImIdiIto. it gives us practically the some result as the mixture of upper.. VOI\'rI(AKAUJ' lUI tl(lI'H[if!. since the shift key would then become unnecessary. NEUE ARBEITEN NaJ&.. 1921> I.(Sl'R2" fhe triadic Ii hogroph bellet. I D._ ----. stenographers.. so that the suppression 01 capitols added fresh insult to old injury.WCJit~ U ~~ eAUHAUSWERKST~TTEN .._. dropping capitols would be a less radical relorm in english...:~~:__- ----.... bOJhcu. to page 221.typography workshop ~erberl boyer: pege loyau . prospectus. indeed the use of capital letters occurs so infrequently in english in cornpcrison with german that it is difficult to understand why such a superlluous alphabet should still be considered necessary. bo uho us pros oectus.__ • 148 esker schiernrner: poster. . it could be written much more quickly..... moreover. 1~95 : ~ ..~.. mchoiy·ncgy: design.. ~I. posters. 1925 typography by herbert bayer why should we write and print with two alphabets? both a Iorge and a small sign are not necessary to indicate one single sound. . neue orbeiien de...". J i '~'" .... printing would be cheaper. professional and business men.·N ." . mogc!ine quolil"#. 192b cover .O..... .. o DIENSTACi'iS FE8RUAR8~~ • DI ENSl AG 26. O""....._1... typewriting could therefore be more quickly mastered and typewriters would be cheaoer because of simpler construction... 'I we do not speak a capitol A and a small a. o .a.. especially on the typewriter. F{MUM ""'" .

nree angles.lu· ."'" ~~" I"If . uu U 151 U 'JU X MONDRIAN NEUE GESTALTUNG . verticol and o... pi med in The beuhc.rs pr'n!i~9 shop. ·tril.... condensed bole. ~'I~ "'1' tla tI~ I~ josef clbers: stencil letters.:J I t l ! I ~ herbert bayer: basic e ements Irom whie the universol type is b~i r up: a :9" orcs.. ". (r •• 4If.a tt It tl.. It... nertlerbayer: universaJ toe....aa. rl'edium cnd lighf weights. xqzaS dd l:i :4: 1: . cherecters 01 bose snow med'um ana j'gh! "eig'*. la iii: I. basic elements Irom which the letters ore built vp. I~.abcde'GhiiH I mnpqrstuvw he rber' boyer: univerSal tyee.. chorccrers at oose show bold.. 1928 !~ ! : cover design. herbert bayer: resao reh in the developmen 01 he universal type stuvwxyz a dd abcdefGhi iK mnopqr 150 neroert 1926 oyer: po. 1925 r. 1925. 1926 magazine aflsel.zo~tc line. 1924 bco] P. nn rill L mohaly-nogy: jcc er." d to. design based on three fundamental shopes. 1921> jaser albers: stencil leiters.r. 1925 nerbert boyero e~hibi 'an DOSier.. er. improveo.

. 1928 T1 T T __:__j JT[ -% #'.... t M e 153 . given: a cross b anonymous: studies in contrasl.course a anonymous: slud ies in can rosr.Iled in :Ialy. given: seven bars of equal size e anonymous: STudies in composition. <.. free choice 01 odd"lionol elemenl...~ I C IIIr ~III ~ ~ d 7 __U~§§III ----_ ~ + b 152 alexander schawinsky: cesser adverlising men's clothing.._ •• :\4 ••• '1 T c rpm T --..... . 1935 + 11-: 1+ :. rr" .. d anonymous: studies in comoosi ion... . .. given: form of let er z.. given: nine squores of equal size I anonymous: rhemotic contrasts studies in and optic a + + olexo nder sc hawi ns~y: poster advertising hars. given: form 01 leHer T c ononymous: 5 dies in illusion of dislance a d proximity for purposes 01 layout and display.•••• ••. •• -:... 1928. . e"ec<. u b 6l + --.

