Sumerian Lexicon

Version 3.0 by

John A. Halloran
The following lexicon contains 1,255 Sumerian logogram words and 2,511 Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around 3400 B.C. in the Uruk/Warka region of southern Iraq. The language that they spoke, Sumerian, is known to us through a large body of texts and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and Akkadian, the language of their Semitic successors, to which Sumerian is not related. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period (1800-1600 B.C.), by which time Sumerian had ceased to be spoken, except by the scribes. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words. I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added. Many cuneiform signs can be pronounced in more than one way and often two or more signs share the same pronunciation, in which case it is necessary to indicate in the transliteration which cuneiform sign is meant; Assyriologists have developed a system whereby the second homophone is marked by an acute accent (´ ), the third homophone by a grave accent (` ), and the remainder by subscript numerals. [If the small font size prevents you from seeing whether the accent is acute or grave, click on View and Zoom and scroll up to 125%.] The homophone numeration here follows the 'BCE-System' developed by Borger, Civil, and Ellermeier. The 'accents' and subscript numerals do not affect the pronunciation. The numeration system is a convention to inform Assyriologists which, for example, of the many cuneiform signs that have the reading du actually occurs on the tablet. A particular sign can often be transcribed in a long way, such as dug 4, or in a short way, such as du 11, because Sumerian was like French in omitting certain amissable final consonants except before a following vowel. Due to this lexicon's etymological orientation, you will usually find a word listed under its fullest phonetic form. Transcriptions of texts often contain the short forms, however, because Sumerologists try to accurately represent the spoken language. Short forms are listed, but you are told where to confer. The vowels may be pronounced as follows: a as in father, u as in pull, e as in peg, and i as in hip. Of the special consonants, ñ is pronounced like ng in rang, þ is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch, and š is pronounced like sh in dash. Following the definitions, the lexicon may indicate in a smaller font the constituent elements of words that in origin were compound words, if those elements were clear to me. Etymologies are a normal part of dictionarymaking, but etymologies are also the most subject to speculation. It is possible that, in some cases, I have provided a Sumerian etymology for what is actually a loanword from another language. I encourage scholars to contact me with evidence from productive roots in other proto-languages when they have reason to believe that a Sumerian word is a loan from another language family. In light of the Sumerian propensity for forming new words through compounding in the period after they invented cuneiform signs, it should not be surprising to find this same propensity in words dating from before their invention of written signs. The structure and thinking behind the Sumerian vocabulary is to me a thing of beauty. We are fortunate to be able to look back into the minds of our prehistoric ancestors and see how they thought and lived via the words that they created. The lexicon's etymological orientation explains why the vocabulary is organized according to the phonetic structure of the words, with words sharing the same structure being listed together and alphabetically according to their final consonants and vowels, as this method best groups together related words. This principle has been abandoned after words of the structure CVC(V) in this version, as words that are phonetically more complex than

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this do not group together by meaning. The phonetically more complex words and the compound words are listed alphabetically simply by their initial letters. The lexicon has been in development over a fourteen-year period. Primary sources included: A. Deimel, Šumerisches Lexikon; Rome 1947. E. Reiner et al., The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Chicago 1956ff. W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch; Wiesbaden 1958-1981. R. Borger, “Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste”, Band 33 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978. R. Labat and F. Malbran-Labat, Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne, 6º édition; Paris 1995 (this is the cuneiform sign manual used by most Sumerology students - it is available from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). M.L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language: An Introduction to Its History and Grammatical Structure; Copenhagen 1984 (this well-done grammar is currently the standard text - if it is on back order at Eisenbraun's, ask your public library's Interlibrary Loan department to obtain it for you). J.L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts; Malibu 1990 (beginning students can start with this book before graduating to Thomsen- if available, order it from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). R. Jestin, Notes de Graphie et de Phonétique Sumériennes; Paris 1965. B. Landsberger, as compiled by D.A. Foxvog and A.D. Kilmer, "Benno Landsberger's Lexicographical Contributions", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol 27 (1975). H. Behrens and H. Steible, Glossar zu den altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften; Wiesbaden 1983. K. Oberhuber, Sumerisches Lexikon zu “George Reisner, Sumerisch - babylonische Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit (Berlin 1896)” (SBH) und verwandten Texten; Innsbruck 1990. Å.W. Sjöberg et. al., The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia 1984ff. Letters B and A through Abzu have been published. M. Civil, unpublished Sumerian glossary for students. S. Tinney, editor, Index to the Secondary Literature: A collated list of indexes and glossaries to the secondary literature concerning the Sumerian Language, unpublished but now expanded and searchable at: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu:80/psd/ E.I. Gordon, Sumerian Proverbs: Glimpses of Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia; Philadelphia 1959 (with contributions by Th. Jacobsen). D.C. Snell, Ledgers and Prices: Early Mesopotamian Merchant Accounts; New Haven and London 1982. P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur; Winona Lake 1989. C.E. Keiser and S.T. Kang, Neo-Sumerian Account Texts from Drehem; New Haven & London 1971. J. Bauer, Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagasch; Dissertation for Julius-Maximilians-Universität at Würzburg 1967 [appeared under same name as vol. 9 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1972]. J. Krecher, "Die marû-Formen des sumerischen Verbums", Vom Alten Orient Zum Alten Testament, AOAT 240 (1995; Fs. vSoden II), pp. 141-200. K. Volk, A Sumerian Reader, vol. 18 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1997 (this practical, inexpensive book includes a nice, though incomplete, sign-list). B. Alster, The Instructions of Suruppak: A Sumerian Proverb Collection (Mesopotamia: Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology, Vol. 2); Copenhagen 1974. B. Alster, Proverbs of Ancient Sumer: The World's Earliest Proverb Collections, 2 vols; Bethesda, Maryland 1997.

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Å. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen in der sumerischen Überlieferung; Stockholm 1960. V.E. Orel and O.V. Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 18); Leiden, New York, & Köln 1995. M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Zeichenliste der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk [ZATU] (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, 11; Archaische Texte aus Uruk, 2); Berlin 1987. P.Damerow and R. Englund, Sign List of the Archaic Texts (electronic FileMaker database collection of ZATU signs occurring in catalogued texts from Uruk IV to ED II); Berlin 1994. P. Steinkeller, review of M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Bibliotheca Orientalis 52 (1995), pp. 689-713. J. Krecher, "Das sumerische Phonem |ñ |", Festschrift Lubor Matouš, Assyriologia 5, vol. II, ed. B. Hruška & G. Komoróczy (Budapest, 1978), pp. 7-73. M. Civil, The Farmer's Instructions: A Sumerian Agricultural Manual (Aula Orientalis-Supplementa, Vol. 5); Barcelona 1994. M. Krebernik, Die Beschwörungen aus Fara und Ebla: Untersuchungen zur ältesten keilschriftlichen Beschwörungsliteratur (Texte und Studien zur Orientalistik, Bd. 2); Hildesheim, Zurich, New York 1984. M.A. Powell, "Masse und Gewichte" [Weights and Measures: article in English], Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie,.Bd. 7, ed. D.O. Edzard (Berlin & New York, 1987-90), pp. 457-517. K.R. Nemet-Nejat, Cuneiform Mathematical Texts as a Reflection of Everyday Life in Mesopotamia (American Oriental Series, Vol. 75); New Haven 1993. E.J. Wilson, “The Cylinders of Gudea: Transliteration, Translation and Index”, Band 244 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996. D.O. Edzard, Gudea and His Dynasty (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods, Vol. 3/1); Toronto, Buffalo, London 1997. W.W. Hallo and J.J.A. van Dijk, The Exaltation of Inanna; New Haven & London 1968. The Sumerian lexicon has benefitted from several classes at UCLA with Dr. Robert Englund. I dedicate this lexicon to the memory of Dr. Robert Hetzron, with whom I had the pleasure of studying during every week of the four years that I attended the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Hetzron was a professional linguist and expert on the Afroasiatic language family. If you are a Sumerology student who wishes to add entries or make changes to this Word document, please do so in a colored font, so that your changes can be identified and incorporated into future versions of the lexicon. The home page for the Sumerian lexicon is http://www.sumerian.org/.

a, e4:

n., water; watercourse, canal; seminal fluid; offspring; father; tears; flood. [A archaic frequency: 519]

interj., alas!. prep., locative suffix - where; in; when - denotes movement towards or in favor of a person. def. article, nominalizing suffix for a noun or noun clause, denoting 'the'.

á: a5: e: é: è:

(cf., áþi ). (cf., aka ). (cf., ég) . house, household; temple; plot of land [E 2 archaic frequency: 649; concatenates 4 signs] . (cf., éd) .

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ír.. defeat. concatenates 3 signs] . hole. aba) [AB archaic frequency: 384. concatenates 2 sign variants (sign also used for èš and aba . (cf.e11: (cf.. huge. the grunting. ub4: cavity.for this reading and meaning in Fara period. to be on top of. liquid'. food. áb: domestic cow (a... to nourish. powerful (man)..4. a small room [UB archaic frequency: 124]. u4: u5: (cf. u18[GIŠGAL]: u20[ŠE]: barley. and u4 were pronounced /o/] v. concatenates 2 sign variants] . angle. support. to bend over.'water. to flare up in anger. dispute. (cf. to derive a more specific meaning. u 5). sleep (cf. load [U 2 archaic frequency: 225. nook (cf.5: a drum.. Sumerian Lexicon. cries. thighs. Version 3. to steer. [according to S. (kuš) ub3. ib: corner. complaint' ?) [I archaic frequency: 17].. è. insult. prep. vegetable. (cf. angle. strong. plant. screams.. ída) . often used as a polite imperative. þà ). u. to capture. n. v. èd). (raised) high. ù. ab: window.. us 5).. ìa) . éd.. grass. nook [IB archaic frequency: 252.. nook. panting of battle. and. ub: corner. an expression of protest. Beschwörungen] . pron. cry of pain (derived from ér.0 4 . to mount (in intercourse). a pronominal prefix in a compound noun... v. v. male bird.. adj. i: n. v. u(3. loins. 'tears. ud ). after. fight. earth pile or levee.. n. to board (a boat). see Krebernik. u6: u8: (cf.. cock. middle. ù: n. to sleep. raised area (sometimes written ù) [U 5 archaic frequency: 1]. opening. bread.... adj. + íb. ug 6).8): n. the prospective modal prefix: if.. íb. i) ì: i7: u: ú: (cf. to ride.. waist. Lieberman. conduct. especially land or ground (sometimes written ù).'middle') [AB2 archaic frequency: 288]. éb: n. niche.. overcome (cf. pitfall. when. to curse.. totality. v.. pasture.. to be angry.

marû. to drain (èdè(-d) in marû)..0 5 . úš ). concatenates 5 sign variants] .. uþ(3): lice.. also di ). 'water'. ud5: (cf. to die (singular and plural marû stem. áñ: (cf.É]: n. dead person. to remove. vermin [UÞ3 archaic frequency: 14.. louse. ad3. ag: (cf. when.7.. astonishing.in. adda4). light. say (e = sing. íg.. àþ.. time..8.8: n.. plural hamtu. to be or become visible. death.. laþ ). ég. ak). cripple. moth. ug(2): lion. u6[IGI. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ùz). ída). prep. malice. gaze. toward.. ad4: lame. úþ. levee.5. cf.. anger. to send forth. itud) . storm (demon) [UD archaic frequency: 419]. ùña). to bring down (or up). to speak. íd: (cf. locative/terminative suffix . weather. flea. ug4. dug 4. in the immediate vicinity. and plural marû. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun).. sun. u4: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon.. èd. v. to appear as a witness (the final d appears in marû conjugation) [ED 2 archaic frequency: 12..6: (cf. dike. nit. bund (a. spittle. parasite. venom. concatenates 2 sign variants] . adj. plural hamtu.. glance (['EYE' + 'HOUSE']). 'door') [EG 2 archaic frequency: 12. ig: door. gaze. emerge. to lead or bring out. ék. ùñ: (cf. Version 3. fury. paste. demonstrative pron. ada). e11: to exit. to rise. e: n. day. uþ. to fetch. v. it4: ud. id4. to sprout.ad: (cf. suffixed to ergative agent. concatenates 2 sign variants] . n. to descend.. uþ: (cf. úd[ÁŠ]: emmer (wheat).. slaver. insect. entrance [IG archaic frequency: 43. since. which is sometimes reduplicated. ug6. è. this one. aþ: phlegm. to look at. adda). froth.. to import. prep. storm. i: to go out. éd. to kill. ád: (cf. e4. amazement. embankment. áña).. to be impressed. v. set.. cf.. to water.. to rise. to stare at. + ig.

(same) as.. (gi) um: a rope made of reeds (cf. ar: (cf. íl: (cf. ancient. àm[A. ornament. Sumerian Lexicon.. forked hoe with from 2 to 4 teeth. noble.3): n. heaven.. distant (in time). áña). àr: (cf. ul: n. àm and áma).. pleasure.. v.. also. the god An. in: he. il5: (cf. high. en: n. who. ancestor (statue). joy. ár: (cf. prep. v. indicates: 1) distance. a capacity measure of 36 liters in Presargonic Girsu. enigmatic background [EN 2 archaic frequency: 17]. adj.... aka ). adj. lord. em: the Sumerian enclitic copula .AN]: im.. adj.g. en(2.. un: (cf.. star. straw. Version 3. umu ). þar)... harass [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. remote. úllu). concatenates 3 sign variants] . ul4: to be quick.. ara4). she. insult.. ag: ñiš genitival suffix: 'of' (cf.. concatenates 3 sign variants] .0 6 . bud. until. spade [AL archaic frequency: 95] . offense. am: (cf. to rule. time. wooden mattock. ám: (cf.. pickax. invective [IN archaic frequency: 21]. hasten. an: n. (cf. or 3) the lack of a transitive relationship. what. gim4). William king-is]. al: verbal prefix: used immediately before stative verbs. dignitary. ára). flower..'to be'. ím: (cf. to glitter. v. ùña). occurs after a noun [e.. shine. to hurry. to be high. like (in scholarly lists). sky. in front. ùl: (cf..ak.. íla).. ili5).. high priest. enduring. al: digging stick. grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806]. diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232. prep. which. 2) the speaker is not involved. imi).. satisfaction.

. vertical. to come near to. main body. repayment. asa).. the referenced.4)) [UR3 archaic frequency: 27..14) [? UR4 archaic frequency: 41. mountain pass. entrance. scented.. to imprison. er: ir3. to curse. to rent. in this way. humble.0 7 . theirs. loins.. soul. to drive. burp. ír: n. ir(10): n. bulk.. followed by a negation: not at all. obligation. áš: n. thighs. ús. v. to follow. ur: n.. side. inanimate pron. us5. to tremble. height. (cf. wipe out. ur5[ÞAR]: n.. to throw overboard. to chew. heart. root.ér. curse (abbreviated v. u8: mother ewe. beam. cf. ur4: (cf..4): to surround.. warrior. to transport. úz [UŠ]: n. þar. arad (2)). gur 10). to clog. lamentation. bibad) (loanword into Akkadian) [US archaic frequency: 18. . concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to roar... fragrance [IR archaic frequency: 53. to belch. liver.. to let reach. odor. enemy (cf. interest.3. Version 3. to weep... ùr: roof.. v. profit. uzmušen: domestic goose or duck (cf. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . to smell. to erase. ) Sumerian Lexicon. us. to lean against (cf. leg(s). smell. ñíš ).. to flood. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . foundation. in the same way. mur ) [UR 5 archaic frequency: 34. lap. his. spleen. re7). slave-woman (cf.. bring. to lead away (Emesal dialect for túm . aš: one. hers. tàš ? ašte ? [AŠ 2 archaic frequency: 5]. carnivorous beast.. demonstrative... edge. loan. perfume. mow (reduplication class) (cf. v. adj.11: v. trunk of a tree [UR2 archaic frequency: 78]. ur11: (cf. ir(10). to drag (over the ground) (often with -ni -). to moor. interest-bearing debt. uru4).. téš) [UR archaic frequency: 114.3. rafter (cf. complaint. alone. adult female sheep [US 5 archaic frequency: 86].. úr: floor. base. wish. to shear.. ur(2. as: (cf. block. young man. fragrant. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . servant. surplus. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . thus. dog. unique. aš(5): spider. ur(2. v. reap. prayer.. in geometry: length. to rub something in. to be bowed with grief. dock. it. to bring.. so. tears. border. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . sweat. to join. these. distance. perpendicular. scent. gur10. adj. perfumed. reach. to be next to. to desire.

liver model. concatenates 2 sign variants] .16. ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail). slaver... ba7: (cf. ús). éše).8: six (ía. spittle. concatenates 3 signs] . 'house'. apportion. èš: shrine [AB archaic frequency: 384. uš11: venom. dead. UŠ: a length measure. to divide. [UŠ archaic frequency: 101. uz: (cf. iši). UŠ archaic frequency: 101. to kill. distribute. to support. omen. concatenates 2 sign variants] . possessive or demonstrative suffix (ku6) -bi plus nominative -a. poison. a scraping tool. rations. blood vessel.. to die. ñíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. spell. eš5. + aš. to stand upon.6. v. ùz. eš: n. ba: n. much. Sumerian Lexicon.... us). v...aš3. lift. to anoint. úz: (cf. to pay (interchanges with bar). many. 'five'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . éš: (cf. reading unknown. adj. ñá. asa).... base.0 8 . Version 3. ba4: Emesal dialect.. bà: liver. iš: (cf. cf. afterbirth.21: three. conjugation prefix. used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive). ut5: she-goat [UD 5 archaic frequency: 109.. ús: n. adv. blood. to block (singular hamtu stem)... moistening. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to give. bar). adverbial force suffix (sometimes followed by -šè ). 'one'). ud5. az: (cf. share. = 6 ropes = 60 nindan rods. úš: n.. uš8: foundation place. uš7: spittle. concatenation of 2 sign variants. ùš: placental membrane. portion. foundation (cf. charm.4. uš.. v. wages [BA archaic frequency: 523]. v. death [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65..

twitter. side... ñin. bi7: (cf.. bul ) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts). suffix. v. dú: (cf. to hold.. carry (-ši . cf. to instruct. decide. to shape. súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299].6): (cf. ðú: n. Sumerian Lexicon. ðe6: to bring. 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects. bu(3.cf. sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99].. Emesal ga(14)).. de 6. bìd). decision. it. copula. case. di: n.dé ). to come (sing. poss. say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . bi. laþ4. to increase. to be near..often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense. the. form. to speak. lessen. tumu2. to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated). to continue on (singular hamtu.. marû form suffix . to conduct oneself. adverbial force suffix. to protect.denote direction). Used like the terminative postposition -šè after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal.2. arm. da: n. i-bí). to murmer. re7. work. da5: (cf. tud).3. di5 [RI]: to advise. v. dè: ashes. buzz. demonstrative suffix... bí: (cf. du: to walk. to diminish.be: (cf.... totality. to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug 4. to sink (for other meanings ..in this sense can occur with animates.. prep. conj. adv. judgment.. lawsuit.. gù. neuter + e 'to speak'). mention (cf.. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . bul).or -ta . comitative suffix.. 'to speak').. howl. cry. bi6 [BA]: to tear. hum. biz. to go.. this (one). de5. marû. bé: v. pron. bi[z] ) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261.0 9 . sing. and. dé: to pour (often with -ni-). de6. to tear off (with -ta -)..2. that (one) . bu5: to rush around (cf.. bad). verdict. dù('). Version 3. to water. be full. nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227. dab6). ég . to go. cf. differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs... concatenates 4 sign variants] . to judge. conjugation prefix. bur 12. chirp. 'with'. tur). art. di4: (cf.

to build... gùr). ñin. gig ). trustworthy. Akkadian kânu. besiege. du8: (cf. gí. toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by rá ) [DU 7 archaic frequency: 7]. to stabilize. to set up. strengthen. ga: n. milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245. conjugation prefix. small. gé: gi4. du10: du11: du12: du14: (cf. modal prefix. du5: (cf. sug5) du6: (cf. thread. Orel & Stolbova #1403. gi: reed. to raise up.. du9: (cf.0 10 . (cf.. ge9: gi17: (cf. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . ge4: reed mat. dùg ). ñen). adj. complete. fight. send) [GI 4 archaic frequency: 37. gi7: (cf.. to lock up (circle + to descend into). gi25[DUGUD]: frequency: 53].. cf.. to erect something on the ground. dun5). make. firm... gore. apply (dù-e in marû).. duþ). and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out. struggle. gi9. net..6): girl. *ka'Vn. orig. ga6: (cf. gíg ). gi(n). tuku ). to plant... reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484]. Version 3. young man (small and thin like a reed). (cf. ge(2. used with hamtu forms. cohortative. (cf. just. du7: to be finished. fixed. gir 10). fitting. to restore.. adj. to be necessary. quarrel. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . cast. to butt.v. dislike. to mould. to confirm. gi(17): n. snare.. to send (back) (with -ši -). to return. 'also'.. to reject. to fasten. length measure.'be true'. come back.. 'and then'. dul(6)). ge(n): v. dug 4). (cf. gi(4): to surround. to act justly. gu: string. reliable. to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic Sumerian Lexicon.. gir15). to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix. flax.. hemp. to be suitable. wool yarn.

swallow. mixed. a6. oil. ñi6: (cf. gù: n. ñu10: my. my. gud(2)). me). Sumerian Lexicon. í: five. indicates distance from speaker. benefit (with -ni -) (throat + ú. Version 3. þá.. to eat.. nurse. þé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as þa). consume. gu2. þi-a: þà.4: (cf.. to exclaim. neck. district' cf. gún.. ia4. ñá: I. other side.. ñar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125.. edge. use. ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108. house. u: þe. ñe6: (cf. ñe: (cf.. finish off. side.. kas7 and níñ-kas7/ka9). fat. stable (cf.4. 'cries. i4: pebble. þa: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may. ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain. nape") [GU 2 archaic frequency: 34].. assorted. kua) [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. gú ) (circular + u5. angle [GU 7 archaic frequency: 236]. þe(2): abundance. ñe26. ka5-(a): fox.. þu: bird (earlier word than mušen). mine.9. concatenation of 5 sign variants] .. let. ñá: (cf. chick pea (for 'land. voice. noise. þi: to mix [ÞI archaic frequency: 291]. myself. ìa. food. gu7. diverse.8). pulse. fodder.7. concatenates 4 sign variants] . ñar.gú: neck. þù. ka9: (cf. ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11. but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish'. ì: n. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sustenance. numerous.0 11 . cream.. *þa: fish (not the usual word for fish. ten (usually written: u ). screams'). counter. v.. sound. 'food'). river bank. Orel & Stolbova #982. gún. gun. front. land. ñe26 and ma(3)). to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3. *gun"occiput.. to eat up. nape. concatenates 2 sign variants] . kú: n. impersonal verbal conjugation prefix. talent' cf. gíg).. abundant. ñál. to feed. ñá: basket. 'on top of'. cf. ia2. gíg). an alternative to the usual ku6. indeed. for 'load. v.

male. sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386. lí: true measure. to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64. ma4: to leave. gu7). desire [LA archaic lá: to penetrate. ñe: n. office. lug ). abundant. grain ('base' + 'to rise.. cult [ME archaic frequency: 363. la: abundance. kì: (cf. blend.. ku5: (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to mix. to look after. Version 3. 'food'. to multiply. responsibility.. many. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 2 sign variants] . men. ma(3). to know. lu: n. ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for ñál. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'water') [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. shine. trouble. fine oil. location. gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85]. lub. where. oracle. ergative agent marker). anyone. pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf. frequency: 20. found. whenever. ñá: ñiš to go (Akk. go out (cf. to stir. the phenomenal area of a deity's power. kú: (cf. wealth. gíg )... much. luxury. to fluster. kua: fish (kú. sheep. force a way into (in order to see). embarrass. behind. bliss. people. to graze.-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak. youthful freshness and beauty. wish. earth.. to have a beard (cf. ku: to base. kud). + e. man. má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6]. ñá) [MA archaic frequency: 250]. lú: grown man. area. function. concatenates 2 sign variants] . me. ground.. li9: to glisten.. build. place. wherever.. agitate. ki: n. kug). mù). kuruš). alaaku). to be/make numerous. ku6. ma5: (cf. divine decree. + a. kìd). prep.. pierce... v. concatenates 4 sign variants] . ku10: (cf. someone. ideal norm.. lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57].. ku7: (cf. mì. depart. mud6). also. genitival suffix 'of'. human being.0 12 . kù: (cf. lul). mà: (Emesal dialect for ñá-e). lu5: (cf.. no one.. happiness. kur9). lù: to disturb. ñiš li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14]. ku4: (cf.

hailstone. na: strength. exorcism ?.. modal prefix. token. prep. mu4: (cf. forces. mù. na: (cf.. our. munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. word. roar. she. gíg). ne4: fear. munus ) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. respect. mur10).. emphatic in past tense. violence.0 13 . poss. year.. he.. human being. mí.. gíg). mu 10. box. na5: chest. mí[SAL]: n. one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34]. demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303. Hallo & van Dijk.6. vigor. to burn (reduplication class). adj.. ma5[KA׊È]: to mill. woman. ní: ni. the Sumerian copula. frightfulness. fattened. v.. ñu10) [MU archaic frequency: 99]. also. adj. used especially before dative infixes.9: battle [ME 3 archaic frequency: 4]. plump. mud6). mú: (cf. line on a tablet. ní. rock.. tell. beautiful. preferred for animate and agentive subjects.. incense [NA archaic frequency: 105. conjugation prefix. also. awe. ordinary stone. stone weight. oath (cf.v.. ne. suggests involvement by speaker. ní: self. woman. concatenation of 4 nè. Sumerian Lexicon. nud ). this (one). that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263.. me3. mi: (cf. body. grind. mu5: well-formed.7. female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position. mug ). to say. Version 3. ná. mé: (cf. that (one).. because. to name.. scream. prohibitive in present/future tense. female (cf. entry. mu7[KA×LI]: mu10[SAL]: to shout. concatenates 3 sign variants] . na: n. mu: n. pebble. no. ne(-e). to be. name. speak (cf. p. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . suffix. feminine. 85) (cf.en: sign variants] .. host. nú: na4. me6: to act. behave.

. to throw. to pack. picture. to blow. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person. ri-ri-g is plural. regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker . stamp. nu: n. or a phonetic writing for lú . to send (cf. to inundate. e-re7. to give. ru: n. pron. er. ir10. nu11[ŠIR]: (ñiš) light. prep. to go. inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25]. haul. lead. súb ). demonstrative affix. to expel. to exchange. si. to measure. to moor a boat. v.re 7.. cast. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to break open. rú: (cf. not. re7. throw away. slay. fire. to impress. buds... ñin . mat.. cf.. sa: n. string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54. dative suffix . rúg ). to butt. ara4). ri6. image.. sprout. put into. cf. to take. that. fountain. to be located... to touch. to place upon or against (with -ši-). rig ) [RI archaic frequency: 1]. feather [PA archaic frequency: 378. rá. RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III.. cistern. adj. to stir. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . bud. those.. figurine. v.5..denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done.. to drive along or away. stab. to gather. present. lamp. to blow (said of a storm). adj. pàd). du ..er ... branch. to strike. ru5: to send forth shoots. nìñin). & adv. pool. to emit.. to bear. pa: leaf. pour. sinew. to branch out (from the side of a canal). no.. v. pú: well.0 14 .. to stir.for . or roll (a seal into clay). depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37]. dike. pa4. far. or throw away (with -ta -). rà: (cf. overflow.. sa). advice. net. ir: to accompany. remove. glean. sá: n. negative. to place. cord. bundle. to gore. níñ). tendon. rù: to be equal in size or rank. likeness. rá: (cf. ra(-g/þ): n. re7). ni9: (cf. mix (plural hamtu e.. to flood. ri: v. small canal. to beget.6(-r): irrigation ditch. gift [RU archaic frequency: 120]. alabaster [NU 11 archaic frequency: 32]. Sumerian Lexicon. to plan something (ri is hamtu form. without. wing. sweep away (with -ta -). dù). to roast (barley) (cf.nì: (cf. pà: (cf.over yonder). or blossoms. statue [NU archaic frequency: 101]. Version 3. ri-g is marû form...

v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da -).

sa4: to name; to call by name. sa5: n., red ocher.
adj., red, red-brown.

sa6: (cf., sag9). sa7: well-formed. sa9[MAŠ]: sa10: sa12:
half.

to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám ). (cf., sañ ).

si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].
v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still. adj., regular, normal.

si; su; sa; sa5:

v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da -); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum , sug 6, rúg , sig , sig 5).

adj., suitable, fit.

sì, sè:

(cf., sig 10).

si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants] . si14:
a small pot.
frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants] .

su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic
adj., naked.

SU:

Subarian.

su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6]. sú: (cf., zu) su4: to grow; to multiply. su5: (cf., suþ5). su6: (cf., sun4). su7: (cf., sug8). su8: (cf., súg, súb). su9; ša4:
n., red ocher.

v., to mourn, grieve.

su11: su13:

(cf., zú ). (cf., sud 4).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

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sux (TAG):

to spread (cf., sud ).

ša: to dry up [ŠA archaic frequency: 97]. šà: (cf., šag4). ša4, še13:
(cf., su 9).

ša5: to cut, break (reeds). ša6: (cf., sag9). še: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., še-ga/ge ) [ŠE archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants] . demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.

šè: n., portion [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].
prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).

še4: (cf., sed). še6: (cf., šeñ6). še7: (cf., šèñ). še8: (cf., šéš). še10: še17:
excrement, dung. (cf., sed 4). (cf., šaña ).

še29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]:

ši: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., šè). šu: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [ŠU archaic frequency: 360].
v., to pour.

šú: (cf., šúš). šu4(-g):
to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).

šu4: (cf., šuš). šu12:
(cf., šùde ). n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants] .

ta, dá:

prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta ).

ta6: (cf., taka4). te, de4:
n., cheek, chin (cf., temen ) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

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te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-ñe 26) . tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., naña). te8[Á]mušen:
bearded vulture.

ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, diþ, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants] . tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants] . tumušen:
(cf., tum 12
mušen

).

tú: (cf., tam). tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3). tu5,17:
n., bath.

v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).

tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula. tu7: soup; soup pitcher. tu9: (cf., túg). tu10,11: tu15:
(cf., dun ). (cf., tumu ).

za: you (singular). za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a
repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).

za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9]. zà: (cf., zag). zé[ZÍ]:
to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg , cf., zil;

zé-er).

zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign
variants] .

v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.

zí: stench; bile; bitter. zì: (cf., zíd). zu, sú:
n., wisdom, knowledge.

v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da -); to recognize someone (with -da -); to be experienced, qualified. adj., your (as suffix). pron., yours.

zú, su11[KA]:

tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

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egir2/3). ad3. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to check. top of the head.'neck'). length. Version 3. them. eye(s).GÙ]: n. sea [AB archaic frequency: 384. ubu [AŠ]: ada. upper part.'to issue'. a5: to do. before.. ak. act. úgu[A.. time. crown (of legitimate kingship). [A2 archaic frequency: 3] aka.. a marine and fluvial fish [UBI archaic frequency: 7.. shout.. concatenates ída.. crowd. prep. i7: river. father. comparative enhancer of adjectives. strength. wages.. mete.12) (abbreviation of igiñál. ád: 3 sign variants] ..'after it'. to balk.. watercourse (éd.. work performance. aþ5. to place. carcass. to make into (something) (with -si. top side. ram. íd. shrub. concatenates 3 sign variants] . n. moment. him. the igi of 5 is 0. concatenates 2 sign variants] . (cf. n. ugu(4)) (ù. ab: abba: ubiku6: lake. main canal. ùgun.0 18 . un(-ñá): people. on top. to measure (area. ugamušen: egi(2): égi: igi: (cf. = 1/2 of an iku (= 50 sar ). turban [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. ugu4-bi). ab-ba ). áþi.KA]: debits part of account tablet. igi: reciprocal of a number (= the multiplier that will give 60. ùñ. ám: ùña. capacity).'water'). wing. ad: v. to dispatch. front (reduplicated ig. concatenates 3 sign variants] . small cattle. population. after. diadem.. circlet. Sumerian Lexicon. horn. face. ugu4[KU]: to bear. upon. v. send. raven. + gú. ègir). udu: aga(3): sheep.. prep. 'that which is opposite') . corpse. concatenates 2 signs] . aba. 'door') [IGI archaic frequency: 21]. produce (cf. over. song [AD archaic frequency: 36.zu5: (cf. ugu[U. thornbush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. concatenates 2 signs] . glance. her. áka. this one. á: arm. skeleton [ADDA archaic frequency: 4]. áñ. to see.) [AK archaic frequency: 149. area measure. procreate. adda(2). in front of. to measure out. áña. looks. aspect. ag. skull.6: adda4. pron. (cf. ùku. to drive away.. wether [UDU archaic frequency: 452.. side. + a. azu). voice (cf.

feast. em: imi. to shine (íl-i in marû). ék. illu: ùlu: high water.5).àka: iku: fleece. íl: n. 'levee'). tumu ). (cf. (cf. uku2...5. resin. im. n. wind. glory. v. únug). loam. jenny. Sumerian Lexicon. bright. am: ama(4. (cf. (amniotic) fluid. concatenates 2 sign variants] . um: ùmmu: únu: old woman. speech. weather. to support. énmen ). enmen ).. u18). flood.6: imi. direction. ummeda (2))... clay. ára. ùl: ama: mother [AMA archaic frequency: 241. to praise. carry. ummud). get up. úllu[KIB]. em: umu. ukur3. glorify. v. ùnug).. ár[UB]: v. ùña). (cf. áme: women's quarters. áma.0 19 . concatenation of 2 sign variants] .5: ùku: (cf. to blaze. clear. she-ass. carrier.. a utensil. ara3. tablet [IM archaic frequency: 67. þara). ara4. reins [KIB archaic frequency: 7].. to shine. wild ox or cow (aurochs). to deliver. im. (cf. a surface measure of 3600 meters 2 = 100 sar = 1 square 'rope' = 1/18 bùr (plural Akk.. wise or skillful teacher. ili5: to rise. leash. praise... (cf. storm. Version 3. rà: adj. íli. chief cowherd. to endure. nurse... eme: emma: émma: éme: eme3. ar. to carry forward (in accounting). eme: ñiš tongue. mud. cloud.. plow's share. living room. íla. to be high. polished. rain ( cf..5: (cf. to bring. form of ég. ùnu(-d): unu6: (cf. (cf..4). to lift..

full. mighty. ear of barley or other grain. rope = 10 nindan rods = 20 reeds = 120 2 cubits = the side of 1 square iku in area = 1.dNANNA]: d utu: the sun as a god (cf. fetter.5. iti: iti6[UD. village. bear. a crop-devouring insect. ur11(-ru): uru9: stanchion.. rí. = 6 iku. till. uru12: to plow. length measure. district [URU archaic frequency: 101. eight (ía. eše4: éšša: emmer wheat flour. city. uru(2)(ki). clever.4) with the marû aspect -e suffix and vowel harmony. ašag). uru16(-n): (na4) asa. URI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. thirty (eš5. glowing. esig). a surface area measure. + eš.3): aša5: (cf. strong. same meaning as ur (2. n. v. mountain [IŠ archaic frequency: 88.. éše. cage. Version 3. + eš5...0 20 . 'much'. concatenates 3 sign variants] .16 hectares or 6 iku . 'five'... urim 2.0. deep. èše: iši: eššu: ušu: ùšu: itu. uru4[APIN]. 'three'). iri. Sumerian Lexicon. az: esi: isi: usu: (cf..3. moonlight. to protect. devastating flood. cultivate. éš[ŠÈ]: rope. to watch. concatenates 3 sign variants] . adj. itud ).5). luminous object.. (cf. support. town. clay pit.'three'.5: (cf..0 [60 ] fingers.18: concatenation of 5 sign variants.. ud). as. 'much') [ŠE 3 archaic frequency: 152]. UNUG archaic frequency: 206. skill.. ussu(2. leash (can be an adverbial suffix like eš ) (eš. a surface measure = 2. valiant. high. strength.iri: uri(2): (cf. thunderstorm. myrtle [AZ archaic frequency: 13]. watch fire. measuring tape/cord.'ten'). light. ùri[ŠEŠ]: uri2. (cf. pit. iri11: uru2. kínda ) [URI archaic frequency: 35.. + þà/u. guard. eša. Akkadian ( cf. ùru(-m)[ŠEŠ]: n. urin ). uru). to be satiated.

to purify. to infringe upon. to send over. dúb. seize. doctor (cf. a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?) [ÞUB 2 archaic káb: kib: flaxen measuring string ?.. defeat [ÞUB archaic frequency: 1]. athlete..0 21 .. þub. the left was the hand that stank from wiping excrement) [GUB 3 archaic frequency: 15. chest. quake. gilim[-b] ). side (of a field or mountain) (ga. grease (abundance collected in open container) . 'goat'. foul smell.. to beset. and slaughtered animals).4. acrobat. to bind. to rot. resin. tie up. dib(2): n. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . (cf. strew (with -ta -). v. 'to cut') . to store. to rumble [DUB 2 archaic frequency: 2]. to traverse. Version 3. a-zu) [AZU archaic frequency: 7]. dab(2.UDU]: mutton fat. install (singular). túb: gaba: gib: gub: gúb: gùb: þab(2): to kick. heap up. to stand by. azu. úzu.. to receive (motion into open container) . sunset. to do service (with -ši -). to shake. erect. (clay) tablet. Sumerian Lexicon. to pass (by/along). to set.5). 'milk'. iz-zi) [NE archaic frequency: 303. adj. + zé. v. kibx[GIG](-ba): wheat. malodorous. to set down in writing. þúp: frequency: 2]. knock down. flop (said of fish. þab and þúb.. to surround. to stand aside (with -ta -) (to be long and throat-like in open container) . to wander [? DIB archaic n. to serve (with -da -). cleanse.. breast. catch. to stand. to dye (fabrics) (reduplication class ?). newborn animals. zu5: izi[NE]: uzu: fire (cf. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to hire. dab6. an object. to take.útu: a dish prepared with milk. cross. to take away. besiege... lub[LUL](-bi): a cut of meat. + ba. 'to give') . gall(nut) (attracting many vermin in open container) . left (hand) (cf. concatenates 6 sign variants] . omen (ùz. v. n. to (make) tremble. to pour out. to strike. to hold.. a type of weaver (?). depth. libx[Í. hammer. to sprinkle off. that could be made of gold. flesh. fetter. da5: dib(2): dub: frequency: 6].. cut of meat. to move in a circle. to stink. uzu5: evening. þup: þúb. document (motion into open container) [DUB archaic frequency: 229.

