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lalnnyaŦSekurangnya LerdapaL Llga cara dalam membedakan emoslţ yaknl perbedaan yang LerllhaL
dengan adanya kaLaŴkaLa emosl yang banyak [umlahnya lLuţ membedakan berdasarkan ke[adlan yang
menlmbulkan emosl dan LandaŴLanda munculnya emoslŦ Lmosl daLang berdasarkan moLlfŦ MoLlf
merupakan pengerLlan yang berkalLan semua penggerak aLau dorongan dalam dlrl manusla yang
menyebabkan dlla berbuaL sendlrlŦ 1lngkah laku manusla menyebabkan seseorang berbuaL sesuaLu
(Cerunganţ 1996ť140)ŦAnna Wlerzblckaţ seorang penellLl emosl darl AusLrallan naLlonal unlverslLyţ
membedakan emosl ke dalam 6 kelompok uLama yang dldasarkan pada LemaŴLema umumţ yaknl1)
SesuaLu yang balk Ler[adlţ2) SesuaLu yang buruk Ler[adlţ3) SesuaLu yang buruk blsa/akan Ler[adlţ4) Saya
Lldak lngln hal seperLl lnl unLuk Ler[adlţ3) 8erplklr LenLang orang lalnţ6) 8erplklr LenLang dlrl
sendlrlŦMaslngŴmaslng darl Lema lLu LerkalL dengan beberapa aspek skenarlo kognlLlf yang dlmlllklŦLmosl
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penllalan Lerhadap suaLu ob[ek LerLenLu dengan lsLllah balk aLau burukŦ Semakln senLral suaLu ob[ek
seseorang semakln besar kemungklnan seseorang menylmpan se[umlah besar lnformasl mengenal ob[ek
lLuţ 1lngkah laku manusla Lldak hanya resfonslf Lerhadap rangsangan darl slLuasl sesaaLŦ SlLuasl seplnLas
lalu maka seplnLas [uga yang Lerekam dllngaLanŦ kalau leblh kompleksţ maka leblh kompleks yang
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dlmlllklŦ1Ŧ SesuaLu yang balk Ler[adlŦ!lka seseorang mengalaml sesuaLu yang balk Ler[adl dalam hldup
Andaţ mlsalnya seseorang mendapaLkan undlanţ dlLerlma beker[aţ mendapaLkan kekaslhţ menggapal
lmplanţ maka akan merasa bahaglaţ senangţ gemblraţ sukaţ rlangţ damalţ nyamanţ nlkmaLţ legaţ dan
semacamnyaŦ2Ŧ SesuaLu yang buruk Ler[adlŦSeseorang berada dalam slLuasl yang burukţ mlsalnya
dlpecaLţ dlkhlanaLl dan sebagalnya yang burukŴburukŦ Maka akan mengalaml kesedlhanţ LerLekanţ
menderlLaţ saklL haLlţ frusLraslţ kecewaţ merasa dlLolakţ aLau lalnnya yang semacamŦ3Ŧ SesuaLu yang
buruk blsa/akan Ler[adl!lka seseorang merasa bahwa sesuaLu yang buruk blsa sa[a Ler[adlŦ Mlsalnya blsa
kehllangan orang dlsayangţ kehllangan penghasllanţ dan sebagalnya yang burukŴburukţ maka mungkln
mengalaml cemasţ panlkţ LakuLţ khawaLlrţ gugupţ pucaLţ wasŴwasţ waspadaţ aLau lalnnyaŦ4Ŧ Seseorang
Lldak lngln hal seperLl lnl Ler[adlţ SaaL seseorang lngln yang Ler[adl Lldak seperLl yang dlalamlţ mungkln
akan merasa marahţ panas haLlţ murkaţ Lerke[uLţ aLau yang lalnnyaŦ3Ŧ 8erplklr LenLang orang lalnŦÞada
saaL Anda memlklrkan orang lalnţ mungkln seseorang merasa lrl aLau cemburuŦ6Ŧ 8erplklr LenLang dlrl
sendlrlŦSeseorang mengalaml emosl LerLenLu keLlka berplklr LenLang dlrl sendlrlŦ Lmosl yang blasanya
muncul karena berplklr LenLang dlrlsendlrl menlmbulkan rasa maluţ blngungţ merasa bersalahţ
menyesalţ bangga aLau yang lalnnyaŦkeslmpulanLmosl memlllkl [enls yang berbedaŴbedaŦ Lmosl
memlllkl Lerdlrl darl sedlhţ LakuLţ [l[lkţ sedlh dan Lerke[uLŦ 8agam emosl Lldak memlllkl acuan yang sama
dan memlllkl gradasl yang berbedaŦ Lmosl bukanlah marahţ melalnkan marah adalah baglan darl emoslŦ
Lmoslberkembang karena moLlf dan der[aL perasaanŦ Lmosl memlllkl hubungan yang mempengaruhl
Lerhadap kebudayaanŦ

!urnal
Psychometric Properties of the Reynolds Child Depression Scale in Community and
Clinical Samples
Anna Figueras Masip, Juan Antonio Amador Campos, Joan Guardia Olmos. %he Spanish
1ournal of Psychology. Madrid: 2008. Vol. 11, Iss. 2; pg. 641, 9 pgs
Abstract (Summary)
The Iactor structure oI the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989), analyzed
by conIirmatory Iactor analysis and the scale's psychometric characteristics in a sample oI 315
participants (140 boys and 175 girls) and a clinical sample oI 62 participants (37 boys and 25
girls) between 10 and 12 years old, are presented. Two models are tested with conIirmatory
Iactor analysis: a one-Iactor model and a Iive-Iactor model. Both models show a good Iit, but the
one-Iactor model was chosen because it is the most parsimonious. The reliability coeIIicient
ranged Irom .87 (at test) to .89 (at retest) in the community sample, and was .90 in the clinical
sample (at test). Test-retest reliability was .66 in the community sample. Concurrent validity with
other selI-reports that measure depressive symptomatology was high, both in the community
sample (.76) and the clinical sample (.71). There were no signiIicant sex diIIerences but there
were diIIerences due to age (school grade).
Jump to indexing (document details)
ull %ext
(5259 words)
Copyright Universidad Complutense de Madrid 2008
eadnote]
The Iactor structure oI the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989), analyzed
by conIirmatory Iactor analysis and the scale's psychometric characteristics in a sample oI 315
participants (140 boys and 175 girls) and a clinical sample oI 62 participants (37 boys and 25
girls) between 10 and 12 years old, are presented. Two models are tested with conIirmatory
Iactor analysis: a one-Iactor model and a Iive-Iactor model. Both models show a good Iit, but the
one-Iactor model was chosen because it is the most parsimonious. The reliability coeIIicient
ranged Irom .87 (at test) to .89 (at retest) in the community sample, and was .90 in the clinical
sample (at test). Test-retest reliability was .66 in the community sample. Concurrent validity with
other selI-reports that measure depressive symptomatology was high, both in the community
sample (.76) and the clinical sample (.71). There were no signiIicant sex diIIerences but there
were diIIerences due to age (school grade).
Keywords: depressive symptoms, childhood, assessment, selI-report, RCDS, conIirmatory Iactor
analysis
Se analiza la estructura Iactorial de la Reynolds Children Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds,
1989) mediante analisis Iactorial conIirmatorio y se presentan sus caracteristicas psicometricas
en una muestra comunitaria de 315 participantes (140 chicos y 175 chicas) y en una muestra
clinica de 62 participantes (37 chicos y 25 chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 10 y los 12
años. En el analisis Iactorial conIirmatorio se prueban dos modelos, uno uniIactorial y otro de
cinco Iactores. El modelo uniIactorial se ajusta mejor y es mas parsimonioso. La Iiabilidad de la
RCDS es elevada para ambas muestras: consistencia interna entre 0,87 (test) y 0,89 (retest) en
muestra comunitaria, y de 0,90 en la muestra clinica (test); la correlacion test-retest era de 0,66
en la muestra comunitaria. La validez concurrente con otros instrumentos que miden
sintomatologia depresiva era elevada, tanto en muestra comunitaria (0,76) como en muestra
clinica (0,71). No se aprecian diIerencias segun sexo, pero si segun el curso escolar.
Palabras clave: sintomas depresivos, niñez, evaluacion, autoinIorme, RCDS, analisis Iactorial
conIirmatorio