eye view. e c.ponded eagerly to the new ortisfc possibilities 01 pho ogrophy: bird'. ine bOlJhous stuoenis deeply concerned with new prob ems 01 spoce relations . .e. 1915 I. photogroo~y. the expression 01 ideas through pictures is lar more exact. enerogrurn. the camero's objective presentation of lacts frees the onlooker from dependence on someone else's personal description and makes him more ap to form his own opinion. moholy-ncgy: gram. now. on egyptian pictograph was the result of tradition and the individual ortist's ability. the greatest possibilities lor future development lie in the proper use of photographic means and 01 the different pho agraphic techniques: retouching.islen~e . 1923 pho 0I. which ollers us a brood and powerful means of communication. until 1929.. 1923 I. 1922 . or exposure without 0 comero I s im". applied photography. a poster must convey instantaneously 011 the high points alan ideo. blanking auf. oosle rs ood typogrophy. 1923 (from bib1. the inclusion 01 photography in poster design will bring about another vital change. hod 0 very lmpcrto~ in!luence o~ 0 II bo ~~ous work. oheremor rcqe. enlargement. thanks to photography. mohol -nagy: led a ond The swon. "negative e1le<::5. the mechanical reproduction 01 photographs in any size. is course os well -cs his own photogrophic work (such cs the photogrorn.e 15. bu '1 wos pul to proclical US" in odvenising loyout." double exposure ond oouble printing microphotogrophy cno e~ orge. moholy-nogy: ~oSIer. nowever. double prinlinq. including the bolder use of color. it wcs moholy-nogy who first encouroged the bouhovs to consider photogrophic oroblems. distortion. no. the two new resources of poster art are: II) photography. rroholy-nogy. (2) emohotic contrast and variations in typagrophicalloyout.photography no technicol photogroohic worhhop was in e."us the bauhaus 100 on active oorl in Ihe development of pholograpnic orl. moholy-rogy: 1926 do s. 8J 155 I. no only wos ehetogroohy thus considered 05 on eno in 'tsell. eye ono worrr'.. p~o omontoge I.loled ne s ude" s to rno e Ihei' own experiments. by moholy~nagy 54 the most importont development affecting present day layout is photo-engraving. ~' :stucio rellecled in gorde n cry.lel.

werner 1928 leist: the pipe.---florence hetlry: photograph.! ohatamantage lut leininger: photograph. awarded first prize in the exhibition af foreign advertising phatagraphy at the art center. photograph lor cover of magazine bouhou r. o!fentior. mohaly-nogy: negative prin!. herber boyer. 1928 . 1927 ____ anonymous. 1927 156 nerbert 1928 boyer: balcony. new york. 1931 .

e. 1928 -<:----.s.ano e ' schowi~s. marcel brevet.in. berlin.~ oui Cling ex· oosition.'n' y: heo If. berlin.:i orexoneer sc~owjns.bund elhioition paris. 1928 : port of d'sploy lor i~ nkers go s water nacters. 905 a nd wCJ~er e.hiDition 01 the ba~ho~s by bouhcus 'Isell. gas and woter exhibi'ion berli .ion. eosrer in junkers pavilion. oer. berlin. i~n ers Dov·lio·.h·c't"on. Iq29 wo. 1928 alexander sc:nowi~5l<yand joos: schmiol.hibi. gos and we er exhibi'ion. exec ~ted oy rne bo u hous workshops. berlin. gas cnd wo'er exhibition.ter groo'u5 moholy·nogy. noll of elementary 'Vpograohy. 1928 '1.exhibition technique 'i'n addit'on 10 e hibilions 10. design lor a tronsportoble exhibition pavilion advertising ogric ulturo Mac hinery. 1928 ol"xo-de schowinsky: povilion ior ju ~kers 901 boi ers.wi~g exh:bifan des'gns me"lianed: heroert ocver. mOholy-nogy ole. 9lnibi'ie· oi the buildi ~g unions (502:01" boug"we'. gas o-id woler e.hibi'ion. 1928 olexonder st~o".k)': plosiic health pos'er in jun ers pcvilion. herbert bayer wer. the 101pea? e may De herbert boyer. ot he press e.schol'eo I building e. 1931 Noher grop'us ana ole. ". 1928 herbert baler and hermon Foulik 'ronsporsoble oovil'on lor exhibiiior purposes e"'7 i. oerli". 1930 herber' boyer monoly-nogy welter 9rooi".ng orcble-ns (gogio) berlir . 1928 . 1928 wolter gropiL'.posi'ior. colog-e.58 heinz Ioew and franz ehr ich: siudies in luminous adver ising. gos and water eXhibition.>31 olexc ncer schcwi nsky: transparent oisoloy lor hot water boi ers.ander scho v(ns·t morce breuer. Iq17 herberl DO yer.hio'tion oi hOL. berl' n 1'. 1928 oi lh" lawns 01 d essou and lilrbs' berl' n.