šub6[ŠID]: šuba(2/3): v. deduct. ascend. to be/make double (sometimes reduplicated) (side + open container) . cut off') [? ZUBI archaic frequency: 2. 'fear.. 'fear. shackle. to bite off. sub2/3: (cf. to go away (Akk. leopard (ní. n. remove (šu. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to separate. (with -ta -) to throw out. pa4: (ñiš) rab. to fell a tree. re 7). 'to pull. respect'. ocean. (with -da -) to drop. 'to be angry') . rap: ring. father. 'flint. distinguishing mark. to hold. disappear. sting. to clog. clasp. bàd: v. to bless. respect' + íb. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to burn. to lick. to suckle. exorcism.. to stand. pair. rib: sub. to make haste. šip: šub: to cast. dug šab: pot. pillory. ñin . fever. vessel. to climb. + aba.. bara 4 and semantics of bar ) (open container with motion away from) [BAD archaic frequency: 23]. to be cast. nab: nib: cheetah. pail. n.0 22 . let fall. (city) wall [? EZEN archaic frequency: 114. sipad ). su-ub: súb. shake.. to fall out. snare (to slide + open container) ... to bind. adv.. to snip out. n. tooth'. color (izi. to tremble. stem (cf. cf. to be bathed.. v. leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501. su8: to lead out. remove (regularly followed by rá .. to join (with -da -). šab) [ŠAB archaic frequency: 61. to fall (upon). sickle (zú. sipad ). chip out.agate (?). 'lake. sabad. pretty. to gather up (portion + divide). zubi: bad. companion. to go away. also du . 'hand' + bu5. tun). pab. said of two or more. man. concatenation of 2 v. to be at a distance. 'thigh'). šib.. zubu. súg. such as a herd... tab: n. 'fire' + íb. to drive away. cf. to let out. brother. middle. stamp. stock. Elamite word for 'god' (ní. sea') [NAB archaic frequency: 10] . together (precedes the modified verb). Sumerian Lexicon. pap. zib(2): haunch. shining. a priest (cf. to subtract.IB): sign variants] . be: concatenates 2 sign variants] ... Version 3. to open. to apportion (lots). adj. rabbu). brand. draw. to pray (naked flesh + open container) . to travel (plural marû su8-bé. to be higher in rank. + bu[r]. fetter.. to suck. 'to rush around') . throw. musician.urudu lub(-bi): an ax for use in agriculture or as a weapon. dug šab (PA. a precious stone . tubx: (cf. clean ('licked clean' ?). ab.. clamp.

to act (ground/floor plus motion). a small bowl. bi7: n. adj. sign variants] . gu 4-ud ). difficulty. kad6. a pestle (abundance + motion). concatenates 5 sign variants] .bad4: fortress.0 23 . to be afraid. gur (4)) (voice/sound with repetitive processing . warrior. adj. n.4: gùd: nest. to breach (a dike). gudug). young. gúda. gur 5. small. gu4: n. tow. to frighten (closed container with motion out from) . gu-udku6: gud(2). 'let it become'. to curse (regularly followed by rá . to shine brightly (þé. gíd[BU]: v. 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96. Version 3. inarable land. fish). distant. kìd. cf. anus (open container with motion away from) . to give birth. white.. to measure out. to divorce.. handle. to build.. dida: didi: gada: beer..7: to pinch off (clay). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . leaping fish') . gudku6. v.. gud. + dág. to reach out (to take) (to be long and throatlike with motion away from). thread'. cf..... guðx. length [BU: archaic frequency: 393. gu2. beer ingredient. flax. kì: kid6.8: kud. kur5.. dry. to urinate. carp ('dancing. linen (clothing) (gu. pull. dried (e. to dry..5: gi morning [UD archaic frequency: 419]. þáda. to open (ground with motion away from. 'to nip off clay') .refers to the bellow of a bull) [GU 4 archaic frequency: 182]. to dance. to separate. kìr. leap (cf. to lengthen. bind together [KAD 4 archaic frequency: 13. kìr . dark. to remove.. to defecate. and gur 10) (base with motion away from) . heel.. a right-angled tool [MUD archaic frequency: 88]. bìd. gud8: short (related to but opposite in meaning to gíd). kid: kid2. 'flax.. concatenates 4 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon.. ku5: lud: mud: to cut off (with -ta -). bull (regularly followed by rá . + da.. to weave a mat (ground/floor plus motion). v. domestic ox. þad(2): v. gudu4: (cf.g. to draw. þúd: kad4. to make. cf. reed mat [KID archaic frequency: 76. dim.. to dispossess. concatenation of 2 n. 'brilliant'). to levy tax or tribute. to manage. adj.. hardship. to tie. v. long.

possibly a citrus tree [ŠITA3 sed(4. crush. cf. cp. to immerse. šu12: v.múd: mud3. 'to go out') . sed (4. zid. 'hand'. bur and búru ) (sprout + repetitive 72.. legitimacy.. to lay down (with -ni -). to last. to sip. to drown (reduplication class) (regularly followed by rá ) (su4. nud. mud6. to break off. to give. su: v.. to make appear'. feel delight.. + dé. adj. ér. ñiš rad[ŠÌTA]: a tree. an amphora in the 30-60 liter range with two neck handles. to be born. nú: pad. to sprout.5. to beget. mú: to sing. subside.4. mud5: exultation. long.10. create. to ignite. 'to fill up'. marû. + éd. 'not'. ñiš nàd. to cool down. sud4. to wag (a tail). to sprinkle. distant.12. concatenates 4 sign variants] . appear (reduplication class) (mu. (cf. processing) [? PAD archaic frequency: 38. dú: túd: to bear. transformed. bite.6)). = 50 'word'. to seek. a large vat for beer [MUD 3 archaic frequency: 27.. šed: šid3. truth (zi. šita 5). lasting. to pray. prayer. to prolong. Version 3. 'to interfere'. to strew. small repast (regularly followed by rá . multiply'. paðx: + éd. to rejoice. to sleep... + motion). to repose. take an oath. to choose out of (with ablative prefix) (pà-dè in sing. 'to grow up.11... to be long. couch (ná = nú-a. give birth to. remote. to choose.18. šùde. blessing [ŠU 12 archaic frequency: 1]. + motion). provide.10. pa. n.. Englund]) [NA 2 archaic frequency: to lie down. 'to go out') . branch + to go out. to be/make remote. + éd. n. confidence. 'to go out') . (cf. lengthen. to pacify. far away. ná: bed. šed7. 'to go out') . to make grow. 'to lie down' + nominative [from R.. to make. súd: to pound. changed (to approach and meet + to go out). to gnash (the teeth) (su9. archaic frequency: 139. sù. n.. + éd. šùd. kindle. present (regularly followed by rá ) (narrow line + repetitive process) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. cold water. to cane (tu. pà: to show..0 24 . to sink. coolness (si. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + éd.. long (duration). to blow. zi: Sumerian Lexicon... jubilation. pà-pà-dè in plural marû) (sprout. še4. to kill (nu. to abate. to spank. 'to show.23: n. quieted.17. to furnish. cf.11. fashion. šita (4)).. v.pàd) [PA 3 archaic frequency: 30]. to be calmed. to be reborn. faith. 'red ochre'. sud. pàd. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . sanction.. 'to go forth') .12: šid.6). tud.5.. concatenates 4 sign variants] . v. call.. to swear. mud8[NUNUZ-ÁB = LAK 449]: ku-li. 'soul'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to stretch.5: (cf. 'to hail').4: blood (closed container with motion out from) . šed7.éd.5. tu. šùdu. to find. to declare. reveal. v. to lie together with (with -da -). Presargonic Girsu. bless (šu.. su13: adj.

dark (cf. vessel.. pure. gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46. joint.. chamber (motion as in traveling + throat-like chamber) [DAG archaic frequency: v. carnelian (with na 4). 'to base. good. mi. resting-place. wheat (cf. gig. flour.. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun) (nonfinite form = di) (to make a motion in the throat). pure. command. beautiful. spike. speech. concatenates 5 sign variants] . dwelling. to make cultically pure. appropriate. to strengthen (e... consume' + round and neck-like) [GUG 2 archaic frequency: 70. 'diadem. mé. v. dág: dig: brilliant. pleasing. knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like. to speak. sweet. crown'). to speak with. 'cry of pain'. build' + aga(3). n.. adj. ñíg. soft. lump. gug: ninda monthly offering. legitimate. loins. lag. adj.. true. gladness. gúg: gug5: hostility.. meal (life + motion as in grinding). night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber) [GI 6 archaic frequency: 105].. brand. vagina). zì[ŠÈ]: dag: 4] . adj. knee(s). clod. pot. circlet. hinge. gob.v. member (motion + throat-like chamber. gi6. to be/make sick. sacred.. also. to cleanse. du10: n.. painful. to add. good. circlet. ég). fresh (water). dug4. to stretch (out). to die'). to be painful to (with dative). purify. ge6. kù: n.0 25 . to order. except at Presargonic Girsu = 20 liters [DUG archaic frequency: 581. v.. lap. black. gíg. injury. Sumerian Lexicon. workable. bone. + throat) [GIG archaic frequency: v.. money. adj. concatenates 3 sign variants] . cake. jug. bright. war (might be reduplicated ug5. to be/make enjoyable. ñi6. righteous. bulk size. nail. (ñiš) gag. 'to eat. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . silver. v..8. v. = 30 liters (sìla ). pressed-date bread (gu7. to sing. kúkku ). 'to kill. precious metal.. clean ('to go out' + aga(3).. n. lañ: piece. to be in a weakened state (motion + throat-like chamber. cf. to become moist.g... the levees of a canal). white. right (hand). to roam about. moist. adj. dùg. noble (ku. holy.. to be black or dark (ku 10: reduplication class). swallow. ñe6. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'diadem. collected mass (abundance + round). firm.. gi25 v. kib x) (throat + i. favorable. vagina).. adj. du11: n. zíd.7.. to enjoy. kak: peg. kug. ku10. gi17: 16] .. converse (with -da -) (singular hamtu form. lawful. cf. Version 3. illness. dug: standard size earthen jar.. faithful. n. to reject. crown') [KU 3 archaic frequency: 181.

sig.. cf. 'cheetah. pudenda (mu10. adj. 'to stand upright' + ug5. erode (chamber + ku. to replace.. quake.3. chisel. v. Sumerian Lexicon. shake... fruitful (sa7. tow.. sug5). favor. si-ga as noun. leopard') .18.. rig. muk. eat' + nominative a). to send' + entrance). verb. n. 'to be numerous' + gù. šaaqû). doff. entrance') . n. síg: (cf. good. to flatten.11. weapon (ri. hurt. nib.ŠU. rúg [SU or NAM.. sig6. good fortune. si(-ga): adj. entrance') . v. to engrave.9. mug(2): n. entrance'. 'thing'. ri: rìg: rig5. broken wool fibers. carve. temple ward. for instance a drum). to be in heat. to deed. lu: to swarm (said of birds and fish) (lu.7. to abrade. eyesore. blow. short. sound') . to pay back. and adjective in compounds) [SIG archaic frequency: 66]. 'door. 'door. to be friendly (with dative or -da -) (reduplicated in hamtu.. mu: n. weak (cf. 'female' + ig. 'to be still' + throat for vocalizing). fear' + ig.DU8]: cupbearer (loan from Akk.10. + gu7.6).. to glean. ša6: n. to stay silent. settled (si. ru: class) (ru. to demolish. v. sweet. nakedness. shelter (birds) (branches + round chamber) . low. sagi [SÌLA. (divine) grace. pick (reduplication class) (flowing motion such as re7.. of fine quality (narrow.rig 7). sig5. to (make) totter. sag2. nug: nig: níg: a perfume plant. wall(s) [? SIG4 archaic frequency: 2].8. narrow. late. 'to feed. Version 3..lug. 'to kill'. to please. to be/make good. to silence (si. crush.. šag5. 'door. grant (see etymology of sa 12. lioness (ní. sa6. to chop down (trees).SU]. 'strength. silence. sè: v.0 26 . list. (cf..7: to bring. damage. 'to give. 'body' or níñ. 'to build').... to tend. to beat (rhythmically. níñ ). good. sty.. 'well-formed' + ge(2. drive along' + ig.. 'to accompany. slave. stroke. 'to throw' + ug5. šeg5. sig3. bitch. satisfy. sag10: (to be) mild. sag9. sa 6ge in marû). to pull. oxen or sheep). sig5. to strike. to receive (reduplication sag5: (cf. 'to kill'). beautiful. zàg). fine + throat for eating). to remove. cf. 'girl'). n.. to restore. to become still.. lead. siki ).8.. sweet. mug. hollow out. grain-fed (ní. pleasant. sì. fattened (e. bag[ÞU]: to cage. small. mace.. si: v. raze. brickwork.g. sig4: sun-dried unbaked brick. respect. 'noise. niga(2): pag. nigu. v.7. to hew out.

tígi [NAR. 'body' + 'long and neck-like').18. entrails. si: to be narrow (narrow. at. sig3. lake. stomach. súg. to pull out weeds. v. Version 3. to sweep along. 'to kill'). to match (cf. cloth. abdomen. sallow.. 'to kill'.0 27 .. sug4. pale. šeg8.. 'to spread'. interior. tuku4). to strip naked. threshing floor. tùn) (si. to engrave. cf. inundate + ég. to replace. to live. plural stem of tìl) (si. set. su: chamber) .) (reduplication class) (cf.NAR]. tag4: (cf. 'levee. flood basin. sè: to apply. mug(2). taka4). green. sag2. sug5[GÍN]: sug6. cloth garment (side + to encircle) [TUG 2 archaic frequency: 311. 'entrance'. 'body' + ig. will. sur12. fine [ + neck-like]). sum .8.9: sug: wild mountain boar ? (cf. šenbar ) [ŠEG 9 archaic frequency: 10]. sa7(-g): v. to complete. sù. lay bare. su-a . womb. tu9: lú harp (ti. to garden.11. to complain (in meanings 'to live'. sig3. to make flat.8.3. 'to water') [SIG 7 archaic frequency: 61]. cause. to subject. subdue. šeg8/9: šug: tag: snow. sig9. sì.7. inside. cold shudder.. place. + gi4. šuku ). 'to restore') .. 'to knock down'. to knock down (also read dùn.. se12(-g). to create.sig7. 'cat'). to bring low.. destitute. sì. even. sul4... volition.. to surround. sigga. put in. cp. mood. 'to cut. tug4: (cf. chills. (cf. šà: n.'nakedness') .. su8: súb) (su. šag5: to slaughter (ša5.. 'life'. 'to stand upright' + ug5. restore. return (a loan. taka ). šaþ . 'to compare') .10.7. to compare. sig10. to dwell. fertile land (to fill. a small animal (cf. significance (grain/excrement + water/urine + chamber) [ŠA 3 archaic frequency: 137. sè) [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67]... Sumerian Lexicon. TÚG: fuller.. to let live. su7: šag4. midst. sag9). etc.. sug8. bed of a river. content. and sá. intestines. swamp. to stand (plural marû) (cf. adj. dike') [SUG archaic frequency: 15]. prep. to tear out. (cf.. sig). gub. gut.. tigi [BALAÑ. meaning. concatenates 6 sign variants] . sig 3) (combination of meanings such as: sux.. 'upright stalks' + ég. grain pile. šeg4: frost. empty. break' + ug5. sig14. in.BALAÑ]: túg. sig17 (GI): the color of the low or setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (cf. sigga ).. su: adj. ice (cf. body. to be/make pleasant or beautiful. yellow. to do. rúg ) (to fill up + entrance. to empty (su. concatenates 3 sign variants] . du5 with this meaning) (cf. šag5: (cf. heart.

v. þun(-ñ): to hire or rent (someone or something). outside of (life + to encircle) [ZAG archaic frequency: 71. zàg ). to take out. an alkaline plant. harvest. þeš5[LÚ×KÁR. used as a prefix to form concrete nouns (self + to mete out to) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. territory. adj. archaic frequency: 125. LÚ-KÁR]: šeñ3. to be hot. weed.. abusive remark. wall. sañ. ñá. cf. work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9]. to seek. še7: rain. bake. potash (used as soap). error. message. sa4. to multiply. 'to mete out to') . captive (tied up with a rope éše. order. zà: boundary. break. beginning. soapwort (nañ. treasure. to go out or make go out. edge'. n.. KUM]: níñ. taþ: v. to tear out. 'water') [NAGA to crush. luña[PA. saña11.or -ra -).. place. uproot. cusp. (with nominative -a ) pestle. district. nì: property. a matter. replacement [DAH archaic frequency: 21]. kin: n. 'to dry up' + to mete out).. to rouse. gín). + ig. chosen. prime. to water. zug4[KA×LI]: (cf.. sanctuary. boil. to spend or credit. rise . gift. irrigate. to send. class) (ša. 'to drink'. + áñ. cook. self'... to abate (many + to mete out to). to help (motion into numerousness). Version 3. 'to pour' + to mete out). + a. to dry a field (redup. in front. substitute. scattered (to multiply. naña3. right (side). drink. (cf. to add.. + ñe26. sañ5: (cf. to recruit (zi-zi in marû). to rain (šu. to rest. 'body. leader. zi: n. to approach. fetch (with locative-terminative -ni -).. kíñ. siñ18[KIN]: to cut. zàg. head. šeñ6. border. repose.. slave... to order (reduplication class). 'to equal'. v. sañ2/3: to scatter.. a measure for fish. daþ. extract. 'to name'... partition (úz. to stand up. 'door'). valuables. point. + a. something. v. še29. to say further. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to rise up from (with -ta . task. še6: zàñ: to heat. sag5. to spread + to mete out). fault. alkali. lu9: nañ. bad. high. assets. lú-éše). prep. 'water'. lúñ[PA]. limit.. individual (sá.0 28 .7. nañX[GAZ. 'side. ú-zug4). to drink out of (with -ta -) (na 8-na 8 in marû) (ní.zag. side. zàg). first. front. sañ11. Sumerian Lexicon. na8: n. thing. percentage. to introduce (to a job). to repeat. to choose. shoulder. myself) [SAG archaic frequency: 420]. zàñ.ÑÁ]. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to drink. impudence. human. šaña.4. naña: [ñiš] soda. present. sañ5[ŠID]: zìg. giñ4: (cf. þuñ. sa12: adj. first-class.

v.diþ(2): to sting. wool.. esp. 'portion'. on the liver. du8: concatenates 3 sign variants] . adj. hide (si. confusion. allotted field plot (regularly followed by rá) (šu. to remit (a debt). suku5: šika: (cf. luþ. 'numerous'). v. potsherd. cf. to wash.. to untie. to spread. carefully chosen. barb. n. to prepare the threshing floor. zuþ[ZÚ]: kak: to steal. + þe. to plunder. šuku. concatenates 12 sign variants] . sickness. Sumerian Lexicon. torpidity (?) (cf. to be lost. to flee. body). gag ). + kud. to drive off. 'to mix'). cf. to caulk a boat (with pitch). fur. làþ: maþ: to be clean. 'seven' .as more than seven. tranquil. loosen. to uproot.5: to bring (plural).5): an adjective for cows (as opposed to ñiš for bulls).ÁŠ. 'youthful freshness'. foremost. great. 'black' ? or kul.. n. beard. to be or make large (ama. dry.... shell. to dry out. làþ).. šaþ(2): zaþ: zaþ2. ti ) (motion + cry of pain + insect). concatenates 2 sign variants] . eight is confusing) [SUÞ 3 archaic frequency: 4]. free. Version 3. point. laþ4. to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control) (derives from zag. 'to bring'. disorder.. rind (hand. sting. portion + mouth). luþ. adj. ration. fever. lofty. grass + numerous times) [DU 8 archaic frequency: 29. residue. thin things'. + þá. bran (motion + plant. displace. 'boundary. duþ. + numerous. narrow + plant + numerous). to sparkle. 'goat'.. 'long. take away. uþ: to dry up.. de6. súkud ). to clean.. to relocate. to adorn.. a mark or impression. + numerous) [MAÞ archaic frequency: 6. to gouge (eyes). fresh. high.0 29 . šug: allotted food portion. + ku10. ñišù-suþ5) (ussu. to hide. tumu2. to bake bread/bricks. + numerous. border. 'mother of'. síg: hair (of head. to sweep (la. laþ. by-product. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . clothe (reduplicated). exalted. open. to crack. to fling (away) (plural form. archaic frequency: 39. adj.pigs efficiently turn feed into food) [ŠAH 2 to be calm. transfer. n.. heavy' ?) [SIG 2 archaic frequency: 224. rob (zú. máþ[AL]: paþ[LUL]: suþ(2. provision.3. zeþ[SAL.. siki. the ancillary meanings of imin. capture..GÀR]: female goat-kid (ùz. encircling wall (cf. suþ4: reed matting (fine. secrecy..3) (íla. shine (cf. àþ[UD]. adj. abundant). leg. v. v. 'to separate') .3: domestic pig (grain + water + numerous (offspring) . to abandon. 'teeth' + numerous). 'thick. to become confused. 'eight'. just as þúb relates to gùb).. district'. (cf. sublime.

distant' and ul4. to dig out (a ditch).. with -ši -. beam. annual contribution to the state [BALA archaic frequency: 19. dil: one.taka. to transgress.. ruins. 'to approach' + aka. to clothe. to weave. v. to open. 'to do. enduring') [DU6 archaic frequency: 37. dílim ). to pass through. to abandon. to divorce. tuk4. to start a fire. dálla. concatenates 2 sign variants] . v. go back (bala-e in marû) (ba. bala ). tug4: enter') . taga. to chase (da.). to have a claim against somebody (with -da. bu(5): dal: n. place. Version 3. 'to build.. a large cup. dalla: n. to ignite. to be angry (probably reduplication class) (tu15. in plural) (cf. shoot ('it rises'). tak4. to disregard. hold. 'digging stick. 'wind'.. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] .. tuku4. alone. tà: to touch. conspicuous. 'tell'. to pour (as a libation. term of office. ray (cf. 'share'. bring. hit. taka4.'remote. erect'. out of. to be or make bright. catch (can be reduplicated) (te.. + ge4. compound sign verb. tag4.5).'to hasten') . deliver (to someone: dative). Sumerian Lexicon.. dellu: mast. to lie down') . support') .. to tremble. sprout. entrust. to tear down.or -ra -). v. dili. gal. sanctuary. to decorate.'to hold. to be far away. to turn around. 'to build. to shine. + ul. heap. bar. dála: dél: (cf.. adj. 'conjugation prefix' or 'turtle shell'. to leave with a person. 'ancient. hunt. cleft. dálla.. unique. with -ta .. to dig up. + lá. 'with'. to heat (soup) (container + to lift. excellent. to roast. spade') . 'to pierce'). get (in marû reduplicated form).ta 6-ta 6 in marû) (ta. 'to. dal: n. tuk. turn. deliver. kindle. to marry. 'to carry. to acquire. ba. to remove. cave (redup. handle. to revolt.. creditor [KAB/TUKU archaic frequency: 105].. chief. to cover. be near'. to protect. to fish. concatenates 3 sign variants] . v. du12 . push. + al.. + íla. be high).al: n. to hide (the object covered often takes the locative case) (verb can be reduplicated as in du 6-ul-du 6-ul-e) (to protect + ornament). + ku. needle (da. to fly (towards something. to play music (da.. foot-race. 'needle' when made with a bright metal) . to blow. to transfer. make') [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. enemies (cf. bala('). to strike. to receive. own. eldest son.0 30 . tug. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to sing. bal: n. du6: mound. tu12 : v. only. 'to bal. du6-ul) (dù. rotating fund.. bil: bìl: to burn.4. 'turn from. 'to hold'. ñal: n. dul(3. v. to change. single. adorn. to cross over. from'. spindle.. dúk. hostility. demolish (ba. to sprout (onomatopoeic). bul(4). leave open (reduplication class . n. hoe. tak. restore') [TAK 4 archaic frequency: 128. to revolve. protection. to have. dul(6). with -ta -). tag. + ul. to quarry. + ku4. neglect. ta6: tuku.

also. 'mouth' + la. to load. to dress oneself.secret.. ritual singer. large. to lift. to be available. kal-(l): v. malicious. þa-la and pap-hal(la)) (loans from Akkadian hallu I and pahallu. to lessen. to deduce. v.). to have on one's person (with -da. silo' with vowel harmony).. kala 3.5. lá ) (reduplicated íla. run. be few. lá ). lá: adj.. split") [ÞAL archaic frequency: 53]. gal 5-lá ). extend. to cease. to dwell (ñá. to place.4. evil. Version 3.. to rejoice over (usually with -da -. divination expert. 'cellar granary.. 'youthful beauty.. adj. to bind (a reed pillar). to fall upon (with -ši -). pleasure') . support') [LA 2 archaic frequency: 57]. to ruin. 'ancient. to be with someone (with -da. vulva. pierce') .adj. value..). adj. to bring together.4. to carry. to weigh. n. unite (base + abundant."leg.). freshness and beauty') . kalag ). to be rare. ñèle: þal: (cf. crotch. deficient. to accuse. Orel & Stolbova #1928. great (chamber + abundant..). to destroy utterly (with -ta -) (reduplication class) (gu7. evil.. numerous) [ÞUL archaic frequency: 1]. v. hostile.or bi-). gala[ÑÌŠ. transvestite (throat + la. *pahal. 'to carry. retreat (cf. 'joy. to destroy. ñala7. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. to extinguish.. v. share (cf.. cellar (cf. þul(3): n. numerous).."break through. gála: gala3.. diminish... gal5: to overwhelm. to esteem. adj. denounce. demolish (as preparation for rebuilding). harness (with -ši -). lamentation priest.5). to be high.. to obstruct. to hold. minus (cf. to pay. to be possible (with -da.DÚR]: gal4(-la). enduring') [GUL archaic frequency: 24]. to make dear. reach. numerous) [GAL archaic frequency: 1004. to be destroyed. kul: heavy. to deal out. valuable (cf. gala3. to harm. upper thigh. 'let there be' + ul. to wreck to pieces.5: cantor. þúl: n. to place into (with -ši. *pahal. kalag ) (ka. 'to consume' + ul. to be happy. evil (vermin + abundant. míli ). gullax: gil: gul: (cf. gùl. thick. put (with -ni. mighty..4. v.. also.4. to destroy. concatenates 3 sign variants] . gilim ). to be appreciated (cf.0 31 . (cf. but also -ši -).5: store-pit. bad. to take an oath. to fall back.. v. to hang (from) (with -ta -). to place. Sumerian Lexicon. 'youthful vagina. endear.. joy (þé. light. distribute (þal-þa in marû). portion. cf. 'to penetrate. to stretch. lal. to stream. ki-lal/lá. set. adj. female genitalia (throat-like chamber + lá. enormous. a demon (cf. thigh" and #1929. 'to be high') .. kala3. galla. ñál. big. to strap. hated.. sexually mature. police chief (?). to divide. excellent. joyous. ñá: to be (somewhere). precious.. 'storage basket' + íla. abundance') [KAL archaic frequency: 60.

glow. market place (si.'to say.5. to bind. vestments. Bennett. Version 3. wool'. 50). šal: v.3.. caterpillar (mù. mèl: 'scorching' = heartburn (?). la(l)'u(2. 'hair. pharynx. to infect. trail. sal. bait (cf..4. to cut into. 'luxury. noose. + lá. 'inner sanctum'. deceive (reduplicated lù.3): pil(2): to be/make obscure. zil. back or open country (reduplicated li. lil: líl: fool. shine. 'light. 'to drape' as in túg-níñ-lal). to belittle.. lul. defiled. méli. (cf. road. sal. adj. 'to carry'). owed amount (cf. pleasure. n. but cp. spirit (of a place). grind'. mél. Syriac.. concatenates 2 sign variants] . lá-ìa[NI]. meteor (ñi6/mi. n. síl.. liter = 0. 'uterus') [SILA 3 archaic frequency: 57. mu7[KA×LI]. suspend. tell' + ?. sil.6. to (let) sparkle.842 modern liters in the Neo-Sumerian period.. 'a small pot'. to lie. also. deficient')... but which means 'voice' in Hebrew.'to fill'. planet.6). 'cedar scent' ?) [? KID archaic frequency: 76. 'anything long and narrow'. to spread.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . + ul. lu5: n. sil: sil5. star. to be/make dirty.'to stand up like a horn'. si-il: penetrate. cf. 'to trouble. disgraced (could refer to soot from bil. sun 4). + la. liar. lalla: shortage. and Ge'ez [P. constellation. ñèle. pala(2. infection. to recline (in preparation for the love-making implied by sil5. v. (male) lamb.R. pleasure') . and lal/lá. lasso. date-syrup (reduplicated la. 'to weigh'. thin. 'to sila. to silence [LAL 2 archaic frequency: 27. p. cf. concatenates 4 sign variants] . false. to be narrow. treacherous. lie. pierce') . míli. + ul.. malicious. bliss') [LAL 3 archaic frequency: 14.6: to praise. concatenates 5 sign variants] . 'star. deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá. + lá. 'flower.. kir 11) (síg.. malicious act.. 'to extend. spacious. zíd-milla). mul: n. + íla.. pa-paþ. 'night'. Semitic root which manifests in Akkadian as qâlu.'to mill. + ul. v. breath. path. sìla. sìl. ñìli[KA×LI].. làl: honey.. throat. mèl: milla[IŠ]: (cf. v. ornament') [MUL archaic frequency: 6]. bliss (si. v. 'arrears'). sila(3): street. uterus. to hang. + lá. measuring pot (si14. vulva (narrow + numerous) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. and si. clothing (of gods and rulers) (cf.(ú) lál: n. mùl: a destructive insect. reach') . Comparative Semitic Linguistics. 'deficiency'. 'joy. 'long and narrow'. disturb') . to persist. wind. wide. bud'). sila4: sùl: Sumerian Lexicon. 'abundance') [SILA 4 archaic frequency: 73.. joy. concatenates 3 sign variants] .7): debt.. šál: measure of capacity. to divide (si.0 32 .'to burn') . or lal/lá. moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk. 'be silent'. voice (me.

zil.6. tendril.0 33 .'monotonous repetition' + numerous). cf. til: to be ripe. dìm: adj. carry'). to spend the day.). 'to be frightened'. character + abundant). mud'). understanding (sides. to hold. elapse (said about time).. hasten. 'to be' ?). 'clay. dím: post (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] . zé: zíl: dam: ñiš to undress. 'moon'. 'side. to make fast. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to flay (cf.. complete.in a temporal sense) (cf. cistern. sug8). to keep alive. 'bath'. to live. life (tu. affectionate. create. speed up (cf. deep. scream (te..4. broad. n. to be/make wide. tal3. zi. zil). to tarry. pleasure') .. spouse (husband or wife) (da. to hurry. perish (iti. ti: v.. that indicates long and narrow as in si) dim: [DIM archaic frequency: 52. dím[GIM]: ñiš to make. 'small'. splendid. supply.. n. a bad disease involving skin eruptions (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu. sig 7). + ?).5. 'to be. Version 3. sal ). clinging vine (cf... proud. zalag ) (za. sickness demon. to flow. pú-lá. 'spouse'. to pare. 'to be born'.'to keep alive' + nominative) [TILLA2 archaic frequency: 5]. ti.17.. to be loving. dim). to rub into the skin (duplication class). Sumerian Lexicon.. to shell. tílla: market place. to peel off. invader. weak (di4. arms). begging.. til4. ul4). n. zal[NI]: v. + íla.. pleasing. + to lift. 'to lift. pluck'. 'to shear. unfold (said about wings. make'. + íl.. protect'. + im. 'to be high. to be full or abundant. pole of a water lift. 'joy. well.. 'to sprout'. + ul. túl: public fountain. tal: large jug (sides + abundant). to survive (with -da. wait (often with -ni -. cut. (cf. šal: šál: (cf.. n. lowland (tu5. + àm. sìla ). nearness. tie. dam: the (curved) beam that connects the bottom of the plow to the pole. n. to be halted (singular stem. finish. who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10]... shout. fashion. to deprive') . 'to build. dim). sul: v.. to spread. to put an end to.... young man. cf. n.. build (dù. to dwell.. tìla. sila ) (zé. modified by i. breadth. to cease. bond. + àm. dim4: n. warrior. be high. to pluck.5: cry. tál[PI]: v. to caress (usually reduplicated) (cf.. heroic.sul4: (cf. to shine' ?) [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. gentle. to make beautiful. v. rope (dam. strong. 'to plunder. to continue. deep well). tìl. šul. crossroads (tìl. to pass. adj. with -ta .

intention.. to banish. child. death. depth (cf. ki. to approach. like. drive out (these verbs make me wonder if this became the Sumerian word for a changeable wax-coated writing tablet).4. adj. summer. dimmu: dumu: gam: news. t. 'bright' + to be).áñ. dispute' + me3. kàm: n... cf. dima.'to sprout.v. to heat. to smash. heat. curve.8). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . gàm: n. concatenates 3 sign v. v. glitter (like a crown. to bow. kiima with same meanings). lám: an awe-inspiring quality (la. break. to trot. 'woman').. ím: n... n. v.. 'fight. þúb and gùb). gim7: kum. alternation between þ and k/g like the alternation between þab. 'wind'). + mí. adj. to make grow luxuriantly (la. to paralyze (many + u(3... n. kìm[BU]. grow'...'to bear. gim7: (cf. to overturn.. láma. gun5: þum: kam(2): to wrestle. to beg. athlete') . subservient (di4. to succumb (like a circle + to be). v. Version 3. kum4 [UD]: lam: variants] . + mú. 'milk' + um. to change. gum: (cf. 'tool'. hot.. gin7: prep. almond tree. gim4. instead of.. bruise (cf. grasp. géme. runner( cf. handle (like a circle + to be). kneel (for someone: dative. to bend. þum. to crush. to be passionate. to bow down.. maid. sickle. just as. 'to love').. power').. probably pronounced domu). kim. 'battle'. + to be). v.. 'abundance' + me. to shrivel. kum). n. v. equative suffix. kaš 4). run (mainly said of animals) (gi4. þúb. son. netherworld [LAM archaic frequency: 47. to influence. + àm. kum] and bread.. 'to be' ?). ñéme(?): woman. luxuriance. 'function.. kúm: n. during (cf. gum: willow tree. v. direction: terminative).. 'old woman'). information. fever (kù. 'clay'). as.. n. slave-girl (ñeš.7. v.. Akk. give birth'. to desire (cf. to shine. disk (of metal or wood) (ka. aga(3). workwoman.0 34 . decline. grip. 'acrobat. to thresh grain. dím) (syllabic spellings indicate both gim and gin7. gúm. daughter (dú.. incline. to bruise. gúr ). 'abundance' + to be).9....6. to grow luxuriantly.. þúp. mortar (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47. Sumerian Lexicon. abundance.eemum). tablet. 'small'. cf. punch. 'to come back' + im.. gim. 'mouth' + imi.. an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar. decision (loan from Akk. ignore (ga.. kìm). to neglect.

