Muhammad Mokhtar Global Perspectives 10N (Mr James) 9/12/2011 Research on South African Child Labour for Group: Muhammad

, Aizuddin, and Danial Fact file: Child Slave Labour Location: South Africa Work places: Street child sex slave, Diamond mining industry, Factories manufacturing Mardi Gras beads, cheap toys, clothes and jewelry. Life expectancy: 51.6 years, 44 years (slave labours) GDP: $363,703.9 million, 70% of state budget comes from diamond mining. Population: 50.5 million 1994- 16% of diamond mining industries are underage. (18/Jan/2010 Time Magazine) 38,000 child sex slaves Age: Eight years to sixteen (factory workers), 6 years to 45 years (mining) (1) What are the problems with human trafficking or slavery in your country?  South Africa 1996 constitution expressly forbids slavery, but it has no stand-alone law against human trafficking in all its forms. Aid groups estimate that 38,000 children are trapped in the sex trade there. In South Africa child slave labour is a common practice in various work places such as agriculture, factory and mines. These young workers aging from eight to sixteen work in hazardous sweatshops in poor working conditions, little pay, overcrowding, subjected to long hours and disease. The Diamond Industry in South Africa is a wellknown place of exploitation towards youth workers. Child labourers are exposed to malaria, dysentery and sexual diseases and suffer from eyestrain, headaches, malnutrition, respiratory problems and get paid poorly. They live a hard life, working in poor conditions, overcrowding, abuse and their wage was exchanged for accommodation on the mining premises. Children become slaves due to various reasons. They come from poor families and they need children’s income to survive. Education is not possible and work is the only choice. Some children become slave labour because of families bond their children. The term bonding is when an employer pays the family in advance and the child works to pay off the debts in return. The debts forced these children into a life of servitude, which passes onto their children.

(2) Describe any laws and conventions that apply to trafficking activity in your country

Muhammad Mokhtar Global Perspectives 10N (Mr James) 9/12/2011    South African Government combat trafficking in persons, the country has been on the “Tier 2 Watch List” by the US Department of Trafficking in Persons for the past 4 years. 1996 South Africa Constitution forbids slavery. UNODC Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Sep 2003): Protocols in Trafficking in persons/human trafficking (Dec. 2003). Regional office in Pretoria, South Africa. International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 1999, which outlaw slavery, sexual exploitation and hazardous work including the forced recruitments of children for use in armed conflict. UNICEF and UNIFEM and WHO are working against human trafficking and sex slave in the South Africa.

(3) Outline the success or failure of the government of your country to enforce its laws in the spirit of anti-trafficking conventions  South Africa shares borders with Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland. It has 72 official port of entry “and a number of unofficial ports of entry where people come in and out without being detected” along its 5000 km-long land borderline. The problem of porous or insecure borders is made worse by the lack of adequately trained employees, resulting in few police officials controlling large portions of the country’s coastline. More than 500 mostly small scale trafficking syndicates – Nigerian, Chinese, Indian and Russian, among others, collude/conspire with South African partners, including recruiters and corrupt police officials, to enslave local victims/children.

(4) Are there any organizations actively dealing with human trafficking/child labour issues in your country? (refer to links in KN)  There are organizations and authors who are trying to make the world aware about the child slave labour in diamond industry in South Africa. They are: Janine Roberts, The Anti-Slavery Society, IndianNGO, Child Labour News Service (CLNS), managed by the Global March Against Child Labour, and IHS Child Slave Labour News. They write about the suffrage, inhumanity and abuse the child slave workers face everyday. Christian Revival Church, pastor Andre Lombard recruited 60 volunteers to distribute food, blankets and bibles to dozens sex slave girls within 10-block radius of the stadium. The event was Rugby World Cup held in South Africa.

Muhammad Mokhtar Global Perspectives 10N (Mr James) 9/12/2011    International Police Organization (Interpol) has held conferences on trafficking and coordinate cross-border law enforcement agencies in trying to clamp down the trafficking of children. Not For Sale anti human trafficking organization primarily works with law enforcement to assist in the detection and support of human trafficking victims. Free the Slaves organization are actively campaigning consumers, investors and regulators to remove slavery products from the store shelves in US

(5) What scenarios might happen because of the action or inaction of different groups?  These vulnerable children will never get out of their miserable livelihood while the employers get great profits. If there is no action from different groups the people around the world would never know the plight of child slave labours. The child slave practice will continue. However, if these groups’ action become effective, child slave could be stopped and laws introduced to protect them. These children will have basic education and a better future. US under President Obama has pledged “to fight to abolish modern day slavery a top foreign policy priority, but the US currently spends more in a single day fighting drug trafficking than it does in an entire year fighting the human trafficking.” Quoted from Luis CdeBaca, on his visit to South Africa.

(6) Suggest possible courses of actions for your country.  State government need to pass legislations which prohibits and punishes all forms of trafficking as defined and set by UN Trafficking Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish Trafficking in persons, especially women and children. Government must recognize all trafficked people are victims of human rights violation and provide them with minimum standards of protection and support, including shelter, financial and legal assistance, counseling and health services, temporary and permanent residential status. More NGOs, Organizations against slavery and other humanitarian groups present and getting governmental support for their safety. Educating the parents about not letting their children working because they are underage and the dangers they are going to face if they work. Educating the street children about their rights and get the available help they could get. More exposure of their exploitation to the world so that their product sold will be banned in order to eliminate the exporters using these slaves for profits.

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Muhammad Mokhtar Global Perspectives 10N (Mr James) 9/12/2011   Future World events in South Africa must come with warnings about the laws against child sex slave trade, drugs trade, etc. and its penalties. Governmental and Humanitarian help to increase the family income and children educational opportunities.