I technical composi ion 01 he poinling in heory practical ground 160 lime ploster. watercolor. erection echniqves discov- lor given architectural ing 01 stencils ana cnrtoons. on Ine walls. and chemical nature 01 oils. plans and elevo"ons b poster work 7 knowledge 01 tools.i "g tech ~ique. m. 01 the post lresco. exoerimenls in various echniques and MO erial. and horough training in oc ual pain ing. . preporalion ol Ihe ground lor panel pictures 161 2 siudy 01 all known po in. wood and metal. dryer.iis von der rohe. marble and a obosler dust plosters ior empero poinling. and a number 01 new techniques were introduced. color and moleriols. encaustic oil point lacquer. desseu. melollic point 3 lundomen 01 principles 01 color harmony lacquers. 1927 inslruclion in Ihe worKshop included instruction 01 'arm. varnishes. he mOK' perspec- preparing est:mo es. models wall-pain ing workshop. gypsvm plosler. bookkeeping wall paper produclion was planned under 9ropiu s. casein and mineral pain 5 tempera. octuol execution too place under ho nnes meyer and. 0' 5collo ding working drawings. he enphosis was not on potlern bu on lexlure: scud colo" were used. ploster 01 Doris. 8 taking dimensions. celscrnine. spa tier pointing (airbrush) on ploster. pigmen s 4 prcc icol opplicotien of the new ered in he experi-nentol workshop 5 proiects !or color schemes models. late'. tives. he influence on german Man ulocturers was very greo ' bcuhous woll paper was widely imitated.wall-painting workshop _ pointing " : wolldesigns.

iaf'llatian a' in" and circle '0 hyp"r· boloic a no sphere plo. lap lrc nslcrmotion 0' cyl ino er to hvperoololc... 1926· 1928 - _ co-n oorisor-. 162 L ahr ich: sculptured r"liel.d '1'1 1926· na con co as..I918 163 .sculpture workshop _ : pcrcboloic sculpture. negative : llJoy'n posirive '101'0 I". o. 1'1'16.. 1926··1928 ._ elosrie 'arm._ prlrnorv lorrns. I'ar a' arimary plostie larm s.lic 'or. boliam 'ran...928 carr DO ." S. linear end __ : cemperotive .