above.. to make productive. high + to be) [NAM 2 archaic frequency: 375]. governor. + àm. soak. break' + eme. sám. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . prince.. Sumerian Lexicon.. sínmušen: swallow (Akkadian sinuntu).. 'plant. n. way. cf. loanword from šâmu(m) . n. v.0 35 . filter. destiny.. utensil' ?. 'to slaughter') [? TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. sun4). used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] .'sell. sim: variants] . v... cf. prince. narrow + to be).5(zabar): šum: tambourine (þalþallatu drum in Akkadian) (many + me. sam-. šem. (barter) purchase. 'six hundred'). sám) [SUM archaic frequency: 43. šám. morning (high + to be) [NIM archaic frequency: 109. sim. sum: garlic. aromatic wood. behave).. sa10: n. kaš4). to be high. butcher. noble (time. šem3. early. related to šammu . 'tongue. 'garlic'. 'to make grow luxuriantly'. office. 'functions') .d lamma. ším[NAM]. sim. productive. to be fertile. herb. lim: thousand (four hundred greater than ñéš×u. drug. sím.5). 'to buy.. to sell (with -ra -. enclitic copula. lum: n. 'to cut. to bear fruit (abundance + grass. such as nam-lugal . destiny. perfume (see comments on šúm. plant + to be. to see through (fine. high. lím: four (cp. to slaughter. sì: sum4: (cf. sín[NAM]: to strain. sum. equivalent. province. saw. concatenates 2 sign variants] . cloud [LUM archaic frequency: 23]. spice. rim4: (cf. fertilizer. manure. Version 3. v... lùm[DUG]: nam: a small drinking pot. to be satiated. ablative) (sa 10-sa 10 in marû). sign. planning ability. nám[TÚG]: nim. šúm. + a. limmu(2.. highland. fragrant. to multiply in arithmetic. concatenates 2 sign adj. to grow luxuriantly. purchase'. v. num: concatenation of 4 sign variants] . tutelary genius (lam. Orel & Stolbova #2281 *su'um. merchandise (Akk.. to give. 'kingship' or nam-maþ . n. šúm. šim. to sift (flour). onion (Akkadian loanword from šuumu . lend (with dative) (sum-mu in marû) (cf. nominative suffix) . manner.4. Orel & Stolbova 2185.. fate. (area of) responsibility. 'precise essence'. šag5. 'to be') [NAM archaic frequency: 30. buy') [ŠAM 2 archaic frequency: 51]. adj. lima. fragrance. sickle with serrated edge (ša5. 'poison') . cf. to buy (with -ši -). lam).. full. flying insect. sale price. limi.. làma: a female spirit of good fortune.. medicine'. ir-si-im) [ŠIM archaic frequency: 50.. adv. 'greatness' (n.. lot. east. to soften. sam is 'spice' in Hebrew. resin.

ginna. pupil. subordinate. gana. pestle. 'portion. cf. go out') . = 0. zal. de 6. zur4. tùm-tùm[-mu] or túm-túm-mu ) (ta. tu15: tumu2.. a measure of capacity or volume = 10 liters (sìla ) in the Ur III period.. ge(n) and ñin. rack. measure of surface. tu10. 'food'. + ma4. 'from'.. to carry away.. bul. + mú. Version 3. vessel. to blow. class) (see instead sun 5 if the sign is used as an adjective) (to move + to raise high). genna. to lay a warp (onto a weaving loom) (to move + to raise high). 'to blow'). cf.. ward.. stand. reliable (tu5. kan: v. pile up. shiny. 'from'. lamp. field parcel. rations'. *gan. dun5. warp (threads on the frame of a weaving loom). and kaanu 'constant'. reflective. emit flatus (tu15.. regular. suñin). dul(6)). 'to blow. work. a volume measure. bag-type of bellows. to obtain. tum2.. laþ 4) (in marû plural. carry'.. support. tú: tum: tuma: polished. to open (to move + to raise high. shape.3: to bring. 'human being') .4.. shekel (of silver) = ca. fit. tum2. plane.333 grams. sug 5). dun. du24. direction (ta. 'lamp' ?).. 8. light. bu(7): v. n. 'to leave') . + ú. gi(n).šum4: (cf. bun(2). gán: tract of land. gan. n. du9[BÚR]: v. cf. flow') . ñen). blister. cardinal point.0) square fingers.. 'from'. (cf. the planet Saturn (possible loan from Akk. small ax(-head) used as money. 'food'. 'to spout. tin ). smite. stagger. grinding stone (circular + to raise high) [GAN archaic frequency: 125. Orel & Stolbova #890. to sway. to scrape. seep. gána. v. to ignite') .17. + ma4. to leak. + na. dig (a field. tumu. n. tumu4. giñ4: constant. (flat) surface. 'to wash. small.. 'to flow'. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to be swollen. 'to be'). action.. to be suitable.. + ma4. depart. to strike. pure.. tum4[NIM]: to carry (ta. crossbeam.. 'to leave. iku ) (cf. arrow quiver [TUM archaic frequency: 48. bànda ). furrow. gina[TUR+DIŠ]: gín. rebellion (hollow container + nu11. ta(5). n.."field") [GAN 2 archaic frequency: 209]. to heap. overflow (repetitive motion + closed container. + àm. banda 2. tun. to bring forth. and the term "carrier pigeon" for a homing pigeon). tumušen: zum: ban: bán: bàn: bird of the pigeon and dove family (cf. tu2. tum9. to break wind. to complain (redup. tum12mušen. (cf. a surface area measure.... + ú. to churn butter. bear. hole). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . outline.3 Sumerian Lexicon. kajjaanu. cf.3.5) (ba. tam. 1/60 square nindan (sar) = 180 surface še = 2160 (=36. bathe'. 'to leave'). cultivation (cf. = 6 liters at Presargonic Girsu (cf. to prepare (marû singular.. gena. to shine brightly (cf. din: dun: (cf. pana ). 'wind'. and zar.3. (cf.. tu11: dùn: dun(4): v.3. 'to bring. kajjamaanu.0 36 . wind.

cf. speckled.6): munu(3). gùnu. mina and mana ). myself (cf. 'eye'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. cf. 'people. dot. þun: (cf. burden = a talent in weight = 30 +/. multicolored. because a woman has two breasts). þuñ ). lines. gú: gún. but cf. mìn. spot (circle + discrete point. solid. district (gú. kín[ÞAR]: kun: (ñiš) tail. to put on antimony paste makeup. to come (with dative or -ši -) (sing. ne4. hamtu. affliction... ur4). 'function.2 kg.. partner. embellished. ugun) [GUN3 archaic frequency: 23. ladder. two. ordinary. ñen: n. firm. mun: salt [MUN archaic frequency: 24 ?. 'woman'. alike (cf. 'lord') [MEN archaic frequency: 48. gana 'come!'.. Sumerian Lexicon. to send. + nu11. doorsill (base/ground + high).5. 'two'). apprehension. but cf. decorated. kin: na4 (cf.. region. adj. v.. spotted. v. 'mouth' + ní. adj. gùnu. mina.. + na4. spots. slab. grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency: 2]. súb ) (Akk. + na. office' + en. outlet (of a canal).. re 7. ñin... kun4. striped. min(5.. equal. I.5.. me-en). un. kíñ ). concatenates 5 ? sign variants."go"). gun5: (cf. 'neck. stairs. both. cf. Orel & Stolbova #892. to decorate with colors... 'people'. spangled. worry. staircase.. kana3.6): mina. man. un. min(3. 'fear').5: n.cubic meters (Akk. tiara (metaphor of divine en-ship) (me. tribute (gú. kiinu 'true measure'. reservoir. constancy (to be + at a distinct point). crown. 'distinct things'.5: mana. kan3. to go. storage basin. nape' + ùña. gúm). threshold. men5: men(4): mén: men2. *kin. saltpeter is the oxygenating ingredient in gunpowder) . urudu KIN: (cf. population') . gim). gùn: n.3: concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. 'pebble. lines. 'fire'. dappled. cf.. Orel & Stolbova #1459. gú: back of a man's neck = load. mìna. land. companion. stone'.. gú). múnu: a caustic salt (mú. to sparkle. gun[GÚ-UN]. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'to make grow'. gin7: (this is sometimes the preferred form. du .. gur 10. *gan-/*gin. spots') .. reliability. 'edge' + ùña. to be troubled.14.0 37 . brilliant."count") [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. cf.. MUNU3 archaic frequency: 15]. second (mí. millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN 2 archaic frequency: 11. gún.. mana ). steadiness. (cf. v. concatenates 4 sign variants] . trouble (ka. 'decorated with colors. two (cf. hand mill (saddle quern for grinding). variegated. Version 3. gìn: lapis lazuli (igi..

.. discord. 'lip') [SU 6 archaic frequency: 1. 'long. clear. v. noble. great. 'to mourn. sleep') .. v. érin. respect. + nud. Version 3. lower lip. 'self. + na4. one's own') . n. šén: verdigris. master (ní.owl (nin.... sum4. near' + en. rín) (ara4. adj. bow (pa.0 38 . extinguish. free (ta. to enter (plural ?. 'branch'. fifty (nimin/nin5. respect'. 'to mill'. chin. tán[MEN]: ten. alkaline. Sumerian Lexicon. and tùn. suñin ). star. 'ten'. sun4. 'to mount.. 'fearsome lady'. ban: sign variants] . a copper pan. adj. pan. 'bright'. proprietress. to soften. heaven') .+ u5. nin9: sister (reduplicated ní. 'fear. 'people'). fine. frightfulness. pana.). be sufficient'. character' + an. modesty.. nominative suffix. 'sky. dominated (su9. light. brackish. the predatory owl with its human-like face probably gave rise to the demon Lilith myth. coolness (te. šen[SU×A]: n.. n.. mušen nínna: nocturnal bird . join. polished. awe') [NIN archaic frequency: 75]. shiny. (cf. to shine brightly. ninnu. 'to approach.+ un. be on top of. stone') [BAN archaic frequency: 27. cold. thin things'. 'people' ?) [NUN archaic frequency: 652. 'fear. concatenates 2 ? rín[ERIM]: to be/make bright (reduplication class). + a. wild cow. aurochs cow. vessel... to cool (te-en-te in marû). te-en: to become clean. 'time' referring to shorter days ?). 'to fill. 'to lie down.. ar. rà. bulrush (reduplicated nin or nin9. cf. dnin-nínnamušen). 'nature. sun7[KAL]: quarrel. 'forty'. su6: sun5[BÚR]. sùl. kur 9) . raised high') .. respect') . adj. to attach. lord (reduplicated ní. to rise up (n. humble. beard (cf. hitch (cf. prince. v. n. noble. ninu: ninni5: nun: a rush used in basketry. mun4 [ŠEŠ]: nin: queen. to trample. grieve' + ní.soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing (mù. mistress. lady. with bowed head.. munux. 'fear. + þà/u. sim ). šún[MUL]: v. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .. + to be high). body. where reeds and rushes were seen as belonging to a young woman goddess similar to the grain goddess Nisaba).+ un. allay. pure.munu4. 'pebble. concatenates 4 sign variants] . sín: sun: sún: (cf. pail. clear.. cf. 'to be high'. deep.6: malt . beerwort (su. su16: n. mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66. BU 3 archaic frequency: 21]. si..

to bear. case. to distribute. v. ara4. + ra(-g/þ). to divide.5: bir6. stomach. tu10: tùn[GÍN]: to constrict. mix.. concatenation of 3 sign variants. sipad ). concatenation of 3 sign variants] . flame up (cf. innards. 'to accompany. to be stretched or spread out (cf. (cf. pàr[DAG]. (cf. to murder (ba. bir(2.. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. ZATU-143 ERIM archaic frequency: 175. to rip to pieces. bara4[BAD]: bara5. fleece [BAR archaic frequency: 306]. pare. to uncover. rab). cf. bir for similar semantics). adj. bound. to dry up. compound word. bìr[ERIM]: team (of donkeys/animals) (ba. smash (cf. flaccid. to open. shriveled up (said of a penis). bárag ) (interchanges with búru) (ba. re7) [?? BIR 3 archaic frequency: 23. pouch. released. to see. wrap.7 for similar semantics). pap: rap: sipa: bar: (cf. (ñiš) pa4).. to massacre. pab.tin: n. adj. foreign. life. dun ). to be absent. barag ). (out)side. bàr. because of. lip (te. to break (cf.. mix') [BIR archaic frequency: 9. barag ). bandage. be bright.6: bir: to spread out. lead. to keep away (with -ta -) (container plus to expel..7: locust. 'to weep' and ur5. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. to cure. to peel. re7. 'to overflow'. and cf. prep. bàra. bar6.. bar. 'to apportion.. (cf. adj. par4[KISAL]: to stretch or spread out... to be healthy. to defeat. mistiness (of the eyes) (ba. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . 'to smell'. bir9[NE]: Sumerian Lexicon. 'likeness') [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67].7: (cf.. adj.. bìr for animals in plural numbers). expose. wrinkle one's nose.. to release. soul. to blaze. 'cheeks' + nu. v. para4. pàra. n. to break up. 'to divide'. to scatter. to blaze') . with possibly a hidden meaning of 'to dry' for Vr or ara4 as also seen in dúr). the plural hamtu for 'to go'. to pass over.0 39 .. cf. to select.. n. shrivel up. to split. to remove. Version 3. to sniff. which refers here to the sun. to shine. bár: bar6.4): n. sparrow (cf... + ér. open wide. intact. + ir10.. 'to shine. to wreck.. to break (of the day) (cf.. wine [TIN archaic frequency: 93]. barag )... bára: (cf. to live. separated. divide'. shell. to drive along or away'.. ír. remove as in ri). v. pocket. bir4.. to go.. tun(3).. 'to stir. ba-ra(-g)) [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13].. v. white.. + ir10. 'to expose'.

string. buuru 'cistern. thread. pot (cf. dur5[A]: (anše) dur9[ŠUL]: ) (cf. 'plant' or a.. to remove. bar and bàra for similar semantics). *'or. dar4: dark. stone bowl. tie. 'sides'. + úr. fruit tree. to break into (a house).cf. 'to shear. bar."well. (anše) dùr(ùr): 'fresh'). a-dé. 'to be darkened. pit". cf. parû III. he-ass. bùr: v. supple (dé. dár: n. rations. tie').... Orel & Stolbova #164. to shatter (reduplication class) (da. + ur. to pay (with -ta ). v.5mušen: raven ?. to bind. to open. high (compare dirig. 'to slice. thighs. opening. dúr: (cf. búru ) (ba... to go over') [DARA 4 archaic frequency: 81. root') [BU archaic frequency: 393. bur12) (cf. belt. to bore through. 'base. diri. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon. strap. irrigated.6) + nominative for anything that harvests or destroys plants). bùru ) (from Akkadian buuru IV. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to dispose of.. n. to pull. draw. flake off (flint). búru. umbilical cord (da. + either ú. "space. burin.. dára. depth (Akk.. buru7[GURUN]: buru8: to vomit (Akk. duraþ). bir for destructive wreckers. duruna). but cf. "hunger". hole'. side'. dúru. buru4. bu(3. hot season.6): to tear. grasshopper (cf. dir: (cf. to receive. + úr.. uproot. harvest time (bur12. cut off'. bur14: dar: harvest. pheasant [DAR archaic frequency: 36. ub4. bùr: a square surface measure = 6. sash (compare dur. bùru(-d).. arû IV . dur: bond. n. 'portion. cut off. legs') [BUR archaic frequency: 51. 'to divide' + úr. dim. cf. repast.. v. dirig). 'to send forth shoots'. 'floor' the u vowel especially correlates with round objects or openings). cf. hole.. locust. concatenation of 9 sign variants] . fruit. francolin. bii/eeru IV.. anšedùr(ùr)). thread [BUR2 archaic frequency: 45]. 'lap.48 hectares = 18 iku = 3 area éše = 1800 sar = the amount of land that supported a family (also cf. and bur12. concatenates 2 sign variants] . cf. fresh. dara4. Orel & Stolbova #120. split'). bu(3. mine. to slice.. 'to tear. donkey stallion (usually written du 24-ùr or dur 9 (ùr) duru5. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'to surround') [DUR archaic frequency: 58.. dàr: (cf.0 40 . berry [rare word]. + ur4."vomit"). release. (cf. dur10: gar: ax (compare dar. loosen. to interpret (a dream). ñar ). 'bond. could also be Sumerian from. receptacle. bur(2): n. *ba'Vr-/*bu'Vr. well'. donkey foal (pack animal .. to knap. 'cavity.. to tear out. open container'.. moist... reap') . 'to vomit'. 'arm. to be drawn. Version 3. dàra. keep away (ba. pierce. to despoil (reduplication class.bur: meal. bìr for animals in plural numbers. bur12. amulet chain. 'to water' + ru5. v. pack. crow ?.. 'strap') . to tear out. sparrow ?. buru14. to dissolve. distance"). nominative suffix with vowel harmony). dur. necklace.. to spread out (a garment). split.

gi9.. gud. gir5: (cf. + ara4. to give back. 'to surround') . to make a circular motion. guru8.. kùr: n.. contradict. filled sack (of silver ?) = purse. Mercury. loaded. ur4: n. pommel. to turn.9. gam ). texts = 2 bariga ) [? GUR archaic frequency: 14] (circle + to reap. gar2. kìri). gir15. gùr. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .. v. kara6: grain heap. silo. sphere. cf. neat (cf. harvest. ñar: n. guru5. ring. gir8: v. ge9[NE]: anger. to catch (in a net). + ir(2). to wipe off. v. gur.'place'.. gu4ud). oven (cf. kir13: cow or mare of intermediate age.10. udun ) (ki. domestic.. thick. 909 liters (cf. gar4[GUD/GUÐ]: gara2. gúr: n. to join in assent (probably reduplication class) (cf.gàr. blaze') [GIR 4 secretion') [GIR archaic frequency: 28. to gallop.. form. to shear (sheep). kur12: n. early (the 'bull of the sun'. to protest. great (cf. laden (Umma reading for íla sign. hoop (circle + ur. coarse. saña 11[KIN]). frequency: 152].'to restore'. (urudu) gur10.. gur. 'basket') . to be or feel big.. 'bull'). gi7 [KU]: noble. to gather together. gur. reed basket. measure of capacity . to pluck.. gir. 'basket'). kára ). a fish. ga6: to bear.'place'.. subdue. ga-àr-ra) [GARA2 archaic frequency: 106.. roll over. cheese (cf. to come back. granary.dug4/du11/e). gur(4).. kur5. ñiri5). submit. gur7.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . very strong. = 144 sìla in Old Sumerian Girsu/Lagash. 'to strike'. to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion). hair lock on the back of the head (sign of a slave). giri11. circle. þir) (gi4. divide. carry.. 'fluid kiln (for lime or bitumen).. and gúgur5. to protect') . to reap. gur8 [TU]: high. copper sickle (semi-circle + flowing motion).14. guðx.. fury (compare bir9). + ri. possibly a carangid (ki. nape' + ra. kur4. gur5. appearance (to be + to send) [GAR archaic frequency: 409].10.. can only be seen right before sunrise.12: thick milk. to gather in.. to return. Version 3. to die (cf. 'to shine. to cut. to reject evidence (in a legal case). kàr: knob. v. cf.. guru6: (cf. belonging to the native in-group (circle + city) [ŠE3 archaic giri17: (cf. to be full. to send). kir: gir4. civilized. pull (weeds) (gú.9. v. 'to sweep away') . 'to bring'. loop.0 41 . storeroom. bright. to curb.. to separate. gir10. archaic frequency: 1]. fattened.Biblical kor (= 300 sìla in Old Akkadian and NeoSumerian periods.. deep. cf.. cream. to turn away from (object has ablative -ta ). plump. gir11[KEŠDA]: to be tidy. to be endowed with. 'neck. kùr.11. to run. cake. to bow down. Sumerian Lexicon. in admin. adj.. preeminent... used for round and high objects ('circular' + 'to send forth. guru7. cf. fangs. kud. a capacity measure. ca.. mir ) (circular container + er.

adj. ñìri... to raid. deposit. nominative ending. v. kur9. 'fluid secretion'. kàr: kir: kír: Sumerian Lexicon. àr. to put. + ra. millstone. þara5: spout. to escape. v. sword. where a round hole was the symbol for 10) . to chew. crushed. booty. draw.. restore (with ši-). expedition. stranger. kir. yield (abundance + to go out + to flow) .. thorn. ara3. to seek refuge. ñiri16. day) (reduplication class) (sometimes written for kúr ) (place + ur. embankment. refuge. outline. vessel with a large spout (þa. ten. 'cow or mare'). to make groats.. kikkin.. ground. 'entrance') [KAR archaic frequency: 7]. young. beer keg (ki..0 42 . coil or spiral of silver or other precious metal that can be worn as a ring or bracelet and was used as money (cf. run away. inscribe.. v. gir.. precative prefix. feet. gir ). to grind.. flash. giri 11). captive (additional associations of 'road' and 'sword') . sketch. foot. capture. pulverized.. 'support'. v. v.v. 'to strike. 'to shine') [? KAR 2 archaic frequency: 68. refugee. to steal. mooring-place.. pillage. marketplace.'place'. kára.5.. stab. milled. dagger. 'to impress into clay'. send. ñidri and ñušur for similar and different phonetic developments). stem.. harbor. to drive away. to impute. road.. ñìr: n. 'millstone'). port authority (place + water + to flow. and ara4. hole. n. small.3: n. 'to drag') . accumulate. adj. n. ring. to fulgurate. þir[KEŠDA]: v. path (ñiš. to capture. kín . accuse. place. lighten. tighten (cf. miller (reduplicated þar/àr. prep. ur5[ÞAR]: n. ñir5[KAŠ4]: v..5: n. guru6: to encircle. + ra. + ra.. to store. ñír: n. ur5: n.. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'tool'. þara. quay-wall.. lightning flash. to take away. a large vessel. 'tool'. + uru9. ñiri2. 'to surround' + a. to avoid. to pillage. step. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ñíri. link (in a chain). set down upon.. (cf. + ir(2). þara. produce. þar. via. scorpion. to deliver. trot.3. limb. drive away. slay' with vowel harmony) [GIR 2 archaic frequency: 114]. cf. to be taken. ara3. to remove and set elsewhere (with -ta-).. cf. to destroy. 'leg(s)'. to dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr. besiege.. to take away. kar: n. to expel (with -da-) (ñá-ñá in marû). ñir2. establish. v. gàr ). to shine. 'to branch out from the side of') . handle (þù.. ñir16 [ÑÌR×KÁR]: fortress. take.. to scratch. ur5) (many small explosions + sliding motion) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34. to run. kár.. cf. to make. Version 3. to stab. way. knife. úr... (cf.. to pulverize (in a mortar). ñiri5. to be bright (of light. trip (ñiš. illuminate. to squeeze. þur.

.. v. + ru5. + ùr. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'smell'). cf.0 43 .. weir (cf. lattice. + ir(2). to change.. spoon (ma(3). kur6: (cf. gùr: n. grate (mu7. to enter. buds. of gùr ) (me3. kir13: kur: (cf. marru "shovel. to deliver (-ni . lirum ).9. to surround. v. fierce. kud ).6.'place'. to bring. enemy.. (foreign) land. 'root.'place'. ñar7: n. mur. to break a seal (often with -da -) (kúr-re in marû). mú. concatenates 2 sign variants] . mer(2). gur ). palm grove (ki. to sow. + ir. to reach. + flowing motion. an encircling snake (var.. ñá. hostile. winnowing shovel. waistband.'mountains. 'to surround') [MER archaic frequency: 48. wagon. alien.. 'fluid secretion'/ ra. 'root.. strange.. n. kir6. to guard. adj. furious. base') . to be different. apply. orchard. 'to flood') . attain.4) (ki. kúr[PAB]: n. Sumerian Lexicon. kud. 'place'.. scatter.'hoe') [MAR archaic frequency: 117.. the netherworld (ki. mountain pass'/ úr. kur5: (cf.SILA4]: female lamb [KIR11 archaic frequency: 3]. to shout. to nip off (clay) (ki. to coat. kur5. anger. hostility (from kur. also. 'to pinch kiri3. 'roof.specifies delivery location). enter into the presence of (with -ši -). adj. storm wind. kir6.4. cf. to turn round. kur4: (cf. earthworm. kurum6). to grind. n. kùr: (cf. to get angry. in the future. kir4. entrance (ki. kiri6: kir11[MÍ.7. belt. mur: worm. Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar. kurum 7). to let enter (with -ni -).7. or blossoms') . to enter before someone (with dative prefix). to don.kìr[LAGAB]: off')... liri: (ñiš/urudu) (cf. stranger.'to shout'/ mud6. to kindle. kur7: kur9. kuru7.. liru. angry. lungs. mir(2).'to go'.. liver.. v. 'to shear. fodder for fattening. and kid2. mar. v. mountain. giri17: nose. + to flow / circle + ur. Akk. mill. v. muzzle (of an animal). 'entrance') . gur4). sun 5) . 'place'. violent storm. + ùr. transform (with -da -) (singular [?] reduplication class stem. to rise (sun).4: ñiš stream dam. highland.'battle'. base') [KUR archaic frequency: 145. to blow' + úr. to immerse.. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ur5 [ÞAR]: n. lock up... to blow fiercely. + ur4. kiri 3. spade". reap'. mar. v. gir 4). north(wind). kuru5. to enclose..4) (ki. 'earth'.. turn into. foreign land') ... ku4: (cf. 'to sing. Version 3. 'to send forth shoots.. garden.'place'. hyena (cf.

0 44 . nir: n.7: height. weak.'to be dark'. uš. sur6. šur ) (si. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to clothe. precise + flowing motion. but meaning probably derives from the act of chasing vermin from the vegetable garden. suspend. ditch. a volume measure of one square ninda times 1 kùš = 144 kùš 3 = ca. deep furrow.RU6 = SAL.0 gur [= 60 gur ] of capacity = 1. to hover. naaru I. 'to surround') . drain (to fill. 'to cut into. deep') .7). 'sweat') .GÍN]: (cf.. to wear (cf. feverish (si. pursued. chaff.. šar: a surface measure. for 'to drive away'. nir. to delimit. which derives from Akk. divide') . Version 3.'woman'. divide (reduplication class ?)(cf. 'flood basin') . driven out. musician (loan from Akkadian naaru II. sur5: sur6. sur: sur: (cf. mur7.UD.. 'to follow. run (to be skilled..18.EDIN]: muru9: fog..KID. rushes. brother-in-law (mu10. par3/4: sar. sila. to stretch.demonstrative. murux [GI. concatenates 2 sign variants] . (cf. bàra ). proper. šar: n. to write.'woman'. "musician". reach. 18 cubic meters = 1. zil. victorious.. to make hurry. reed mat. n. 'equal in rank') . sa.. bound. síl. ner: adj.. šár ). sár: sír: adj. to hang.. su. 'long and narrow'. ús. 'garden plot' = 1 square ninda = 60 surface shekels = 1/100 iku = 4 square reeds = 144 square cubits = 36 meters 2. vanquish (to be high + to go out + to flow) .5. a precious stone with black and white flecks. 'height. 'high.. to drive (with -ni -). lord [NIR archaic frequency: 45. to drive. adj. n. to support. mist. sir5. chopped straw [? SUR archaic frequency: 6]. kar for such a progression from the noun to the verb).. cf. v. v. to pay. prince. + uru2. drive'. to raise high. so.8: (cf. n. mur10. to begin. na4 nír[ZA.. + ur. adj. a garden plant. depth. clean grain. + to flow). to overcome. omen. dense. in this way. deliver punctually. to dress oneself (reduplication class [?]) (mu10. cf. + rù. sil. contrast sug. v...MAÞ]: nar: singer. to grow weak'. haze (mi.. "river" in the same way that Sumerian nab means both "ocean" and "musician") [NAR archaic frequency: 69].U4. to winnow. suru5. to disturb someone.. murgu ). sar.'to be full.. foundation. frog. si-il. extend. súr: sùr: (cf. mu4: muru5[MÍ. vegetable(s) [SAR archaic frequency: 102. sumur ). chase away (with -ta -).. to insert..0 gín in weight.. sa5.. foundation pit (ús. density. cf. 'to surround'. inundate + to flow. thus. + ir(10).. + ur. zara 5). lift'. enter.

numerous. to smoke. lament (Orel & Stolbova #2258 *sir-/*sur 'sing'). second in rank (tu. 'to shear.. all. concatenates 4 sign variants] .. sug 8). n.. v. (cf... to press (out).. 'to watch. to be or become sick. to cut. rafters'. to exude. šeñ3. totality. and ñiš2. cf. tir: tur: forest. 'to pour' + to flow... to inquire. n. destroy (ta.. protect') [TUR archaic frequency: 272]. weak. reap'. 'beams. early example of asyndetic hendiadys). to be insufficient. flow. šur. cf.0 45 .. 'from'.7). guard. to request. šèr ). + ùru. sick. to decide (éše. song. sar.. sheepfold. to brew (beer). the number 3600 = 60 (many. pen. drip. to reduce. young (of herd animals). token. sumur ). to shine brightly (cf.. to bind. to submerge. to break. tur) [TUR 3 archaic frequency: 121. counter. n. sug 8) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15. dar and nam. to sing. šur: v. šìr[EZEN].. to spray out. adj.. adj. sanctuary (cf. sír ) (Akkadian loan from šaraapu(m) . lú šár: a military officer = commander of 3600. to slaughter. + ur4. v. šìr: (cf.. sár: n. to multiply or mix (with -da -). tur5: tur5. innumerable. to spout. to produce a liquid. explain. implore (reduplication class). Sumerian Lexicon. 'ring. šar). to determine. to flow. deliberate. šír: šèr. šar8 [NI]: šér. child. šìr: v. sur12: šar: (cf. weakness. zar). 'to burn') . the graphically similar sign.. 2 šár.tar) [TAR archaic frequency: 56. (cf... n. pour. to process wine and juices. coil'). zar. to decide. to extract seed oil.. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. little. sickness. þir. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'to surround') . sur: šúr: tar: adj. 'to be born'. šir.. to flash. cf. 'arrows' + ùr. v. thicket (ti.. to rain. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sir4: testicles (many + to go out + to flow.sur8: (cf. world. zur4. 'rope'.. tu: birth-hut. ball.. byre. grove. adj. judicious. to be/make small. small. to make abundant.. a frequent metaphor for a temple. to be many. v. to interpret. Version 3. much + àr.3) [ŠIR archaic frequency: 24. young. tùr.. gleam (šu. nir. + ur. to spin (a cocoon) (cf. sur8: to tap. newborn.. decision. stable. horizon.

sheaves (rolled up and bound stalks and ears. sheaf. + aš. to offer. possession (back-formation from níñ-kas7/ka9). settlement of accounts. cf. þuš: v. sacrifice. chamber pot (kàš.3: (cf. awesome. 'one'. man (self + to go out + many. þáš. ñešta). ñeš2. 'to desire') [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261... uš: penis. zara5. would have to be forced so much. offering. the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part.. to pray. kás: kàš: beer. tool. nissa: (cf. plow. to mean 'urine' at some point). to be angry (compare guz. 'to + si. 'to stand upright') .. mes.'tree') [MES archaic frequency: 32]. ñiš2. Orel & Stolbova #1766 *mi’es.0 46 . diš(2). zar5. concatenates 4 sign variants] . fiery red (Akk. used in working at the lower levels in excavating a canal. þuz).RA): horse (reduplicated si. concatenation of 2 sign variants.. alcoholic beverage (ka. 'a small pot'). to roll up (repetitive motion + to flow). wild (said of animals). sisi (ANŠE. za-ra ) (Akkadian loanword from .. Version 3. terrible. dusu: transportation basket... wood.. kas7. kaš. prayer (repetitive activity + to flow/protect). twine (yarn or thread). dúsu [ANŠE. þaš4: þeš5: (cf. sir5. hackberry tree in the elm family (me. Akkadian loanword . n. 'urine'. tree. 'strength'. þaz ). 'two').meesu I. to furnish. min(5. zar[LAGAB×SUM]: zara5 and zar). Sumerian Lexicon. thigh (numerous + foundation.LIBIR]: walk'. corvée (du.KUR. 'mouth'. son.su. 'endowment'. 'to walk'. zàr[SUM]..3. 'hackberry tree'.serru(m) II). šes: (cf.. provide. v. scepter. back. to arrange. 'excrement'. þaš: (cf. lower abdomen. ruššû).6).(ñiš) zar: wagon shaft (cf. cf. an ass or equid used as a draft animal in front of plows and wagons (du. with its similar appearance. + si14. zur: n. loins.. nisig ). 'water'. ñeš: adj. concatenates 2 sign variants] .3.3. mina. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. probably replaced the use of a. 'strength') . to rock (an infant). 'single'. describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes ñiš-šè ). base). ka9: kisi: deduction. nitaþ(2) and šir) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16.4. + usu. ñeš2. ñeš2.3. šaña). šeš ). 'to fill up'). adj. wooden implement. urine (an etymology involving še10. that the homophone kaš. tend. one (dili. deš: ñiš... cf. ñiš2. nisi. organ. ñiš2. natural phenomenon (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency: 381]. + usu. furious. mèš: young man.3. prince.. 'beer'. sur: to spin.. + áš. cf.

yield (of a field) (ma4. muš4: a biting insect (cf. inspect. 'place'. to run fast. depart. tourist (place(s) + locative + many) [KAS 4 archaic frequency: 1]. 'portion') [LIŠ archaic frequency: 4]. 'tongue'/ ma4. go out'. adj. body-servant. a city's irrigated. ŠIM×KÚŠU .. kas4: n. destruction. + šè. face. interest (of a loan). to glisten. + šè.. kiši16/17: kiši4: half. 'to desire') [MUŠ 3 archaic frequency: 284. maš. 'to leave. 'to base. to be out of breath. cultivated territory. kiš. muš2. to worry. noncitizen. v. kus[SU]: skin. quick. esquire. channel (cf. depart. Version 3.kaš4. depart. bitter. hide. forelock (sign of a freeman.. kišik (2)).0 47 . kušu: kúšu: liš: maš: (cf. v. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].. shine. 'snake'). 'portion')... n. go out'. aspect. groom. fluent. 'to kill'). kuš6: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. ell/cubit = 1/2 meter = 30 fingers [šu-si ] = distance from elbow to fingertips. one-half. kišib 7. kéš: (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . boy (ki. produce. rent. messenger. terminative suffix/ šú.. build'. + úš. kuš7: devastation. 'dead') .. 'to cut'.. nonresident. surface (mu10. 'to kúš: kùš: to be tired. snake. where 'whale' must be meant) (ku6. contrast gàr. the etymology of muš. speed. forearm. reptile (eme. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133]. 'to leave. BU: archaic frequency: 393.9: cover') . 'female'. diadem. totality. entire political world (name of the powerful city in the north of Sumer that first bound together and defended the cities of Sumer) (places + many) [? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]... found. 'place'. valet. extispicy (divination based on the entrails of a sacrificed animal). v.. go out'. 'to do. máš: máš. frequency: 14. + šú.. profit. 'venom. + many). turtle (cf. keš: ñiš kiša(2). runner. to scrutinize. courier. kuruš). kuš. he-goat [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. + kid. (cf. poison') [MUŠ archaic frequency: 3. + úš. 'to leave... mèš: muš: (cf. + úš. maš: máš: n. šu-da) (ku. kiši7. 'to be joined. 'to kill'/uš11. adj. kàr) (ki. + áš. to calm (kúš-(ù) in marû) (aka. 'to cover') [? UÞ 3 archaic morsel (happiness + small + šè.. to travel fast. concatenates 2 sign variants] .9). (cf. twin (ma4. šè.. + ús. appearance.8.3: n. to gallop. sacrificial animal [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. mes ). 'fish'. next to'/ šè.8. leather (ku5. kušum x). concatenates 2 sign variants] . act'.. kešda ).

4: to overthrow. to taste bitter. to rub. 'to stand upon') . to go down. body'.. píš: pèš: fig. colleague [URI 3=ZATU-595 archaic frequency: 77. become dark. to rub... to chop away (reduplicated šu. home (te. 'to approach'.. sexuality.. tuš: n. + uš8. + eš. litter. to conceive.. palm frond. to comb and clean wool. combed wool. difficult circumstances (derives from peš4. together (often with suffix -bi. much'. + áš. to erase. šuš4: to fell trees. 'portion') . 'to desire'. -ba or -e). 'leaf. son. pain. all sorts.. 'self. feed. 'three'). wide. spider. tightness. šu5. šeš.16. 'body'.. to wail (reduplication class) (to become moist ?). shame. 'tongue'. šeš).. brethren. peš(7): ñiš child. peš10. + uš8. cf.muš5[ŠEŠ]: niš. concatenates 2 sign variants] . relatives'. v. 'to anoint'.6. deep breathing. myrrh (reduplicated eš. bitter. all kinds.. a type of edible mouse (probably derives from pèš. modesty.6: téš[UR]: bedding. + aš. valuable.13: n. Sumerian Lexicon. to throw down. cf. three [GIR archaic frequency: 28. scent. šuš5. 'hand'. n.6: n. eš5. ses: v. to feel ashamed... + ú. to pluck apart. base'. to cover (with -da -) (reduplication class) (reduplicated šu. to be thick. adv. toe]') . concatenation of 4 sign variants] (moist container + ùš. šuš(2).6. river bank. to expand. peš5. branch'. + eš. to sit down. [ERIN=ŠEŠ 4 archaic frequency: 105]. 'one [finger. womb. 'to approach'. 'body. 'hand'). pa.4: to anoint. to be pregnant. tuš). river pebble. péš. 'to be pregnant') . 'to anoint') to weep. 'spider').... n.4): šeš2. to breathe deeply. 'plant'.. be overcast (said of the sun). fig tree (moist container + šè. sex.21. v. neš: peš: bitter (eme. cf. v. n. to mourn. 'many. 'foundation place. 'placental membrane'. cf.. šeš(2. to set. šes: šeš. to be dense (reduplication class) (reduplicated eš. 'foundation place.3. ašte). 'to anoint') . precious. base') .A): púš: suš: suš2. brother. adj.3: shore. piš10. fodder (scattered for animals) (reduplicated uš. each of them (te. šub) [ŠUŠ 2 archaic frequency: 243] . aš(5). cry. fluff (cf.. 'fig'). twenty (ní. šu2. brackish. Version 3.. anoint (with oil) (su. pešx(KI. + eš.0 48 . to make an incision. adj. 'to anoint') . peš4. v. to reside (su.