Depression in children and adolescents is an insidious disorder, oIten poorly identiIied or else
considered a normal mood variation. The causes are diverse and, among others, include the type
oI symptomatology, the Irequently covert nature oI the symptoms, the consideration oI the end oI
childhood and the beginning oI adolescence as a period oI changes and emotional alterations, the
scarce communication between some adolescents and their parents or reIerence adults, and the
lack oI selI-reIerral to proIessionals.
The symptoms considered typical oI the depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence have
changed over time. Del Barrio (1990) carried out a review oI the works on childhood depression
between 1945 and 1987 and elaborated a list with almost 40 symptoms. OI this extensive list,
Del Barrio underlines that the main symptoms oI childhood depression are: low selI-esteem,
changes in sleep pattern, loss or increase oI appetite and weight, social isolation, hyperactivity,
dysphoria, and suicidal ideation. These symptoms, mainly oI an internal nature, are similar to
those described in depression in adults. However, in childhood and adolescent depression, there
are speciIic symptoms, such as behavior problems, irritability, temper tantrums or disobedience.
As oI 6 years oI age, depressive symptoms in children become more similar to those oI adults
but, as a diIIerential characteristic, depressive symptomatology is associated with behavior
problems (ShaIIi & ShaIIi, 1992).
In the last Iew years, considerable eIIort has been made to design and improve the assessment
instruments oI aIIective disorders in children and adolescents. A broad array oI instruments has
been created that go Irom selI-report measurements to structured interviews, and include
observation methods and parents', teachers', or peers' heteroreports (Jane, Araneda, Valero, &
Domenech, 2000; Kazdin, 1981; Kazdin & Petti, 1982).
Pencil-and-paper selI-reports provide inIormation about the Irequency and intensity oI
depressive symptoms. Although they are not diagnostic instruments, they are necessary in the
assessment process and are very important when appraising treatment eIIicacy and at Iollow-up
(Klein, Dougherty, & Olino, 2005; Mash & Hunsley, 2005; Orvaschel, 2004). The Iollowing
selI-reports assess childhood depression and have been adapted to our context: the Children's
Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1992; Spanish adaptation by del Barrio & Carrasco, 2004)
and the Children's Depression Scale (CDS; Tischer & Lang, 1978; Spanish adaptation oI TEA,
1983). In addition to these instruments, two oI the most Irequently used scales to assess
depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence in the English language are the
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS; Reynolds, 1987, 2002) and the Reynolds Child
Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989). The scale items are short and direct, which Iacilitates
reading and responding. Del Barrio, Colondron, De Pablo, and Roa (1996) studied and adapted
the RCDS and the RADS to Spanish.
The RCDS (Reynolds, 1989) is a short and easily administered selI-report measure, designed to
assess depressive symptomatology in children between the ages oI 8 and 12 years. The RCDS
does not provide a Iormal diagnosis oI depression, according to the diagnostic criteria established
by categorical systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual oI Mental Disorders (DSM-
IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) or the International ClassiIication oI Diseases
(ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992), but it was designed to assess depressive
symptomatology and to be used as a screening instrument to identiIy depressive symptoms at
school or in clinical settings.
Mean RCDS scores in English-speaking community samples ranged between 49.00 (Baker &
Reynolds, 1988) and 66.54 (Reynolds, Anderson, & Bartell, 1985). For the Spanish-speaking
community samples, mean total scores ranged between 47.20 (Del Barrio et al., 1996) and 49.72
(Lopez, 1985). In English-speaking clinical samples, mean total scores ranged between 53.03
(Rawson & Tabb, 1993) and 67.32 (Stark, Reynolds, & Kaslow, 1987).
The cut-oII point (percentile 90) established by Reynolds (1989), with an American population,
is situated at a raw score oI 74 (73° sensitivity and 97° speciIicity) Ior boys and girls. In
studies carried out in our context (Del Barrio et al., 1996), the cut-oII point decreased to 65
(percentile 95) Ior both sexes.
The reliability oI the RCDS, analyzed by internal consistency, ranges between .85 and .90 Ior the
standardization sample. Test-retest reliability is .82 at two weeks, and .85 at Iour weeks
(Reynolds, 1989). Other studies report internal consistency between .79 and .90 (Bartell &
Reynolds, 1986; Lopez, 1985; Reynolds, 1989; Reynolds et al., 1985; Stark et al., 1987), and
test-retest reliability between .82 and .85 (Del Barrio et al., 1996; Reynolds & Graves, 1989).
Concurrent validity oI the RCDS has been analyzed through its correlations with other
measurements oI depression, anxiety, or selI-esteem. The RCDS presents correlations ranging
between .68 and .79 with the CDI (Bartell & Reynolds, 1986; Kovacs, 1992; Lopez, 1985;
Reynolds, 1989; Reynolds et al., 1985); in Spanish populations, Del Barrio et al. (1996) Iound a
correlation between the CDI and the RCDS oI .73. The correlations between the RCDS and the
Revised Children's ManiIest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) range between .60 and .76. The
correlations with a measurement oI selI-esteem (SelI-esteem Inventory, SEI; Coopersmith, 1981)
are negative and range between -.50 and -.71 (Bartell & Reynolds, 1986; Reynolds, 1989;
Reynolds et al., 1985).
Studies oI the Iactor structure oI the RCDS are scarce. Reynolds (1989) Iound Iive Iactors in a
community sample oI 1,620 participants: dependence and concern, demoralization, externalizing
symptoms and somatic complaints, depressed mood and pessimism, and anhedonia. No studies
on the Iactor structure in Spanish population were Iound.
The goal oI this work is to present the Iactor structure oI the RCDS by means oI conIirmatory
Iactor analysis and the psychometric properties oI the bilingual Spanish-Catalan version oI the
RCDS in the Catalonian children's population
Method
Participants
The community sample comprised 315 participants, aged between 10 and 12 years, Irom public
and partially state-Iunded schools oI the province oI Barcelona, registered in 5th and 6th grade oI
Primary Education. OI the sample, 44.44° are boys (140) and 55.55° are girls (175). We
contacted one school Irom each oI the ten districts oI the city oI Barcelona and several schools
Irom the province. Five schools agreed to participate in the study.
The clinical sample comprised 62 participants (25 girls, 40.32°; 37 boys, 59.67°), ages
between 10 and 12 years. The participants were in 4th, 5th, and 6th grade oI Primary Education.
The clinical sample was recruited Irom two Children's and Youths' Mental Health Centers (in
Spanish, "Centro de Salud Mental InIantil y Juvenil," hereaIter abbreviated to CYMHC) oI the
province oI Barcelona. The clinical team oI the CYMHC perIormed the diagnosis according to
the criteria oI the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). OI this clinical sample, 19 participants were
diagnosed with depression, 21 with anxiety disorders, 9 with behavior and learning problems,
and 13 had no deIinite diagnosis at the time oI coding the RCDS data. In addition, Ior the study
oI the sensitivity and speciIicity oI the RCDS, we selected a nonsymptomatic group Irom the
community sample oI 45 participants who scored lower than the cutoII point at the test and retest
phases. This group was paired in age and sex with the group diagnosed with depression.
The socioeconomic status oI the community sample, calculated with the Hollingshead (1975)
index, was as Iollows: high 20.4°, medium-high 15.1°, medium 26.0°, medium-low 32.2°,
and low 5.4°. And the socioeconomic status oI the clinical sample was: high 0°, medium-high
12.1°, medium 9.1°, medium-low 66.7°, and low 12.1°.
Instruments
The RCDS includes 30 items, 29 oI which use a 4-point Likert-type response Iormat, ranging
Irom 1 (almost never) to 4 (all the time). The last item oI the scale presents Iaces with various
expressions and is rated on a 5-point scale. The total score oI the RCDS can range between 30
and 121 points. The RCDS can be administered individually or collectively; it can also be
administered orally to children with reading diIIiculties. Table 1 displays the denomination
proposed by Reynolds (1989) Ior each item.
The CDI consists oI 28 items that assess depressive symptomatology. Each one oI the items has
three response options that score 0 (absence oI symptomatology), 1 (mild symptomatology) or 2
(severe symptomatology). The total score ranges Irom 0 to 54 points.
The Iollowing translation and adaptation procedures were used Ior the RCDS and the CDI: (a)
direct translation oI the questionnaire Irom English to Spanish and Irom English to Catalan by
two expert translators, with knowledge oI psychology and psychopathology; (b) comparison oI
the translations to assess diIIerences in interpretation; (c) back translation by other expert
translators; (d) comparison oI the direct and back-translation versions by bilingual persons to
veriIy the conceptual and semantic equivalence oI the sentences; (e) draIting the deIinitive
version presented in this work (Brislin, 1986; Brislin, Loner, & Thorndike, 1973; Candell &
Hulin, 1987).
The RCDS and the CDI were administered in a bilingual Spanish-Catalan version (see Annex 1).
We chose this Iormat because oI our experience with previous works in which we veriIied that
the bilingual version Iacilitated understanding the sentences (Abad & Amador, 1991; Abad &
Forns, 1991a, 1991b).
Procedure
The assessment procedure Iollowed Reynolds' (1986) multistage model. This procedure
comprises three stages to identiIy children with depressive symptomatology. The Iirst two phases
consist oI the administration oI selI-assessment instruments oI depressive symptomatology at
two diIIerent points in time with an interval oI 2 or 3 weeks (test and retest phases), the
minimum period established in Criterion A oI the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) Ior a major
depressive episode. In the third stage, the participants who exceeded the cut-oII point at test and
retest were assessed more extensively, gathering inIormation Irom various inIormers (parents
and teachers) with diverse methods (interviews and rating scales).
The assessment procedure Ior both groups was approved by the Deontological Commission oI
the Association oI Psychologists oI Catalonia (COPC) and by the boards oI directors oI the
schools that collaborated in the study, as well as by the teams oI psychologists oI the
participating clinical centers. For the community sample, we obtained the parents' inIormed
consent with a letter sent Irom the school director's oIIice. The parents oI the participants oI the
clinical sample gave their consent on the day oI the initial interview and the children agreed to
participate in the study.
Data was collected Irom the community sample anonymously and collectively, in groups oI 20
students. This was carried out during the students' tutoring class by two psychologists in the
presence oI the classroom tutor. The participants indicated their sex and date oI birth in the
protocols and the questionnaires Ior the test and retest phases were paired Ior each classroom
using these data.
The data oI the clinical sample were collected by a clinical psychologist during the initial
interview at the CYMHC. The CYMHC clinical team perIormed the diagnosis according to the
DSM-IV-TR criteria (APA, 2000), disregarding the results oI the RCDS.
The data presented herein are a part oI a more extensive research that has assessed depressive