a noble "feast for the eyes. however. siedoll. not only he interior but the building as an architectural whole-on ideo which has especial fascination in view 01 the new bauhaus building-we might demonstrate to a hiherto unknown extent the validity 01 the spoce-sioqe. if we go so for as to break the narrow confines of the stage and extend the drama to include the building itself. pp." will be fulfilled. we are predominantly visual beings and therefore purely visual askor schlemmer: donee of gestures. exec uted at zwidou. we hod to use some one of the local stages for our productions. now. colors and lights. colors. drawings 'or c es s in . if the movement is purely mechanical. if forms in motion provide mysterious and surprising effects through invisible mechanical devices. 2 in weimar. in the new building at dessau we are lucky enough to have our own theoter. lights. 1. drowings lor co's in stage theory. a theater (including both stage and auditorium) demands above all on architectonic handling of space: everything that happens in it is conditioned by space and related to it. march 16. 1927 164 experience can give us considerable so islcction.. no.stage workshop olexonder schawinsky: 5 oge set ior a sho kespeoreo n oloy. the units con be combined in various wcvs. involving no human being but the man at the switchboard. danced by schlemmer. delivered before the friends of the bauhaus. light is of great impor once. 3. where we hod no theater 01 our own. 1927. c. if space is trans/armed with the help of changing forms.loge 1heory • . 1925 osl:or schlemmer: stiltwal ers. then all the requirements of spectacle. 1926 olexonder schcwins y: design lor" theoter curtoin from a lecture with stage demonstrations by oskar sch/emmer. 30. stogecralt is on art concerned with space and will become more so in the future. t 927 alexonder s<:howins~y: design for georg kaiser's From mor« fill midnighf_ 1926 es or sell emmer: varia lions an 0 mcsk. let us consider plays consisting only in the movements 01 forms. 1927. komins y. published in bibl. form (two-dimensional ond three-dirnensionol] is on element of space: color and light are elements of form. design lor 0 ballet. as an ideo. no. the whole conception could have the precision -<-:i olexonder schowinsky: ligures lor robbers' bolle· in two ganl/emen of verooa. we are interested in interior space treated os port of the whole composition of he building.

even if accompanied by innumerable variations in color. it is only a question of money_ but there is also 'he question of the extent to which such equipment would be justified by the effects obtained. film projections. but firmly believe that some day we shall develop soeech quite naturally From them. with pantomime. etc. the humon actor continues to be on essential element 01 drama for us.which is meant 10 serve as 0 background lor per. heis the antithesis olthe rationally constructed world of form. modern engineering can produce such equipment. concrete and 9 ass with rolaling slage. the rronscendentol-on organism of lIesh and blood as well as 0 phenomenon existing within the limits of time and space. and he will remain 16& 50 as 10'1g as there is a stage. we wont to understond words. experiment with dillerenl way.the Ihealer 01 steel. perhaps i rnporton I-speech.exalnder schowinsky: preliminary sketch lor space theater. 1'127 esker scnlemmer: spire] figure from the 1riodic ballet I. lorrn and light? is entirely mechanized drama to be thoughl of as on independent genre.s~)": stage set. but in an elementary sense. l'l2b mute ploy of gesture ond movement. not because it concern us. with the -<-= o. as on event. as though they were heard for the first lime. . 192b 0 ISl alexander schowi r. and since our own experimentol stage until now hos had even less equipment thon the regular theaters.of a vast automaton requiring 0 tremendous technical equipment. we admit that we have cautiously this problem so lor. humming machinery. produced by s10 gil class . not as literalure. swinging. cutcmctc. of using light equipped stage exists. the immediate. he is the creator portant element 01 drama. i am speak'ng af ccmplatelv independent mechanical not of the mechanization and rechnico renovation of sloge equi ome nt. can it dispense with man except as a perfect mechanic and inventor? since at present no such mechanically heinz loew: model 01 a mechanical stage set.glht ploy. color and light· he is the vessel of the unknown. lcrmonces by human actors. how long can a soectoror's interest be held by rotaling. alexander scnawiMky: s~ekh. but becouse we are well its signiliconce ond want to moster for the time being we ore sotislied 01 on imthe most avoided does not aware of it slowly.

schlemmer. produced by sage clcss andreas weininger: oe. donced andreas OSKor schlemmer: drawings of the human body. c.ign lor 0 spherical theo er.OS or schlernrner : bOJ: ploy. donced by s·"dol'. danced by siedoH esker schlemmer: donce. opticcl end ocoustica! relo ionshi p fa the whole stage closs rehearsing On the bouhous roo I.. produced class wives by sage os 0' schlemme-: by weininger musical clown.it olo"g the interior surface 01 Ihe g obe. block ligure in cen'er: osker schlemmer . heibig. is drown toword the center ond is.e whole interior. do need by schowinsky.::oskar scb . in 0 new psycho log lcol. each ovenooks Il. drawings lor clcss in sloge theory U " 169 a exa oder schowinsky: sketch. the speclotors . 1927 . therefore.emmer: de'ineo ion 01 space by human figure.