'portion' + ída. to castrate (reduplication class: þu-þu-uz ) (gù. þaz. 'water'. 'niche'. šita5. wizard (abba.. 'by means of'/ dé. + lal. to consider. number (šè. 'to approach'. 'great') [ABGAL archaic frequency: 31].. to set up. 'moth' and ašaašu . + zú. to vanquish. tie (šè. nita: (cf. to drip. concatenates 7 sign variants] . Version 3. cf. 'noise'. to recite. guz. v. used on meat ('let it breathe'.. band. nitaþ ). emmer (wheat) (reduplicated zé or zi). intact. šita6: a type of vessel. 'niche. dá. bird niche. to count. plural. to calculate.4. be wet'). adj. cf. + te. gaz(2): n. + sín. 'by means of') [EŠDA archaic frequency: 26].'insect') . clip. bound. 'main canal') [ŠITA 3 archaic frequency: 139.. + ta. to thresh grain (þá. throne') [ABRIG archaic frequency: 9]. to lie down (singular. ešda: šìta: channel. to sit. cf.. þuz[LUM] v. to impute. + ta. v.). to (cause to) dwell. to memorize. figure out.. 'ruler.5: v. šita(4). break. dá. Orel & Stolbova #1034 *‘açuç. to gnash the teeth.cassia.. nus: meze: ziz: to break or cut off (twigs. kasû II) [GAZI archaic frequency: 14]. èšda: (ñiš) clean. war (chamber + repetitive motion. accuse. abgal(2): ablal(3): sage.0 49 . fracture. pluck') . concatenation of 2 sign variants] . nook'. loanword from saasu . long.. [ñiš]naña3. bi(z): n. mace (úš. dá. to cry.. to kill.. 'flow of tears' and ba.. to couple. + gal. gazi: a spice . a priest (eš. defeat. to push someone away. trickle. šed: n. 'elder'.'flow. moth (Akk... small canal (šè. to bare the teeth. i. šíta. also. to cut. 'to sift'). egg (na4. absin(3): (seeded) furrow (ab.. v. + zé.. cf. bond. 'moth'. 'portion'. shaggy (hair). to be at home. water') [ŠITA archaic frequency: 373. bi-bi-zé).. KUM]). to crush. bathed. 'to pour. to rinse off. nest (ab. to pour..v. to settle. to ooze. tears (Akk. branches). nañX[GAZ. to be together. duruna ). powder. + ta. to read aloud. cf. adj.'goose'. to hang') . Akk. nunuz). 'numerous'. íd. + uz/us. téš). 'to cut.su . to join.saa. èšda.su . zíz[ÁŠ]: zìz: a crop-devouring insect (see etymology for ziz). link with. sing. 'to anoint'. establish. + barag. šit. wise man. reside. loanword from bi. a type of drum (function + repetitive noise). Orel & Stolbova #256 *baz. to bind. þaš: nuz. ašte. šid. 'portion'. to dry (cf.s. 'teeth') . šita. biz. šid3.. slaughter (with -da. 'to kill'. 'nature. 'to (let) drip'. abrig: a purification priest (a. Sumerian Lexicon. measure. trim.4.'pebble'. 'to be high. 7 n. cf. character') . to rage at.

the 'sentient' sea . alañ ).3). 'to decline. Sumerian Lexicon.the sea personified as a god (aba/ab. 'to go adamen(2. + dirig/dir. net. ákan. (cf. alan. cloudburst (a. 'to accumulate. akar: leather armor. ice.PAD. ágan. beer-wort. archaic frequency: 73. añrig: steward.3): akani. crab. 'to deed. allalx.3). alla: amagi(2. 'sea' + zu. imþur ). grant') . aurochs.3). fight.3): over') .3): amar: amaš: calf. sheepfold. 'to know') [ABZU archaic frequency: argument. 'water'. agarin(2. (cf. appearance [ALAN archaic frequency: 51.abul[KÁ. 'water'. Steinkeller.. image. + rig7. lintel. vat. figure. aka4[KÁ]: door-frame. (cf. alam. concatenation of 3 sign variants] .PA. 'house'. pipe for making libation offerings to the deceased (a. plural') [AMAR archaic frequency: 297]. carry'). alad: a life force. bridge (ída/íd. to check'. akan: agar(2. 'goat').DUGUD]: to deposit') . alal: alam: alan: alim: pipe. aþþur(2. addir[A. wild ram. mabi(2. + lal. heavy rain shower. (cf. akani ). alañ. + ñar. powerful [ALIM=ZATU-219 [GIR 3] sign per P. uþþur(2. alañ ). bison. incline'). ferry.3): agarin4. womb. ugar: field. Version 3.ÑISAL. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary (1995). + re7. conduit. akkil: lamentation.DIRIG]: addirx: agam: wages. + gam. akan: udder. 'to measure. ritual wailing. añarx[IM×IM. a male protective spirit. abzu: 28] .GAL]: city gate (loanword from Semitic for 'door'. Orel & Stolbova. statue. + maš. young animal (áma.. commons [AGAR 2 archaic frequency: 16].. superintendent (áña.5: father. IM. seine. ál: concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'to accompany.. 'wild cow mother'.0 50 . agrun: inner sanctuary [ZATU-413 archaic frequency: 4]. crucible. cattle-pen (é. 'water'. gutter. 'river'. 'lift. #287). mother. agargaraku6 [NUNtenû]: a fish. swamp (a.

vulture.4. onager. asilal). equid. ašte: azag: lú need. 'to approach'. lúazlag).DA]: (male) slave. asila: (cf. describes a plow animal (also apin-šè ). + zalag. container [? BANŠUR archaic frequency: 7. 'leather'. man-servant') [IR 11 archaic frequency: 10]. storehouse. ñiš apin: n.. anzu(2)-(d)[dIM.. + bun. ašgab: leather-dresser. pity (úr. + la. pack animal (an. téš). gladness. + gúb. necessity. adj. terminative postposition = 'up to' = 'to raise up. aša5 [GANÁ]: field.4. 'to obtain'). 'male slave. reeds. 'rope'.. 'to blow') [APIN archaic frequency: 181.. seeder plow (a.5): (cf. ramp (?). fuller.5. concatenates 5 sign variants] .4. plot (cf. loanword from wardum. cf. cf.. drum (?). ašlag: babbar(2): bright. carry') [ANŠE archaic frequency: 48. a mythical giant bird. 'to cleanse').3. ásar: Euphrates poplar tree [ASAL 2 archaic frequency: 16]. concatenates 3 sign variants] . ñiš ásal.11: araþ4[É.GÍD. high'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . womb. báþar: potter [BAÞAR2 archaic frequency: 50. support. concatenates 4 sign variants. banda2. 'seed'. table. funeral song [? BALAG archaic frequency: 20]. currier (kuš.4.MI/DUGUDmušen]: archaic frequency: 1].? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. balañ: lyre (?). ašag.5): joy. asil(3. + þáš... to be sympathetic.6). (ú) ú aški: bulrush (Typha grass. impetuous. asilal (3. taboo. arali: the netherworld (þara/àra. white') [UD archaic frequency: 419]. arad(2). white. 'to desire'. ir3.5)). mud'. proud. aškud: wedge (as a device to bar a door). asilal(3. vigorous. v. banšur(2. servant.ambar. arþuš: n.'sky. junior.5: bànda(da): ñiš prop. + te. 'water'.3): Sumerian Lexicon. reed pulp. 'to weave a reed mat'). urdu(2). 'base. númun) (éš. abbar: marsh. 'youthful freshness and beauty') . 'clay. eagle [ANZU 2 anzalub: anzud(2). anše: male donkey. desirable or beloved object (áš.4.. launderer (a. young. ašlag: (cf. arala.. 'to pulverize'. Version 3. + šè. canebrake (imi/im. a-šà-(g)). felt-worker. compassion. root'.0 51 . the rising sun (reduplicated bar6. 'to cleanse') . subordinate (Akk. fierce. 'bright. azlag(2.UŠ. + bar. + kid(6). 'lower abdomen').

+ ra. box. bár. cult platform. ruler.6: throne dais. (bán-rig-a. chamber (dag. 'mutually confusion. a merchandise tax. puzur(2. to rear.36 sìla in the Old Sumerian period and 60 sìla in the Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods. king. + nun. ñarim ) (dag. 'to rush around'. broad.. v. + gal/ñal. enlarge. sprout. 'dwelling'. Sumerian Lexicon.. 'to bear'). wide. brewer [BAPPIR archaic frequency: 28. security. dwelling (container plus ra(g). worship. seal pin. adj. precinct (cf.. needle. concatenates 6 sign variants] .ŠE]: dadag [UD. nest [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. 'side'. peel'). ordinance. 'to cut. make grow. secret. bar-rim4). crate. v. . + gan..BAR): (meteoric) iron (bar6. barzil (AN. 'the bán from picking. to be nervous. 'brilliant. + aka/ag. pure. 'to run fast'. duststorm. ? ZATU-764 archaic frequency 21].AN]: ñiš bugin: basket. noble') . + þa-mun. dañal: n. buniñ). v. disorder. mystery.0 52 . bàra. to hasten. copious.mixed with malt [munu 4] to make mash [titab ] for beer). 'great. boundary post. revolt (dal. frightened.4. sacred. chamber. búgin: bulug: shoot. to widen. 'to fly'. buzur(2. Euphrates river (bu5. tornado. puniñx. drill. rite. + rim4.TUR]mušen: duck. trough. 'to sprout'. to grow big. support... bunin: buranun: bitumen-coated reed container (for carrying liquids). width. concatenates 2 sign variants. 'to shine'. vat. daggan: dalþamun: dalþamun4: harem. to be swollen'. overflow'.4. basket (for carrying food) (cf. palm. buñiñx. buniñx. 'to pack') [? BARA 2 archaic frequency: 69.5): bùzur: hand. 'big') [AMA archaic frequency: 241. whirlpool. + zil. sack. barag. awl. Equals 6 bán . bárag.bappir(2/3): beer bread (a sweet and possibly pungent bread made from barley dough . dabin [ZÌ. brilliant. barley malt. clear (reduplicated dág. Version 3.5). dakkan. bara5.. living quarters. violent storm. stand. bára. foster child [BULUG3 archaic frequency: 19]. bibad[UZ. to grow. 'valuables') . + níñ. 'resting place'. biluda[PA. buluþ: to worry. border (bul. 'blister.UD]: coarse (?) barley flour. 'to do') [BULUG archaic frequency: 4]. adj. gleaning') . cult.. dagrim: fields. cf.. vicinity. pupil. concatenates 2 sign variants] . novice. tub (bún/buñx. clean'). bùluñ: n.. opposing or contrasting') . safety. to clean. bàr [DAG]: bariga [PI or UL(in Old Sumerian period)]: a measure of capacity . 'to flood. breadth (da. riot. billuda. fright. hurry.

'root. 'tongue') . 'ashes'.A]: n. to exceed. 'arm') [DARA 3 archaic frequency: duraþ. adj. cloudbank. superior. overdraft... 'to store. funnel-shaped bowl containing seeds for the drill plow. ray'. kiln. singular tuš ) (èd. tie'. single (reduplicated dili). air vent (dè.. + lal/lá. diñir. salt. amount by which credits of an account tablet exceed debits . concatenation of 4 sign variants] . adj. to exit. ibex (dur. to set down. determinative for divine beings (di. diri.. dupsik: basket. dàra. plural. individual.0 53 . superfluous. + eme. dálla. durunx [DÚR. dúr. Version 3. place (objects) (plural. dél: dìlim[BUN]: dilmun : dimgul: ki spoon (dal. durun. 'beam. 'skeleton'. + gud. 'to lessen') . mountain goat buck. difficult. 'to fly. outstanding. to sit. young. and dul. 'to cover.appears in the credits section of the succeeding period's account tablet. hide') . massive. frequency: 35]. + áþi. + ñar.. anus. to be darkened. to dry out. eclipsed. double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2]. 'to bond. + ir(2)..danna... to surpass. remove'. dwell. v. edakua(2): Sumerian Lexicon. separate. tilmun ) [DILMUN archaic mast (dim. 'to bring down (or up). noted for its sweet water springs (cf.. clothe. to break wind. didila: didli: assorted. IM dungu: cloud. dìlib: hair. to be erased. dal. ñiš dubšik[ÍL]. surplus. fish bones (adda. dúruna. to go over. 'people'). stand out. dalla. dana: road-length measure. excess. 'potash') . weight. 'march' = 30 UŠ = 21600 cubits = ca.. dinig[KI. buttocks. dìlim: oven for baking and roasting. intercalary month after either 11th month or 12th month (based as much on whether the winter crop will be ready for the harvest month as on the need to reconcile the lunar year with the solar year. 'complete'. brazier. deity. 'bond. n. to occupy. duruna. 'enormous') . dugud: n. 'bull'). trouble. + gul. epir(2): ebla: small pot. to pour'. duruna). (gi) which required an average of 7 intercalary months in 19 years) (cf. dúru. beer mug. crucible. locks (cf.8 kilometers. + ùña/un. addition. to be supreme over (with dative/locative). 'fish'). lap. tie'. 'needle'. dubur(2): testicles (dub. to float (with the current). dingir: god.DÚR]: dwelling [DUR 2 archaic frequency: 52]. dílim.7 miles/10. the island of Bahrain. to be extra. to be seated. thighs'. 'decision'. + ku6/kua. 'to deliver'). dirig. cf. a watery type of beer .'light beer' (íb. v. various. cloud [DUGUD archaic frequency: 2]. dàr: durun: (cf. very small. 'waist'.NE]: potash. dilina. drain' + úr. ebir(2). additional. 'tears or any bodily secretion') . 6.. heavy. hard (du7. ušub). to be greater than. 11. + naña. dir [SI.

ellañ [LAGAB]: éllañ: kidneys. + nañ. engiz [ME.3. cf. egir2. ereç ?[NIN]: ereš5[GAL-AN-ZU]: erib: daughter-in-law. grazing land between the two long rivers.3. 'governor') [ENSI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. + tud/dú. tax assessment official. future. plain. block of wood. brick wall (é. immin. 'to mortar bricks'). cultivate"). same signs (ZAG.edimx. 'fish'. 'of'). 'ikkar from Semitic "to hoe.ÞA) as ešsad). 'mammy'.GI]: 22] . eden: prep. Sumerian Lexicon. shake') [ENDIB archaic frequency: 6]. manager'. on. driving stick ?.. 'time'. enku: fishing overseer (en. back.4): bladder (éllañ. 'water'. nísañ. iñar: eñir. emmen. 'salt'). root'. n. slaughter') [ENGIZ archaic frequency: engur: subsoil water. intelligent.. hoop or wooden ball ?. + agar. ñiš enkara: a weapon. 'lord'. + ñar. + kuš. spine (éd. 'house'. a number word. afterwards. immen. émma. + in. 'to fracture. + si. 'to deposit'/ ñar8. eñar. 'to drink'. + ku6/kua. to drink beer. adv. 'lord'. cook (en. + gaz. stern (of a ship). + ten.EN. bow ?. inheritance. + a(k). winter (en. eñer: prep. 'enigmatic background' + sig7. enkux [ZAG-ÞI-A]: enkum: temple treasurer.0 54 . egi(2): princess. limit. imma: énmen. emedu(2): émeš: house/estate-born slave (eme. summer. to complete' ?) [ENSI archaic city ruler (Old Sumerian). + úr. engar: irrigator. 'time'.. endib: cook (en. enmen. ímmin. against. 'to send forth'. lady. Version 3. 'floor. guardian deity of the foundations [ENKUM archaic frequency: 14]. + mun. farmer (en. dream interpreter (en. 'plowland'. abyssal sea of fresh water (a. 'lord'. elamkuš(2. 'to be born') . 'cold'. 'to move in a circle. 'to dwell. 'lord. 'lord'. 'field'. emma. edin: earthenware vat for oil and fats. émmen. city governor (post-Sargonic) (en. crush. Akk. énsi(-k): enten(a): + genitive. ereš. + dub. 'skin'). thirst (en. edin. steppe. 'straw') [EDIN archaic frequency: 5]. cf. n.. end. queen.. behind. ímma: ensi(3): frequency: 8]. back.. endub. knowing. an-gur4).. 'kidneys'. ímmen.

strong. elaborate. gakkul: clay brewing-vessel. soldier. army. zeþ) [? EŠGAR archaic frequency: 12].ŠE..ÞA) as enku).. cedar. eštubku6: ezem: a river carp: binnî. 'cut of meat'. sink'. 'liquid secretion'). tall.. + sud. festival. fine. esañx[É׊E. ešgiri: nose rope. to ascend. 'nose. É. ezinu: grain. man. É. 'rope'. 'violent storm'). 'both. jump rope.SAÑ]: temple'. troops. feast (uzu. play. frequency: 175. + en. 'to immerse. eren: érin. èsir: ešda: èšda: ešemen(2. 'to kneel'. sandal. v. šíta ). rín: balance scale (cf. caraway seed. mash tun. 'first. stairs. cereal. servant. storehouse. eru2. ešsad: fisherman (éše. éren: érim. diorite. šita ). muzzle'). artistic. 'illness. us5. gang of workers. eškiri.4. two') . galam: n. ezem: sign variants] . erim3. folk [ERIM archaic n. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . esañ: heir son (a/e4.3): ešgar: (cf. granary. érin... erim). gana4: (cf. esir(2): kuš crude bitumen (usu. ésañ[ÑÁ׊E]. (cf. gamar: to be overwhelming (gam. rim(3): adj. 'rope'. + sañ. + sañ.. to wail (gù. the deity Ašnan [EZINU archaic frequency: 24.. gagar [KI]: area. celebration (éše.erim. 'time') [EZEN archaic frequency: 114. evil. bridle. Version 3. 'to exclaim'. hostile. prime'). + kìri.0 55 . climb.3: slavegirl. concatenation of 3 ezen.. 'seed. ingenious. gamun: cumin. esi: good.5: (ñiš šim) treasury.. (cf. gagig: to lament. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . adj. olivine-gabbro. (cf. 'rope'.. u8). + mer. solid. same signs (ZAG. erin7. offspring'. ezen ). halter. 'house. shoe. Sumerian Lexicon. 'strength' or esi. to anoint with cedar-oil [ERIN archaic frequency: 105]. 'first.. + men.3. treasures. ebony. storeroom (é. (na4) esig. complicated. injury'). + gig. 'strong'. erin. erum2. prime'). high. ganam4. destruction [ERIM 2 archaic frequency: 20]. clever. + ir(2). enemy. jumping rope (éše. people.

+ dim4. gukin(2): entire inhabited world. beam. + ul. divide'. + bil. garaš: straw. artisan. + lam. opaque. 'sickness demon'. pole. 'to make').zír). to cross plow. gigir(2): 37] .4): man'. gilim-(b). karadin(4. mistress. gi16: 'abundance') [GIL archaic frequency: 1]. roll') [PU 2 archaic frequency: n. gitlam(2. 'reeds'. ga-an. new. 'black'. gurun). first husband. gašam: craftsman. (cf. 'luxuriance'). gìrim. skilled person.ganam6. Version 3. to mess up. stake. gašan: lady.4. pile of sheaves (on a harvested field) (guru7. to go across. chariot. gidim(2. gudu4. 'to separate. gazibu: gibil(4): frequency: 77]. ghost (gig. darkened (gíg/gi6. garadin(4. or gi6.7): ñiš spirit. gáraš. the netherworld (cf.4). cleanse'. gili. gírin: (cf. 'grain heap'. v.. wheel(s). 'black'. 'to turn. decision. gana6 [DARA4]: ewe. karaš: military encampment. to creep or glide on the ground (gur5. gukkal [KUN. lover. 'warrior'. gaššu: intelligent. burning (gu7. reed bundle. wagon. to cross. honeymooner. to lie athwart. giriš: butterfly. gàrašsar: garaš3.3. catastrophe. bride crown (gi. to renovate (gúb.. price equivalent. + imi/im. + dím. coach (reduplicated gur4/gir8. girim. + bir. in which nin becomes šan). gúdibir: war (gud(2). spouse (nitaþ. fresh...0 56 . oracle. + lam. 'to consume'.5): shock. + dìm. gazinbu. gir8: piece of clay. gidi6: eclipsed. 'to constrict') .. gazimbi. + tun(3). kungal ).GAL]: Sumerian Lexicon. to fence off. gúda: divinely anointed. ganba: marketplace. gil.4: leek(s). tangled. 'to approach') . 'to wreck. 'clay'.3): darkness. 'to purify. linen-clothed priest who cares for and feeds the gods. 'male. work. bow. ganzer(2. to be twisted. office holder. gudug. cf. ga-ša-an) (Emesal dialect word. to be corrupted. renewal.3.. 'to burn'). to twist. a ritually pure. wisdom. nit(a)lam(2. job. adj. bar.5). to bend. to detach a piece of clay. gidim6. supply master. destroyed. queen (cf.. moth.. 'to shine') [GIBIL archaic gíbil: to burn. murder'). girin. gurun). 'to be sick'. dancer.

Sumerian Lexicon. boomerang.ñá. + zu.DIÑIR]: or ñar. ñiš2. ñalga.DIM4]: fist(s). granary (ñar. ñéš×u in compound section).. ñanun: barn. 'wooden tool'. Version 3. ñéšbu. ñarza. chair...0 57 . to notch. flower (cf. + nun.. young man (gúr. to be bent. ñeštug(2. to subdue. guruš3. wise one. 'form. clip (a part of the body). ñansis. strip. arched beam. 'tree'. guzza: throne.'stranger. 'storeroom'. counsel. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + tuku/tug. 'penis'). 'storeroom'. ñasisx: darkness. stove. understanding. fruit. + imi/im. draw'). pond (cf. grappling hook for a wrestler (ñiš. eclipse. reflection. duties. rite(s). concatenation of 5 sign variants] . gìrim. 'to receive') [GEŠTUG archaic frequency: 108. a measure of fish. incise. cf. + uš. to determine' ?).. ñéšpu[ŠU. 'to stand upon') [? GURUŠ archaic frequency: 68. + bu(6).. divine or royal orders (ñar.. 'tool'.4. grape juice. gurum[GAM]: v. reed basket. ñirza[PA.3)[PI]: v. to fell trees. chief') [GALGA archaic frequency: 16. to throw. bending. storehouse. relieved of (gur10. kurušda ). 'sphere'. 'tool'. kurun). heap. ñadub: tablet container (ñar. to hear. + dub. appearance' office. ñešpa[ÑIŠ-ŠUB]: pull. wine') [GEŠTIN archaic frequency: 42. 'to store'. gigir]. throw-stick. gurun. ñarzu[PA. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . intelligence (ñiš. to cut. laborer (human sledge).3. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ñuruš: sledge (archaic pictogram). 'great') [GANUN archaic frequency: 3]. to circumcise (?). ñeštu(2. girim. n.. gírin: rin) (gúr. cf.3). gurin. gur5. cf. girin. 'life. ear(s). ñeš2. adult workman. 'to deliver'. kur5: gurušda: (cf. + tin.LUGAL]: ñešbu. 'wheels' [cf. 'clay tablets'. bunch of grapes (ñiš. mud').ñá. vine. ñagia: cloister. 'high'.4. berry. + ñìš/uš.3: ñeštin: sixty (ñiš. to understand..gunni: kiln. consideration (loan from Akkadian milkum. ñárzu. lúša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba).. the netherworld. to trim away. ñeš'u: (cf. pile. gúrum: inspection. gurdub: gurud(2): reed basket. gi- guruš. n. Orel & Stolbova #1791 *mulak-/*mulik. to be parted. malga: advice. 'to know') . rules. dagrim) (ñar. custom(s). ñarim: pool. guru5. hearing. 'clay.. + an. 'to cut. ñešba. + tar. 'sickle'. ñárza. 'to ñešta. wine.

'river'. tarib(t)um]). throne.ñiš ñidru. cavern (þab.MI]: ñišbun: ñišgal: ñiš shadow. þašþur: apple (?). 'low end. 'to stink'. staff. 'wooden thing'. weight. the Tigris was a faster-moving river than the Euphrates. + su. 'river'. idigna: the Tigris river (ída/íd. + in. founder (reduplicated ñiri5. nimbar) [GIŠIMMAR archaic frequency: 55. 'to sprout. appear') . + zal. + buru14/bur14. 'substitute'[Akk. wide') [GISAL archaic frequency: 3.0 58 . 'to break off (twigs or branches)'. guruš). ñuruš: (cf. 'straw'). sphere') (green) reed shoots. considerable. 'roof. 'he carries it'). þalba(2.. ñiskim. "the river that goes". stink'. freezing. + ùr. it did not built up its bed as high) [? IDIGNA archaic frequency: 25]. and used in perfumes. a weed grass (þe. stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (ñiš. base') . + nominative a.3). + gal. 'to seek refuge') . station (ñiš. iskim.gúr. þalbi(2. duru6 reading of PA and še ñiš-è-a). þubur: netherworld (þab.. ñiñri(2): ñiš ñisal: oar. ñizkim: ñissu. great') [GIŠGAL archaic frequency: 9]. distinguished. cripple. to sink..'tool'. cf.3): (ñiš) þarub[DAG. mass (ída. 'wood'. shade (ñiš. ñušur: rafter beam (ñiš. ñizzu[ÑIŠ. spring. trunk of a date palm tree (cf. ñuškin: (now read as kù-sig 17). 'big. ibila: son. 'message') . 'abundant'. prefix) + íla. inheritance (íb (subj. + in. intelligence (ñiš. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . þuluþ: to tremble. to be terrified. + bùru(-d). 'to rot. agent'. 'impersonal verbal conjugation prefix' . not depositing as much silt. 'perfume'. infant. + ñin. 'to go'. base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile. it was less likely to overflow because. rudder (ñiš. (cultic) feast. [ÞAŠÞUR archaic frequency: 101]. + sal. idim: n. + mú. 'wood. pit. scepter. cave. ñiš ñišimmar: date palm.. þenzer: weakling. + ir. 'wooden tool'. apricot (?) (þaš. stalks (þe. hole. 'hole'). + ì. 'tool'. successor. wild. ñizzal: attention. ñidri[PA]: stick. 'root. chair.. ñiškim. underground water. raging. (gi) þenbur(2): 'harvest') . heir. 'thin. to terrify. adj. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . omen (ñiš.'to pass time') [? GIZZAL archaic frequency: 1]. beam'). 'discrete individuals'. Version 3. frost. + gurun. + úr. mad. tool'. 'abundant'. + kíñ. imported from India. to dive. 'fruit. þirim: the root stalks of the spikenard. Sumerian Lexicon. signal. 'tool. þilib: netherworld (possible foreign loanword). + dúru. þirin. þabrud: cesspit. sign.KISIM5]: carob. izkim.

im-ma-al ). illar: husked (?) emmer wheat. ildu(2/3): crowd [ILDUM archaic frequency: 5.. + bar. ímmen. mend (kal. illuru. 'earth. 'five'. 'to make'). ímmin. it4. affair.. milk cow (cf. order.ígira: heron (igi. adj. imþur[IGI. concern. decree. itim.3: n. matter. ímma: (cf. 'present. 'speech') . 'to open') .DAG. month. incantations.0 59 . 'brilliant'). innumerable. 'to be high. 'to strike'). 'two'). 'four'). descendant (i.A]: foam. isim2. totality. to laugh. kalag. itid.id4: moon. uncultivated land (ki. strong. enmen). sprout. + discrete individual'. bow. kankal: hard soil. inim: word. 'to approach. javelin. itud. ñiš ildag(2. + dág.3): imin(2. clean. immen. laughter. throw-stick. v.. 'gate'. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . 'bread'). lustrations and purification. + ninda. + min. 'clay'. + eme. long. izkim: (cf. moonlight (te. to repair. gift. ñiskim). immin. statement. 'excellent. 'the eye'. + aka/ag. chapel.3): a species of poplar tree (íl. 'straight. isimu2. Sumerian Lexicon. 'excellent'. valuable'). kabar).KISIM5×GAG]: kadra(2): shepherd boy (ká. išib: n. agreement. place'. 'one shoot.3. + ru. priest who performs exorcisms. to shine'. 'sun') . concatenation of 2 sign ilimmu: ñiš nine (ía/í. immindu: roasting. kabar.3).. + ru. baking oven (imi/im. ñiskim). kapar: (cf. 'five'. to weep. cella. imñaña(2. išin [PA-ŠE]: stalk. itu... + kal[-l]. 'sprout'. itima. isiš2. idi: meet'. moaning. arc (íla. narrow'. imma: (cf. gift') . variants] . ilduma(2. ildum(2/3). + limmu. all (ía/í. offspring. concatenates 6 sign variants] .3): immal(2): seven. anointed.. 'to tie together'. oath. command. + ud. swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7.. Version 3. + ra. 'to send') . iskim: (cf. kalam: the land (of Sumer). kapar[PA. + si. nation [KALAM archaic frequency: 91. id8.3: mú. bribe (kad4. subject (in.. énmen). 'to lift'. v.. kala. illulu. + nu. 'to grow') .. 'not'. kal: adj. iti..

kisal: courtyard. 'place'. five-sixths (5/6) (kíñ. to fasten.kaskal: kašbir: expedition. kikkin [ÞAR]: mortar. 'hand mill'). inhibition (ki. star(s). + šita4. for milling women (reduplicated kín. to harness. kiši5. rodents or other very small mammals. empty lot.8. ki-sug8). 'place'. to snatch.0 60 . wrap. 'swift') [KASKAL small beer. kisim(3. sweet beer (kaš. kilim. director (kíñ. + an. tie. gilili: kinbur: bird's nest or perch (ki.7): kisim(4): kisim2. 'to travel fast'. kešda. Sumerian Lexicon. kindax[LAK-419]: a type of vessel for measuring barley or holding water. 'to sweep clean'. commander. concatenates 5 ? sign variants] . 'place'. adj. + sílig. 'to sniff'). + kalag/kal. 'to order'. weight measure (ki. + luþ/làþ. kínda[URI]. journey (kaš4/kas4. 'big. kìlib.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . road. kislaþ(2)[KI.5: milk-processing wasters. kindling. to bind. threshing floor (ki. 'beer'. 'place'. kíbir: firewood. 'receptacle').UD]: kissa: supporting wall. stable. great') [KINGAL archaic frequency: 39]. + bùru/bùr.5. spoiled milk. kišib. gílim. cf..3. fist. kišib7. + bír. 'to bind') [KEŠ 2 archaic frequency: 35]. 'task'. knot.9: ant. Version 3. sealed bulla. mouse.. kiraši: emmer wheat for making beer. 'hand [of five fingers]'). seal. 'spacious') [KISAL archaic frequency: 145 ?. milling. smelly cheese [KISIM archaic frequency: 67. kindañal(2): kingal: overseer of a group of (five) slaves. kešdr?. + gal.8. n. hand. group of (wild) animals. kíkkin [ÞAR. caravan. + sal. kinda: barber. to bind') . receipt (cf..10: kišib(3): v. to join. pen. 'high'. ñiš na4 kíbir: pitchfork. n.6. bundle. to seal.. v. ñiš kešda: weir. kéš. cheese maggot.. taboo. kìli: totality. kingusili: greater part. kiši7. mill house. kéš-(d): archaic frequency: 6].ÞAR]: kilib[LAGAB]: package. 'to snatch.9.

liri: Sumerian Lexicon. piece'. gurušda. 'to wash'. 'sweet. laþtanx. n. fat'. kurušda.3): sweet red wine. + tán. guard') .. lagarx[SAL. to surround' ?) [GURUŠDA archaic frequency: 61]. kiši16/17[Ú.AN. kunga[ŠÚ.. kušu[U. kúnga[BAR. donkey. kurušda). or grape cluster (cf. lirum. gurun ).. kur7: v. 'solitary'). onager. bitumen (ku.ÞÚB]: laþtan(2): (divine) vizier. libbu 'heart'). lipiš: courage. 'abundance'. concatenates 4 sign variants] . + da(5). worn (la. 'to beg').. kilib) (lag. fat. kurun(2. kuruš. a basket of food-rations.ÑÍR]: concatenates 3 sign variants] . to last long.. abundance (reduplicated kur9. old. bounty. grapevine. plump. lidim: to receive (in charity) (la.IGI]: liliz: a drum. v. kúnin: kurku(2): refined asphalt. liru. libir: n. libiš. n. ancient. reject. family (Akk.. kur6: kurum7. + bír. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'place'. share(s). + ùru(-m). kuš6.0 61 . slab (of stone). spy (ki.MUL]. mule. to live long. to steal. lilib[IGI. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . core. 'tail'.. + níñ. kuruça ?: sweet fodder (for fattening cattle). 'to stand') [LAGAB archaic frequency: 84. to abandon (ki. + gub.ñiš kišik(2). 'to shrivel up') .ÞÚL]: 36. 'to build'. Version 3. a high ranking cultic functionary. + ušum. stock-breeder (kuruš. traditional. physical strength. a thorny bush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. ŠÚ. lillan: stalk with ripe ear of grain. beer vat [LAÞTAN 2 archaic frequency: 7]. kuru7.AN]: kungal. 'to deliver'). kúkku [MI. gukkal [LU. kukkuç ? [IŠ]: a type of flour. + dim4. anger. trunk (of tree) (cf. old age [LIBIR archaic frequency: 1]. hurt. adj. 'to watch. kušumx. lagar: temple servant who pronounces invocations to the god [LAGAR archaic frequency: 51. laþta: a washing vessel (luþ/làþ. wine grape. lagab: block. 'to become clean') . 'big') [GUKKAL archaic frequency: kuniñx. lookout. 'clod. 'place'.. 'side. 'youthful freshness'. to watch. heart. 'assets') . kukkuš. used. fattener (of cattle). + gal. ku7: sweet.MI]: dark. kurum6. kušum: to scorn.PIRIÑ]: herd of cattle or sheep.. honey (cf. kiša(2). fat-tailed sheep (kun.

in-between terrain. create') . 'egg') (cf. + dù.3). mezem [ÚMBISAG]: maintenance. + ùru(-m). apply') [? DARA3 archaic frequency: 11. urum: brother-in-law (mí. destitute. 'fault. 'relatives'). shoulders. lú ningi(2. wailing. 'partner'. luþummu[ÑIŠ-MI]: mud (cf.adj. waist. lulim: stag. muþaldim [MU]: mùnsub: munšub(2): shepherd. strong. interval. loins'. 'short'). 'work'). 'woman'. 'woman'. 'to hang') . murub4. 'hostile'). clamor (maþ. hart (male of the red deer. + a(k).8: murub(2): neck. 'great'.3): makkaš(2): mangaga: (cf. cf.KI]: bitter plants. cf. pelt. 'neck').. 'big') [LUGAL archaic frequency: 80]. máš-lulim) (Akkadian loanword). powerful. 'to watch. 'to divide. vulva. 'genitive'). back. portion'. woman. 'to clothe oneself'. mur7. megida(2). commissioner (máš. + kíñ. palm fiber. + íb. + an. 'lungs'. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . luñud(?): pus. 'to fashion. 'to make. monitor. battle (mur10. middle. 'sky') [MUŠEN archaic frequency: 178]. múdru: fuller. + dím. grind'. hips. 'to inspect'. ú munzur[KI. 'grown man'. owner. + gag. 'person'. 'to mill.5. + gú..AN. + þal. + lal/lá. lumgi(2. murum5.. nun. Sumerian Lexicon. nunuz. murgu: dung (sheep). megidda(2): sow (female pig). inspector. lunga(2. múru: central. cf. courtesan (?) (lú. madlu. hide. nunus[Emesal]: female. woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection. short person (lú. sheriff. + nuz/nus. 'peg. median area. cook (mù. 'man'. lugud. mí/mu10. lúgud: short.. fresh'). 'moist. lu-þu-um). nail'. + kúr. and etymology of nitaþ). murgu(2). Version 3. + gal. mušen: bird (muš. hair.? + kuš7. 'reptile'. launderer (mur10/mu4. 'to scrutinize'. mí ) (mí. lukur: chaste priestess. mitum(2): mace (the weapon). gazelle (máš. error' + éd. 'middle. muru3..ŠEŠ. mudla. + duru5. 'devastation') . bast (man. serous fluid (lúñ.. middu(2). support (?). baker. mašda(2): maškim: commoner. 'to dress oneself'.0 62 . mašda: drawing.. sexual charm [MURUB 2 archaic frequency: 4]. 'a right-angled tool'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . lugal: king. + gud8. 'to emerge').3)).11. ridge (mur. munus[SAL]. master (lú. stake (mud. itimurub4). hairy skin. guard' or úrum. barber ('it falls down oneself') [? MUNŠUB archaic frequency: 3. mudul: pole.

ancestors (from Akk. pewter (níñ. + nam. premature or monstrous fetus (ni9. 'to measure') [NINDA 2 archaic frequency: 20].. niñar[NI9. nimurx[PIRIÑ. craftsman (na4. 'to be high'.3).. 'to be satiated. ninda: bread. flower.'to niñin(2): n.0 63 . herald. índa: nindaba(2). carpenter. to pen up cattle.LAGAB] for marû form) (ní.ñá. lunga(2. district. faintness. hopper or seeding apparatus of the seeder plow.bariga ). nindan. nañar: adze. + ñír.'premature birth'. + ñar. funnel. tube. nidba(2): nigida[PI]: deliver'). (cf. bakery good. naña: niñir(2). lum. panther (from Akk. malformed child.. kilib and gur 4-gur 4) [NIGIN archaic frequency: 11]. king (lit. wood-chisel. miñir(2): a bride's male attendant. lumgi(2.3): vertigo (as a disease). + ñin. food offering (ninda.. namešda[ŠITA. circle. middatu.'to deliver') [NIMGIR archaic frequency: 62]. 'knife') [NAGAR archaic frequency: 168. fish roe.8. town crier. meal'). adj.ÑAR]: a dark room.5). 'two'). + ba.TUR]: leopard.'morning'. middatu. d nanna: the moon as a god [NANNA archaic frequency: 49. ninda: a length measure. milt..bur. rod = 12 cubits (kùš) = 6 meters.NÁM]: top warrior. nìñin. 'the power of the mace'). nimur[KI. 'stone'. 'to give') . (cf. monstrosity. counter'. potash.ne4. 'valuable thing'. niñir (2)). 'to measure') . ni-gi-da . premature or stillborn child. true measure (na4. 'to go'). bailiff (probable conflation of separate words: mí.muššagana: voracious hunger. inda..4. bushel. to halt. to assemble. niññi [AN. 'token. nimgir(2): nimin. mindatu. niñin(2. 'to drink'. province. 'valuables'. pure-bred breeding bull.NA]: tin. 'destiny' or just reduplicated nam). enclosure. 'garden plot' square measure (from Akk. nínda. 'to slice') [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. food (níñ. v. to circle.. to make the rounds (usually níñin[LAGAB] for hamtu form and niñin or ni 10ni10[LAGAB. + ñar. dizziness. decent. 'twenty'. nidba(2): lú ningi(2. nanam: n. mindatu. full'. nimen(3.9.3): 'a small pot').ÑIŠ. nañña.7. ni9: niñin5. + dar. whole (cf. thirst. night watchman. nin5: forty (niš. + ñar.NE]: kiln. nindaba) .'woman' and nim. + min.. true. lùm. Version 3. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . one side of a sar/šar . nimru(m) I). ñiš nimbar: date-palm (nim. Sumerian Lexicon. 'food'. (cf. turn away.. reliable. to surround. + bar. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . honest. 'fear'. 'to release. to wander about. 'to store') . brewer (nañ.3). capacity. to turn round.