symptomatology in childhood and adolescence. In this work, we only present the results obtained
in the RCDS at the test and retest phases Ior the community sample and the test data Ior the
clinical sample, in addition to the concurrent validity between the RCDS and the CDI.
Data Analysis
In order to conIirm the Iactor structure proposed by Reynolds (1989), we analyzed two Iactor
models with conIirmatory Iactor analysis (CFA) using the EQS program, version 6.1 (Bentler &
Wu, 2002). Given the nature oI the items- Likert-type scale and biased distribution-we used the
elliptic robust least square method (ERLS; Bentler & Dijkstra, 1985) oI parameter estimation. In
both cases, the variance oI the Iactors was Iixed at 1 in order to provide the measuring scale; in
the case oI the Iive-Iactor structure, the analysis was carried out assuming that the Iactors were
correlated. The Iirst model assessed the possibility oI a onedimensional structure, whereas the
second proposal established the Iive Iactors proposed by Reynolds (1989). Table 2 displays the
items oI each Iactor.
To analyze the eIIect oI the Grade × Sex interactions on the RCDS scores at the test and retest
phase in the community sample, a repeated measures MANOVA was perIormed. Reliability was
examined with Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability. For the clinical sample, the
diIIerences as a Iunction oI grade and sex were assessed by means oI Kruskal-Wallis' H and
Mann-Witney's U.
Results
Community Sample
Table 3 displays the means and standard deviations oI the RCDS at test and retest phases. The
means obtained in the RCDS ranged between 46.47 and 49.03 (at test) and Irom 42.88 to 48.41
(at retest). Girls scored higher than boys in all grades, both at test and retest. Total retest scores
were lower than test scores in all grades, Ior boys and girls, except Ior the scores oI the 6th-grade
girls, which were slightly higher at retest.
A mixed-Iactor analysis oI variance, with one withingroup variable and two between-group
variables, was conducted to identiIy the possible interactions between the two administration
phases, participants' sex, and grade. The condition oI equality oI the variance-covariance
matrixes was met: Box's M: F(9.148447, 9) ÷ 1.484, p ÷.147. Table 4 shows the results oI this
analysis, with the value oI the degrees oI Ireedom corrected according to the missing/unrecorded
values in each analysis.
As can be observed, there were no interactions between the administration phase oI the
instrument, grade, and sex, although there were signiIicant diIIerences between the
administration phases, with the test scores being signiIicantly higher than the retest scores,
despite the Iact that the eIIect size was not very high (q`sup 2` ÷ 0.022). The between-subject
eIIects showed that there were no signiIicant diIIerences Ior sex or Ior the Grade × Sex
interaction, although there were signiIicant diIIerences Ior grade, with the 6th-graders scoring
higher than the 5th-graders.
A main eIIect oI course was observed in the diIIerences between the scores oI the 5th- and 6th-
graders. The mean total score oI the 6th-grade participants was higher than that oI the 5th-
graders, although the eIIect size was moderate (q`sup 2` ÷ 0.033) and did not indicate an intense
eIIect.
ConIirmatory Factor Analysis
We obtained the CFA estimations Ior two possible measurement solutions (Iive-Iactor model vs.
one-Iactor model). The results oI the ERLS estimations Ior the Iactor loadings yielded the Iit
indexes presented in Table 5.
The analysis oI the Iit allowed us to improve the Iit oI the one-Iactor model slightly, compared to
the Iive-Iactor model. Although neither solution oIIered an adequate result in the Iit test (the
values oI 2 were highly signiIicant), the more global Iit indexes were somewhat better in the
oneIactor model, especially the Bentler-Bonnet indexes and the values oI the residual variance,
in which the interval obtained in the one-Iactor model was better than that oI the IiveIactor
model. The comparison oI these two solutions was statistically signiIicant. That is, the value oI
the Tucker- Lewis statistic (TLI) presented a value diIIerent Irom 0 (p · .001), so that, although
the Iits were not entirely satisIactory Ior either oI the two models, the evidence led us to choose
the one-Iactor model (see Table 6).
Reliability and Validity
The one-dimensional solution was slightly more satisIactory Ior this sample; thereIore, we
provide the values oI reliability and validity Ior this one-Iactor solution. Internal consistency
(Cronbach's alpha) oI the total scale was very good, both at test (u ÷ .87, 95° conIidence
interval |CI| between .82 and .92), and at retest (u ÷ .89, 95° CI between .84 and .94). testretest
reliability was .66 (95° CI between .62 and .71).
Concurrent validity oI the RCDS with the CDI was assessed. The correlations between both
instruments were high and equivalent both at test phase (r ÷ .767, p · .001, 95° CI between .71
and .81) and at retest (r ÷ .771, p · .001, 95° CI between .71 and .81).
Clinical Sample
Taking into account the results oI the CFA oI the community sample, we structured the results oI
the clinical sample using the one-Iactor solution. Table 7 displays the means and standard
deviations oI the RCDS according to sex and grade. The boys' means ranged between 47.64 and
58.25, and the girls' between 51.60 and 59.67.
The diIIerences as a Iunction oI grade and sex were assessed by means oI nonparametric
statistics (Kruskal- Wallis' H and Mann-Witney's U). No statistically signiIicant diIIerences were
Iound either Ior grade (H ÷ 5.094, p ÷ .078) or Ior sex (U ÷ 354, p ÷ .119).
Reliability (Cronbach's alpha coeIIicient) oI the RCDS was .90 (95° CI between .87 and .93).
The correlations between the scores oI the RCDS and the CDI were .715 (p · .001, 95° CI
between .66 and .76).
Diagnostic Precision
In order to examine the diagnostic precision oI the instruments, we used sensitivity and
speciIicity indexes. Sensitivity is the capacity oI a test to identiIy positive cases; that is, the
proportion oI true positives. SpeciIicity is the capacity to discriminate negative cases; the
proportion oI true negatives.
Sensitivity and speciIicity vary according to the cut-oII points. In tests that assess
psychopathological symptoms, such as Achenbach's (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) scales, the cutoII
point is established at the T score oI 70, or centile 98, which corresponds to the mean plus two
standard deviations. This interpretation method assumes that all scores equal to or higher than
two standard deviations above the mean indicate the presence oI clinically signiIicant
symptomatology.
In this work, we studied the diagnostic precision oI the RCDS, understood as the ability to
correctly classiIy the participants into clinically signiIicant groups by means oI the receiver
operating characteristics (ROC) curve. To perIorm this analysis, we used the group oI 19
participants, diagnosed as depressed by the clinical teams oI the CYMHCs, and the group oI 45
nonsymptomatic participants. Figure 1 displays the area under the curve and Table 8 shows the
values oI sensitivity and speciIicity Ior the diIIerent cut-oII points that may be useIul, depending
on whether one wishes to increase the sensitivity or the speciIicity when using the test. The area
under the curve was .93 (95° CI between .87 and .99). The cut-oII point that best combines the
values oI sensitivity and speciIicity was 61; sensitivity oI 0.79 (95° CI between .54 and .95) and
speciIicity oI 0.87 (95° CI between .73 and .95).
Conclusions
In this work, we present the psychometric characteristics oI the bilingual Spanish-Catalan
version oI the RCDS in two samples, a community sample and a clinical sample.
The Iactor structure models studied in the community sample did not yield an adequate degree oI
Iit, although the one-Iactor solution presented a better Iit than the multiIactor (Iive-Iactor)
solution. This improvement is not only present in the global Iit (which was not high in any oI the
cases); however, in the one-Iactor solution, all the Iactor loadings were statistically signiIicant,
which did not occur in the IiveIactor solution. ThereIore, our results indicate that the RCDS is
initially a one-dimensional test.
The reliability oI the bilingual version oI the RCDS, measured by means oI the internal
consistency and the testretest correlation, is satisIactory; the concurrent validity with the CDI is
high, both Ior the community sample and the clinical sample. These results are congruent with
those oI other studies (Bartell & Reynolds, 1986; Del Barrio et al., 1996; Reynolds, 1989;
Reynolds & Graves, 1989).
The distribution oI the scores oI the community sample conIirms the tendency toward a decrease
in the retest phase, the so-called "attenuation eIIect" (Egger & Angold, 2004). Various
investigations have shown that repeated administrations oI selI-reports are associated with a
signiIicant decrease in the scores at the second administration compared to the Iirst (Finch,
Saylor, Edwards, & McIntosh, 1987; Kaslow, Rehm, & Siegel, 1984; Meyer, Dyck, & Petrinack,
1989). Moreover, the decrease oI the scores at the retest phase in the community sample shows
that the RCDS is sensitive to the temporal Iluctuation that is common in depressive
symptomatology, even with short intervals between administrations (Reynolds, 1989).
The means and standard deviations obtained at the test and retest phases in the community and
clinical samples are similar to those oI other studies (Hepperlin, Stewart, & Rey, 1990;
Reynolds, 1989; Reynolds et al., 1985). No signiIicant diIIerences associated with sex were
obtained, but signiIicant diIIerences were observed in grade, with scores increasing with age.
These data conIirm the tendency oI no signiIicant sex diIIerences in the presence oI depressive
symptomatology beIore adolescence (Angold & Rutter, 1992; Nolen- Hoeksema & Girgus,
1994).
Regarding the diagnostic utility oI the RCDS, the cutoII point that best combines the indexes oI
sensitivity and speciIicity was 61, lower than those presented by Reynolds (1989) and Del Barrio
et al. (1996). The diIIerences may be due to the estimation method oI the cut-oII point and the
selection oI the contrast groups. In the case oI Del Barrio's Spanish sample, the cut-oII point oI
65 was estimated Irom the mean plus two standard deviations. II we apply this Iormula to the
data oI this work, the cut-oII point would range between 68 (6th-graders) and 71 (5thgraders),
slightly higher than the one presented by Del Barrio et al (1996). The diIIerence with the cut-oII
point presented by Reynolds could be related to the diIIerent method oI Iorming the contrast
groups. Reynolds used a group oI 82 participants who were assigned either to the depressed
group (10 participants) or to the nondepressed group (72 participants) on the basis oI their scores
in the Children's Depression Rating Scale Revised (Poznanski, Freeman, & Mokros, 1985). In
our work, the group oI depressed participants had been diagnosed by the CYMHC clinical
services, according to the criteria oI the DSM-IVTR (APA, 2000), disregarding the RCDS
scores, whereas the nonsymptomatic group comprised the participants who did not exceed the
cut-oII point established by Reynolds, both at test and retest.
Summing up, the bilingual Spanish-Catalan version oI the RCDS presents adequate
psychometric properties, so it can be considered a useIul instrument to assess depressive
symptomatology within our context. However, it should be taken into account that the data
presented in this work were collected in the city oI Barcelona and in its province, so that they
should be used with the requisite caution with populations other than the ones assessed.
|ReIerence| » View reIerence page with links
ReIerences
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Received December 29, 2006
Revision received December 30, 2007
Accepted January 22, 2008