a grindstone and 0 pail). \ \ \ \ ~ third sloge: left: objects com pletely ro sloted into energy tens.enema.. 2 drawing the hondling of space. essen iol scheme 01 the composi-ien . crs. mo'~ len. grodual transition to the second s ruction. (11 third stage: I the objects rangements are considered of lines. in mony cases there are more possibilities to be considered than hove been 'ndicoted here. on object. such as the significance of single ports 01 he composition. 2 distinguishing and in he logical arrangement of them.: 01 lhe teit. 'op.kandinsky's course analytical drawing !irst stage: the sn.dents and their . . reduction ple. moin construction indieo~ed by do ted lines. lint stoge: cornbinetion 01 sing e. the obiects suggested are a sow.e (sow.in exoct seeing ond exoct not of the external oopearance of but of i 5 constructional elements. major certain began with 5 the 101l0wing must be added: I d owing ill-lile compositions. character. instruction is based upon the method 'n my other courses. exact exoression. instruc ion at the bauhaus is train- ing in observation. etc. the main theme of a composition can be explored in relation to the most varied partial tensions. above: . handling of plone surfaces is prelirn'norv second sloge: oojects recognizob. studied separately and afterwords in relation to the whole composition. irs! analytical of the entire problems composition . (from bibl. to be carefully their logical lorces or tensions which are to be discovered in the objec s themselves the 0 limits to be determined the charocteris by the studen himsell. were: to a simwi hin drawn rendering. cente .ons. their weight. subjec s ond methods can be described only very generally in these few words. 01 form. shope.ions incicoted :n co. no. and which in my opinion used in oll other fields. for instance. grindslone. the composition 2 different vious solely os energyis reduced to orobdraw- \ possibil't'es of the composition: hidden construe ion (see \ \ \ ond ing opposite). pri ncipol weig hIs in brood lines: loco poinl 01 the cons rucliona net in dottea lines above: essen ial schene 01 . simila obiec 5 into o lorger for". \ \ \ 110 3 indication of the constructional net with its local or star ing poin 5 (see the dolled lines in drawing opposi e. 3D) should be the method of the entire composi ion in a 01 in- 3 rendering simplified line-drawing. poi). tensions.he comaosition ic forms of sin- gle ports of the still-lile. 2 accentua the use 01 ion of the principal tensions through brooder lines or the use of color. 3 exercises in the mas drastic simplification of the whole and of the individual tensions-concise. briefly described sloge as follows: I indicotion of the tensions discovered In the composition-rendered in line-drawing.