'self'. nundun: lip (reduplicated tùn..ninindu. rubbish. sand.UBARA]: temple treasurer. 'lip').3. 'to hold') . seed. governor (ní. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. used for ritual cleaning. 'green. bar-rim4). 'egg') [NUNUZ archaic frequency: 134. pulverized'). loam.3. cornfield. 'to cross over'. progeny (níñ. (ú) n. palil(2): advance troops. nesañ(2): first fruits (offering). light (bar6/7.4): a sprinkler. economic director of a temple or occupation (such as all the smiths) (sañ.. + sañ. concatenates 2 sign variants] . pisan(2/3): puniñx: (cf. 'head'.4 [ÑÁ×U. adj. saþab(2). loins. + dul. 'thing'. + ñar. 'head'. headdress (sañ. kuš7) (sa5. headdress (sañ. single (sañ. male. 'crushed. + gùn. 'to open'. nissa: n. + taþ. to produce. shock troops. blue. box. inda4: oven. sab [PA.. piriñ(3): lion (poetic). chest. 'red-brown'.IB]: hips. sediment (cf.3. 'to shine'. man.. dough. spring time (month). + sig7. saþar: silt. manly (ní.3). 'first') [NISAG 2 archaic frequency: 94.3. speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. suþub3. niñunx: v. offspring. nundum. nisig. pisañ(2/3). mud. concatenation of 2 sign variants. earth. ÑÁ×BAD. númun: a type of grass (halfâ'). puzur: (cf. 'head'...4): ñiš triangle. concatenates 3 sign variants] . ninkum[NIN. sit'). greens. vegetables (níñ.. + sañ. immindu). 'self. sad2. 'head'. nindu. 'head'). + níñ. 'head'. headdress (sañ. rushes (cf. 'body'. guardian deity of the foundations [NINKUM archaic frequency: 11]. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . nisañ(2). nunuz.SIG7. sañtušx[U+SAÑ]: hat. sañdulx[U+SAÑ]: hat.PAB. 'to store') [SANGA archaic frequency: 530. sanña(2. female (reduplicated nuz. middle (su. ú aški) [NUMUN2 archaic frequency: 2]. 'men'). 'to cover.4: bar.. 'to reside. + bad. wine cellar ?. stove (cf. buzur). nita(2): wife. parim: arid land. sañña(2. sowing. dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water) (cf.ME.4). + tuš. (written) wedge. 'thing') [PIRIG archaic frequency: 103. sabad(2. šab. beautiful. ÑÁ×SIG7 ]. bolt (of a door). numun. Version 3. leader (bala. nitalam: nitaþ(2). dust. buniñ x).'to multiply') [GIŠ 3 archaic frequency: 16. green. yellow'). cap.ñá.. + lú. foremost. sañšu: helmet. + tag. nitadam. nisi. sañtag. 'to open') . + šúš/šú. (open) basket. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . frame (bad/be. 'valuables'. nunus: egg(s). vigor'. offspring.. protect') .0 64 . santak(2. + þara.NUN. Sumerian Lexicon. píriñ: bright. nuñunx. 'to cover') [SAGŠU archaic frequency: 14]. 'dots. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .

subar: slave. to trim or comb the hair. saman(2. šilig). 'to be straight. 'to engrave') [SIMUG archaic frequency: 13].dug sáþar [SAR]: clay pot.ZU]: the moon (sú. 'to find'). 'beard'. offering.. rot. suþirin[SU7. suþuš) [SUÞUR archaic frequency: 239]. sañña ). 'sweet smelling grass') . cf.. zabar). fresh.. to be/make clean. 'to weep'. 'body'. pitfall. sacrifice with entreaties. adj. Version 3. hair. tree top. loanword. 'to go') [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. 'to let out'. herbalist. šum4[BAD]: v. + -/ak/.4: sin. suþur: n. sipa. + ùr. + bar.. siskur(2). + en(2. to decay. pure. horticulturist. + þirin.. suþurku6: giant carp. sidug: ravine. + dug. suku5.. old. d suena. narrow'.4): yoke. crest (su6. dsuen[EN. + tin. pure (siki. 'roof'. 'red'. silig3. 'to be hot') [ŠANDANA archaic frequency: 3. 'chills' and šeñ6. to scratch. something rotten. 'time'..SUM]: the threshing floor with the piles of grain and straw (su7. sikil: v. sil5. 'pleasure. 'vessel'). šeñ4. 'knowledge'. + ul. v. human'. v. keeper [SIPA archaic frequency: 4]. 'to shine'. or pàd. simug: metal-sculptor. adj.. scalp. to sacrifice (isiš2. cf. complete (usually considered Akk. 'to keep in order'. sun. cf. šandan: concatenates 2 sign variants] . sílig: hand. cf. tend (si.. sub2. shepherd. the past (su. clean. + lum. prayers. to make an incision. leash. sila11: to knead (dough or clay).. virginal. 'to shine brightly'. 'hair' ?. to pasture. sipad. or rope (for an ox). sibad. santana. rites. smith (si4.. barbel. sizkur(2): n. 'head.. + ñin. šuba. healthy. sig7. n. silig: (cf. but Sumerians used word in greeting and root not in Orel & Stolbova's Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. joy'. date orchard administrator (sañ. 'body'. šandana. + þe. silim[DI]: to be/make in good shape. root means 'peace' in 18 of 21 Semitic languages. 'to cure'. to ruin. to slay. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'threshing floor'. silañ. ancient. pit.. Northerner (su. v. 'abundant'.0 65 .3: n. (cf. trap (si. sipar: (cf. 'to bring. to make beautiful') [SIKIL archaic frequency: 7]. 'to grow luxuriantly'). 'to create.3): sanña(2.. to pray. 'foreign').3. decay. + kur9. suñin.. + mug.3). sumun. also.3. Sumerian Lexicon.. + bad. 'of').. deliver').

'guts'. + kir. 'stomach. santana ). to be/make high. šakan: a large jar for oil. commissioner (šab. šandana: šaran. súkud. 'stomach.suþuš: roots.šamru . suñin). dug šakira(3). 'straw'). v. container'.5). cf. šarñeš[ŠÁR×DIŠ]. šapra [PA. šakir(2): henbane. zú. suþur). sukud. foundation. vizier (su. disgrace (cf. representative. pitcher (šag4/šà. birthmark (su. wild') [ŠUR2 archaic frequency: 17. 'to bring forth') [? ŠAGAN archaic frequency: 55]. + gi-na. šúr. 'to give') šagan. 'to engrave. churn. šagina: ŠAGINA archaic frequency: 1]. 'body'. high..DU]: sumaš: a common marine fish [SUMAŠ archaic frequency: 3]. šaggina). 'stomach. (cf.. šagan). furious. fierce. v. genitive) [ŠAKIRA 3 archaic frequency: 56. 'steady. + ru. šakan: (cf.. tall. suku5: to measure..0 66 '216000'. adj.kud/ku5). sukkal: messenger. + þe. sulummar[KI. stubborn. 'abundant'. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. enraged. ú šakira(2). cf. 'flesh'. + mug. + gan. šaggina. concatenates 2 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon. also. šardiš. 'to be numerous'. + kalag/kal. + uš. support (su4. adj. 'fierce. 'to support'. support.comptroller (šu.. temple administrator.. surim: (cf.. šakar: milk jug (šag4/šà. bedbug (šár. container'. height. distribute.. sumug(3.5): sumun: (cf. to flash. 'long') [SUKUD archaic frequency: 15]. 'strong. multiply'. bathed.. šákan: official in charge of expenditures . . god of wild creatures (šag4/šà. container'.. 'to grow. + gan. šabra.. to lift.SAÑ. shine brightly (cf. su(11)-lum.. + gíd. minister. susbu: clean. a priest. + kir.. šà-ñar). depth (su. šarin: tick. šaggin. 'cow' + /ak/. surin).. šakir(3): butter tub. reliable') [? šañar: hunger (cf.4. to be enraged (against someone: -da -). military governor (šag4. fierceness (Akkadian loanword . 'to bring forth'. mole. sty') . Version 3. 'to gather up'. envoy. súr: n. 'body'.AL]: [ŠABRA archaic frequency: 1]. sumur. 'portion'. samag(3. šargalx[ŠÁR×GAL]: šassuk[SAÑ-GÍN]: registrar of deeds..mar). 'cow'). zugud: n. courier. churning..4. + in.. swift') [SUKKAL archaic frequency: 130].

'hand'.5.. 'to cover') . + lam. lance (šu.5). shepherd's staff ending in a curved end. + dun(4). quince or medlar [ŠENNUR archaic frequency: 11. + kúr. 'people').0 67 . šilig(5).3. Sumerian Lexicon. i. 'to bind'. boots (šúš/šú.. šenbar: ñiš a type of wild boar (?). slave. šudul(2. šerimsur: cocoon]') . gi šukur: fence. to feed by grazing. šurun4.3.e. slanted. stove grill (šúš. n. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . 'hot. antimony (as makeup). to bear') . extremely powerful. tamarisk. ointment. 'to cover'. luminous metal'). 'rope'. a crook. + imi/im. ñiš ñiš ñiš šudun(2. 'clay. suþub(2) [MUL] : v.either the harness or the heddle [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. + dím. ñišbun). šušana: šušur(2): one third (part).. Mesopotamian fallow deer (?) (šeg9. mud'). uštil: yoke. salve.. 'to stand') . crooked. concatenates 2 sign variants] .4. architect. 'to pour'. 'foreign'). make') šikin2. to trample. šitim. sérim: a part of the loom . 'to lead. Version 3. adj. + dúr. šuba.. ñiš caterpillar cocoon (šerim. 'shepherd'. ñiš ñiš ñiš šilig and nam-šilig). šutug(2): a reed hut for purification rites. šitim: (cf.4.5. to step. basket.. dung. crosspiece (šúš/šú.5).. + zar/sur8. + re7. 'channel'. + ùru. deprived person [ŠUBUR archaic frequency: 181]. šudug(2). 'boar'.šedur: caterpillar cocoon (éše. 'to exude. also such a staff used by a god or king as a scepter (sipad. stable (šur. cricket. 'to flow. šubun: (cf. šiten: course of march. šubur: earth. šilig: šinig: axe. + gub. 'to build. to spin [a šibir. 'abundance') . sibir: n. šurim: animal excrement. šerin. 'part of a weaving loom'.4. 'dwelling'). (kuš) šuþub(2). mason (šid3.. strong(cf. a fruit tree. šurin4.3: a jar for body oil. 'to cover'. 'enemy'). to lay aside one's work. + un. 'warp yarns connecting opposite sides of a loom frame' and dul. šembi: kohl. to cease. adj. + bar. šidim). drip'. 'to cover'. šidi[GIM]: [ŠIDIM archaic frequency: 35]. šidim. silig(5): v. spear. urudu/ñiš šukur: šurun. passage (šìta.. šilam: milk-producing mother cow (šu. šennur: šerim(2).5: cockroach.. stop.

'to lift. 'to be deficient. a figure on the ground made of ropes stretched between pegs. 'understanding') . udug. tibir: carving knife.5): hand. temen[TE]: perimeter.5. nibble. 'cloth garment'. 'sheep'. ugnim: crowd. female breast. clasp'. tabira. tradesman (Proverb 3. útug: variants] . in case. weapon. distinguished. (ñiš) tukul: mace (thigh bone ?). at once. ugula [PA]: overseer.0 68 . ubilla(2): ubur: soot (ú. captain. tukumbi: if.NA. Sumerian Lexicon. 'life'.AB. udul/utul(3. a demonic being. certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form). concatenates 4 sign udun[GIR4]: kiln (for pottery and bricks). ugra: reed bundle. a weapon. please. 'to hold. 'luminous object') . + bil. + ùru. palm. leopard ? [? TIDNUM archaic frequency: 1].10): herdsman (udu. tukun: if. oven. knowledge.šutum[GI. 'liquid secretion'). 'to ki tugul: hip. 'man') [UDUL archaic frequency: 32. + lú. excavation (often written te-me-en) [TE archaic frequency: 199]. 'cavity'.3. wisdom (reduplicated tál. campaign. fledgling. + íla. army. túkur[KA׊E]: to gnaw. tidnum[UG-UG or ÚG-ÚG]. Version 3. high') . teat (ub4. + tab. beer mash . pitfall. troops. light. thigh (túg. cloud. + ir(2). foundation platform.4. foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu where Christopher Ehret's 1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic has *wax "to look at").6. tibira: taltal: ñiš metalworker (tab. strike ('life' + 'open.108 describes how the peddler 'flays' or 'skins' the tiger ?. + lal/lá. carry'). protection. loan). foundations. tešlug: small young animal. foundation-charter. 'to burn'.bappir mixed with munu 4 and allowed to ferment (tìl/ti. silence. tíbira. tukum.UL]: lizard. experience. 'plant'. taskarin[TÚG]: Akk. box shrub or small tree (or its heavy.4. respectful (same sign as dilmun ). ibira: open hand of the customer) . blow. release' ? 'the beggar's open palm') . utug: údug. workgang. midnum: tilþar: tilmun: titab(2): burn') . tibir(2. hard wood) (may be taškarin. ubara[EZEN×KASKAL]: patronage. merchant. in case.

hair pin. cheek. úmun. mammy (umu/um. 'to decorate with colors' may be popular scribal etymology. leash. uš4: (stagnant) pool. many'. 'nurse'. ùgun. 'to hold. elevated shrine. application. mistress. living room. 'high'). 'ten. raw form or material. uku2. úrdu[ARAD×KUR]: úrgu: ferocity. + ig. 'door') [UNUG archaic frequency: 206. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'people'. umun5. to beget. ruler. louse. mold. consideration. idea.. ukur3. loincloth. umum: ùmun: flea. genetic. to be or become poor. claw. harness. unug(2). Version 3. cf. swamp (u. temple. 'cow'). úgunu. + maþ. ùnug. 'individual human') . 'ten. ùmmu[EDIN. reflection. umbin: nail. 'lion. decision (u6.DAR/GÙN]: adorning speckles and lines. adornment. cf. attractive. úkuš: ulul(2): ulušin: úlutin: umaþ: cucumber. wetnurse. adj. Emesal dialect form of en . v. fortress. discernment. + da. butcher (ug5. unkin-ñar-ra) [UKKIN archaic frequency: 108. hoof. fetch'. progenitor.5: n. attention-getting..ugun[U. v. ukkin: communal assembly. + gùn.. poor man. nail impression (on a clay tablet). knowledge. 'to seek. wagon) [UMBIN archaic frequency: 34. + sañ. unu6 [TEMEN. ummeda(2).6. umbisañ: scribe (umbin. 'to kill'. poverty. concatenates 3 sign variants] . inlaid decoration (u. 'plant'. a swamp plant. 'people'. scholarship [UMUN 2 archaic frequency: 114]. unu(2): dwelling. concatenates 4 sign variants] . + lal.. ukum: úkur: dust (devil). (cf. rage (ur + gù. the city of Uruk (ùña/un. intelligence. bear. + kíñ/kin. 'to examine.. 'barking dog') .. ointment.LÁ]: umun: title of respect. sanctuary. ugu(4): n.. arad ).11: umuš. 'to be impressed' + máš. marsh. inspect'). Sumerian Lexicon.ÈŠ = TE.AB]: uraš[IB]: earth. 'nail impression [on a tablet]'. protect') . chain (u. ug. 'discrete point') . (goatskin) water bag.. any deadly cat' + n. wheel (of a chariot.0 69 . jewelry. secret. unkin. many'. úgun[GAŠAN]: lady. swamp. emmer beer. talon.4. éme: kuš ummud. 'to strap. harness') . folkmoot (ùña/un. + kir. natural. binding.

ušub[SI. + tal. father') [UTUA archaic frequency: 74. bronze (zil. 'semen. uru6. zi. 'food'. lift'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . emblem. foreign') . 'bronze' borrowed before vowel harmony changed Sumerian word.5: (ñiš) tithe. fry. + ub4. ušbar(3/7): (gi) (female) companion. urugal: the netherworld (uru.BAR]: frequency: 1]. go out') . ú-sug 4) (úš. ušum. concatenates 2 sign variants] . cast') [URUDU archaic frequency: 61. ušur(2. uruda.. blood [ŠEŠ ZATU-523 archaic frequency: 25. urin.. 'iron') [ZABAR archaic Sumerian Lexicon.. uttuku: utua(2): utul: utul2. sovereign. kin. cauldron (ú. ur7: úrum. tenth-part set aside (þà/u.7: (cf. ùru(-m)) [URI5 archaic frequency: 21]. dragon. 'to be many').3. 'to expend. + zag. 'man. ursub(2). solitary.3.urim2. 'blood'. 'big'). urum. mother-in-law (ñìš/uš. + dù. menstruating woman. zabalam: zabar[UD. ú-si4 an). powdered milk. 'to pare. concatenates 3 sign variants] . father-in-law..KA. uzug ). 'snake venom'. utaþ. concatenates 2 sign variants] . + gal. dragon (ušum. woman isolated after birth.. 'city'. composite creature (uš11. white'.. pot. person under a taboo (cf. breed ram.. 'great') [UŠUMGAL archaic frequency: 21]. cf. 'to support. 'outside of') . 'sheep'. + am. spawn. solitary. siparrum. uzalak[GE22]: uzug. 'plant'. 'luminous object'. 'wild ox'). penis'. standard. 'cavity. Akk. udul ). metal (ùru. + ára/ár. sky. + zìg. uzalag. útu: dried. kettle. 'outside.0 70 . ušar(2. Version 3. juniper (cf. = 1/4 of an iku (= 25 sar ).A/DIRIG]: basket (uš. urud: copper. ùri[ŠEŠ]: eagle. banner. 'bright. 'to support'.4). adj. 'large jug'). 'to praise') [UŠUR 3 archaic frequency: 3.. zurzub(2)). + šár. + bar. + a. area measure. ušu: n. (cf. 'to mould. + bar6. urudu. sign variants] . concatenates 2 (cf. uru7: usan(2): ùsan: usug: relatives. barzil. ušumgal: lord of all.. ušera: reed bundle (ú. za-ba-lum ) [? ZABALAM archaic frequency: 45.4. 'ten'. monster of composite powers. + gal. evening (cf. 'dragon'. usar: ušbar: weaver.. cut'. breed bull (udu. neighbor (uš. hole'). usug: uzug2. whip. urrub(2): (cf. zé.5.4).3. níñ-ka 9).. alone.5: doorpost (cf. uri2.

i-da-al-àm: a-da-mìn: contest ('when' + 'with' + 'an equal'). (ŠU. luminous. ursub(2). distance measured by span of outstretched thumb and little finger) . 'dry' asphalt (Akkadian loanword . 'people'). a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances a-a: father (reduplicated 'offspring') . gleam. + kum. Sumerian Lexicon.zadim: jeweler. + sub. the light before dawn.. zugud. 'turn. to walk on.. 'to spout. a-ba-al: #2519). zanbur: zibin(2): prowling. zizna: fish roe.aka: a-da-mìn. from now on ('now' + 'from'). zurzub(2). 'to suckle') .. 'to'. light.tuš: to live near the water ('water' + 'near' + 'to dwell (singular)'). aba ). zapaþ[ŠU. brightness.. stone cutter (cf. (cf.. + bi. zubud: a kind of club. to irrigate. a-da. 'the'). fresh. zukum: to trample. za-dím) [ZADIM archaic frequency: 2]. also. make'). a type of song (also written as a-tab. a-dar-túnku6: a fish ('water' + 'to slice' + 'to smash'). 'to flay. zalag(2).abaalu.BAD]: 'open hand' . + bun.BAD: zilulu[PA. + a.. a-bala: a-da-ab: a-da-al-ta: a-da gub-ba: a-da-lam.. pare' ? . to cleanse.ÑIŠGAL]: zipaþ.. + lú-ùlu. + bala.. 'blister'). a-ab-ba: a-aþ-du11-ga: a-ba: who (a. make'). to compete (with someone: -da -) ('contest' + 'to do. 'to crush') .. sukud). to step on (súg. caterpillar (zi. vagabond (zil. purify (often reduplicated). a fish (cf. to shine. peddler. to mourn'.approx. a. half.. roaming. a-da-mìn. bright.. early morning. 'water'. aþ-du 11-ga ). flow'.. a length-measure. v. zal: n. duty') . to flood ('water' + 'to pour').dé: a-dé: to pour out water. do. chrysalis.0 71 . 'burning tears' ?). 'it'. span = 1/2 cubit = 15 fingers = 25 cm. adj. 'to be dry. may be Orel & Stolbova drawing of water (a. to illuminate. abnormal growths on a fetus. now ('now' + 'to be'). 'life'. radiant. water duty ('water' + 'near' + 'to stand' + nominative).dug4/du11/e: to compete ('contest' + 'to speak. foraging (said of animals). pupa.. plural 'to stand'. Version 3. pure. (cf. urrub(2): (zur4.

backside. a-gar5: lead. eroded by the water ('water' + ergative agent marker + 'to consume' ( + nominative)) . a-ia10-lum: stag (Akkadian loanword)..ñar/ñá-ñá: a-ñi6(-a): to irrigate. inshore fisherman (?) ('water' + 'lowly student' + nominative). a. a-ga-aš-gi4: the most awkward one ('in back' + 'the one' + 'to send. early flood ('water' + 'river carp').gur: a-ga-am.. eñir). a-ga. a-e. flood ('water' + 'to be black' + nominative). a-gàr: irrigated field ('water. high tide. behind you ('back' + 'your' + 'from'). þu-ru(-um)).... loanword). -a-gin7: as (= when) . after. a-dùg: freshwater ('water' + 'sweet. A.. a-è-a: overflowing or breaks in levees ('water' + 'to emerge' + nominative). a-ga-àm..íl: a-ka: to carry water ('water' + 'to lift. leather sack (for flour) ('water' + 'to store' + 'to lift. a-kúm: hot water ('water' + 'hot').EN-da-urudu: a-eštubku6: a-ga: a type of copper.0 72 . a-ñá-lá: a-ñá-ri-in: A-ñar: (cf. when' + 'like')... the metal. a-ga-mu-um: artificial pond . (cf. and permanent or semi-permanent lake used as a reservoir to dispose of flood waters (prob.... a. fresh'). ñarim ). in that way. how! ('if. to turn back ('back' + 'to return'). marshy.. back room (cf. a-ga-bi-šè: a-ga-zu-ta: afterwards ('after' + adverbial force suffix + 'towards').. seed' + 'cake' ?).. úgu ). a.ñin/gub: a-þur-rum: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. to deposit... a-gig: bitter tears ('water' + 'pain'). a-šè.a-dé-a: the yearly spring flood ('water' + 'to pour' + nominative). to be submerged ('water' + 'to store. back. a-gal: overflow of flood waters ('waters' + 'big').. Version 3.. a-gáb: (cf. a flat area (measured in sar ) (cf. carry'). e5-ñar).. deliver') . ugu4-bi).dug4/e: a-dun-a: to irrigate ('water' + 'to do')..a large. reject'). carry').gu7(-a): a-gúb-ba: kuš holy water ('water' + 'to purify' + nominative). Akk. to go to fetch water ('water' + 'to the' + 'to go').

e-ne ). potion ('water' + 'health')..a-la.0 73 . ú (cf.. a-pa4: funerary pipe (a clay pipe through which water and beer were poured into the grave) ('water' + 'small canal') . bursting of a dam ('water' + 'high. a.. a-la-la: a-lu: exclamation. mighty').?) ('what' + 'one'[ + 'to be']). rushes') . a-na-gim.e: a-rá: way. a-ma-ru: destructive flood ('water' + 'to go' + 'to send'. a-nir: lamentation. a-na me-a-bi: as many as they are. she'.. carry [plural]'.. what (will/did) X do?. rushes ('water' + 'grass. amaš).ru: a-sa-ga: to engender ('semen' + 'to pour into') ... Sumerian Lexicon. cf.. times (multiplication) ('where' + 'to go.. a-na-gin7-nam: a-ne: (cf... all of it ('what there is of it').si: a-silim: to be filled with water ('water' + 'to fill up').ra: a-ra-zu: a-ra-zu. adjective for small cattle. a-na-àm: thus. often of joy. a-maþ: flood. cf. a-ri-a).. a-lum: adjective for sheep.aka: a-na-aš(-am): why? (why is it that .. a-MI: a-na: (cf. + a. how ('what' + 'like'[ + abstract process]) ... to dedicate.. district. prayer. + ni. a-rá-bumušen: a-ri-a. overflow.. overflow'). water of the first seeds = watering of seeds just planted ('water' + 'seeds' + 'first' + a numun-sañ-ñá: a-númun: reeds.. rite ('tears' + 'to overflow' + 'to inform'). road. why ('what' + enclitic copula). duck ('water' + 'to go [plural]' + 'to pull. what (a. a-maš: sheepfold (cf. desert. a-na-àm. Version 3. quoted speech in the texts].ri: a.. to give as a votive gift (with dative) ('water' + 'to send') .'he.. propitious water ('water' + sa6-ga. a-nu-gi4-a: genitive). 'to win fortune') . waste land ('where' + remote demonstrative affix + nominative). u 18-ru). a-ñi 6). tear out'). a-sal-bar: architrave ('water' + 'to spread' + 'to distribute. dirge ('tears' + 'to raise high').'the'). exuberance ('tears' + 'happiness') . á-nu-gi 4-a ). to say a prayer [often introduces direct. to ejaculate ('seminal fluid' + 'to strike. remove').'to'. a-ru-a: a. a.

azu). date clusters. á-dam: settlement.."darkness" ?). at the cool of the day ('when' + 'day' + ten. high' + 'date fruit')... a-tùr. act') .tab: to hold or block water ('water' + 'to hold'). lustration ('water' + 'to wash' + nominative).. wing' + 'sky. é-tùr: a-ù: related to Orel & Stolbova #1323.tu5: a-tu5-a: a. a-su: physician (cf. -a-ta: after . high water. brackish'). to play. a-tar..0 74 . + a. to be at its high tide ('when' + 'on top' + bi. a-tur-ra.'coolness') . raceme ('arm. to instruct (someone: -da -) ('strength' + 'to check') .. a-(IM)šèñ-ñá: a-šeš: bitter. lamentation. to dam up water ('water' + 'piling up an earthen dam') . take away' + nominative).áñ: á-áñ-ñá: to command. + 'to be') .. a-šà-dib(-dib)-ba: a-ša4: (cf. Version 3.. instructions. hollow (of the furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?. á-še ).. a.ñál: a-ugu4[KU]: a úš-a: a-zi-ga: the father who begot one ('semen' + 'to procreate') . at one-half its hire price ('wages' + 'its' + 'to divide' + 'to go' + 'from'). orders ('strength' + 'to check'.. ašag). á-an-zú-lum-ma: ñiš á-apin: part of a seeder plow ('arm' + 'plow'). area ('seed' + 'womb'.. nominalizer). + a.'its'. levy ('wages' + 'spouse') .búru: á-dab5: to open the wings ('wings' + 'to spread out') . carry'). á. á-bi ba-ma-ta: á. *hadar. ('when' + 'away from').nominative. spring flood ('water' + 'high').. desire') .tùm: to bathe ('water' + 'to wash'). á-daþ: help. a-zu. a-zu5. break' + 'to do. rainwater ('water' + 'rain' + genitive). a-še-ra: a-šed12: cool water ('water' + 'cool').. bind. Sumerian Lexicon. brackish water ('water' + 'bitter.. cf. rising waters ('water' + 'to rise up' + nominative). hirelings ('wages' + 'to hire').. ally ('strength' + 'to add') . the act of trimming the fields and levees of vegetation in preparation for drainage and irrigation ('fields' + 'to seize. to flow with water ('water' + 'to bring...a-šà-(g): field. a-u4-te-na: a-u5-ba.. to mock ('water' + 'to cut. á-áš: what one needs ('strength' + 'to wish..aka: a. a-gàr.

Version 3... á-ná-da: bed chamber ('side.5). á-gàr: embrace (?) ('arms' + 'something round and upraised') . to fly towards) ('wings' + 'to á. to flap one's wings (with -šè and -ši -.. á-šu-du7: á. kuš á-mi: áme). á-gú-zi-ga: á. á-si: whip ('arm' + 'antenna-like').á. (urudu/zabar) á-sur: a type of ax ('arm' + 'to divide').. irresistable ('strength' + 'not' + 'to answer.dúb. á-dúb. á-suþ: elbow. + a... month 6 at Drehem through year 3 of Šu-Sin. nominalizer).dúb: to be (supported) on your own ('wings' + 'self' + 'your' + 'to flap')... á-šita4. á.. á-gi4-a: reimbursed wages ('wages' + 'to return.. to take care ('strength' + 'to emerge'). calendar month 7 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. (cf. to prevail ('strength' + 'to be tired') . á-sikil(-la): pure.. equipment ('arm' + 'to join'/'to complete'). restore' + nominative).. journey' + á-ki-ti: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III..è: to bring up. paralyzed arms ('arms' + 'to bind').dar: to confiscate ('wages' + 'to split') . early morning ('arms' + 'necks' + 'rising'. a device for moving irrigation water. á-lá: á-lá: ('arm' + 'to hang')... caravan. components (of the plow). wing' + 'bed'). plow extension ('arm' + 'strong'). return' + nominative)..0 75 .gur: to bend the arm ('arm' + 'circular motion'). á-nu-gi4-a: kuš á-sàñ[PA]: disease. workmen's wages ('wages' + 'workers' + 'its'). á-kúš-ù: á-lá: ñiš fettered legs. at night ('side' + 'dark' + 'to divide' + locative). involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam drum ('side' + 'to bind') . bolt. á guruš-bi: á.ñar: to act strongly.aka: flap' + 'to do') .-ta: at the prompting of. work performance' + 'road. sickness demon ('strength' + 'to scatter') . á-ñe6-ba-a: Á-KAL: strength. á. by means of the strength of ('strength' + instrumental suffix) . iti migrant harvest workers ('arms. á-še: attention-getting exclamation: 'hey now!'.. parts. bar ('arm' + 'to relocate'). to oppress. ama (4. Sumerian Lexicon.sud/sù: to move [intransitive] (reduplication class) ('arm' + 'to stretch'). rear. to resist. undiluted strength ('strength' + 'pure' + nominative). á-ní-za... to reinforce ('strength' + 'to establish') . á kaskal-la: genitive).

aþ. ab-sín. to spread wings or arms ('arms. attendant. domestic cow ('cow' + 'domestic'). to sing ('song' + 'to mourn') . to resound. policeman.. clean furrow.3) or agarin 4.... violence ('arm' + 'good. to be double') . limbs. ab-si-im-ma.tál: á-tuku: to have broad arms. and containers. ab-sín-gilim-ba/ma: crossing. àga-rí(-na): aþ-du11-ga: spittle (of sorcery) ('spittle' + 'utterance'). (cf. unobstructed by weeds ('niche' + 'trimmed'). cool down') . reed weaver... elder. possibly for drainage ('furrow' + 'to cross plow' áb-ama: áb-amar: mother cow ('cow' + 'mother'). in the evening ('side' + 'daylight' + 'to extinguish.. agarin (2.gi4-gi4: ad-kub4[KID]: ad-kíd: ad.. ad. mighty man ('arms. ad. to wail. strength' + 'to have') . loanword).. to take counsel (with someone: -da -) ('shout' + 'to answer') . ab-ki-iz: ab-làl: phonetic writing of ablal (3). to give counsel. iti ab(-ba)-è: calendar month 10 at Nippur during Ur III. ab-ba: father. mother cow ('cow' + 'calf').. áb-gir15/gi7[KU]: áb-gud-þá: herd ('cow' + 'bull' + 'assorted.. to spread') . firm. boats. ab-ba-uru: city elder ('elder' + 'city'). ada). wings' + 'to be broad. Version 3. Sumerian Lexicon. to converse (confidentially) (cf.uš7[KA×LI]: to spit ('saliva' + 'spittle'). maker of reed mats.. transversal furrow. mixed'). ancestor (Akk.á.. ñiš-ab-ba(-k) ). companion. ad.. á-zi(-da): right arm.gi4: to echo... strength.5). rein(s) ('shout' + 'to hold. 'reed mat'). extremities ('arms' + 'legs': Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys).. aba ). soldier ('crown' + 'to follow'). ab-sù-na: ( + 'its') + nominative). ab-(ba): (cf.gi4). furrow ('niche' + 'to sift'). a piece of tableware (?). áb-máþ[AL]: áb-sañ: cow in 3rd year of life that has calved ('cow' + 'calf').0 76 . ñiš ab-ba: (cf.ša4: ad-tab: aga(3)-ús: reed mat plaiter ('father' + kid. to ponder. able-bodied. with hitting. áb-úr: a piece of tableware (?). ad-da: (cf. á-u4-te-en: á-úr: limb. right' + 'with'). wicker-worker.

to punish ('hoe' + 'to break open. dirt ('open air' + 'to give up'). an-ba: refuse. an-bar: an-bir8[A-SUD]: noon.. 'finger'). litter.. loanword from allaanum. Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'aluna tanning agent used to produce a white color. insist (often with -ni-) ('hoe' + 'to make the motion of'). midday ('sky' + 'to be bright') . pray.BAR: (cf. ama-ar-gi4: iti freedom ('mother' + 'to shine' + 'to restore') . al-gazumx [ZUM+LAGAB]: an exotic spice. appearance'). 'to beget') . an-kára: (cf. barzil ).0 77 .. to work at hoeing ('hoe' + 'to do') .tag: ñiš al-tar: am-si: elephant ('wild ox' + 'horn. cf. Version 3. to fell').. to hoe ('hoe' + 'to handle') . šu-si... demand.. likewise (cf. noon.aka: because (genitival suffix + adverbial suffix) . amar-kud: separated.di/dug4/e: to desire. al-la-an: 'tree'). in-ga-na-nam ). to strike') . weaned young animal ('calf' + 'to cut away from').dù: to hoe ground that is already broken ('hoe' + 'to mould. an-dùl: an-edin: an-ga-àm: an-gur4: shade. ama-gan. a type of net (for crabs ?) ('crab' + 'to stink'). al.. to demolish with the hoe. + 'to hang. al-ñar-sur9: musical instrument (ñišal-ñar.-/ak-eš/: al. AN. antenna'. shape') . high plain ('high' + 'steppe') . demolishing tool (?) ('hoe' + 'to cut.. enkara ). emedu). al. ama-ugu: amar-a-a-si: calendar month 10 at Lagaš during Ur III.. break') . oak tree (Akk... ugu(4). suspend' [suru5 ?]).. an-ñá: and yet (affirmative prefix ? + 'exists'). al-lub/lu5: al-lu5-þáb: ñiš ñiš al.ri/ra: al-šub: ax-like hoe ('hoe' + 'to throw. Sumerian Lexicon. natural or birth mother ('mother' + ùgun. an-bar7[NE].. 'oak'. (cf. a type of ax (phonetic harmony variant of al-šub ?). al. al-la-þa-ru: al-lu5: crab ('digger' + 'to deceive') . midday rest ('sky' + 'to be hot' ['WATER' + 'TO SIP']). protect') .. protection ('sky' + 'to cover. ñiš ñiš ñiš al-ñar: musical instrument ('hoe' + 'form. cf. ama-a-tu/tud: (cf. engur )... ray.

an-sig7-ga: an-ša4-anki: Anshan . deliver').. an-ta-sur-ra: a stone ('heaven' + 'from' + 'boundary marker' + nominative). ass registered on a tablet ('equid' + 'tablet')..dug4/e: to say yes ('yes' + 'to say') ..Tall-i Malyan near Persepolis in the Fars province of Iran. heated or fused lead (an. one of the best groups of people. evening ('sky' + 'evening') . AN. an-nisig ). boundary') . an-na: tin. an-uraš: an-usan: heaven and earth. Sumerian Lexicon. an-ta: above ('heaven' + locative with remote deixis). 'negation') . anše-bala: pack-ass ('equid' + 'to cross over. yes ('sky' + 'stone'.. an-ta. high thing') . universe ('heaven' + 'earth') . anše-ñiš: ANŠE-ka: workass ('equid' + 'tool'). Civil thinks an-na. Version 3. cf.. horizon') . blue sky ('sky' + 'beautiful. but cf. barley'). (cf. kunga[ŠÚ. an-nisig(-ga): beautiful sky. fort ('heaven' + 'stone' + 'round. an-ta-ñál: high.MUL: starry sky (verify than AN is not the rare sign ŠÚ .place name for powerful city in Elam . an-pa: zenith ('sky' + 'branch' of sun dial ?). an-zà: an-zaþ: where heaven ends ('heaven' + 'side. an-zag. the beautiful sky ('sky' + 'to be beautiful' + nominative).0 78 . superior ('sky. blue'). an-šár(-ra): an-še: ear of grain ('grain ear' + 'grain... anše-bar-an-nita2: male donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'male').gi4: to meet ('heaven' + 'from' + 'to return'). anše-bìr: anše-dub: ass yoked in a team ('equid' + 'team'). the whole sky ('heaven' + 'totality. high' + 'from' + 'to be'). is probably an Akkadianism. an-na.. floor'). 'tin' + 'to be calm'). "quarter" ('sky' + 'corners' + 'with'). an-SAR: (cf. all of heaven.an-ki: universe ('sky' + 'earth'). anše-bar-an-mi2: female donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'female'). genitival postposition). an-za-kàr: tower.MUL] ). 'indeed' and in-nu. an-ub-da: regions. affirmative nanam. 'yes'. dur 9[ŠUL] ). an-úr: horizon ('sky' + 'base. anše-du24-ùr: anše-edin-na: wild ass ('equid' + 'steppe' + a(k).