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Þalabras claveť slnLomas depreslvosţ nlnezţ evaluaclónţ auLolnformeţ 8Cuţ anallsls fakLorlal
conflrmaLorlo

uepresl pada anakŴanak dan rema[a adalah gangguan berbahayaţ serlng kurang dlldenLlflkasl aLau yang
laln dlanggap sebagal varlasl suasana haLl yang normalŦ Þenyebabnya beragam danţ anLara laln mellpuLl
[enls slmLomaLologlţ slfaL rahasla serlng ge[alaţ perLlmbangan akhlr masa kanakŴkanak dan awal rema[a
sebagal perlode perubahan dan perubahan emoslonalţ komunlkasl langka anLara beberapa rema[a dan
mereka orang Lua aLau orang dewasa referenslţ dan kekurangan dlrlŴru[ukan unLuk profeslonalŦ

Ce[alaŴge[ala dlanggap khas darl gangguan depresl dl masa kecll dan rema[a Lelah berubah darl wakLu ke
wakLuŦ uel 8arrlo (1990) melakukan revlew darl beker[a pada depresl anak anLara Lahun 1943 dan 1987
dan megembangkan suaLu dafLar dengan hamplr 40 ge[alaŦ uarl dafLar lnl eksLenslfţ uel 8arrlo
menggarlsbawahl bahwa ge[ala uLama darl depresl kanakŴkanak adalahť harga dlrl yang rendahţ
perubahan pola Lldurţ kehllangan aLau menlngkaLnya nafsu makan dan beraL badanţ lsolasl soslalţ
hlperakLlfţ dysphorlaţ dan bunuh dlrlŦ Ce[alaŴge[ala lnlţ LeruLama yang berslfaL lnLernalţ mlrlp dengan
yang dl[elaskan dalam depresl pada orang dewasaŦ namunţ dl masa kecll dan rema[a depreslţ ada ge[ala
speslflkţ seperLl masalah perllakuţ mudah marahţ amarah aLau keLldakLaaLanŦ Þada usla 6 Lahunţ ge[ala
depresl pada anakŴanak men[adl leblh serupa dengan orang dewasaţ LeLaplţ sebagal karakLerlsLlk
dlferenslalţ slmLomaLologl depresl dlkalLkan dengan masalah perllaku (Shaffl Ǝ Shafflţ 1992)Ŧ

ualam beberapa Lahun Lerakhlrţ upaya besar Lelah dllakukan unLuk menlngkaLkan desaln dan lnsLrumen
penllalan darl gangguan afekLlf pada anakŴanak dan rema[aŦ Sebuah array yang luas darl lnsLrumen Lelah
dlclpLakan yang pergl darl dlrlŴlaporan pengukuran unLuk wawancara LersLrukLurţ dan Lermasuk meLode
observasl dan orang Lua ƌţ guruţ aLau heLeroreporLs rekanŴrekanƌ (!aneţ Aranedaţ valeroţ Ǝ uomenechţ
2000Ť kazdlnţ 1981Ť kazdln Ǝ ÞeLLlţ 1982)Ŧ