one learns a look behind the fOCiode. that 011 decisions hod' to be preceded by discussion. institute. mathematics and physics furnished the means in the form of rules to be followed and to be broken. in the beginning it is wholesome to be concerned wi h the (unctions and to disregard the finished form.000 and 200. the business manager. winged by intuition. he was given "Iull charge 01 the creative and cdrninistrn~ive activities of the bauhaus. at o esseu Ihe budget was prepored by the municipal council and subrni ted 10 the sledfpar/ament.. is temporarily superior. courtesy bucbbclz go ery 112 113 paul klee speaks: we cons ruct and construct and yet intuition still has its uses. without it we can do a lot. ot dessou. this au hori y wos vested in the municipal council." in the early year. for the sale of models 10 indus rial lirms: the business mo oger [syndikus] who was in charge 01 the commerciol activities 01 the bouhous and loter of the bouhous corporation. decisions by majority vole were dropped altogether.administration w~ot authorities hod to be consul-ad by the director when it was necessary to make important decisions efiecting the internal conditions or edernol relcfions of the bouhous? at weimar. exactitude.. it can construct itself.000 -nerks. important things.. oaul lee: holl c. the director hod far-reaching powers. it can boldly bridge the distance from one thing to another. s granted to the director by 0 una ni mous vote. the faculty had 0 nom ina I right to vote on vital decision s. for proble-ns of internal argo izo ion and teaching: the bauhaus council. if tempo is disregarded. the antecedents of the visible. it can get along. one may work a long time. in he bauhaus itsell. 14) . but exact research being exact research. without intuition. and the student representatives. all ins rue crs end the student representatives hod the right to por icipote in hese discussions. the who I. 1920. to analyze. but not everything.. W05 under I~e jurisdiction of the ministry of public educotion. in Ihe belief that problems ollecting creative work can never be solved by a majority. studies in algebra. the annual budgel varied between I ]0. o the stotu as provided. oil on canvas. t~e right to vole woo discorded in subsequent stotutes: in fact.. it can get along as a matter of principle without intuition. in mechanics characterize teaching direc ed toward the essential and the functional. but not everything. 2. in geometry. to grasp the root of hings. futl responsibility . many things. the lormal consul onts were: I. what had already been done lor music by the end of the eighteenth century has at lost been begun for the piclorial arts. mode up o! moslers eaching probIems of form ond lee hnicol instructors in Ihe workshops (the loiter were included only at weimar). one learns to dig down. and for some lime the gates leading a it have been open. it can preserve on ordered attitude in chaos. (from bibl. has been given sufficient room for exoct investigation. do different things.. it can remain logical. ho . art.... when intuition is joined to excct research it speeds the progress of excct research. 100. 01 weimar it was prepared by the minister of pua:ic educalion end submit ed to the thuringian /andfeg. ever. including the director. one learns to recognize the undercurren s. a uncover. in contrast to the opparent. to lind the couse.

'the school is ~e servonl 0' the workshop: ard the oay wi come w~en he school will be absorbed ir to the wor'shop"). publica io wos cont. er i" 926 tne 'irst issue of the bouhc as periodical. beuIeitschrih fiir ge. 10 ottock on obs oc'e 's a good les' 01 streng'h. I ere con be no douor Ihot this ospect of ne s uoenls' erective oC'ivily eontricutad lorgely to 'he . the stuo ents were permi ted 0 'o.e on ecfve pori in she pi ng I~e oolicies of the bou hous. i see no choos in our tiMe. ond mace "t easier to clarify I~e problems og. -1. oporove a' the conHici between hem ii 'Is eHed is evioent in the lino produc.. cs 'he years possed. still 10 er.lty council when vi a decislo s were to be mode. the early yeo rs and even to via en' eonfroversies. I e educational syslem ond "5 orgorizo· lion were Irequent·y reviseo as a result of hese discussions.'ns y: birthday greet" "95 man oge 1928 iron gil clb .ns . . . or"g'nolly here woo o sh. gropius ir'ended thai the process of learning shou d merge imperceptibly in a a comr-iueol ask (as Ihe firs monilesto pu' i . tne wor~ as a whole. Ih's gave eoch sl~den " leel.nogy: wo II· oisp oy for 0 bouhous :es ivo 1925 peul klee: leiter to the faculty eou neil i welcome Ihe foc Ihot forces 50 d'versely insp..dent council which wes co sui eo Irom time a time by Ihe director. me-eel bre.eo ebstocle. 'ng of responsibility lor the worl as a whole. clrer 1928 under vorying edilorshio. rr onoly. . wi" he eelleborc io 01 all members 01 Ihe bevhcus.01 some pointers con't make up -heir minds whether to pain' nolurolis(colly." . this led 10 spir'ted ciiscussions in .toltung. (signee) peel klee december. in accordance w'lh these views. W05 published. o ostroc Iy or no' 01 0' does not Mean chaos. ore or two siudent representotives alteno eo all meeli ngs of the laculty cou ell. ~ ion s subsec. i~ Ihe course of titre 't become possible 0 g've the student oeoy more and more direct i :Iuence in he olfoirs ol tne whole orgenizo ion. i: i o .lol"ng everyona. "n o assuu. but Ihe wor~ ives o"d develops Ihroug~ the oloy of oppos' ng lorces ius' cs in no ture good and bod war together proci uclively in 'he loeg run. rhe bou hO~5 bo no I. edited o 9rooiu5 end monoly'nogy.n general. Ine moi . 10'er on.rer-t successes.. Ihere is no rig hi nor wrong. and to -neve wi!" w otever forces we can commend award o singlerrindeo economicol solution. the s udents were granted Ihe rig I to seod one delegete 'rom each workshop 10 Ihe loc!. heus: alexander 5cl-lo". thing is to lend a hond where some h'ng needee is [oc ing. o~r needs are c1eor eoo"gh: the pO"'oili ies are lim'ted only by ourselves. cri icol estiMO'es ore olwoys subjective and thus a negolive iudg'llent on oncther's work can have "0 sig. but between the faculty and Ihe siudent body (see klee's leHer righlJ. reo are worki~g oget~er 0' our bouncus. Ihe cri icol were cho lenged 10 formula e prccli col suggesior-s fer 'mpreverrenl. not only among foculty membe ...nued for several yeors.. ..extra-curricular activities discuuion in the beuheus: influence of the student body III the basic conception oi the bouhous hod so many rornificotions Ihot it gave rise a 0 vosl nu mber 01 prob ems demanding solution. nillconce fa. 1921 Irom a manuscript u. .eO for a covhcus eve~'n9 niscussion: eve s 'I i try..