ñiš ba-rí-ga: bushel.dug4/e: to curse ('curse' + 'to speak/effect').. to answer with a curse ('curse' + 'to answer') . to curse ('curse' + 'to write'). neck-stock ('fetter' + 'neck').. Version 3. ba-ba: pudding. apin-numun: apin-ús: plowman's helper ('plow' + 'to follow. to channel ('to divide' + 'digging stick'). ar(2).za). áš.. glimmer.with marû denotes vetitive. to curse ('curse' + 'to deliver'). áš á-zi-ga. it is more (conjugation prefix + inanimate direct object prefix + 'to be full. zeþ )... apin-dug-a: APIN-lal: ñiš cultivating leasehold land ('plow' + 'to pay'). sufficient'). ñiš ba-an: a container. bar). Sumerian Lexicon. bariga ).. ba-ra(-g): to spread out (cf. áš. aš-me: sparkle.. square-based measuring vessel = 6 bán in all periods (= 36 liters in Old Sumerian period and 60 liters in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian period) (cf...bal: áš. star symbol.. power'). ba-rV: to fly... it is short (conjugation prefix + earlier/later ablative case prefix + 'small. ba-ra: modal prefix . insufficient') ..e/i: to praise ('praise' + 'to speak. with hamtu denotes negative affirmative. speak') .. bara4)..bal: to curse with violence ('curse' + 'raised arms' + 'to deliver').. flee (cf. patarru ..gi4: áš. a coniferous tree (Akkadian loanword ?).. to send forth') .. plow fitted with seeder attachment ('plow' + 'seed'). ba-lá: it is less (conjugation prefix + 'light. ba-da-ra: poniard (Akk. ba-ta-tur. to be next to') .. pattaru ). SAL ÁŠ. malt-sweetened porridge. deficient').GÀR: (cf. to curse ('curse' + 'to blow.0 79 . ba-an: a measure for bread and flour.... to praise ('praise' + 'to bring').mú: áš. chariot or wagon ass ('equid' + 'wagon') . calendar month 8 at Nippur during Ur III. ki.de6/túmu: ñiš ar-ga-nu-um: ár. bad. rosette ('unique' + 'function. ba-ra-tur: ba-za: halt or lame person (cf. sundisk.sar: ñiš az-gú: ba-ab-si: ba-al: to dig (a canal).anše-kunga(2): anše-mar: iti mule ('horse' + 'donkey') .

a good price ('to split. bar-rim4[KAŠ4](-ma): dry land ('to uncover' + 'to travel fast'?. worker stationed to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to stand' + nominative). bar-edin-na: bar-ég-ga: outer side of the levee ('outer side' + 'levee' + genitival a(k)). bàd-šul-þi. harp or lyre carrier ('harp' + 'to lift'). to be extra ('outside' + 'to be'). to select' + 'polished. to see. to transport ('goods delivery' + 'towards' + 'to do') . bar-dil: a type of plow (rare outside of lexical lists). bàd-si: parapet.. to select' + 'to do') . bar. edge of the desert ('side' + 'steppe' + genitival a(k)). bar.dag: to wander far away ('outside' + 'to roam about') ... to escape ('outside' + 'to take away') .aka: to choose. part of an irrigation system ('outside' + 'to lift'). bar-tam. circle'). bar-ñál-la: bar-lá: bar-LU: unsheared ('fleece' + 'to be in place' + nominative). cf. Sumerian Lexicon. shiny' [ + 'to do']) . battlement ('city wall' + 'long. worker hired to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to hire' + nominative).. to examine ('to open.ba-zi: dispersed ('to divide' + 'to go out') .gub: to step outside ('outside' + 'to stand') .dab5: ñiš bar. bar.. bàd-sìl-þi: bala-šè.. portion' + 'work assignment') ... bar-ta.0 80 .sir5: to spin with a spindle ('spindle' + 'to spin').. bar-dúb-ba: ñiš bar-e11-dè: rope braiding lever ('outside' + 'to descend' + participial ending).(ak): (ñiš) ñiš to choose ('to open... Version 3.gub: to withdraw from ('side' + 'to stand aside') . to see. one of the best wool blends. lamentation harp ('harp' + 'lamentation' + genitival a(k)). balañ-íl: balañ-ír-ra: bàn-da: (cf... narrow').. distribute' + 'to knock down' + nominative). bàd-si-an-na: high battlements ('parapet' + 'to be high' + nominative).ñál: to be outside. bar-bé-da: a tool.. chameleon ('sides' + reduplicated 'to be multicolored' + nominative with vowel bar...aka: bala-dab5-ba: bala éš-kàr: bala-gub-ba: ñiš outer wall ('city wall' + 'invader'/'path' + 'numerous').. bar-gùn-gùn-nu: harmony). fraction of an assignment ('term.. parim). bàd-niñin: circular city wall ('city wall' + 'enclosure.. bar-bar: part of a weaver's loom (shuttle ?). bànda ). bala.

. bi-iz: drop (of water). dog chain ('outside' + 'leash') .si-il: bu-úþ.'to pull'). a stone vessel ('stone vessel' + 'measuring pot' + nominative).. lú buru14.. buluþ). bir. 'to pour'). bellows' + 'hand') . monotonous noise') .. bar7-bar7-ra: -bi-da(-ke4): bi-bi-zé: to drip (reduplicated biz.. ri. suffix) . kak-ús)... mix' + nominative). bára-zà-ñar: bar6-bar6: (some prefer this reading. tend') . ñiš da-pa: part of a seeder plow (?). da-ri).aka: to sow broadcast (not in furrows with a plow). (cf.. bar-šu-ñál: midwife ('innards' + 'hand' + 'to place'). bír-bír: (cf.'a repeated. mist ('outside' + 'to rain' + loc. da-ri: driver (of animals) ('to protect' + rig. babbar ). and ('with it'). to dehusk ('to scatter' + 'to do') . bí-za-za: frog (za.SÁ: bur-šál-la: drown') . let fall').'to bring. hand bellows ('to blow. mingled (bir. flames (reduplicated 'to shine' + nominative). calendar month 1 at Nippur during Ur III. ri. to have the harvest be drowned (by spring floods bursting the dikes) ('harvest' + 'to bur-BÚN. bìr-inim-kéš-de6: ñiš bìr-mar: wagon yoke ('team' + 'wagon'). bu-lu-úþ.ri: to pay off a delivery (?... da. with dative) ('to protect' + 'to exchange') . da-ra-an-šub: negligence ('to drop. bún-ñìr: bún-šu: feet bellows ('to blow. contractually bound worker ('team' + 'oath.0 81 . bí-ra: mixed. agreement' + 'to bind') . cf. bar-TÚG: bar-ùl[KIB]: bar-úsurudu: iti copper-tipped goading stick ('side?./term. 'to pour') . da-da-ga: da-ga: organization. melting (cf. a stone vessel. bu-luþ: gi gi to tremble ('to tear out' + 'saliva' or 'to clean'. Version 3.. metal?' + 'to drive'. a long coat ('outside' + 'woven garment') .'to stretch' + nominative). bellows' + 'foot') . cf. to belch ('to tear out' + 'to be numerous' + 'saliva' + 'to tear apart') .bar-šèñ-ñá(-e): (mi) violence.su-su: da-ba-ri-ri: contortionist (cf. dripping.'to scatter. Sumerian Lexicon. bábbar ). da-ri: to bend (limbs) ('arm' + rig... dadag ).. biz. but cf.. chamber (dag.

0 82 . dam-ab-ba: (professional) mourners ('spouse' + 'elder. cultic organization center. dried (?)..kud/ku5: di-kúr: alien. dili-du(-a) ). between (dalla. ancestor') . loanword from tamhaaru(m) ). to judge ('decision' + 'to cut off') . to sue someone (with -da -) ('lawsuit' + 'to di.. 'beam. spread out over a wide extent ('wide' + 'to spread out') . dam-gàr(-a): dam-þa-ra: battle (Akk. cf. ray' + 'to divide' + ?). to take up a lawsuit ('lawsuit' + 'to take'). 'merchant'. loanword from tamkaarum.... water clock (onomatopoeic or reduplicated 'to pass. (cf.tuku/du12-du12: to marry ('spouse' + 'to get') . merchant (Akk. di-til-la: law case for which a final decision has been given ('verdict' + 'to complete' + nominative).. Version 3. ñiš dam-apin: part of a seeder plow ('spouse' + 'plow') . touch' + nominative).. dug4). judgment ('decision' + 'to cut off') . to make clear. Sumerian Lexicon. reduplicated + nominative).. di. traverse') . present' + remote demonstrative affix ?). hostile judgment ('decision' + 'hostile'). city quarter ('dwellings' + 'to surround. hired man ('to hire' + nominative).. di-bi-da: di.dab5: di-dab5-ba: di-di: to play (an instrument) (cf. ashes ('ashes' + 'to fly') . to appear. da-rí[URU]: da-rí-šè: lú dab5-ba: dag-gi4-a: dañal-búru: dañal-tag(-ga): dal-ba(-an)-na: dalla... enduring.. di4-di4-ba: walking about (phonetic for dib.da-ri-a: driven (animal) (da-ri + nominative). ñiš dib-dib: clepsydra. decision ('decision' + 'to take' + nominative). dam. widely based ('wide' + 'to handle. dar-ra: dè-dal: cured. judge.gub: di-ir-ga: di-kud/ku5: to judge ('judgment' + 'to set up') . donkey ('to go. conduct oneself' + 'it' + 'with') . makaarum 'to do business') . to give a claim.. di-li-du-a: di-ri: (cf.è: to shine.. to make resplendent ('beam of light' + 'to become visible'). eternal ('near.. to conduct a trial. forever ('eternal' + 'towards').dug4/du11/e: effect'). di.. dirig). lock up' + nominative). long-lasting. di4-di4-la: children.

. utterance. du-lum: burden.SAR(-d): dirig-. leader ('list' + 'head'). store...-še: beyond ('to go over' + 'to the') . copper box. du6-kù: calendar month 7 at Nippur during Ur III. treasure chest ('to store' + 'shiny') . du6-ul: du7-na-bi: du8-du8: du10: weaned young (reduplicated 'to untie. dili-du(-a): dìm-šáþ: walking alone. road ('good' + 'to follow'). dub-lá: dub-sañ: dub-sar: platforms on either side of a portal ('to heap up' + 'to lift') . 'alone' + 'to walk' + nominative). loosen') .mú: du24-ùr: lú gi to start a quarrel ('quarrel' + 'to ignite'). suitable' + ? + adverbial force suffix) .ak/ñar: to quarrel (with someone: -da-) ('quarrel' + 'to do'). gather (cf. to heap up. labor. a-ra-zu).0 83 ..bala: dub-dab. DIM4. (cf. duruna ). in the proper way.. dub-bi.nu-me-a: without a (personal) god ('god' + 'with' + 'not' + 'to be' + nominative).. speech ('to speak' + nominative).. companion ('gladness' + 'to repay') . didli) (reduplicated 'one'). da-rí). dub-sar-tur: dub-sar: dub-šen: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). Sumerian Lexicon. thump (see the definition for za). if you please ('fitting. work ('to walk' + 'to make productive') . young'). dub-alal-urudu: a temple servant ('to pour' + 'pipe' + 'copper').. dur 9[ŠUL] ). dú-ru-na(-àm): iti (cf. young scribe ('scribe' + 'small. laþ5).. a fence made of such pillars ('to heap up' + 'to divide' + 'to be high') . Version 3. du14. maltman. dili-dili..za: to thud.. dùg ).. dul (6)).. dub-ba-an: pillar made of reeds. du10-sa: du10-ús: du11-ga: du14. du-rí: (cf... (cf. individual (dili..DU: (cf. adv... to go over the account (with -da -) ('tablet' + 'its' + 'to pass through') ...diñir-da. DU-zu: (read arax-zu. bear (the animal) ('sickness demon' ? + 'domestic pig') . scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). cf.. friend. DU. dil-dil: one by one (cf.

.. to rest ('knees' + 'to bend'). freeborn man. flee ('knees' + 'to cut'). dùg... calendar month 12 at Umma during Ur III. dùg/du10..ñál: to be pleased. twin sons ('child' + 'pair'). for someone: dative ('knees' + 'to place').UD: dumu-nitaþ: dumu-sañ: dumu-tab: dumu-tu-da: iti d (lú) a cult servant ('child' + 'function' + ?). son (born) of ('child' + 'to beget' + nominative). hurry ('knees' + 'to open').0 84 . dùg.dúb: to rub the knees (?) ('knees' + 'to flop').. dùg.. princess ('child' + 'female' + 'king' + genitive).. (cf.. dumu-zi: DUN-a: dependent (on). ibila ) ('child' + 'masculine'). son..aka: dùg. first-born child ('child' + 'principal'). dumu-mí-lugal(-/ak/): dumu-me-KA.dug-a-nag-nag: dug-níñ-nag: dug-tur: water drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'water' + reduplicated 'to drink') .gúr: to sit down. cause') . satisfied ('gladness' + 'to be available') . dùg-tuku: strong-legged ('knees' + 'to own') . Sumerian [in contrast to slaves from foreign countries] ('child' + dumu-gir15/gi7: 'native group') ...ñar: to kneel down... a standard capacity jar = 5 liters ('jar' + 'little').. to repair ('gladness' + 'to make..zil: to run.. prince ('child' + 'king' + genitive).bad(-bad): to stride.. dùg.aka). dùg. dum-dam. dumu-dab5-ba: DUMU-DUMU-LA: (cf.eš8: deputy (?) of a merchant ('child' + 'merchantman'). subordinate ('subordinate' + nominative). dumu-aš: only son ('child' + 'one').. dùg-ud-ak: politeness (cf. Version 3. dumu-gal: eldest son or daughter ('child' + 'large'). kuš dùg-gan: leather bag ('gladness' + 'to bring forth') .. serf ('child' + 'to seize. drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'object' + 'to drink') .za: to grumble (see the definition for za). dumu-ga. hire'). gentleman ('child' + 'gentleman'). Sumerian Lexicon. dumu-lugal(-/ak/): dumu-mí: daughter ('child' + 'feminine'). dùg/du10. dumu-KA: dumu-lú: grandson. di4-di4-la)..

. 'to lengthen.dug4/du11/e: to immerse').. dúr-ru-un: to sit (plural). lady. e-pa5(-r): ñiš hydraulic system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation a tree and wood used for construction (cf. e-sír-ra: e-še-á: e-ùr: e-zé: a type of canal or ditch. e-re-sì-ki-in: e-ri-iš: queen. dúr-šáþ: dùr-KAS4: ham ('buttocks' + 'domestic pig') . duruna. tuš).. Version 3. a type of yoke (?) ('to scrape. èsir ). shoe (cf. they. house of mourning ('house' + 'lamentation' + genitive).. to copulate (with -da -) ('to play' + sud. cry of joy. e-el[SIKIL]-lu: kuš a (pure) sound (Akkadian ellu. e-ra-núm: eren). asyndetic hendiadys).0 85 . e-li-lum: e-ne: he. loins' + 'roof'). dùn-lá: dúr-dúr: durunx) (reduplicated 'buttocks. dúr. e-ne-sù-ud.. donkey foal. 'elevation'). in the streets ('sandals' + locative). e-si-na. to rejoice. double ax ('ax' + 'to be double' + nominative).. íl-lá. them. her. dur10-tab-ba: dusu.. she.. culm or stalk of barley. dig' + 'reed' or 'firm.lá: to carry a basket ('transportation basket' + 'to lift')... throne..dug4/di/du11/e: e-ne-gim: e-ne-ne: like himself (3rd person pronoun + equative). duruna. ì-si-na: kuš e-sír: sandal. kuše-íb-ùr). ditches'. cf.. e-ne-àm: e-ne. to play (3rd person pronoun + 'to do') . e-íb-ùr: siege shield ('dike' + 'middle. 'clear. (cf. é-a-nir-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. servant (?). ñiš dúr-ñar: chair. depression ('to bring low' + 'to hang'. pure'). you.ñar: to establish one's dwelling ('to dwell (plural)' + 'place' + 'to establish').. him.ñiš dun-gi: a tool. erin. to dry out') . armor (cf. (cf.ñar: to sit ('buttocks' + 'to set down upon') ... strong') .. dúr-ki. he is indeed (formal 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') . dam to create a reservoir.

an adjective denoting a very fine quality. é-ñar8: é-gi4-a: é-ì-gára: iti brick wall (cf. to break into a house (reduplication class) ('house' + 'to break into') .. cf. é-a. rural settlement. Sumerian Lexicon.0 86 .è: Stolbova #658. pub ('house' + 'beer'). mill house. mill ('house' + 'millstone' + genitival a(k))..bùr: the house of one's fathers ('house' + 'father' + genitive). archive. é-kišib(-ba): storehouse ('house' + 'receipt' + genitival a(k)). é-KI. é-ad-da(-/ak/): é-an-na: é-anše: é-ba-an: é-BAPPIR: é-bar-ra: é. é-me-eš: é-mí: summer ('houses' + 'are' + 'many') . sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven' + genitive). deep'). (cf. brewery ('house' + 'brewer') .. donkey stable ('house' + 'equid') .. suburb ('houses' + 'fresh'. é-ganba: warehouse ('house' + 'marketplace').ti(-l): to live in a house ('house' + locative + 'to live'). "woman's house" ('house' + 'woman') . é-gal: palace ('house' + 'large').. adurû..'dwelling place'). Akk.3): beerhall. shape ('house' + 'form. é-iti-6: é-kaš: a public house. calendar month 8 at Umma during Ur III. outer house ('house' + 'outside' + nominative). appearance'). é-lùnga ). prospective bride ('the one who restores the house') . é-kur: prison ('house' + 'netherworld'). outpost' and Orel & to leave the house ('house' + 'from' + 'to exit'). *dar.. é-da[-di-a]: é-dù-a: house plot ('house' + 'to build' + nominative). a flour offering.LAM: é-na4kín-na: a storehouse ('house' + 'place' + 'abundance') . 'village. hamlet. é-ñar: form. é-éše: jail ('house' + 'rope').. Version 3. school ('house' + 'tablet' + genitival a(k)). daughter-in-law. é-lunga(2. é-dub-ba: é-duru5: é-ta. eñar ).é-a-nir-ra-gal-gal-la: euphemism for the netherworld ('house of mourning' + reduplicated 'big' + genitive). é-mar-uru5[GUR8]: arrow quiver ('house' + 'to immerse' + 'high.. dairy ('house' + 'fat' + 'cream').

sañ- é-níñ-ka: (cf. smash') . é-ri-a: é si-ga: é-sig4: (cf.0 87 .. first crescent moon ('house' + 'day 7') . treasure-house ('house' + 'things' [ + 'piled up'].. house interior. dagger blade ('tongue' + 'dagger') . utensil ('tongue' + 'to slice. armory ('house' + 'weapon') . ég-ég/e ú-sañ11-e/a: reinforcement of the levees with cut/bundled plants/reeds ('levees' + eme-dar: a tool. lú-é-níñ-ka).. fill').. cf. to stick out the tongue ('tongue' + 'to send forth') . eñar ). iz-zi). É-NUN: (cf. eme. ég kal-kalag-ga: to reinforce the levees ('levees' + 'to repair. agrun). Version 3. surround' + 'to bind') . eme-gir15/gi7: eme-ñír: Sumerian language ('tongue' + 'native') . warehouse ('house' + 'portion' + 'to put. ég si-ga: 'fascines') . brick wall (cf. full moon ('house' + 'day 15') . a quiet house ('house' + 'silence') . é-šag4/šà: é-šu-sì-ma: é-ñištukul: é-tùr: cattle pen ('house' + 'stable'). cf.. ég dal-ba-na: a dike that is shared by two watercourses or by two fields ('levee' + 'between'). é-ùru.. a-ri-a ).. wall ('house' + 'brick'. cook') . tangled' + nominative). temple' + 'midst'). lú storehouse. the work of piling up a levee ('levee' + 'to increase. é-níñ(-gur11[GA]-ra): níñ-gur11-ra(-ak)). bakery. ég sa-dúr-ra: wide levees at the low-lying end of a field which halted and contained the water for irrigating the field ('levees' + 'low-lying end of a field'). manage') . é-u4-sakar[SAR]: é-u4-7: é-u4-15: é-ubur: é-ùr-ra: new moon ('house' + 'day' + 'to begin') . (temple) cella ('house. Sumerian Lexicon. mend' + nominative).é-muþaldim[MU]: é-NI: treasure-house (?). storehouse ('house' + 'rafter beams') ....gíd: é-uz-ga: e5-ñar: fattening house ('house' + 'goose' + 'milk').è/e11: eme-gilim-ma: confused speech ('tongue' + 'to be twisted. kitchen ('house' + 'baker. to keep watch over a house ('house' + 'watch fire' + 'to reach out. milking pen ('house' + 'teat') .

. small' + 'to consume'. Sumerian Lexicon. everywhere ('time. èn-du: song ('time' + 'to walk'.. watch (as a division of night time). ñiš eme-sig: ship plank ('tongue' + 'small').4/še8-še8: to cry...eme-þa-mun: opposing') . eme-si-nu-sá: describes a person 'whose speech is not right' ('tongue' + si. enigmatic background' + nominative). heed for how long ('time' + 'if' + terminative postposition)..... weep ('tears' + 'to weep'). reeds (cf. imprisonment. until.šeš2.dù/ak: en-te-en-na(-/ak/): the cold season. guardian. 'up to' [ + enclitic copula]) .tar: until when.sá. small' + 'to speak').. to pay attention to..gu7: eme.pàd/pà: to set up a lament ('lamentation' + 'to make').... èn-šè(-àm): èn. to handle. lamentation ('tears' + nominative). Version 3.g.dug4/du11/e: eme-sig. to slander ('tongue' + 'low. ambar. weep ('tears' + 'to show') . én-é-nu-ru: gi introductory formula for exorcism/incantation texts ('enigmatic background' + 'house' + 'image. a resin. inim-sig.. to burst into tears. lizard ('tongue' + 'to consider. to take care of.šub6[ŠID]: eme-ŠID: en-mur: to slander ('tongue' + 'low.ñá-ñá: ér...-a): en-na-bi-šè: en-nu(-un/ùña). ér. measure') . en-nu-un/ùña. compositions concerning the gods sung by the gala priests in the Emesal dialect to the accompaniment of a tambourine ('wail' + 'tambourine' + genitive)...sig7: ér-šem3. èn-bar: reed... eme-sa-du8-a: a tool ('tongue' + 'net' + 'open' + nominative).0 88 . to guard against... to ask (someone: dative).. inquire') . until now.. note du12. 'to do something in the right way' + 'not') . 'reed-bed') . en-na (. as long as .5-ma to lament ('tears' + 'to complain'). how long ('time. until the time ('time' + 'this one' + 'towards'). Sumerian and Akkadian) ('tongue' + 'mutually eme-numun: an agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed') . prison. ér. to investigate. ér-ra: mourning. to lick with the tongue ('tongue' + 'to lick').gu7).. eme-sig. to guard against.. to watch. cf.. until' + terminative postposition... ér. possibly myrrh ('lord' + 'lungs')..'to sing') . to watch. ('enigmatic background' + 'to determine. èn-tukum-šè: engar-gu4(-ra): ox-ploughman ('farmer' + 'ox'). ñiš ñiš contrasting speech or languages (e. likeness' + 'to send') . wintertime ('time' + 'cold' + genitive).dù/ak: lú en-nu(-un)(-ñá): watch... to cry.

iti iti iti ezen-dBa-ba6: ezen-dDumu-zi: ezen-dLi9-si4: ezen-maþ: iti great festival ('feast' + 'great'). calendar month 6 at Drehem after ezen-dŠu-dEN. to be assigned for someone's benefit ('measuring tape' + 'something round and upraised') . surveyor's rope ('rope' + 'surface measure') . surveyor ('measuring rope' + 'long') . ga-ab-kar-re: (cf. the oxen or plows which perform a task. calendar month 12 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 11 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. pronounced decision ('decision' + 'message.. calendar month 11 at Ur during Ur III. asphalt ('bitumen' + 'to go out' + nominative).. cf. calendar month 12 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3..ZU(Sin): calendar month 8 at Drehem in year Šu-Sin 3. eškiri ) ('rope' + 'muzzle/nose'). order' + 'to speak' + eš-bar-kíñ-du11-ga: nominative).8 of Amar-Sin. ga-áb-kù-ga: ga-áb-sig7-ga: milk from pure cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'pure' + genitive). Sumerian Lexicon. esir-è-a. calendar month 8 at Lagaš during Ur III. milk from beautiful cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'beautiful' + genitive). to reap') . ezen-An-na: calendar month 10 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. éš-gíd: éš-kir4/6: iti iti èš-èš: a festival (All-Shrines) (reduplicated 'shrine').0 89 . harvest workers ('gang of workers' + 'grain' + reduplicated 'sickle. calendar month 3 at Lagaš during Ur III.. brothel. calendar month 8 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3.3-dam: éš-gán: ceremony. calendar month 8 at Ur during Ur III. iti iti ezen-dŠul-gi: calendar month 7 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. ka-aš-bar). one man's daily work assignment. éš-kàr. goblet ('shrine' + 'with. ezen-maþ: calendar month 9 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. nose rope (cf. calendar month 6 at Lagaš during Ur III.3)-da: eš2. éš-gàr: lú task. eš(2. gaba-kar). Šu-Sin 3. tavern ('shrine' + 'spouse') . ésir-þá: eš-bar: decision ('much' + 'to divide'. epithet of a temple of the bride-goddess Inanna. gan-tuš). ezen-dAmar-Sin: calendar month 7 at Umma during years 6 . calendar month 6 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 10 at Ur during Ur III. érin še-gur10-gur10: ésir-é-a. calendar month 7 at Lagaš during Ur III. ga-an-tuš: (cf. to be near') . calendar month 10 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. iti ezen-me-ki-ñál: iti ezen-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 5 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3.erin-bábbar: white cedar (wood) ('cedar' + 'white'). calendar month 11 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. Version 3. calendar month 10 at Umma after year Šulgi 30. calendar month 9 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. a type of vessel.

gurun)..0 90 . suckling foal ('milk' + 'to feed' + nominative).ñál ). strength ('chest' + 'to be available') . gaba... gaba-kar). petition ('let me live!'). ganzer ). gaba(-na).. to challenge. ga-du(7): ga-eš8: ga. compassion' + genitive). ga-zi-in-bu: stake (for impalement)...dug4: gaba-gi4: gaba-ñál: gaba... 'rival' + 'to overflow' + 'to wrestle. complete').za(-za): to drip.. the milk of mercy ('milk' + 'womb.. to nurse/feed with milk ('milk' + 'to feed').ñál: 'controversy' + 'to make') .gu7: ga-gu7-a: ga-kug: lintel (above a door) (? + du7. to boast ('chest' + 'to be available') . quarrel (either related to gaba. 'to finish. powdered or finely grated cheese ('milk' + 'to grind' + nominative). to defy ('breast. opponent. to bubble ('milk' + 'sky...dù: ga-ba. opposition ('rival' + 'to besiege').ñar: to speak against (someone) ('rival' + 3rd person with locative + 'to speak') . cf. gaba. ga-zum: ga-sa10: ga-sub-ba: milk sucking ('milk' + 'to suck' + nominative). ga-ša-an: ga-še-a: lady (cf. contradict. leek(s) (Akk.. break').ga-an. gaba-diri-ga: enormous strength ('rival' + 'to go over. to put out one's chest....zi). ga-ra-an-da: ga-rašsar: ga-zum: ñiš bearing fruit (cf. comb (don't know why some read ga-ríg . gaba-kar(-re): Sumerian Lexicon.. loanword). Version 3.. (cultically) pure milk ('milk' + 'pure'). air' + 'to make a repetitive noise').the Akkadian is kaa. ga-ti: plea. a type of cheese ('milk' + 'strained in cheesecloth' ?).. escapist ('rival' + 'to flee'. merchantman (compare ga-sa10). carding (wool). chest' + 'to deliver') .sum and gazzum). ga-arþuš-a(-ke4): ga-ba-al. (cf. sour milk ('milk' + 'barley' + locative). exceed' + nominative). smash. ga-murx[LAK 490]: ga-nam-me-àm: it is indeed (affirmative + 3rd person pronoun + 'to be').. gašan).. ga-ba-kar-re: (cf.ñál: gaba... milk for barley porridge. tradesman ('let me buy!'). ga-an-zír[ŠÈ-KA]: ga-àr-ra: entrance to the netherworld (cf. 'rival' or Akkadian qablum.. ga-ba-ra-þum: revolt (gaba.

ru(-gú): gaba-šu-ñar: to encounter ('breast. gendarme. bailiff. a demon ('to overwhelm' + 'to force into. loanword from kaparrum I).ri: to confront ('breast. overseer ('large' + 'people'). greatly ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . gan-na: grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative).tab: gaba. boundary') . clasp') .0 91 . resistance.. chest' + 'hand' + 'to place on') .. Version 3.. gada-níñ-dùn-dù: a linen garment ('linen' + 'object' + 'to bring low' + 'to make'). deputy. galam-kad5: galam-ma: artfully made ('artistic' + 'to bind together') . chest' + ru-gú. copy... exalted one ('elaborate' + nominative). rival. gaba(-a).. intelligent ('large' [ + 'heaven'] + 'to know')... shriveled') .zi: to retreat ('breast' + 'to take out').imagines the two breasts as copies or duplicates). gaba-ri: n. mighty (judge) (an adjective for the god Enlil) ('large' + 'to decide.. omniscient.. withstanding attack (describing a door or weapon). gal5-lá(-gal). 'to oppose') . elaborate' + nominative + 'idiot. chest' + 'to throw out') . gada-maþ-ñiš-lá: spread out linen ('linen' + 'large' + 'tool' + 'to extend'). gag-þa-þar-ra-na: gag-maš: ñiš a peg or nail ('peg' + 'roads' ?). to look after' [ + 'big']) . gan-gan-è: calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III. rival ('breast. a peg or nail ('peg' + 'one-half'). gaba. gába[KAB]-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. clever fool ('ingenious.gaba. side (?) peg ('peg' + 'side. hillbilly'). gag-si-sá: arrow ('nail' + 'to make straight'). judge') . gada-dilmun-ù-lal: a dress of Dilmun linen ('linen' + 'Dilmun' + pronominal prefix + 'to hang'). tenant ('to bring forth' + 'to occupy') . gan-tuš: gan-tuš-tur-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. gada-bar-TÚG: long linen coat ('linen' + 'long coat'). boaster (reduplicated 'large' + 'to judge') . minor tenant ('tenant' + 'little' + nominative). to hold to the breast ('breast' ( + locative) + 'to hold. ñùl-lá(-gal): police chief. gal-gal-di: gal-nar: gal-ùña: head musician ('large' + 'musician'). gal-zu (gal-an-zu): wise.. adj. galam-ma þu-ru: ku6 iti ñiš gam-gam(-ma): a fish (Pomadasys stridens) (reduplicated 'curved. duplicate ('breast' + 'to exchange' . gag-zag-ga: gal-bi: gal-di: adv.

edible marrow ('reed' + 'sweet' + nominative).gána-ga: gána-íl: iti ñiš hill country ('land' + 'milk'). calendar month 1 at Lagaš during Ur III. gi-na: consent (cf. weak'). a syllabic writing for gurun . gi-duru5[GI.. firm' + nominative a). a class of persons ('hair lock signifying slavery' + 'to go') . sacred building ('reeds' + 'decorated temple') . gi(n)) ('just. gi-dùg-ga: sweet reed. spotless. gi. gi-šul-þi: a reed or plant that was used as a medicine ('reed' + 'invader' + 'numerous'). fruitful. abutment or platform ('reeds' + 'mat. gi-gu4-ud: catapult ('reeds' + 'to leap'). gi-na-tum: security deposit (Akkadian loanword). raft ('reed' + 'water' + 'resting place'). gi-gun4(-na). i. six hundred (geç -u (?). with a sweet..e. drip'). blooming. (gi) ušub). gi-izi-lá: torch ('reeds' + 'fire' + 'to hold up'). (cf. Version 3. high-quality writing stylus ('reed' + 'to make' + nominative).. kí-sa. 'fruit' bundle of reeds. taxable land or field ('land' + 'to carry'). gi-gur-še-bal: basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport') . ('reliable' + 'bright' (?)). reed wall. shining. hut ('reeds' + 'small. gi-NI: a scented substance ('reed' + 'oil'). ñéš×u). cut reed. cf. gi-sañ-þul: gi-sal: gi-SI.A: gi-sig: a type of reed ('reed' + 'head' + 'bad'). gi-gù-na: gi-gur: reed basket ('reeds' + 'basket') . a single-growing reed (idiomatic expression) ('reed' + 'single' + 'to plant'). gi-rin[LAGAB]: pure.0 92 . Sumerian Lexicon...ku5: ñiš to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') .. gi-kud(-a): gi-muš: punting pole ('reed' + 'snake'). gi(-níñ)-sa-þá: bundle') . gàr-du: ge-eš-tu: gi-a-dag: gi-dili-dù: gi-dù-a: reed hut. gi-sa. reed screen on the roof ('reeds' + 'to be thin and wide') . gána-maš: gán-ùr: harrow ('field' + 'to drag across') . swaying reed ('reed' + 'fresh'). gi-dub-ba: stylus ('reed' + 'tablet' + nominative). used to make measurements ('reed' + 'to cut' + nominative). reed fences.A]: supple. gi-šà-sur: sieve ('reeds' + 'intestines' + 'to flow.

chair-bearer ('throne.. extend') . function' + locative + plural suffix) . gu-za-lá: Sumerian Lexicon.. little shekel = 1/60 shekel = 1/3600 square nindan (sar) = 3 surface še = 36 square fingers = surface of the side of a cube of 1 sìla capacity. gu-la).. gir15/gi7-nun: giri17-zal: (cf. gu. gi16[GIL]-da: gi16[GIL]-sa: gi16[GIL]-sa.lal/lá: gu-sum: gu-ul). stretch.dúb. lasting. chair (cf. of lasting value.. lofty noble (an adjective applied to Enlil) ('noble' + 'royal').. to cause trouble. gu-la: large.. to be angry at ('injury' + terminative + 'to set').. to set out a snare ('string' + 'to place. stoker ('kiln' + 'to burn').. basket. sometimes = gul.aka: gibil-bi: gig-ba: the first time ('new' + adverbial force suffix) . gu-ul: to enlarge. gi6-an-na: gi7-nun: at night ('black' + 'heaven' + locative). to be great. 'to destroy' (cf.. high').. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . cultically unfit ? ('to reject' + 'heaven') . gu-du: anus. to treasure highly.0 93 .. to adjust (with a string) ('string' + 'to strike/to touch') . gir4-bil: furnaceman. kìri-zal). Version 3. to make numerous.. kib x).. to increase. gi-zi: a kind of reed ('reed' + 'good.. slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'he. throne-bearer. guzza ). gu. chair' + 'to hold up') . slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'master').tag: to align. gig(-šè)... gi-gunu 4).. gal. great (cf. gir-ab-ba: sea fish. gilim). gi-1-ninda: gi4-an: gi4-in: measuring reed ('reed' + 'one' + 'a distance measure') .gi-UGUN: gi. set. gín-tur: a surface area measure. come back' + 'office. gi4-me-a-aš: colleague. ñiš gu-za: throne. fellow (cf... (cf.ñar: gil-le-èm: destruction (cf. nam-gi4-me-a-aš) ('to return. she') . exalted. gal.. gu. impression on a tablet (a wedge) ('needle' + 'to give').zé: (cf. urudu gín-sal: a light metal hoe.