ÞensllŴdanŴkerLas laporan dlrl memberlkan lnformasl LenLang frekuensl dan lnLenslLas ge[ala depreslŦ
Mesklpun mereka Lldak lnsLrumen dlagnosLlkţ mereka dlperlukan dalam proses penllalan dan sangaL
penLlng keLlka menllal keman[uran pengobaLan dan pada followŴup (klelnţ uougherLyţ Ǝ Cllnoţ 2003Ť
Pancurkan Ǝ Punsleyţ 2003Ť Crvaschelţ 2004)Ŧ 8erlkuL laporan dlrl menllal depresl kanakŴkanak dan
Lelah dlsesualkan dengan konLeks klLať uepresslon lnvenLory Anak (Culţ kovacsţ 1992Ť adapLasl Spanyol
oleh del 8arrlo Ǝ Carrascoţ 2004) dan Skala uepresl Anak (CuSŤ 1lscher Ǝ Langţ 1978 Ť Spanyol adapLasl
1LPţ 1983)Ŧ Selaln lnsLrumen lnlţ dua darl skala yang pallng serlng dlgunakan unLuk menllal depresl
slmLomaLologl dl masa kecll dan rema[a dalam bahasa lnggrls adalah 8eynolds uepresl Skala 8ema[a
(radŤ 8eynoldsţ 1987ţ 2002) dan Anak uepresl Skala 8eynolds (8CuŤ 8eynolds ţ 1989)Ŧ Þara lLem skala
yang pendek dan langsungţ yang memudahkan membaca dan menanggaplŦ uel 8arrloţ Colondrónţ ue
Þabloţ dan 8oa (1996) mempela[arl dan mengadapLasl 8Cu dan rad ke SpanyolŦ

Þara 8Cu (8eynoldsţ 1989) adalah ukuran laporan dlrl slngkaL dan mudah dlkelolaţ yang dlrancang unLuk
menllal slmLomaLologl depresl pada anakŴanak anLara usla 8 dan 12 LahunŦ Þara 8Cu Lldak memberlkan
dlagnosls formal depreslţ menuruL krlLerla dlagnosLlk yang dlLeLapkan oleh slsLem kaLegorls seperLl
ulagnosLlk dan SLaLlsLlk Manual of MenLal ulsorders (uSMŴlvŴ18ţ Amerlcan ÞsychlaLrlc AssoclaLlonţ
2000) aLau lnLernaLlonal ClasslflcaLlon of ulseases ( lCuŴ10Ť Crganlsasl kesehaLan uunlaţ 1992)ţ Lapl lLu
dlrancang unLuk menllal slmLomaLologl depresl dan unLuk dlgunakan sebagal lnsLrumen skrlnlng unLuk
mengldenLlflkasl ge[ala depresl dl sekolah aLau dalam pengaLuran kllnlsŦ

8erarLl skor 8Cu dalam berbahasa lnggrls sampel komunlLas berklsar anLara 49Ŧ00 (8aker Ǝ 8eynoldsţ
1988) dan 66ţ34 (8eynoldsţ Andersonţ Ǝ 8arLellţ 1983)Ŧ unLuk berbahasa Spanyol sampel masyarakaLţ
berarLl nllal LoLal berklsar anLara 47ţ20 (uel 8arrlo eL alŦţ 1996) dan 49ţ72 (Lópezţ 1983)Ŧ ualam
berbahasa lnggrls sampel kllnlsţ berarLl nllal LoLal berklsar anLara 33ţ03 (8awson Ǝ 1abbţ 1993) dan
67ţ32 (SLarkţ 8eynoldsţ Ǝ kaslowţ 1987)Ŧ

1lLlk cuLŴoff (persenLll 90) dldlrlkan oleh 8eynolds (1989)ţ dengan populasl Amerlkaţ LerleLak pada nllal
menLah darl 74 (73Ʒ senslLlvlLas dan speslflslLas 97Ʒ) unLuk anak laklŴlakl dan perempuanŦ ualam sLudl
yang dllakukan dalam konLeks klLa (uel 8arrlo eL alŦţ 1996)ţ LlLlk cuLŴoff menurun men[adl 63 (persenLll
93) unLuk kedua [enls kelamlnŦ

keandalan 8Cuţ dlanallsls dengan konslsLensl lnLernalţ berklsar anLara 0ţ83 dan 0ţ90 unLuk sampel
sLandardlsaslŦ u[lŴLes ulang keandalan adalah 0ţ82 pada dua mlngguţ dan 0ţ83 pada empaL mlnggu
(8eynoldsţ 1989)Ŧ ÞenellLlan laln melaporkan konslsLensl lnLernal anLara 0ţ79 dan 0ţ90 (8arLell Ǝ
8eynoldsţ 1986Ť Lópezţ 1983Ť 8eynoldsţ 1989Ť 8eynolds eL alţ 1983ŤŦŦ SLark eL alţ 1987)ţ dan LesŴLes ulang
kehandalan anLara 0ţ82 dan 0ţ83 (uel 8arrlo eL alţ 1996ŤŦ 8eynolds Ǝ Cravesţ 1989)Ŧ

valldlLas konkuren darl 8Cu Lelah dlanallsls melalul korelasl dengan pengukuran laln depreslţ
kecemasanţ aLau harga dlrlŦ Þara 8Cu menya[lkan korelasl berklsar anLara 0ţ68 dan 0ţ79 dengan Cul
(8arLell Ǝ 8eynoldsţ 1986Ť kovacsţ 1992Ť Lópezţ 1983Ť 8eynoldsţ 1989Ť 8eynolds eL alţ 1983Ŧ)ţ ualam
populasl Spanyolţ uel 8arrlo eL alŦ (1996) menemukan korelasl anLara Cul dan 8Cu darl Ŧ73Ŧ korelasl
anLara 8Cu dan ManlfesL kecemasan Anak 8evlsl lLu Skala (8CMAS) berklsar anLara 0ţ60 dan 0ţ76Ŧ
korelasl dengan ukuran harga dlrl (SelfŴesLeem lnvenLarlsaslţ SLlŤ CoopersmlLhţ 1981) adalah negaLlf dan
berklsar anLara 30 dan ŴŦ ŴŦ 71 (8arLell Ǝ 8eynoldsţ 1986Ť 8eynoldsţ 1989ŤŦ 8eynolds eL alţ 1983 )Ŧ

SLudl sLrukLur fakLor darl 8Cu yang langkaŦ 8eynolds (1989) menemukan llma fakLor dalam sampel 1Ŧ620
peserLa komunlLasť keLerganLungan dan keprlhaLlnanţ demorallsaslţ ge[ala dan keluhan somaLlk
eksLernallsaslţ perasaan depresl dan peslmlsmeţ dan anhedonlaŦ 1ldak ada sLudl LenLang sLrukLur fakLor
penduduk Spanyol dlLemukanŦ

1u[uan darl peker[aan lnl adalah unLuk menya[lkan sLrukLur fakLor darl 8Cu dengan cara anallsls fakLor
konflrmaLorl dan slfaL pslkomeLrl darl versl SpanyolŴkaLalan dwlbahasa darl 8Cu dalam populasl anak
CaLalonla lLu

MeLode

ÞeserLa

Sampel Lerdlrl 313 peserLa komunlLasţ berusla anLara 10 dan 12 Lahunţ darl sekolah negerl dan sebaglan
dldanal negara dl provlnsl 8arcelonaţ LerdafLar dl kelas 3 dan 6 Sekolah uasarŦ uarl sampelţ 44ţ44Ʒ
adalah laklŴlakl (140) dan 33ţ33Ʒ adalah anak perempuan (173)Ŧ kaml menghubungl saLu sekolah darl
maslngŴmaslng darl sepuluh kabupaLen koLa 8arcelona dan beberapa sekolah darl proplnslŦ Llma sekolah
seLu[u unLuk berparLlslpasl dalam penellLlan lnlŦ

Sampel kllnls Lerdlrl 62 peserLa (23 anak perempuanţ 40ţ32Ʒţ 37 anak laklŴlaklţ 39ţ67Ʒ)ţ usla anLara
Lahun 10 dan 12Ŧ Þara peserLa dl kelas 4ţ 3ţ dan 6 Þendldlkan uasarŦ Sampel kllnls dlrekruL darl dua Anak
dan ÞusaL MenLal Cenerasl Muda ƌkesehaLan (dalam bahasa Spanyolţ ƍCenLro de Salud MenLal lnfanLll y
!uvenllţƍ dlslngkaL selan[uLnya unLuk C?MPC) provlnsl darl 8arcelonaŦ 1lm kllnls C?MPC yang dllakukan
dlagnosls menuruL krlLerla uSMŴlvŴ18 (AÞAţ 2000)Ŧ uarl [umlah lnl sampel kllnlsţ 19 peserLa dldlagnosls
dengan depreslţ 21 dengan gangguan kecemasanţ 9 dengan masalah perllaku dan bela[arţ dan 13 Lldak
memlllkl dlagnosls pasLl pada saaL pengkodean daLa 8CuŦ Selaln lLuţ unLuk sLudl senslLlvlLas dan
speslflslLas darl 8Cuţ kaml memlllh sebuah kelompok nonsympLomaLlc darl sampel komunlLas darl 43
peserLa yang menceLak leblh rendah darl LlLlk cuLoff dl Les dan Les ulang faseŦ kelompok lnl dlpasangkan
pada usla dan [enls kelamln dengan kelompok dldlagnosls dengan depreslŦ