1925 _ -: visual re- port 01 a lrip a jugoslavia. 1925 116 : page irom o bitlhdoy album. montage 01 pictures and newspaper clippings. striped. mal' 09'" \92b a bouhcus costume patty at.costumes porty lor a bauhaus DAS WEI SSE FE r photogra ph by lux le. Iheme: while checked.n inger beach Iii" herbert boy e r: invitation dOlled and 10 the while feslilla!. oerger: ligure baked doy porty g'ngeroreod ior 0 bi rfh- .

ted w"h ki"es ira. screen irrprir. prin eo at 1 he bou hous war shop. ncs e cno heor' 'esrivo _ 1928 .. 192b le!ler 119 j ! I I - • .... 1928 nde' 5C nowi""y: ooster lor me beo'o. "e' b. bauhaus band. nose ond heart festival.lh . photog'aph by lux feininger 118 heroe" ooyer: birthday gilt 10 wol er gropius._ - herber bayer: invitation o the beord.31."hauskllp. 0 • ...n" £ 01." s'udeols ond -ncsrers.

courtesy i. 1923. graphic arts. neurno nn poul klee: orcflc InOW. at one period Ihe bouhous reocted violently ogoinst the custom of overloeding the walls 01 a house wi h all kinds 01 pictures." for insto-ica. 180 181 poul llee: outdoor sport. b.painting. courtesy nierendorl gallery . the "house wi houl pictures" (hous ohne bilder] wos merely the shor -livsd bot Ie cry 01 a lew ex remists lor. oil on cardboard.. Irorn Ihe very beginni ng the student boo '/ indud ad 0 nu mber of ortists who were a owed a devole themselves exc usively 10 pointing. 1910. otherwise it would hardly hove invitee world-famous ertisls 10 ioin its faculty. 1919-1928 "iconoclasts" -the "house without pictures" he opposition 01 the bauhaus to conventiona and acoaemic ideas led to the charge 01 "iconoclasm. 05 a metter or lact. watercolor. the bauhous lelt Ihot the "woll" itsell hod to De rediscovered a"d its tree men! experimented with in many 1N0y'. he bouhous 1001 the eenest in eres in poin'ing and sculpture. sculpture. nor would it have includee SO many poi ntings in i15 exhibition. so lno~ interest could be centered on Ihe murol or reliel "''lieh would exis as on in egrol 'eoture 01 the room rother rnon on framed pic ures which W!!re 00 chen casual oiter· hougnts.