..ñar/ñá-ñá: to submit ('neck' + 'to set down'.lal/lá: to style or dress hair. to bind an animal's mane ('neck' + 'to cut... gú-gú-GUD: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'ox. vermin') .ñar/ñá-ñá: gú-a. collect.. gú..gur: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'insect.ñar/ñá-ñá: gú. bank' + 'that' + 'from'). Version 3. gú-gú-UÞ: gú. gú. zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ ). caraway ('pea' + 'salt'). an agricultural tool ('neck' + reduplicated 'long') ..aka). a type of (high-quality) wheat (cf.. úgu.dug4/du11/e: gú ñiš. throne room ('river bank' + ?). to kneel.... gú. ñiri16.kud: to breach walls ('to submit' + 'fortress') ..ñar). to cover ('neck. (cf. lift'). to bow... bull'). gú-ñiri3/16: breach (cf... gú-tar. edge' + 'to extend') ...lal/lá: to bow down.mar: gú-mun: GIG to pile up.. to neglect ('neck' + 'to fasten.è: gú-è: to despise.... in order.dù: gú..0 94 .aka: gú-an-še: gú-bala: to submit.ñar).. to cut down ('neck' + 'to separate' + 'to effect') . to embrace (with -da . gú. the turning edge ('edge' + 'to revolve') . all things considered ('land' + 'sky' + 'barley').. cf. extend') .dirig: gú. plant') ..gíd: ñiš gú-gíd-gíd: gú-gir: processing of bitumen.. gú. to sum accounts ('loads' + 'to add') . to someone: dative ('neck' + 'to do'. to assemble..or -ta -).. wrap. gú gú ñiri16. and still') . organize ('necks' + 'to be upright.gú.ñál: to submit (to someone: dative) ('neck' + 'yoke' + 'to place'). gú-gur5... cf.. to gather..... gú-nida[NUNUZ]: gú-ri-ta: from the other side ('side..ba-a-ñar which is the later Neo-Sumerian form of this Old Sumerian original) ('neck' + 'upon' + 'to place [a load of debt]') . gú-en-na: gú-gal: river mud. chick peas ('chick pea/bean' + 'large') . to peer out (with bàd . to cut (off) the neck ('neck' + 'to cut'). 'to stretch the neck' as something that mourners do ('neck' + 'to stretch out') . 'city walls') ('neck' + 'to hang...... gú.si(-a): Sumerian Lexicon.. gú-en-bar-ra: outer throne room. amass (often with -da -. often reduplicated) ('chick pea/bean' + 'basket') ... gú. determine' + 'to gú.

. to the other side ('side. load (cf. to scream with an ear-splitting voice ('voice' + 'to split'). do') . bank' + terminative suffix) .. gù. to cry. lend') .ta-dé: gù.šub: gú-tar: gú-tuku: gú-tur: to be lax with respect.. professional mourner ('to roar.. breeding bull ('bull' + 'cow' + genitive)..di/e: gù. shake') .. stud farm manager (?) ('left-hand' + 'speed.ñar: gù. deep' + 'to say.... gun).0 95 . bray' + 'to do') . gal.. gu4-ud: 'sun') .. gu5-ul: gu7-kur-kur-ra: bread-basket of all the lands ('food.. to scorn (with -ši -) ('neck' + 'to make fall').dúb: gù..tumu2/4: to call ('noise' + 'to carry').. the planet Mercury ('bull' + great (cf.zi: gù. great. gú-za: a jewelry (?) ('neck' + 'precious stone') . to flutter...gú-šè: up to the edge. to make obedient ('voice' + 'to apply.ús: to raise the neck ('neck' + 'to join'). gù-ra-aþ: chattering. to read aloud ('voice' + 'from' + 'to pour out'). to jump. to echo. to say ('sound' + 'to pour out.. bray.. gud). hero. gùb-bu: gùb-kaš4: left arm ('left-hand' + nominative with vowel harmony)...mur: gù-mur-aka: describes the twanging of bows ('sound' + 'to deliver') . gú-un: tribute. Sumerian Lexicon. shape') . foremost ('neck [for carrying ?]' + 'to have') . gú. gú.... gu-ul).. fluency') . to talk to (with dative) ('sound' + 'to give... sustenance' + 'lands' + genitive). lentils ? ('chick pea/bean' + 'small').sè(-g/k): gù.. bellow ('sound' + 'lungs') . gú.. gud-áb(-ba): gud-alim: bison ('bull' + 'bison').si-il: to repeat. to cause') .. gù-nun.dug4/du11/di/e: gù. to shout ('voice' + 'to make tremble'). to roar. Version 3. to make a noise or sound ('noise' + 'to effect') . to dance (reduplication class: gu 4-gu 4-ud )..dé: to have success ('neck' + 'to raise')..sì: gù. back of the head ('neck' + 'to cut (hair)')..ra(-ra): to shout.. mighty. noise-making ('sound' + 'to strike repetitively. to be united ('voice' + 'to come together' + locative + 'to surround') . gu4: (cf.. gù. to make a pleasant/loud sound ('sound' + 'fine. roar ('sound' + 'to strike'). gù-téš-a.sum: gù. to call..

ox' + 'to exit'). threshing ox ('bull.. ox' + 'fattened'). to extinguish' + 'to uproot') .. old ox ('bull. ox' + 'beam. gud éš-gàr: gud-gal-gal: gud-ñiš: working oxen ('bull. gud è: oxen taken out (of work) ('bull. join'). ox' + 'to drive'). gud-du7(-du7): perfect. = 240 sìla . gud-šár(-a): gud-šu-gi4: gud-šúþub: grazing or trampling oxen ('bull. ox' + 'tablet').ús: ñiš to build a nest ('nest' + 'to moor. gud ñiš-ùr: gud-laþ5[DU-DU]: gud-mu-x: gud-niga: x years-old ox ('bull. ox' + 'assigned task') . oxen for the harrow ('bull. GUL-BU: gul-lum: gur-ra: adv. where Civil says the difference is that this gur has been filled from measuring containers topped off with a 'head' of grain instead of being leveled off at the top ('reed basket' + 'head' + 'to place') . suitable. blanket for a plow ox ('bull. ox' + 'old').gud-am. gud-su7-ra: gud-sún: wild-cow ('bull.0 96 . gùd. ki-gul-la). gud-numun: oxen for sowing ('bull.. gur-sañ-ñál: a capacity measure. ox' + 'to step. oxen for sowing on the field ('oxen for sowing' + 'field parcel'). in return ('to return' + subordination suffix /-a/). a kind of wood ('evil. ox' + 'aurochs cow'). ox' + 'plow' + 'thing' + 'cloth garment'). unblemished bull. measuring container of either 24 or 40 sìla'). Sumerian Lexicon. perfect bull ('bull' + 'to be many. 'to drive along') .. gud-si-su: calendar month 2 at Nippur during Ur III. fattened ox ('bull. to butt. destroy. ox' + 'threshing floor'). ox driver ('bull. ox driver ('bull. ox' + 'name. ox' + 'complete. ox' + 'tool'). cat ('to fall upon. to slaughter' + nominative). fierce. to graze'). goring ox ('bull. gud-dun-a: subordinate ox ('bull. cf. gur-2-ul: gur-sá-dug4: a capacity measure. Version 3. ox' + 'subordinate' + nominative). work ox ('bull. harrow'). ox' + 'seed'). gud-dub: ox (recorded) on a tablet ('bull. gore. gu4-dam: gud-apin-níñ-túg: iti a mythological entity ('bull' + 'wild ox'). year' + number). gud-numun-diri: gud-numun-gána: gud-ra: reserve oxen for sowing ('oxen for sowing' + 'excess') . extinguish' + 'fertile'. toss') . = 160 sìla ('reed basket' + 'offering. a capacity measure of 72 sìla in Presargonic Girsu. ox' + reduplicated 'great'). ox' + rá. full-grown ox ('bull.

it is me. = 10 liters (reduplicated 'thick. cf..3)-tuku: possessing intelligence ('ears.di: ñi6-par3/4: ñi6. ñéme-maš: ñéš×u. ÑÁ-nam-ma-da: (cf. 'to go. plump') .... ñál. ñeštug(2. ñeš'u: six hundred ('sixty' + 'ten'. ñeštin-þád: raisins ('grape vine' + 'dried').sum: ñeštug(2.uš(11)).3). ñá-ñá: adding.ñar: [to]'). grain depot ('granary' + 'interest. ñe26-nu). ñalga-sùþ: nitwit ('consideration' + 'to be confused') . stay to midnight ('night' + 'half'). ÑÁ-nu: (cf. Version 3. understanding' + 'to have') . ñeštug(2..búr: 'poison') + 'to release') . ge-eš-tu). ('I' + enclitic copula + 1st or 2nd person ending)... Sumerian Lexicon.. ñá-e-me-en: ñá-gi(4)(-a): (cf... female tender of goats ('work-woman' + 'goats'). earth moving workers ('laborer' + 'essence' + 'earth') . to bare the fangs (sign for 'mouth-needles' ( + 'to send' + guru7-du6: guru7-maš: grain stack ('granary' + 'heap') . profit').. residence of the en priest or priestess ('night' + 'to stretch out') .... gur5[KA×GU](ru.. ñi6.dag: to cease (doing something) (often with -ta-) ('to be somewhere' + 'resting place') . ñe26-nu: come!.0 97 . to set the mind to (with -ši -) ('understanding' + 'to set') . come' + conjugational prefixes î -ba with locative force + 'with') .3).gub: ñeštug(2. 'storeroom' + 'noble') . ñá-nun: storage area (ñar.gur4-gur4[LAGAB+LAGAB]: a standard size container for wine. ñeštu(2.... addition (reduplicated form of ñar. to listen.. and oil..... 'to accumulate').3).3). imperative form of ñen. beer.. pay attention (to: with -ši -) ('ears. cf. stay to midnight ('night' + 'to make equal'). ù-di).. ñagia). guruš šà-saþar: ñá-e: I.šú: to stop one's ears ('ears' + 'to cover').u18-lu: to forget ('ears. understanding' + 'great storm') .. ñe26-nam-ma-da). myself ('I' + subjective ending). I am one who.3). ñeštug(2. round. ñe26[ÑÁ]-nam-ma-da: come with me! (ñe26-na. ñá-la. understanding' + 'to make available to listen to (with dative) ('ears' + 'to give').sá: ñi6-sa9: to pass the night ('night' + 'to go'.taka4: to open ('to be somewhere' + 'to open') ..

an inexpensive fish ('knife' + 'length'). stir'). to trample (with -ni -) ('foot' + 'to place.. slide ('feet' + 'to remove'. fine'). ñír. to set one's foot on ('foot' + 'to follow. step.siñ18[KIN]: (cf.. trot' + nominative).. ñìri. ki-ma-an-zé-er).zé-er: to lose one's footing. to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect'). pass along') .... 'triumph').. to trample.. ñir5-ñir5ku6: ñir5-ra: a fish (reduplicated 'to seek refuge') . to stamp out ('foot' + 'to harvest'(?) + 'to ñìr-sè-ga: menial(s).. ñìr-pad-rá[DU]: ñìri... scorpion ('knife' + 'sting'). ñìr-šúþub: hoof ('foot' + 'boot'). to take a path.gub: ñìr-lam: to step on ('foot' + 'to stand') . cf...DÙ: ñír... Version 3. do').ra: to stumble ('foot' + 'to strike...díb: ñìri-kúr. ñìri.ñar: to clear the way ('road' + 'to place. set down') ... butcher knife ('knife' + 'branch')..ñi6-ù-na: down') .. to place something under the authority of someone ('foot' + terminative + 'to place. footstool.nú: ñidru(-mu)-u4-sù-rá: far away' + genitive). to step forward.. ñìri-šè..ñál: ñìri.. in the middle of the night ('night' + ù-na. courier ('to run.díb: ñìri KU-bi-šè. slip. be on one's way ('path' + 'to traverse..ñar: ñìri-gub(-ba): ñìri.dug 4). ñidru-šè..0 98 . fruit-cake ('way. ñìri. ñír-pa: ñír-tab: ku6 ñír-ús: ñír-zal: ñìri. domestic(s) ('foot' + 'to apply.. pedestal ('foot' + 'to stand') . ñìri-saña11[KIN]. to lay (heaped-up grain) under the (measuring) stick ('stick' + terminative + 'to lie a scepter of long (years and) days ('scepter' ( + years) + 'days' + 'lasting. anše ñír-nun: a type of donkey ('expedition' + 'great.. establish'). to be subjected ('foot' + 'at their place' + 'to be located') . to join').ús: to follow on foot. bone(s) ('foot' + 'to break off a piece' + nominative)... lú ñír-lá: butcher ('knife' + 'to weigh'). to take an unfamiliar path ('path' + 'strange' + 'to traverse') . ñin-na: ordinary ('ordinary' + nominative)..dug4/du11/e: effect'). scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine')..ñar: set down') . ñìri-saña 11. path' + 'abundance') . Sumerian Lexicon.

ñiskim-ti: recognized ('signal' + 'to stay alive'). ñiskim...tuku:
to get recognition ('signal' + 'to get').

ñiskim-zi an-na: good omen from heaven ('signal' + 'good, firm' + 'heaven' + genitive). ñissu...lal:
ñiš

to cover with a shadow ('shadow' + 'to extend, reach') .

ñiš:

plow ('the' tool, par excellence). a type of thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' +

ñiš-ab-ba(-k):
genitive).

ÑIŠ-BAD: ñiš-bad: ñiš-búru: ñiš-dù-a: ñiš-e11: -ñiš-en:

in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 1 cubit, 1 kùš . a basket with a wooden handle; threshing sledge. net, trap ('tool' + 'to spread out' + nominative with vowel harmony). timber ('wood' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

key; door pin ('tool' + 'to exit'). irrealis suffix, 'unreality' form suffix ('tool' + 'enigmatic background') . to conclude a sale ('pestle' + 'to hand over') . harrow ('tool' + 'field' + 'to drag over the ground') .

ñiš-gan...bala: ñiš-gána-ùr-ra: ñiš-gaz:

cudgel ('tool' + 'to crush, vanquish') . battle cudgel ('cudgel' + 'battle').

ñiš-gaz-mè: ñiš-gi:

reed bank, thicket, cane brake ('tree' + 'reed'). answering chorus ('tool' + 'to answer' + 'to be') .

ñiš-gi4-ñál, ñiš-ki-ñál: ñiš-gíd-da: ñiš-gíg:

long wood; punting pole; javelin, spear ('wood' + 'long' + nominative).

a date palm ('tree' + 'black, dark').

ñiš-gú-ba: a piece of tableware ('tool' + 'chick pea, bean' + 'to give'). ñiš-gù-di: a loud musical instrument ('tool' + 'to make a noise or sound') . ñiš...ñar: to assign ('tool' + 'to deliver'). ñiš-ñiš-lá: ñiš-ÞAR: ñiš-þé: ñiš-þum: ñiš-þur:
battle ('tools' + 'to raise'; cf., ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá).

dredging (?) work in the canal ('tool' + 'obligation' ?). firmament, sky ('tool' + 'abundant') . bench on a wagon ('wood' + 'to bruise') . plan, drawing ('tool' + 'to draw, sketch') .

ñiš...þur: to draw; to make plans ('tool' + 'to draw'). ñiš-ì: (cf., še-ñiš-ì). ñiš-KÁ: ñiš-kad5:
(cf., ákan ). stepladder ('tool' + 'to tie, bind together') .

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ñiš-kar2/3:

task (cf., éš-kàr).

ñiš...lal/lá: to be silent ('tool' + 'to hang up') . ñiš-kíñ-ti: ñiš-maþ: ñiš-ná: ñiš-nañ: ñiš-nu(11): ñiš-pàr: ñiš...ra: ñiš-rín: ÑIŠ-RU: ñiš-si4: ÑIŠ-ŠAR: ñiš-šu:
craftsmen ('work tool' + 'side').

(cf., ñiš-kad 5). bed; bedspread ('tool' + 'to sleep' + nominative). wooden water pail ('wood' + 'to drink'). lamp, light ('tool' + 'light, fire, lamp'). (cf., ñiš-búru ). to thresh ('stick' + 'to beat'). weighing scale (cf., érin, (cf.,
ñiš

rín).

illuru).

a date palm ('tree' + 'red-brown'). (cf., kiri 6). shackle; haft ('tool' + 'hand'). (cf.,
ñiš

ñiš-šu-kin:

šu-KIN).

ñiš-šub(-ba): lot, share ('tool' + 'to cast, throw, drop' + nominative). ñiš...tag: to make a religious offering, sacrifice (often with dative) ('tree' + 'to adorn'). ñiš...tuku: ñiš-ùr(-ra): ñiš...ùr:
to hear, listen to ('tool' + 'to get, have') . log, beam, rafter (e.g., of a roof); harrow ('wood' + 'roof').

to harrow (often with -ni -) ('tool' + 'drag').

ñìš á-zi...e: to commit rape (ñìš, 'penis', + 'violence' + 'to do'). ñìš...dù:
to have sexual intercourse (ñìš, 'penis', + 'to plant') .

ñìš-nu-zu: virgin (said of animals) (ñìš, 'penis', + 'not' + zu, 'to know'). ñìš-zu:
having born young; open (ñìš, 'penis', + zu, 'to know').

ñizzal...aka: to pay attention ('attention' + 'to do', cf., sañ-kéš...aka). ñizzal-kalam-ma(k): the most intelligent person in Sumer ('intelligence' + 'land (of Sumer)' +
genitive).

þa-al-ma:
(urudu)

vandals (þa-lam + nominative ).

þa-bu(2,3,6)-da: a heavy copper hoe (Akkadian loanword, hap/buutum).

þa-la: (inheritance) share, lot (cf., þal). þa-lam:
ñiš

to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta -) (cf., þul(3)).
ñiš

þa-lu-úb,

þu-lu-úb: oak (?); sapling (?) [one Akkadian equivalent means 'young maiden'].

þa-luþ:

(cf., þu-luþ ).

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þa-mun:

mutually opposing; contrasting, harmonizing; clashing (þum, 'to wrestle' conjugated as Akk. huud, 'joy', conjugates into hadûm, 'joyful' - except in Sumerian there is no syllable 'mum', just the syllable mun ).

(ñiš)

þa-šu-úr: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('abundance' + 'to pour' + 'tree trunk').

þa-za: to hold, grasp; to retain (Akk. ahaazum, Orel & Stolbova 25).
urudu ñiš

þa-zi(-in):

ax (Akkadian loanword, Orel & Stolbova 1318, cf., 1305).

þar-þar:

a musical instrument; chain (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet') (cf., kíkkin).

þar-ra-an: road (a city on the route to the Mediterranean, Akkadian loanword). þaš4...ñá-ñá:
ñiš

to rejoice ('lower abdomen' + 'to deposit') .

þaz...aka: to slaughter ('tool' + 'to thresh' + 'to do'; cf., gaz, 'to slaughter') .

þé-àm: 'so be it', 'let it be', consent, approval, wish (precative prefix + î + 'to be'). þé-àm-me-àm: þé-du7:
be') .

[that] is our wish ('wish' + î + 'to be') .

decoration ('let it be suitable, fitting').

þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: it is indeed (precative prefix + î + na-nam, 'indeed' + enclitic copula, 'to þé-ñál:
overflow; abundance ('let there be available') . let it be. abundance, fruitfulness ('may it be; numerous' + 'great, fine, deep') . knowledge (reduplicated [with vowel alternation]:

þé-...nam-...: þé-nun; þi-nun:

þé-zu-þé-zu; þé-zu-þé-za:
'numerous' + 'to know') .

þi-a:

(cf., þá ) ('to mix' + nominative).

þi-li: beauty; (sexual) charm, appeal; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'cedar oil, fragrance'). þi-li...aka:
to behave gracefully ('beauty' + 'to do') . to apply adornments ('beauty' + 'to adorn; to spread') . to be full of opulence ('beauty' + 'to bear, carry') . joyous (?) beauty ('beauty' + asa, 'cage, fetter' or ingredient in asilal(3,4,5),

þi-li...du8(-du8): þi-li...gùr-ru: þi-li-ma(-ra)-az:
'joy, gladness') .

þi-li...sù(-sù): full of appeal ('beauty' + 'to rejoice'). þi-nun:
ñiš

(cf., þé-nun ). (cf.,
ñiš

þu-lu-úb:

þa-lu-úb).
to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away') .

þu-luþ, þa-luþ:

þu-nu, þu-þu-nu: helpless (þuñ-(ñ), þun-(ñ), 'to hire' + 'none'). þu-rí-in:
eagle (Akkadian loanword, urinnu I; Orel & Stolbova #52 *’ar-/*war- 'eagle'; note that AHw says that urinnu II, 'standard, totem', is a Sumerian loanword). idiot, hillbilly, boor (Akkadian loanword ?).

þu-ru(-um):

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þul. i-lu..šú: to trample (?) ('athlete' + 'to cover') . ì-du10-ga: (lú) perfume. þu-úr-sá-ñá/ne: þúb-gaz: (cf. heap up').. iz-zi ) ('to go out. i-i: (reduplicated éd ).ñar: i-si-iš. cross') .the angle formed by animals eating fodder) .g.. good oil ('oil' + 'sweet'). ì-áb-sè-ga: ì-bí-la: (cf.. dirge ('cry' + 'to multiply'). 'moaning' + 'to hang'). make') þul. i-bí[BIL]: smoke. i(-r): (cf.0 102 . Sumerian Lexicon. complaint.gig: to hate ('evil' + 'to be sick').. cream. valleys' + 'points. as.. mountainous region ('holes.sar: to run ('athlete' + 'to run').. þúb. 'moaning' + 'to set') .. ibila ). 'face. ì-du10-nun(-na): ì-duþ/du8: janitor. porter. i-lu: song.. þáš).3. device.. cry for justice. fat of cows. lament. waves (cf.. waste'). complaint.þu-su: (cf. very happy. Emesal dialect for igi.. clarified butter. contrivance ('to go out' + 'to traverse. joyful ('joy' + subordination suffix /-a/). ir). pitchers ('oil' + 'to store. lament (cf.du11/e: to sing a dirge ('dirge' + 'to speak.. hill-country. perfume ('oil' + 'sweet' + 'fine'). þur-sañ ).. itud ). inclination (e. door keeper (impersonal verbal conjugation prefix + 'residue. isiš2.dím: to hurt.. to wail (to someone: dative) (isiš2. 'Oh. slaughter ('athlete' + 'to slaughter') . ghee (Old Sumerian) ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]') .lá: to sit in anguish (isiš2.3. i-si-iš: i-si-iš.. ì-dub: storage jugs. 45 degrees .3). Version 3. þúb. ì-dùg(-ga). rise' + 'to burn') . flagstone. i-ti: (cf. slab... to see' ('to go out. ì-dùg-nun(-na). sing'). inclined angle. þuš-a: something red ('angry' + nominative). Shamash!' ('cry' + divine determinative + 'god of justice') . rise' + 'to rise. go out') . peaks') . cause pain ('evil' + 'to create. i-gi4-in-zu: indeed!. i-dib: threshold. i-dutu: i-zi: í-kú: ì-áb: outcry. þul-ñál: þúl-la: þur-sañ: evil ones ('evil' + 'to be').... like (used in hypothetical comparisons).. cream (?) ('fat' + 'cow').

extend') . íb-ùr: íd-a-dug: ñiš irrigation project ('canal' + 'water' + 'vessel').... igi-a-a-na-šè: igi. ì-udu: fat. ì-ti: moonlight (cf. igi(-šè). for a lead animal. ì-nun: butter. leftover ('middle' + 'to disregard').. ghee (Neo-Sumerian) ('fat.. ì-rá-rá: ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir. to strengthen'). igi-dañal: wide seeing eyes ('eyes' + 'wide'). fine oil (jar) ('oil' + 'true measure.DU: 'unto') . Version 3.bad: to open one's eyes ('eye' + 'to open'). íb-lal: íb-tag4: kuš underwear (?) ('hips' + 'to hang. leader (also read as palil ) ('front' + 'to walk'). i5-ñar[KA.. ì-dùg-nun(-na). ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominative). fine oil'). ib-si8[DI]: square ('eye' + 'to crack open') . adj. fine oil ('oil' + 'prime'). 'his + genitive' + terminative suffix.za..bar: to choose. 'word' + 'to make..dím: igi-du: to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by') . igi-šè. e-si-na ). to bolt the door ('door' + 'hand' + 'base' + 'to go') . ì-ñiš: sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree').0 103 .. change.. to legitimate ('to look at' + 'legitimate. fish oil ('oil' + 'fish'). a profession (impersonal verbal prefix + 'to fling away').dib(2): igi-þul.. shiftiness ('eyes' + 'to turn. turncoat. ì-šaþ: pig lard ('fat' + 'pig').ÑAR]: to promise. desire'). igi-zi. itud ).. 'to grumble'). ì-ÞI-nun(-na): ì-ir-a: ì-ku6: ì-laþ4: ì-lí: (cf. igi... to walk in front of ('to the front' + 'to walk'). kuše-íb-ùr). before his father ('front' + 'father' + ni-a(k) . to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion'). establish'). þé-nun. ominous remark (inim.. ì-sañ: best. revolt') . tallow ('fat' + 'sheep').ì-gu-la): perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty... ì-si-na: (cf. mix').du: Sumerian Lexicon.. clarified butter.. þi-nun). (cf. íb-dam-za: anger ('to be angry' + dum-dam. igi-bala: traitor. stretch.. ig-šu-úr.bar: to look at ('eye' + 'to open'). predict. oil' + 'noble').

igi-níñin: treachery ('eye' + 'to wander. igi-nu-du8(-a): blind person .. igi(-tur).... to direct the eyes to (with -ši -.lal: to close one's eyes ('eyes' + 'to diminish. i-gi 4-in-zu ). sañ-ki. ka-sìg).kár: to look upon. visibility (of the moon) ('to see' + nominative).suþ: to stare with wide-open eyes ('eyes' + 'to pop out') .... proportions.du8: igi-du8-a: to be on the lookout for (with -ši -) ('eye' + 'to raise erect') . igi-gùn-gùn: flashing eyes ('eyes.gíd). igi-ñál(-la): clever. igi.. knock down'..a slave.íl: review. retreat'). front' + X + terminative suffix) . igi-6-ñál: 1/6. igi-tùm-lá ).. igi-sìg-sìg[PA-PA]: an insulting face ('face' + reduplicated 'to strike.. to see (often with -ni . allay') . igi-X-šè: in the presence of X ('face.. igi. to understand. to have on makeup') . to view. IGI-ÑAR(-m): igi... cf. Version 3.te-en: igi-te-en: fraction... vanguard ('before.0 104 ..adds intensity to the gaze)..gíd: to despise. (cf. igi. igi-sig5: igi-su: pulverized (onions) (cf.. symmetry.. igi.dù: igi. igi-nim(-ma): upper country ..ñál: to (be able to) see. to look over ('eyes' + 'to lift').. at a specific object). to spy. face' + 'little' + 'to lengthen'. igi-íl-la: choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + nominative). igi-gub(-ba): coefficient ('inverse' + 'fixed'). to select (often with -ši-) ('eyes' + 'to illuminate'). igi. look upon with disfavor or anger ('eye. to appear before someone ('eye.or bi -). igi. front' + 'battle' + genitive).igi. intelligent ('eye' + 'to place [into]' + nominative). igi-gu4: a stylized biconvex geometric figure constructed from 120 degree arcs ('eye' + 'ox'). Sumerian Lexicon. to look upon (often with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to place [into]'). igi-4-ñál: 1/4. igi.. cf. igi-lá: (cf..from Sumer either the east or the northwest ('to face' + 'east'). unskilled worker ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open').si(-g): to see ('eyes' + 'to fill'). mun-gazi ) ('eye' + 'to be good') . face' + 'to set') . to examine. turn away').gub: to look at ('eye' + 'to set'). look at (with -ši.. igi. inspection.ñar: to face. to witness ('eye' + 'to crack open') .. supervision. igi-mè(-/ak/): before the battle. inspect.. face' + 'to sparkle... to unite ('eyes' + 'to soften...

coveting. vigilant ('eyes' + 'to watch. igi-u4-è-a: igi. im-ru(-a).ùru: to be on guard... im-ma-al: milk cow (cf. 'it is too much' . before' + dutu-è.dirig ).. precious ('eyes' + 'to choose' + nominative). erect' + nominative). edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great').gub: im-ma-si-im-ma-diri-ga: travail (a deverbalized fixed form). im-sa12-ti-um: eastwind ('wind' + 'eastern mountains'). previous (year) ('the named').. im-mar-tu: westwind ('wind' + 'western desert'). pluck'. immal (2)). im-ma: last. adobe wall ('mud' + 'to build. íl-lá: elevation ('to lift' + 'to hang'. Sumerian Lexicon.suhhutum means 'pressed out') .. 'sunrise' + locative). igi-zàg-ga: select.. im-þa-mun: a dark-colored earth used for a high-contrast dye ('clay. igi-zàñ-ñá. im-ri-þa-mun: storm. Version 3. earth' + 'weight').. im-me: to be the one for (ì + me + a). IM. a starving person ('eyes' + 'to obtain. carry away' + 'to facing the sunrise.the scream of suffering men or of women in im-ma. im-ñíri: lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash'). longing.mir: im-nun: to be windy ('wind' + 'storm wind'). dùn-lá. im.. im-lá: container. im-dugud: lump of earth or metal (cf. añar x) ('clay. to register on a clay tablet ('clay tablet' + locative + 'to write down'. igi-zé-zé: dry-eyed (?) ('eyes' + 'to cut. .. guard') . i-gi 4-in-zu ). pleasant poplar tree ('poplar tree' + 'good') . family.. also. whirlwind ('weather' + 'to blow' + 'mutually opposing').. im-šu-gub). greedy eyes. im-ri(-a): relatives. íldag[A-AM]-zi-da: im-ba: loss ('the paid out') . earth' + 'contrasting'..igi-tùm-lá: weigh'). im-dù-a.. width ('clay' + 'to hold').0 105 . im-gíd-da: small.. cf. cf. facing east ('face.. im-þul: evil wind ('wind' + 'evil'). imri-þa-mun). cf. im-babbar(2): gypsum. Akk. clan ('the sent out') .dirig: (cf. one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side'). ní. im-lag: clump of clay ('clay' + 'piece'). im-du8-a: wall of rammed earth. 'depression') . shear. whitewash ('clay' + 'white').. igi-zu: (cf.

arrogance. document ('clay' + 'to write' + nominative). inim. wisdom ('word' + 'word' + genitive ?)... to rain ('storm' + 'to rain'). to cut.im-sar(-ra): im-si-sá: im. to answer (with dative prefix and -ni -).. inim. inim-inim-ma: compositions.. in-dub: marked out border ('straw' + 'to heap up') .. im-šu-gub: list tablet ('sections' + 'to write down'. TAK4. in-nu(-da): inim.. 'to blow'. fix').bu5-bu5: in-dal: chaff ('straw' + 'to fly').. to translate ('words' + 'to revolve') .. to call back one's word (with bi -) ('word' + 'to to (produce) slander ('word' + 'low.IM: im-u18-lu: southwind ('wind' + 'storm')... in-ga-: again. im-šu-rin-na: oven. in-na: insult. in(-nu)(-šè).. northwind ('wind' + 'straight'). to have a conversation. 'yes'). an-na.gu7(-gu7): sig. to claim ('word' + 'to set.TAK4. section..bala: inim-búr-ra: inim-dirig: inim-dùg: straw ('straw' + nud. inim. curse').. IM. cf.ñar: to bring an action against someone (before the court). extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion').. loosen' + nominative).. cf. to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down') . small' + 'to consume'.dug4/du11/e: to say ('words' + 'to speak'). to be cut out. in. IM×TAK4. excessive words.kíñ: to seek or find the right word ('word' + 'to seek. cf.... 'bed' + genitive)... inim. in-nu: negation (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. equally (frequently follows -gim )...šèñ: clay tablet. inim. in. good word ('word' + 'sweet. in-ga-na-nam: it is also ('equally' + emphatic + 'to be').dé-a: cleaning straw after winnowing ('straw' + 'to pour' + nominative). in-nam-gíd-da: storehouse (rare variant of uš-gíd-da).0 106 . fetch') .... TAK4. hubris ('words' + 'to exceed'). good') ..gi4: return') .gub). eme- inim-sig.. to blow away the straw/chaff ('straw' + redup.ku5(-r): to swear ('word' + 'to cut.dúb: to insult. bul). Version 3. breach of treaty ('words' + 'to dissolve. im-ma.. im-šu: paragraph..gu7).. to interpret.

izi. izi.....ne-ne(-r): to fan the fire ('fire' + reduplicated nir. extinguish')...bar: ka. is-þáb: ñiš fool ('organ' + 'foul-smelling').lá: izi.... ka-dù: ka-dù-a.sè(-g)[SUM]: to imagine. izi. ka(-al)-lu5: a vessel. a word of prayer ('word' + 'to pray' + nominative). fragrant aroma. iz-zi8[ÑIŠ-KAL]: house wall. spine') ..te-en: ízi[KI-IZI]-ur5: ka-al: clay pit.. kalû..ba: ka.. torch ('fire' + 'to raise up'). demolish'). bowl (Akkadian loanword.0 107 . to extinguish or calm a fire ('fire' + 'to calm. fierce or accusing mouth. implore'). *kalVy-. KA-dúb-ba: a field tool (?).. small' + nominative). to converse ('mouth' + 'to give').sìg[PA]: to set on fire ('fire' + 'to knock down. coal ('fire-place' + 'liver. izi. é-sig4). a leather wrapping for part of the plow. scent ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind'. make'). ír: (cf..šub: to hurl fire ('fire' + 'to throw'). ka-aš-bar: decision ('mouth' + 'one' + 'to divide'. no indication of ir-si-im. izi-gi6-eden-na: izi-lá: shadow ('fire' + 'night' + 'steppe.inim-ma..dù: kuš to render a decision. flood ('wood' + 'to rise up'. Orel & Stolbova #1423.. fire. 'to winnow'). to purify with fire ('fire' + 'to raise up').. ér). soul'). catastrophe ('mouth' + 'military encampment' + nominative). cf.. inim-šùd(-da): inim-zu: one who knows the (proper) words. izi. Version 3. cf. inim-sig-ga: inim. to search for clarification ('word' + 'to request. a tool. ir-sim: Afroasiatic cognates).. 'vessel').... conceive an idea ('in a word' + 'to place'). current. ka-gáraš-a: ka-guru7: granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo')..šár: slander ('word' + 'low. Sumerian Lexicon.. eš-bar). ka-aš. to accuse (reduplication class) ('mouth' + 'to build. learned ('words' + 'to know') .te: fire approaches ('fire' + 'to approach'). IŠ-gi4: iz-zi[ÑIŠ-ZI]. ka-dù-dù: ka-duþ-a: ñiš with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominative).