SLaLus soslal ekonoml komunlLas sampelţ dlhlLung dengan lndeks (1973) Polllngsheadţ adalah sebagal
berlkuLť Llnggl 20ţ4Ʒţ sedangŴLlnggl 13ţ1Ʒţ 26ţ0Ʒ menengahţ menengahŴrendah 32ţ2Ʒţ dan rendah
3ţ4ƷŦ uan sLaLus soslal ekonoml darl sampel kllnlsť 0Ʒ Llngglţ menengahŴLlnggl 12ţ1Ʒţ menengah 9ţ1Ʒţ
menengahŴrendah 66ţ7Ʒţ dan rendah 12ţ1ƷŦ

lnsLrumen

Þara 8Cu mellpuLl 30 lLemţ 29 darl yang menggunakan 4ŴLlLlk LlkerLŴ[enls formaL responţ mulal darl 1
(hamplr Lldak pernah) sampal 4 (sepan[ang wakLu)Ŧ lLem Lerakhlr darl skala menya[lkan wa[ah dengan
berbagal ekspresl dan dlnllal pada skala 3ŴLlLlkŦ 1oLal skor darl 8Cu dapaL berklsar anLara 30 dan 121
polnŦ Þara 8Cu dapaL dlberlkan secara lndlvldual aLau kolekLlfţ LeLapl [uga dapaL dlberlkan secara oral
kepada anakŴanak dengan kesullLan membacaŦ 1abel 1 menampllkan denomlnasl yang dlusulkan oleh
8eynolds (1989) unLuk seLlap lLemŦ

Cul Lerdlrl darl 28 lLem yang menllal slmLomaLologl depreslŦ SeLlap salah saLu lLem memlllkl plllhan
respon Llga bahwa skor 0 (Lldak adanya slmLomaLologl)ţ 1 (slmLomaLologl rlngan) aLau 2 (slmLomaLologl
parah)Ŧ 1oLal skor berklsar darl 0 sampal 34 polnŦ

1er[emahan berlkuL dan prosedur adapLasl dlgunakan unLuk 8Cu dan Culť (a) Ler[emahan langsung darl
kuesloner darl bahasa lnggrls ke Spanyol dan darl bahasa lnggrls ke kaLalan oleh dua pener[emah ahllţ
dengan pengeLahuan pslkologl dan pslkopaLologlţ (b) perbandlngan Ler[emahan unLuk menllal
perbedaan penafslranŤ (c) kemball Ler[emahan oleh pener[emah ahll lalnŤ (d) perbandlngan versl
langsung dan kemballŴLer[emahan oleh orang dwlbahasa unLuk memverlflkasl keseLaraan konsepLual
dan semanLlk kallmaLŤ (e) penyusunan versl deflnlLlf dlsa[lkan dalam karya lnl (8rlsllnţ 1986Ť 8rlsllnţ
Lonerţ Ǝ 1horndlkeţ 1973Ť Candell Ǝ Pullnţ 1987)Ŧ

Þara 8Cu dan Cul lLu dlberlkan dalam versl SpanyolŴkaLalan dwl bahasa (llhaL Lamplran 1)Ŧ kaml memlllh
formaL lnl karena pengalaman klLa dengan karyaŴkarya sebelumnya dl mana klLa memverlflkasl bahwa
versl blllngual dlfaslllLasl pemahaman kallmaLŴkallmaL (Abad Ǝ Amadorţ 1991Ť Abad Ǝ lornsţ 1991aţ
1991b)Ŧ

Þrosedur

Þrosedur penllalan yang dllkuLl (1986) Model mulLlsLage 8eynoldsŦ Þrosedur lnl Lerdlrl darl Llga Lahap
unLuk mengldenLlflkasl anakŴanak dengan slmLomaLologl depreslŦ uua fase perLama Lerdlrl darl
admlnlsLrasl penllalan dlrl lnsLrumen slmLomaLologl depresl pada dua LlLlk berbeda dalam wakLu dengan
lnLerval 2 aLau 3 mlnggu (Les dan Les ulang fase)ţ perlode mlnlmal dldlrlkan dl krlLerla A darl uSMŴlvŴ 18
(AÞAţ 2000) unLuk eplsode depresl uLamaŦ Þada Lahap keLlgaţ peserLa yang meleblhl LlLlk cuLŴoff dl Les
dan Les ulang dlnllal leblh luasţ mengumpulkan lnformasl darl berbagal lnforman (orang Lua dan guru)
dengan meLode beragam (wawancara dan skala raLlng)Ŧ

Þrosedur penllalan unLuk kedua kelompok Lelah dlseLu[ul oleh komlsl deonLologls darl Asoslasl Þslkolog
CaLalonla (CCÞC) dan oleh dewan dlrekLur sekolah yang berkolaborasl dalam sLudl lnlţ serLa oleh Llm
pslkolog darl pusaL kllnls berparLlslpasl Ŧ unLuk sampel masyarakaLţ kaml memperoleh perseLu[uan
orang Lua ƌdengan suraL yang dlklrlm darl kanLor dlrekLur sekolahŦ Crang Lua darl peserLa sampel kllnls
memberlkan perseLu[uan mereka pada harl wawancara awal dan anakŴanak seLu[u unLuk berparLlslpasl
dalam penellLlan lnlŦ

uaLa dlkumpulkan darl sampel komunlLas anonlm dan kolekLlfţ dalam kelompok 20 slswaŦ lnl dllakukan
selama kelas les slswa ƌoleh dua pslkolog dl hadapan LuLor kelasŦ Þara peserLa menun[ukkan seks mereka
dan Langgal lahlr dalam proLokol dan kuesloner unLuk Les dan Les ulang fase dlpasangkan unLuk seLlap
kelas dengan menggunakan daLa lnlŦ

uaLa darl sampel kllnls dlkumpulkan oleh seorang pslkolog kllnls selama wawancara awal dl C?MPC
LersebuLŦ 1lm kllnls C?MPC dllakukan dlagnosls menuruL uSMŴlvŴ18 krlLerla (AÞAţ 2000)ţ mengabalkan
hasll darl 8CuŦ

uaLa yang dlsa[lkan dl slnl adalah baglan darl sebuah penellLlan yang leblh luas yang Lelah dlnllal
slmLomaLologl depresl dl masa kecll dan rema[aŦ ualam karya lnlţ klLa hanya menya[lkan hasll yang
dlperoleh dalam 8Cu dl Les dan fase Les ulang unLuk sampel masyarakaL dan daLa u[l unLuk sampel kllnlsţ
selaln valldlLas konkuren anLara 8Cu dan CulŦ

Anallsls uaLa

ualam rangka unLuk mengkonflrmasl sLrukLur fakLor yang dlusulkan oleh 8eynolds (1989)ţ kaml
menganallsls dua model fakLor dengan anallsls fakLor konflrmaLorl (ClA) dengan menggunakan program
LCSţ versl 6Ŧ1 (8enLler Ǝ Wuţ 2002)Ŧ MenglngaL slfaL darl skala llkerL lLemŴ[enls dan blasŴdlsLrlbuslŴkaml
menggunakan meLode kuadraL ellps yang kuaL seLldaknya (L8LSŤ 8enLler Ǝ ul[ksLraţ 1983) esLlmasl
parameLerŦ ualam kedua kasusţ varlans darl fakLorŴfakLor lLu LeLap pada 1 dalam rangka memberlkan
skala pengukuranŤ dalam kasus sLrukLur llma fakLorţ anallsls dllakukan dengan asumsl bahwa fakLorŴ
fakLor yang berkorelaslŦ Model perLama menllal kemungklnan sLrukLur onedlmenslonalţ sedangkan
proposal kedua dldlrlkan llma fakLor yang dlusulkan oleh 8eynolds (1989)Ŧ 1abel 2 menampllkan lLem
darl seLlap fakLorŦ

unLuk menganallsls pengaruh Crade » Seks lnLeraksl pada skor 8Cu dl u[l coba dan Lahap Les ulang
dalam sampel masyarakaLţ langkahŴlangkah berulang MAnCvA dllakukanŦ keandalan dlperlksa dengan
alpha Cronbach dan LesŴLes ulang keandalanŦ unLuk sampel kllnlsţ perbedaan sebagal fungsl darl kelas
dan [enls kelamln dlnllal melalul kruskalŴWallls ƌP dan MannŴWlLney lLu uŦ