1919. 1923 . 0'1 o~ convos. oil on canvas. weterce or. courtesy nierenaorl gallery vcnel leininger: villoge.Iyonel lei ni nger: nieder-reissen. 1924 182 183 Iyonel leininger: go!hen.

ne rma nn 185 ~as. 1927_ courlesy [.' 184 wassi y ond.ilion booro. 0. 1924.y j. b.ns y: graduated blccs..ily c-id'ns t: camoosition 307 11'0di'ied. 1922 'Hossily anain. oil an camoo.. courtesy n'srendorf gal sry .. courte. oil on ccnvos. neumonn .. ail on cor-vcs. y: colored woodc~t. ossily kanain. serene .ky. 1925.

1923 . torso. 1922 ty olean k. closter." 186 181 johannes itlen: cubic composition. schwerd lege: morble. 1919 k. 1922 os Or sc nlernrner: Iree sculp ura. gloss and elester. schwerdtleger: reliel.

'0 r schlerr mer: figure ~I. oskor schlerr mer: orehhectonic rel·a'. otoster. 30) k_ schwerdtfeger: crchitectur el sculpture. sc ulpiure workshop 1923 0.gernard more s: the you+.• 923 I'" 00 uhous.onic relia: . sondstone . 1922-1923 wei "nO esker schlernrner : orch -lee . no. ('rom blbl. lithograph_ 1921.

woodcu'. 1923 friedl dicker: lantostic animals. lithograp .190 gerhard marc. 1922 . oeuman~ gerhard mcrcks: he owl. no. 5: mother cot. 30) 191 gerhard more s: coin and abe. b. woodcu • 1922. COL' esy j. wooocu·. (lrorn bibl. 1921.

lilhograph. moholy. 1 ~~ or schlemmer: ligure h~. empero on convcs.·· . tempera on cerwos. 0'1 on canvas. 192b . sy philip [chnson . construction a II. 1924 192 193 esker schlem 'TIer. no. c. do neer. 1921.nogy. c. 192'1.. moho v-nagy: cens-rucrlce .I~:J OS «: . 30) I . oi on convcs. 1923 cs or schl ernmer: 'he bauhaus stoirs./' I. (irom bibl. COL' ..

1922 195 pou ci roan: o._ colored :slilliie. 1923 I. !empero on ce nvos. we lercolor .ter oreque. s·c" ing. Ii ogroph. 192B . . menoly-nogy: constr ~ction b 100. 1926 194 herbert boyer: the live.

1922 . •rogmen s ot colored gloss boo as. etching. stoineo g1055. mon"oge. Inb josef olbers: lcrtice nicrure. 1921 191 jose' 0 loers: gloss oic ure. 1921 r~do I boschcrn: composition.196 iosef 0 bers: Die ure . 192 pou citroen: -neircpc Is. single pone.

watercolor ond in . 1924 paul klee: vorlcf on.ossily ke nd insky: variation. 1924 x 1 198 photograph from magazine showing crowd ana oudspaoker.1 esker schlere <ner: varia io . 1914 ~ : vcr ioricn. 01 er on ideo 01 rnoholv-nogv. 1924 . which were rnade up into a portiolio as a oirthdoy g'" to wo"er grapLu. pencil a no was n. wotercolor and ink.. the pia as on this ond the opeesite page am individual vorio ions on his photograph. moholy-nogy: variation. 1924 . pencil and wash. tempera. red and bod' nk.. Iyonel !eininger: varia ion. 1924 199 I.

i fischer: cbstrcctlon.o oe"· b-e ~: wol~rco 1927 0 r. Me. 1928 .g. Monotyce. 1927-1928 composTen.rschleld-rncek: wcrerco or. 201 1922 werner drewes: ce cil. 200 campo5i"on. ludwig h.

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