Pasll

komunlLas ConLoh

1abel 3 menampllkan mean dan devlasl sLandar darl 8Cu pada pengu[lan dan fase Les ulangŦ 8erarLl yang
dlperoleh dalam 8Cu berklsar anLara 46ţ47 dan 49ţ03 (dl LesL) dan 42ţ88Ŵ48ţ41 (dl Les ulang)Ŧ
Þerempuan dlnllal leblh Llnggl darlpada laklŴlakl dl semua kelasţ balk dl Les dan Les ulangŦ !umlah Les
ulang nllal leblh rendah darl nllal u[lan dl semua kelasţ anak laklŴlakl dan perempuanţ kecuall unLuk nllal
darl cewekŴcewek kelas 6ţ yang sedlklL leblh Llnggl pada Les ulangŦ

Sebuah anallsls campuranŴfakLor varlansţ dengan saLu varlabel wlLhlngroup dan dua anLara kelompok
varlabelţ dllakukan unLuk mengldenLlflkasl lnLeraksl yang mungkln anLara dua fase admlnlsLraslţ seks
peserLaţ dan kelasŦ kondlsl keseLaraan varlansŴkovarlans maLrlks berLemuť koLak lLu Mť l (9Ŧ148447ţ 9) ƹ
1ţ484ţ p ƹŦ 147Ŧ 1abel 4 menun[ukkan hasll anallsls lnlţ dengan nllal dera[aL kebebasan dlkoreksl menuruL
nllalŴnllal yang hllang / Lldak LercaLaL dalam anallsls maslngŴmaslngŦ

SeperLl dapaL dlamaLlţ Lldak ada lnLeraksl anLara fase admlnlsLrasl kelasţ lnsLrumenţ dan seksţ mesklpun
ada perbedaan yang slgnlflkan anLara fase admlnlsLraslţ dengan nllal Les yang secara slgnlflkan leblh
Llnggl darlpada nllal Les ulangţ mesklpun fakLa bahwa efek berukuran Lldak Lerlalu Llnggl (q 2 Ɗ Ɗ sup ƹ
0ţ022)Ŧ AnLaraŴefek sub[ek menun[ukkan bahwa Lldak ada perbedaan yang slgnlflkan unLuk seks aLau
unLuk lnLeraksl » Seks kelasţ mesklpun ada perbedaan yang slgnlflkan unLuk kelasţ dengan slswa kelas 6Ŵ
skor leblh Llnggl darlpada kelasŴ3Ŧ

Lfek uLama LenLu sa[a dlamaLl pada perbedaan anLara nllal darlŴ3 dan 6ŴkelasŦ 1oLal skor raLaŴraLa 6
peserLa kelas leblh Llnggl darlpadaŴ3 graderţ mesklpun ukuran efek adalah moderaL (q Ɗ 2 ƹ 0ţ033
dukungan Ɗ) dan Lldak menun[ukkan efek lnLensŦ

Anallsls lakLor konflrmasl

kaml memperoleh esLlmasl ClA selama dua solusl pengukuran mungkln (llmaŴfakLor Model vs saLuŴ
fakLor model)Ŧ Pasll esLlmasl L8LS unLuk fakLor loadlngs menghasllkan lndeks cocok dlsa[lkan dalam
1abel 3Ŧ

Anallsls cocok dengan memungklnkan kaml unLuk menlngkaLkan flL darl model saLuŴfakLor sedlklLţ
dlbandlngkan dengan model llma fakLorŦ Mesklpun solusl yang dlLawarkan Lldak memadal dalam hasll u[l
kepaLuLan (nllalŴnllal Ƹ 2 sangaL slgnlflkan)ţ lndeks cocok leblh global agak leblh balk dalam model
onefacLorţ LeruLama 8enLlerŴ8onneL lndeks dan nllalŴnllal varlans slsaţ dl lnLerval yang dlperoleh dalam
model saLuŴfakLor lLu leblh balk darlpada model flvefacLorŦ Þerbandlngan darl kedua solusl secara
sLaLlsLlk slgnlflkanŦ ArLlnyaţ nllal darl sLaLlsLlk 1uckerŴLewls (1Ll) dlsa[lkan nllal yang berbeda darl 0 (p
ƼŦ001)ţ sehlnggaţ mesklpun Lldak sepenuhnya cocok unLuk memuaskan salah saLu darl dua modelţ bukLl
membawa kaml unLuk memlllh model saLuŴfakLor (llhaL 1abel 6)Ŧ

keandalan dan valldlLas

Solusl saLuŴdlmensl sedlklL leblh memuaskan unLuk sampel lnlţ karena lLuţ kaml menyedlakan nllalŴnllal
rellablllLas dan valldlLas unLuk solusl saLuŴfakLorŦ konslsLensl lnLernal (alpha Cronbach) darl LoLal skala
sangaL balkţ balk pada pengu[lan (Đ ƹ 0ţ87ţ 93Ʒ lnLerval kepercayaan żClŽ anLara 0ţ82 dan 0ţ92)ţ dan dl
Les ulang (Đ ƹ 0ţ89ţ 93Ʒ Cl anLara 0ţ84 dan 0ţ94)Ŧ kehandalan LesLreLesL adalah 0ţ66 (93Ʒ Cl 0ţ62 dan
anLara Ŧ71)Ŧ

valldlLas konkuren darl 8Cu dengan Cul dlnllalŦ korelasl anLara kedua lnsLrumen lLu Llnggl dan seLara
balk pada Lahap u[l coba (r ƹ 0ţ767ţ p ƼŦ001ţ 93Ʒ Cl 0ţ71 dan 0ţ81 anLara) dan dl Les ulang (r ƹ 0ţ771ţ p
ƼŦ001ţ 93Ʒ Cl anLara 0ţ71 dan 0ţ81)Ŧ

ConLoh kllnls

uengan memperLlmbangkan hasll ClA sampel masyarakaLţ klLa LersLrukLur hasll sampel kllnls
menggunakan solusl saLuŴfakLorŦ 1abel 7 menampllkan mean dan devlasl sLandar darl 8Cu menuruL [enls
kelamln dan kelasŦ AnakŴanak ƌberarLl berklsar anLara 47ţ64 dan 38ţ23ţ dan gadlsŴgadlsƌ anLara 31ţ60 dan
39ţ67Ŧ

Þerbedaan sebagal fungsl darl kelas dan [enls kelamln dlnllal melalul sLaLlsLlk nonparameLrlk (kruskalŴ
Wallls ƌP dan MannŴWlLney lLu u)Ŧ 1ldak ada perbedaan slgnlflkan secara sLaLlsLlk dlLemukan balk unLuk
kelas (P ƹ 3ţ094ţ p ƹ 0ţ078) aLau unLuk seks (u ƹ 334ţ p ƹ 0ţ119)Ŧ

keandalan (koeflslen alpha Cronbach) darl 8Cu adalah Ŧ90 (93Ʒ Cl 0ţ87 dan 0ţ93 anLara)Ŧ korelasl anLara
skor darl 8Cu dan Cul lLu 0ţ713 (p ƼŦ001ţ 93Ʒ Cl 0ţ66 dan 0ţ76 anLara)Ŧ

ulagnosLlk Þreslsl

ualam rangka unLuk memerlksa keLepaLan lnsLrumen dlagnosLlkţ kaml menggunakan lndeks senslLlvlLas
dan speslflslLasŦ SenslLlvlLas adalah kemampuan u[l unLuk mengldenLlflkasl kasus poslLlfţ yalLuţ proporsl
poslLlf benarŦ SpeslflslLas adalah kemampuan unLuk membedakan kasusŴkasus negaLlfţ proporsl darl
negaLlf se[aLlŦ

SenslLlvlLas dan speslflslLas bervarlasl sesual dengan cuLŴoff polnŦ ualam Les yang menllal ge[ala
pslkopaLologlsţ seperLl yang Achenbach (1991aţ 1991bţ 1991c) skalaţ LlLlk cuLoff dldlrlkan dl skor 70 1ţ
aLau senLll 98ţ yang sesual dengan raLaŴraLa plus dua sLandar devlaslŦ MeLode penafslran
mengasumslkan bahwa semua nllal sama aLau leblh Llnggl darl dua devlasl sLandar dl aLas mean
menun[ukkan adanya slmLomaLologl kllnls yang slgnlflkanŦ

ualam karya lnlţ klLa mempela[arl keLepaLan dlagnosLlk darl 8Cuţ dlpahaml sebagal kemampuan unLuk
benar mengklaslflkaslkan peserLa ke dalam kelompok kllnls yang slgnlflkan dengan cara operasl
penerlma karakLerlsLlk (8CC) kurvaŦ unLuk melakukan anallsls lnlţ kaml menggunakan kelompok 19
peserLaţ dldlagnosls sebagal depresl oleh Llm kllnls darl C?MPCsţ dan kelompok 43 peserLa
nonsympLomaLlcŦ Cambar 1 menampllkan area dl bawah kurva dan 1abel 8 menun[ukkan nllal
senslLlvlLas dan speslflslLas unLuk berbeda cuLŴoff polnL yang mungkln bergunaţ LerganLung pada apakah
seseorang lngln menlngkaLkan senslLlvlLas aLau speslflslLas keLlka menggunakan LesŦ Area dl bawah
kurva adalah 0ţ93 (93Ʒ Cl 0ţ87 dan 0ţ99 anLara)Ŧ 1lLlk cuLŴoff yang Lerbalk menggabungkan nllalŴnllal
senslLlvlLas dan speslflslLas adalah 61Ť senslLlvlLas darl 0ţ79 (93Ʒ Cl 0ţ34 dan 0ţ93 anLara) dan speslflslLas
darl 0ţ87 (93Ʒ Cl 0ţ73 dan 0ţ93 anLara)Ŧ

keslmpulan

ualam karya lnlţ kaml menya[lkan karakLerlsLlk pslkomeLrl darl versl SpanyolŴkaLalan dwlbahasa darl 8Cu
dalam dua sampelţ sampel masyarakaL dan sampel kllnlsŦ

Model SLrukLur fakLor dlpela[arl dalam sampel komunlLas Lldak menghasllkan gelar memadal sesualţ
mesklpun solusl saLuŴfakLor yang dlsa[lkan leblh cocok darlpada mulLlfakLor (llmaŴfakLor) soluslŦ
ÞenlngkaLan lnl Lldak hanya hadlr dalam flL global (yang Lldak Llnggl dalam salah saLu kasus)ţ namunţ
dalam solusl saLuŴfakLorţ semua fakLor loadlngs secara sLaLlsLlk slgnlflkanţ yang Lldak Ler[adl dalam
laruLan flvefacLorŦ Cleh karena lLuţ hasll kaml menun[ukkan bahwa 8Cu pada awalnya u[l saLuŴdlmenslŦ

keandalan versl blllngual darl 8Cuţ dlukur dengan cara konslsLensl lnLernal dan korelasl LesLreLesLţ
memuaskanŤ valldlLas bersamaan dengan Cul Llngglţ balk unLuk masyarakaL dan sampel sampel kllnlsŦ
Pasll lnl adalah kongruen dengan penellLlan laln (8arLell Ǝ 8eynoldsţ 1986Ť uel 8arrlo eL alţ 1996ŤŦ
8eynoldsţ 1989Ť 8eynolds Ǝ Cravesţ 1989)Ŧ

ulsLrlbusl skor darl sampel komunlLas menegaskan kecenderungan penurunan dalam Lahap Les ulangţ
yang dlsebuL ƍefek redamanƍ (Lgger Ǝ Angoldţ 2004)Ŧ 8erbagal penyelldlkan Lelah menun[ukkan bahwa
admlnlsLrasl berulang laporan dlrl berhubungan dengan penurunan yang slgnlflkan dalam skor pada
pemerlnLahan kedua dlbandlngkan dengan yang perLama (llnchţ Saylorţ Ldwardsţ Ǝ MclnLoshţ 1987Ť
kaslowţ 8ehmţ Ǝ Slegelţ 1984Ť Meyer ţ uyckţ Ǝ ÞeLrlnackţ 1989)Ŧ Selaln lLuţ penurunan nllal pada Lahap
Les ulang pada sampel komunlLas menun[ukkan bahwa 8Cu adalah senslLlf Lerhadap flukLuasl Lemporal
yang umum dalam slmLomaLologl depreslţ bahkan dengan lnLerval pendek anLara pemerlnLah (8eynoldsţ
1989)Ŧ

Sarana dan sLandar devlasl yang dlperoleh pada pengu[lan dan fase Les ulang dalam komunlLas dan
sampel kllnls yang serupa dengan penellLlan laln (Pepperllnţ SLewarLţ Ǝ 8eyţ 1990Ť 8eynoldsţ 1989ŤŦ
8eynolds eL alţ 1983)Ŧ 1ldak ada perbedaan slgnlflkan yang LerkalL dengan seks dlperolehţ namun
perbedaan yang slgnlflkan yang dlamaLl dl kelasţ dengan skor menlngkaL dengan uslaŦ uaLa lnl
mengkonflrmasl kecenderungan Lldak ada perbedaan [enls kelamln yang slgnlflkan dalam kehadlran
slmLomaLologl depresl sebelum masa rema[a (Angold Ǝ 8uLLerţ 1992Ť nolenŴPoeksema Ǝ Clrgusţ 1994)Ŧ

Mengenal uLlllLas dlagnosLlk darl 8Cuţ LlLlk poLong yang pallng menggabungkan lndeks senslLlvlLas dan
speslflslLas adalah 61ţ leblh rendah darl yang dlsa[lkan oleh 8eynolds (1989) dan uel 8arrlo eL alŦ (1996)Ŧ
Þerbedaan mungkln karena meLode esLlmasl LlLlk cuLŴoff dan pemlllhan kelompok konLrasŦ ualam kasus
sampel Spanyol uel 8arrlo lLuţ LlLlk cuLŴoff 63 dlperklrakan darl raLaŴraLa plus dua sLandar devlaslŦ !lka
klLa menerapkan formula lnl dengan daLa darl peker[aan lnlţ LlLlk cuLŴoff akan berklsar anLara 68 (6Ŵ
kelas) dan 71 (3Lhgraders)ţ sedlklL leblh Llnggl darl yang dlsa[lkan oleh uel 8arrlo eL al (1996)Ŧ Þerbedaan
dengan LlLlk cuLŴoff dlsa[lkan oleh 8eynolds dapaL dlkalLkan dengan meLode yang berbeda membenLuk
kelompok konLrasŦ 8eynolds yang dlgunakan kelompok 82 peserLa yang dlLugaskan balk unLuk kelompok
LerLekan (10 peserLa) aLau dengan kelompok Lldak depresl (72 peserLa) berdasarkan nllal mereka dalam
Skala Þenllalan uepresl Anak 8evlsl (Þoznansklţ lreemanţ Ǝ Mokrosţ 1983 )Ŧ ualam peker[aan kamlţ
kelompok peserLa depresl Lelah dldlagnosa oleh layanan kllnls C?MPCţ menuruL krlLerla uSMŴlv18 (AÞAţ
2000)ţ mengabalkan nllal 8Cuţ sedangkan kelompok Lerdlrl nonsympLomaLlc peserLa yang Lldak meleblhl
cuLŴoff polnL yang dlLeLapkan oleh 8eynoldsţ balk dl Les dan Les ulangŦ

Menylmpulkanţ versl SpanyolŴkaLalan dwlbahasa darl 8Cu menya[lkan slfaL pslkomeLrl yang memadalţ
sehlngga dapaL dlanggap sebagal alaL yang berguna unLuk menllal slmLomaLologl depresl dalam konLeks
klLaŦ namunţ harus dlperLlmbangkan bahwa daLa yang dlsa[lkan dalam karya lnl dlkumpulkan dl koLa
8arcelona dan dl provlnslţ sehlngga mereka harus dlgunakan dengan haLlŴhaLl dlperlukan dengan
populasl yang laln darl yang dlnllalŦ
ż8eferenslŽ űLlhaL referensl halaman dengan llnk

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