..di/e: (cf.. ka-tar. káb..gi4(-gi4): ka-lu5: (cf.kar: ka-tab: ka-tar: to be clogged ('mouth' + 'to clasp') .gi 4).. to put together... to reach the quay (in a boat) ('quay' + locative + 'to reach....ur 5). (cf.. pleasing') . ka ki. bar-úsurudu)..si-il: ká-bar-ra: outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + nominative). highly esteemed or valued. utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out'). an empty mouth ('mouth' + 'to be empty' + nominative). KA×LI..ka-ñìri: KA. empty ('to be rare')...sag9-sag9: ka-sìg[PA]: ka-sù-ga: ka-šakan: an insulting mouth ('mouth' + 'to strike. challenger.. to praise ('praise' + sil. Version 3. gù-nun. sig 14. to destroy') . KÁ. a type of fungus or rot ('mouth' + 'to decide. KA×LI. (cf.. kiri 4 KA šu. disorganized (with -ta -). to take away ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away')..... ka-al-ka-al: kal-la-kal-la: (munus) barren. precious (reduplicated 'to esteem. a sweet person ('mouth' + 'honey') . ka-ta.di/e).di/e )..kéš-(d): to organize. (cf. gù-nun..0 108 .dug4: (dug) ñiš to measure or count commodities for accounting or taxation ('string' ? + 'to do') . 'to praise')..ús: Sumerian Lexicon. cf. ká-mè: wings of a temple door ('gate' + 'battle'). (cf.. to become undone. cf. to make the mouth pleasant ('mouth' + reduplicated 'good. Alster reads munus-kar-ke4) ('marketplace' + 'reed mat')... káb-dug4-ga: KAK+LIŠ-la(2): kak-ús: goad ('nail' + 'to drive'. word' + 'to bind') ..ñál: ka-ta-è: šu. ka-al-lu 5). chariot. zú. a measuring jar with a capacity of 20 sìla .... value') . igi-sìg-sìg)... abul ).. praise. canal intake ('mouth' + 'river' + genitive).ÞAR: ka-íd-da: KA-kešda: path ('mouth' + 'feet...di/e: ka. way.. moor to') . kal-kal. knock down'..GAL: (cf. cart. KA-nun. kar(-ra). princely. kar-kid: prostitute (B. to have an agreement.. path') . regiment ('mouth.zu-zu: ka-làl: to kiss the ground ('mouth' + 'ground' + reduplicated 'to know') . supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar')...ñál). KA..

run away') ... Version 3. rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt').. answer ('place' + 'exposed'). to break the ground ('ground' + 'to split'..0 109 .. dark'). Sumerian Lexicon.. solution. kaš-dùg/du10: kaš-gíg: sweet drink ('beer' + 'sweet.áñ-(ñ): to love (someone: with dative infix.. 'instructions. to clear a road ('road' + 'to place. ki-bad-rá: distant places ('places' + 'to be at a distance' + nominative). dark' + 'sweet.de6: ki-di-ku5-da/ru: ki-dul: ki-dúr: place of judicial decisions ('place' + 'decisions' + 'to cut. adj. running. valuable'... death offering ('place' + 'water' + 'to water'). something: with locative/loc. orders') . to brew' + nominative). cf.. kaš4.sig10/sì(-g): even') .. nest or den for animals (plural. libation. decide' + nominative without/with vowel harmony). libation place. good beer ('beer' + 'good. kaš4.. (cf.. ki. to bury ('ground' + 'to bring.. ki-en-gi 7(-r) ). ki-ná... 'to desire'..-terminative infix). fresh' + nominative).. á-áñ-ñá. cf. ki-in-dar). zíd-sig15)... obscure point ('place' + 'to cover. kaš-gíg-dùg-ga: kaš-kal: kaš-si4: kaš-sig5: kaš-sig15: kaš-sur-ra: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong. kaš-dé-a: banquet. party ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominative). ki-bala: ki-búr: rebellious country. cf. to continue') .. put in.dug4/du11/e: kaš4-di: to run ('speed' + 'to effect') . to run fast ('speed' + 'to escape. to show affection ('ground' + 'to measure' = the first recorded euphemism ?. cf. to engrave. ki-á-áñ-(ñá): the place of issuing orders (cf..aka). dark beer ('beer' + 'black.kaskal. or the result of popular etymology from kam(2). kaš-dé. ki-áñ: beloved.aka: to put on a banquet ('banquet' + 'to do') . kàš.. fine quality') . reddish-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown')..sur: to urinate ('urine' + 'to expel a liquid'). excellent'). light beer ('beer' + 'pleasing. or adv. to make flat.dar: ki. ki. hide') . good dark beer ('beer' + 'black.kar: ke-en-ge-ra: kéš-de6: ki-a-nañ: a fish measure ('to join. ki-tuš ) ('place' + 'to dwell (plural)').. secret. tie' + 'to carry'). fresh') . pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press.

lift'). native') . assigned place to stand. ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). great Earth (as opposed to an-gal . peš10.. path') . exit ('place' + 'to go out') . a place of reed mats ('place' + 'reed mat')..ki-duru5: parts of the field where the ground is moist and productive. empty'). gul-lum). cf.. ki-kal-la-kal-la: ki-kalag: ki-kid: scour') hard ground ('ground' + 'strong'. where weight refers to area or volume. kin: ki-kúkku: dark place ('place' + 'dark'). pešx[KI.. evil') . cf. Version 3. to paw the ground ('ground' + 'to scratch') . 'to be many. socle ('place' + 'to stand' + nominative). guz). to seek (with -ši . restore'). shape.. or with dative prefix) (lit. to scratch the earth. ki. place where something is built ('ground' + 'to place') .þur: ki-in-dar: hole.. Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble.. path ('place' + 'feet.gi4: ki-gibil-gibil-lá: ki-gub(-ba): ('place' [ + 'its' + 'to' ] + 'to return. ki-inim-ma: ki-ir-ga: place of testimony (cf. ki-e-ne-di: ki-è: playing ground. ki-dar). di-ir-ga ). kankal).. ki-gul-la: waif ('ground' + 'to fall upon' + nominative. grave.. lú-ki-inim-ma ) ('place' + 'oath' + genitive).. ki-en-gi(-r): ki-gal: big place.ñar: ki-še-er. ki-(bi-šè). cf. battlefield ('place' + 'tools' + 'to raise'. to bring success ('place' + šár.. return [to its] place) constant renewal ('place' + reduplicated 'renewal' + nominative). ground' + 'to seek.0 110 .ñar: ki-ñìri: to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set') . ki.A]) ('ground' + 'moist'). kin-gi4-a).. piš10... Sumerian Lexicon. ki-in-du: the earth ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to walk') . (cf. (place of) dancing (also read as ešemen ) ('place' + 'to play'). station. ki-iz: to trim... esteem' + nominative).denoting the object of the search) ('place. or vegetation) (cf. ñiš-ñiš-lá). to found.or bi -) ('ground' + 'to place') .. riverbank. ki-in-gi4-a: (cf. ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá: ki-þul: mourning rites ('ground' + 'to destroy.. to restore (usually with bi -.. generosity (cf. ki.kíñ.ñar: ki-šè. 'great Heavens'). the barren place = the netherworld ('place' + 'barren. ki-ñar: grounds. foundations ('place' + 'big'). ki-lal/lá(-bi): (its) weight. crevice ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to split'. cellar granary. silo. leaves. to clean (of hair. abundance' + 'to establish') .. cf. establish (a building or town) (often with -ni .. arrangement ('area' + 'to weigh. excavation. ki-kal-kal-la: the very precious place ('place' + reduplicated 'to value. settled place. way..

funerary offering.to gather') . 'in the great courtyard'. to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck') .tag: ki. to lay on the ground. ki. cf. ki-sum-ma: onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive). ki-ma-an-zé-er: ki-maþ: a slippery place ('a place where it slips for me'. horizon..tùm: disbursed by X ('from the place of X'). ki-sikil: ki-a..su-ub: to kiss the ground. set' + nominative)... 'to be many'. to lay the foundation ('ground' + 'to adorn') . ki-su-ub. calendar month 5 at Ur during Ur III. Sumerian Lexicon. ki-ná: sleeping quarters. še-er-tab-ba).. ki-X-ta: ki.. ñìri. young woman. calendar month 5 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. limit ('place' + šár.. to heed.. ki-ninda-gu7: ki. quarantine hut ('ground' + 'to place....te-en. cf.ri: ki-sá-a: to scratch the ground ('ground' + 'to touch . place of honor. bed. lower ('ground' + locative with remote deixis). place to eat bread ('place' + 'bread' + 'to eat').. virgin ('place' + 'pure').. to make obeisance ('to kiss the ground' + 'to do') ... pay attention to. threshing floor. dinig and nemur).zé-er). to bury (a dead person) ('ground' + 'to prepare. ki-še-er: ki-šúr: snake hole. cavity in the ground ('place' + 'fierce').aka: to make love ('bed' + 'to do') . grave ('place' + 'exalted').ñiš ki-lá: water meter... kislaþ). everywhere ('place' + 'totality'). to delimit').NE: (cf.. select fallow land whose surface was conditioned to act as a threshing floor ('land' + 'threshing floor'. grave. KI.sur: ki-šár: to fix the boundary ('place' + 'ditch. enclosure. ki-ta: below.lá: ki-lugal-gub(-ba): ki-lul-la: place of murder or violence ('place' + 'malicious act' + genitive). ki-su7: to kiss the ground. socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominative). royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand'). ki-sig-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 4 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. 'to calm down'). fence. ki-ná.. ki-sá-al-ma-þe: ki-saþar: ki-sì-ga: iti place of silt deposits ('place' + 'silt'). bedding ('place' + 'bed').. ki.. high place. Version 3..0 111 .aka: ki-sug8.. ki-ní-te: resting place ('place' + ní. to bring') . syllabic writing for kisal-maþ-e . cf. ki-nam-nitaþ: battlefield ('place' + 'manliness')..

kíñ-šè. to chew' + nominative)..aka: to work. to throw to the ground. kíñ.0 112 . living grounds ('place' + 'roofs'). KÍD-alam: kíñ/kinku6: sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue') .... evening meal. kíñ ).ti: during the evening ('evening' + 'during') . dwelling place (singular..aka: to put to work ('orders' + terminative + 'to do'). ki-zàþ: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide').sù: ki-za. dwell (singular)'). messenger. ki. kíñ-saþar: earth-moving work ('tasks' + 'earth.. ki-uri: the land of Akkade ('place' + 'protectors ?') . ki-ùr: territory. submit (reduplication class) ('ground' + 'to make a repetitive motion') . "place of knowledge" (school). to work ('orders' + 'to make. kíñ-sig(7/17)(-g). hammering work ('tasks' + 'to strike. hold') .ñá: kíñ-gi4-a: iti construction work ('tasks' + 'to build. kín-an-na: upper millstone ('millstone' + 'to be high' + nominative)...bad..túmu: to obtain homage.. Sumerian Lexicon.. cf. time of the evening meal. to assign work ('orders' + 'to keep alive').ki-tuš: seat. to bow down. ki-umun2-(m): KI-UD(-k): desert land ('place' + 'sun. join'). erect' + nominative).za: remote').. to refuse obeisance ('homage' + 'to obtain').. to manufacture ('orders' + 'to do'). envoy. kìri[KA]-zal: prosperity.. Version 3. deliver'). knowledge'). kin: na4 (cf. kíñ-dù-a: kíñ-dúb-ba: kíñ. wonderful ('nose' + 'to shine') . kíñ-se11/12(-g): of the evening ('tasks' + 'late'). message ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who') .til: to finish one's work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). kíñ[-kíñ]. evening. ki-zú-ur5-ra: kí-sa: (cf. ki-dúr ) ('place' + 'to sit. ki-za. cool kíñ-sig-gin7: kíñ. to touch the ground. sharp edge ('place' + 'teeth' + 'mill stone. ki. kìri/kir4[KA]-dib/dab: groom (for leading donkeys and horses and as a title of a court official) ('nose' + 'to catch.. a fish.. large beer container ('place' + 'idea. kíñ-dInanna: calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III.. silt'). splendor. ki-za. to make homage far from ('homage' + 'to be at a distance... to establish (often with ni-) ('ground' + 'to moor... gi-sa). splendid. dry').ús: to set on the ground.. hammer' + nominative)..

'anything' + genitive). ku6-a-dé: fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour..dù: to sneeze ('nose' + 'cold') . to sneer at ('nose' + 'to smell'). ku6-ab-baku6: Sumerian Lexicon. cumin (Elamite ? loanword).lá: to settle an account ('silver' + 'to weigh'). to lose money ('silver' + 'loss' ( + plural marker + 'to enter. kù-im-ba(-aš. ku-nu: to approach.ur5: kiri4-zal: kiri6. kù-zu-nì-nam-ma: the all wise ('expert' + níñ-na-me.ku4): kù. silver' + 'to clean' + nominative).kiri4-šu-dù: supplication(s) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to fasten. ku-kur-dù: a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould. inspector ('silver' + 'to have'). to be near... joy. make'). kiš-nu-ñál: brightly lit ('the city of Kish' + 'lamps' + 'to have') .1. pile up' + 'to speak.. kisal-maþ: main courtyard ('courtyard' + 'foremost')... to lie down') .ñál: to pay homage to. water'). to plant') . ku-dun. to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on') . kiri4. ransom money (for a slave) ('silver' + 'to untie').te-en: kiri4. to sniff at. kù-sig17: kù-tuku: gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow'). kišib. sea fish ('fish' + 'sea' + genitive)..5 . KU-KU: ancestors (?) ('to found. prosperity ('dam in a stream' + 'to be full. erudite. a standard size clay beer pot in range 0.0 113 . kù-dam-taka4: kù-dím: kù-du8: kù-ñál: divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person') .2 liters ('solid base' + 'true measure'). do') .ra(-ra): to seal. kù-babbar: silver ('noble metal' + 'white'). to subpoena ('seal' + 'to roll. apply') . turn into'). impress'). Version 3... kù-luþ-þa: refined silver ('noble metal. ku-li-an-na: ku-mul: friend of heaven.. kú: (cf. dragonfly ('friend' + 'sky' + genitive).. goldsmith... clever. kišib-ñál: seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have'). wisdom ('bright' + 'to know'). gu7)..dug4: dug to profit ('solid base' + 'to heap. to lay out a garden ('garden' + 'to set up. ku-li: friend. metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion') .. kiri4 šu. abundant') . one who has silver ('silver' + 'to have'). silversmith. kù-zu: expert...

kuš7.aka: kur7-aka: kuš.. to run ('herd' ( + ground) + 'to touch') . great mountain . Sumerian Lexicon. kun-zi(-da): kur-ñišerin-na: kur-gal: ('mountain' + 'big'). kuš-dù-dù: leather-dresser. treated or flayed skin. staircase of the sanctuary ('tail. kù ). inspection record. a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative). la-þa-ma: long-haired hero(s) ?. fish-pond fish.di: kur7.a metaphor for temples and for Sumer as a place where earth and sky meet kur-gi4mušen: goose. kun-su3/13(-su3/13): long-tailed ('tail' + 'to stretch. to wag a tail. chief').. to crawl. vigor (reduplicated 'happiness') . charms. la-ga: (cf.. strap') . geese ('mountains' + 'to return').ku6-banšur-ra: ku6-dar-ra: fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive).. Version 3. = 1 meter.0 114 . to devastate ('devastation' + 'to immerse') . appeal. to speak hostile words ('hostile' + 'to speak') . mountain of cedar trees ('mountain' + 'cedar' + genitive). kud-kud-rá: kug: (cf. to sneak away.. to be long') .dù: kuš-dù: supreme over the lands ('lands' + locative + 'to be supreme' + nominative).. fish of the marshes ('fish' + 'fresh waters' + genitive). to treat or dress skin ('leather' + 'to raise up.. lú-la-ga)..tag: la-ag: (cf. lagar ). mythological sea monster ?. a length measure equal to 2 cubits.. abundance. make'). kùš-numun: in the Akkad period.. to inspect ('to watch. la-gal: (cf. kuš-lá: kuš-nañ: leather cord ('leather' + 'to hang.sud/sù/su: to level. dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice' + nominative).. la-la: joy. deep mountain ('mountain' + 'low').. 2 ÑIŠ-BAD.. kun-zi(-da): ku6 weir ('canal reservoir' + 'to strengthen') .. kur-ra diri-ga: kur-sig: kúr.za: kun-sañ: to bubble (see the definition for za).. kušu/kušumx(-ki). staircase' + 'head. lookout' + 'to do') .. lag). kun-kà-an. leather water pail or hose ('leather' + 'to drink'). ku6-engur(-ra-k): ku6-íl: fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry').

cf. lug).0 115 . brewer (cf..lustration priest ('man' + 'water' + 'to wash. interpret (a dream)' + nominative with vowel harmony). manure'). to prepare (gold or silver) for the precious sack (by sifting) lu-úb: lu-úb-šir(-ra). lu-ga: (cf. stag (Akkadian loanword ?. é-éše. ru-gú). arrears ('to weigh. lagab na4 za-gìn-na: a block of lapis lazuli ('block' + 'lapis lazuli' + genitive).. 'jail' and šaña. lum. mythological lake.. 'to graze. cf.lá-ìa[NI]: remainder of debt left over. lú-gi-gíd-da: flutist ('man' + 'reed' + 'long' + nominative). lú-á-tuku: strong man.. Sumerian Lexicon. luhummû. lú-gu-la: despot ('man' + 'large'). lú-búr-ru: interpreter (of omens/dreams) ('person' + 'to reveal. 'to speak' + nominative). pasture' + 'thousand') . don't find Semitic parallels to Akk. lú-a-tu5(-a): a priest who bathes the statues of the deities and rulers . leather bag for holding food. làl-þar: li-gi4-in: iti d li-um. lú-ñišbala: man of the spindle ('man' + 'spindle').aka: ('leather bag' + 'testicles' + locative case ending + 'to do') . lalla). be crooked. lú-bappir(2/3): lú-bar-ra: foreigner ('person' + 'outside' + genitive). hostile'). vagabond ('man' + reduplicated 'to walk').'to wash' + imi. exercise tablet (loan from Akkadian liginnu).. lu-þu-um: lu-lim: lu-úbsar: kuš kuš mud (luþ. lú-dam-tuku: lú-di-da: lú-du-du: a[k]). difference. bathe' + nominative). a married person ('person' + 'spouse' + 'to have') . date syrup' + 'ring') . may be a connection to ia4. 'counter'. opposing party (in a legal case) ('man' + 'law suit' + 'with'). prisoner ('man' + 'rope'.. pond ('honey. lu-gú: to twist. turnip. lú-ga-šum: assassin ('man' + 'I will' + 'to slaughter'). le-um: plate. 'clay. manager of the treasure-house ('man' + 'house' + 'treasure' + double genitive [a]k- lú-é-níñ-ka: lú-érim: lú-éše: enemy ('man' + 'evil. Li9-si4: calendar month 9 at Umma during Ur III. lú-gi-di(-da): piper ('man' + 'reed' + di-dé. ningi . 'captive'). lunga ) ('man' + 'beer bread'). Version 3. minus' + 'oil'. influential person ('man' + 'strength' + 'to have'). lunch bag ('abundant' + 'container') . but Hebrew/Arabic LH/LHH means 'moist'. cf. 'fertilizer. beet ('abundant' + 'container') . cf. not straight ('numerous' + 'edge'... mud'.

lú-ki-inim-ma: lú-kúr-ra: stranger. mu7..ŠE: (cf.lú-gub-ba: ecstatic ('man' + 'to stand' + nominative). lú-kaš4: courier ('man' + 'fast runner'). lú-kurun(-/ak/): brewer.. friend. witness ('person' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive). healthy') . enemy ('man' + 'mountains. lú-þun-ñá: hired worker ('man' + 'to hire' + nominative). rob').nu-: me. ma-la-(g)).na-me. cf. lú-im/tum9: lú-inim-ma: 'wind man': unreliable person ('man' + 'wind'). zug4. people' + 'to be many') . recalcitrant. lú-tu-ra: a sick person ('person' + 'to be weak.. ru-gú). innkeeper ('man' + 'alcoholic drink' (+ genitive)). debtor ('man' + 'thing' + 'not' + 'to have'). intractable individual(s) ('man' + ru-gú.nu-tuku). myriads ('men... incantation priest (cf... no man does X ('man' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'no.. and sig14). split' + nominative). uš7. Version 3. lú-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural).. to decide an insoluble legal case. lú-silim: lú-su-a: lú-šár: LÚ. which involved swimming a certain distance and returning to shore without being pulled under by the current ('man' + 'to send' + 'river bank' + 'to be near'. tu6. u4-na- lú-lul(-la): lú-má-gur8: lú. lú-ru-gú-da: river ordeal. lú še bad-rá: to thresh ('man' + 'grain' + 'to open. lú-KA×LI-KA×LI: lú-kal-(l): dear one ('person' + 'precious') .. peel. numerous individuals. perfect man ('man' + 'good.. witness ('person' + 'word' + genitive). lú-nam-tag-ga: sinner ('man' + 'guilt' + genitive). cf. 'cat'). doorman ('man' + 'key'). rich man. boat captain ('man' + 'large boat'). not'. oppose') . lú-níñ-nu-tuku: lú-níñ-tuku: lú-ru-gú: poor man. unfaithful.0 116 . sick' + nominative). foreign country' + genitive). lú-ñiš-e3/11: doorkeeper. lú-kar-ra: refugee ('person' + 'to escape' + nominative). release. Sumerian Lexicon. lú-ní-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'to steal. treacherous man ('man' + 'lies' + genitive). 'to withstand. wealthy person ('man' + 'thing' + 'to have'). níga). expose. acquaintance ('man' + su-a. lú-ní-zu(-/ak/): thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'your' + genitive). lú-la-ga: robber (cf.

lugal-šà-lá-sù: lul.. cornel (?). ma-az: exuberant. manûm. barge captain ('boat' + ?.si(-g): to keep silent ('lie' + 'to stay silent'). ma-al: Emesal dialect for ñál. 'fire'). realm (Akkadian.. (ñiš) the stern of a boat ('boat' + 'back' + nominative). a thick bundle of reeds used to build rafts ('boat' + 'to hold near' + 'to strap. ma-la-(g): friend (among females) ('to bind' + LA. a female dancer. joyful. human being ('humans' + 'huge' [ + 'numerous']). má-gan-an-naki: (ñiš) má-gi(4)-lum: Sumerian Lexicon. true').. má-egir-ra: nominative). 'an obscene name for the female genitalia' per Landsberger) . the boat sailing downstream ('boat' + 'to float (with the current)' + nominative). Semitic root means 'circle'). fugitive ('man' + 'to flee'). 'reed bundle') .du8: to caulk a boat ('boat' + 'to spread with pitch') . runaway. lú-zu(-a): acquaintance ('person' + 'to know' + nominative). 500 grams = 60 gín (since Akkad period. ma-da: district. firewood bundle ('to bind' + nu11.GA. good man ('man' + 'faithful. bind') . rob'). lú-u18[ÑIŠGAL]-(lu): mankind.. = 60 še . lú-u18-um: lú-zàþ: name of a breed of small cattle (possible Semitic loanword). Magan (a country on the sea route to India) ('boats' + 'support' + 'to be high' + a type of small sailing boat ('boat' + gilim. (variant of ma-az ). mina = ca. lú-zi(-d): righteous. (ñiš) (gi) ñiš lú má-da-lá: má-diri-ga: má-DU-DU(-d): ñiš má. ma-mu(2)-(d): dream ('it is growing for me'). Version 3. ma-na-tur: a surface area measure. lum-ma: a fecund female ('to be fertile. productive' + nominative). ma-ra-az: (gi) ma-sá(-ab): a basket ('to bind' + 'to equal in value' (+ 'container') ?... ma-na: a unit of weight measure. little mina = 1/3 shekel = 60 surface še = 720 square fingers. merciful king ('king' + 'merciful'). 'to count') .. ride' + nominative). 'land'). bridge'). lú-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'to steal. 2 ma-na = 1 sìla of water) (Akk.dug4: to tell a lie ('lie' + 'to speak')..lú-u5-a: rider ('man' + 'to mount. (gi) ma-an-sim: sieve ('it sifts for me'). cf. as a volume measure. ñiš ma-nu: dwarf ash (?). lul. má-laþ4/5).0 117 . maatu(m) I. má-addir: ferryboat ('boat' + 'ferry.

. má-lá: cargo boat ('boat' + 'to extend. ñar7-dú: nomad. sailor. flood (cf..gíd: to sail (with -da-). pull')... MAR-TU[-KI].. bandage') . maþ-bi: ñiš ñiš adv. má-tùn[GÍN]: má(-a). yield' + 'earth') .0 118 .u5: to go on board. produce. riding with the wagon ('wagon' + comitative + 'to be located' + nominative).. the boat sailing upstream ('boat' + 'to move in a direction opposite to [the current]') . má. má-ñéš-gur: (ñiš) lú a boat of sixty-gur capacity ('boat' + 'sixty' + kor basket measure). mà-ùr: ravine.su: (cf. calendar month 2 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. gorge ('to go' ? + 'mountain pass') . pot stand ('boat' + 'high.ñar: to load a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to place'). to tow a barge ('boat' + 'to draw. mar-da ri-a: mar-gíd-da: mar-ru10[TU/GUR8]: mar-sa: lú boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate') . 'location.. asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind. head' + nominative). floodstorm (cf. máš-ñi 6). šakaanum 'to place') (ZATU356 archaic frequency: 4). wagon ('wagon' + 'to draw. agricultural income. má-še(-/ak/): grain boat ('boat' + 'grain' + genitive). mašda ). deep') [MAGUR archaic frequency: 5.Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born') . barge captain ('boat' + 'to drive along') ... boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + nominative). (cf. é-mar-uru 5) ('to immerse' + 'high. deep'). (tu15) mar-uru5[TU/GUR8]: gazelle (cf. Version 3. Amorite . ñiš ñiš ñiš ñiš má. site'. maš-gána: maš-ñi6: maš-ki: Sumerian Lexicon. mar-uru5).du8). settlement (Akk. pull... concatenates 2 sign variants] ... má-gur8: a large boat. load') . calendar month 2 at Ur during Ur III.(ñiš) (ñiš) má. tow' + nominative). to embark ('boat' + 'to mount').. má(-a). maš-dà: iti maš-dù-gu7: calendar month 1 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. yield ('profit. powerfully ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . cf. má-laþ4/5: má-nisañ-ñá: ñiš ñiš má-ru-ru-gú: má-sañ-ñá: the bow of a boat.. cargo boat.. má-su(-a): sunken boat ('boat' + 'submersed' + nominative). ñiš má(-a)-si-ga: describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + nominative). má-sù-a: a deep-draught boat ('boat' + 'empty' + nominative). prow ('boat' + 'point. loanword from maškanum..

all the 'me's. máš-lulim: hind (female of the red deer) (smaller goat-like animal + 'stag.. livestock ('goats' + 'equids') .. halo. to deck with splendor ('splendor' + 'to strew. how numerous are. us ('to be' + '1st person plural ending') . Version 3. hart').. provide') . me-kìlib-ba: me-lám/li9(-m). the high functions ('function' + 'high. šu-maš-gíd-gíd ).túm: to prepare something for the sake of one of the civilized functions ('me ' + locative + 'to be suitable.probably the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan.. maš-da-rá-a: máš-ñi6. ñiš me-dím: ship's railing (?) ('function' + 'to build'). me-en: I am. great office ('function' + 'great').) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality. the high 'me's. one-half. I... mí-a: breeding he-goat ('he-goat' + 'she-goat' + genitive).. light (myth. me-en-dè(-en): me-en-zè(-en): -me-eš: me-gal: we. máš-da-ri-a. where ?. me-àm: where is ? ('to be' + locative + enclitic copula)..šub: describes an animal dropping or birthing its young ('goat' + 'to drop'). máš-ùz-da(-k): me-a. ('civilization's functions' + reduplicated me-du10-du10-ga: 'sweet.. me-lim5[LAM]: me-lám.. to prepare') .. omen ('goat/extispicy' + 'black/night'). good' + nominative). used as plural suffix. furnish. aura. especially in late Sumerian and Akkadian context texts.(great) exorcist (reduplicated 'goat kid. you (plural) ('to be' + '2nd person plural ending') .. animals. me-luþ-þaki: me-maþ: a country .maš-maš(-gal): profit'). radiance.ñar: me-þuš: to make silent ('divine decree' + 'to set') . (cf. also a writing for me.. maš-šu-gíd-gíd: maš-tab-ba: máš-anše: young twins ('twin' + 'to be double' + nominative). angry') .lu(-lu): me-a. me-te. splendor.0 119 . maš-ñi6: night-time vision. a type of priest . dream. loan interest. Sumerian Lexicon. offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]'). me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'.. terrible 'me's. máš. to shine') .. to be fitting ('fitting thing' + 'to be') . the good 'me's.? ('how ?' + 'numerous') . how ? ('to be' + locative).sù-sù: terrifying glance. máš-niga: grain-fed kid (smaller goat-like animal + 'fattened'). me-a. the beneficial functions.ñál: me. exalted'). negative attributes ('functions' + 'terrible. 'function' ('to be' + '1st & 2nd person ending') . all the functions of civilized life.

perfected 'me's ('functions' + 'thing' + 'artistic. 'time. how will X attain or succeed ('function' + comitative + 'to obtain') . costumes or other symbols of the Sumerians ('ornament' + 'to be' + 'the black-headed' + genitive).. until' + terminative). such as national totems. miitum. me-te-bi-im: to suit. ñiš mi-rí-tum: a musical instrument (loanword). mi-ir: Emesal dialect for ñíri. me-a ). befit ('to be its fitting thing') . proper dress ('function' + 'to meet'). 'scorpion'. men-ri-ba. young cow ('female' + 'young heifer'). (ñiš) sieve. how long? ('to be' + èn. tatoos.tùm: adornment of the black-headed people. me-ša-ra: all the 'me's ('functions' + 'totality. men-rib-ba: supreme crown ('crown' + 'supreme'). ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe'). mer).. to be bright'). me-šè: where to?.0 120 . me-šár-ra. mí-ús-sá: mí-ús-sá-tur: son-in-law ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value' + 'young. to be numerous' + nominative). to handle gently. 'dead man') . ornament. bride ?. mi-rí: (cf. men-an-uraš-a: crown of heaven and earth ('crown' + 'heaven' + 'earth' + genitive). little'). men-dalla: beaming crown ('crown' + 'beam. suitability. Version 3. do') . MI(-si)-saþar(-ra)(ku6): + genitive/locative). Sumerian Lexicon.. the (god-given) 'me' of royalty ('function' + 'rulership' + genitive). selected for breeding ('female' + 'to mount' + nominative). rub. she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive). son-in-law ? ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value') . moray eel (?) ('dark'(?) + 'ray-like.. complicated') .. war ('battle' + 'copper implement'). ray.dug4/du11/e: MÍ-eden-na: MÍ-gir: MÍ-u5-a: MÍ-u8: ('female' + 'to speak. to take great care with (often with -ni -) mí. to fill' + 'sand. caress. unique. mè-šen(-šen-na): battle. me-te-ñál-sañ-ñi6-ga: me(-da).. to where ? ('to be' + terminative). until' + enclitic copula).me-na-àm: me-na-šè: when? ('to be' + èn. sediment' (ñiš) mi-tum: a mace (Akkadian. me-te: fitting thing. cf. men-sañ: head-crown ('crown' + 'head'. sañ-men). 'time. me-nam-nun-na: me-ni-da: along with himself ('to be' + 'self' + 'with'). me-nì-galam: me-re: Emesal dialect for ñìri. mí-a: (cf. to praise. heifer..

murub4. longer fibers) ('tow' + 'to heap up'). mu-im-ma: last year ('year' + 'last.. the following year ('year' + 'to follow' + nominative).. spouse (mud. mu-dur7[BU](-ra): mu-gub: assigned lines ('word. mu-sír-ra: mourning garment ('garment' + personal prefix + 'weak.dun: to sort out the tow (from the usable. mun-du: emmer groats.iti min-èš: calendar month 7 at Umma during Ur III. swear'). mundu). calendar month 9 at Lagaš during Ur III.. mu-X: year X (indicates a date according to a notable event that occurred during the year).. mu-ud-na: mu-ús-sa: mú-mú: always being reborn (such as the moon) (reduplicated 'to ignite.-a(k)-šè: terminative). mu. mu-lá: (cf. mu-ša-lum: mirror (Akkadian loanword).. mud-ñál: begetter ('to give birth' + 'to be') . abundance' + genitive). mun-gazi: spices.. an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt' ('salt' + 'cassia spice') . mu6[PA]-sùb: shepherd (PA as mu6 only occurs in this compound + 'shepherd') .. 'to give birth' + 'human being') . mu-mu-a: among all names = among known persons (reduplicated 'name' + locative).. to give as name ('name' (+ terminative) + 'to name'). to choose ('name' + 'to call. because (in a nominalized sentence). dirt. to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call.0 121 . to invoke. Sumerian Lexicon. to sprout. mu þé-ñál-la: a year of abundance ('year' + 'overflow.šè: iti because ('name' + terminative). appear') . gal5-la). this year ('year' + ? + nominative). mu(-šè). múru)..sa4: túg to name.. delivery (personal prefix + 'to bring').pàd/pà: mu-lugal. line on a tablet' + reduplicated 'single'). mu. previous') . swear').. mug. morning meal (time). feverish' + nominative). mu-sar-ra: (royal) inscription ('name. mu-dili-dili: individual entries (in a lexical series) ('entry. word' + 'to write' + nominative). for somebody's sake ('name' + genitive + mu-. an acceptable food offering for the dead (Akk. sentence' + 'to set down') . Version 3.pàd/pà: mu-ru(-b): (cf... mu-dù-ù-bi: all year long ('year' + 'to work' + 'after' + 'it'). dirty (rags). mu-šu-du7: mu-tuku: mu-túm: mu-ú-a: to be famous ('name' + 'to have') ..

na(4)-rú-a: ñiš stele. na-kab-tum: na-nam: indeed. equal') . slavery ('human being' + 'to check.. muš-da-gur4: gecko. big'). múš... face. drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate').used as a mixing bowl or trough ('back' + 'turtle').. instructions... calendar month 5 at Lagaš during Ur III. flowers' + genitive). after ('back' + ablative). conjugation prefix + b. plant' + nominative).. loanword. feed ('fodder' + 'domestic ox'). múrgu[LUM]-. to cease ('appearance' + 'to prepare') . to be sick. na(-šè)..ri(-g): to inspect. lung cancer (?) ('lungs' + 'illness. 3rd person marû singular subject marker + nominal) ... (munus) munu4-gu7: munus-kar-ke4: murgu-ba: kar-kid).. incense ('incense' + 'fire').. 'advice.mur-gig: mur-gu4: iti paralysis (?)....de6/túm: mùš-me: to stop working. strength' + 'partner.dub: comb or set hair ('appearance' + 'to heap up') .. (cf. 'to speak' in marû singular + e. nañ-TAR: Sumerian Lexicon. na-RI: instructions (cf. na. fowler ('bird' + 'to mould'). city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive). mušen-dù: na-ab-bé-a: thus does he/she speak (affirmative + î.ri(-g) ) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to advise') . fool ('human being' + 'to deliver' + 'spittle' ?). fodder. na-DU: read na. lizard ('reptile'+ 'arms. ná-gi4-rin-na: na4-šag4-túg: na4-šu-mìn: nañ-énsi-ka: nañ-ku5: stone weight for cloak ('pebble.. to cleanse. features ('face. appearance' + 'to say. divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit. forage. Version 3.de5[RI]: to give advice. instructions'. indicating a place for cattle to be inseminated). measure' + 'slave') .0 122 . sides' + 'plump.. na-DU). weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment') . na-gada: na-ñá-aþ: na-izi: herdsman (from Akkadian naaqidum.. dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect. shell . 'shepherd') . na. a cattle pen (Akk. to fell trees (cf. inanimate pronominal prefix + e.. anvil ('weight' + 'hand. tell') .ri6.. turtle carapace. reservoir created by erecting embankments off to the side of a canal to which to divert some of the flood water within the canal ('drink' + 'to cut'). to counsel in a friendly way (cf.-ta: iti murub4: calendar month 4 at Umma during Ur III.de6 or na.de 5) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to pick').. painful') . mùš. na-áñ-gi4-in: na.

worker'). gi4-me-a-aš). curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy. naña-si-è: sprouted alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth') . nam-ama: nam-bára: nam-dam: motherhood (abstract prefix + 'mother'). nam-érin: solemn oath. monarchy (abstract prefix + 'throne dais.. crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda.naña. nam-þé: nam-þul: nam-išib: abundance (abstract prefix + 'abundant') . importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy'). pride.. nam-kù-zu: wisdom. naña. nam-dugud: heaviness. strike') . Sumerian Lexicon. office of lord. ruler') . strength' + 'to be available'). function' + locative + plural suffix) (cf.kar: to take away one's destiny ('destiny' + 'to take away'). youth (abstract prefix + 'child').. elders (abstract prefix + 'father. nam-kiri4-šu-dù-a: supplication(s) (abstract prefix + 'supplication(s)'). true' + nominative). complicated' + nominative). perfection (abstract prefix + 'artistic. elder'). crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut') . fellowship (abstract prefix + 'to return. powder') . cleverness (abstract prefix + 'expert'). alkali' + 'to crush. nam-ki-áña: love (abstract prefix + 'to love') . nam-guruš: youthful vigor (abstract prefix + 'young man. feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big'). nam-galam(-ma): nam-gi4-me-a-aš: nam-gur4: majesty. nam-ab-ba: the older generation.kud/ku5: to curse (often with -ta -). purification. marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse') . nam-dumu: nam-en: childhood. lordship. nam. nam. collegiality. high priest (abstract prefix + 'lord'). expertise. nam-dùg/du10: something favorable (abstract prefix + 'sweet') .0 123 .dúb: naña-gaz: naña-kum: to wash with soap ('soap' + 'to flop about. destruction'). discomfort (abstract prefix + 'to harm'). bruise') .. nam-kalag: strength (abstract prefix + 'strong')..su-ub: to rub with soap ('soap' + 'to suck [away with]'). trade (abstract prefix + 'merchant'). alkali' + 'to crush.. nam-á-ñál: strength (abstract prefix + 'arm. Version 3.. nam-a-zu: medical arts (abstract prefix + 'physician') . nam-érim.. come back' + 'office.. nam-en-zi-da: true 'en'-ship ('lordship' + 'legitimate. nam-dam-gàr: nam-diñir: divinities (abstract prefix + 'deity'). pain.

. nam-šilig. nam-ra-ag: prisoner of war. people. nam-érim(-bi). mankind. 124 Sumerian Lexicon.nam-ku-li: friendship (abstract prefix + 'friend'). rulership. nam-lú-u18/lu7. 'why' + 'my. sing. nam-RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird').dug4/du11/e: nam-me: may he/she/it not be (na. position of supreme power (abstract prefix + 'queen') . ill-fated ('destiny' + 'not' + 'cut') . nam(-ga)-me-a/àm: nam-mu: nam-mul: nam-nin: nam-nar: should there not be (na. greatness (abstract prefix + 'high. exalted.kud: 'to cut') . to exalt ('greatness' + 'to effect') . bitterness (abstract prefix + 'to taste bitter') . + 'to change' in marû form). prohibitive + î. quarreling.. why does it concern me? (a-na-àm. to swear.aka: nam-sun5: nam-sun7: humility (abstract prefix + 'modesty') . 'impersonal conjugation prefix'. to practice shepherdship (abstract prefix + 'shepherd' + 'to do') .... nam-lugal: kingship (abstract prefix + 'king'). harmony (abstract prefix + 'musician').. nam-šeš(-a): nam-šilig: violence (abstract prefix + 'powerful.0 . profound (abstract prefix + 'great.aka: to use violence ('violence' + 'to do').aka: nam-sipa. superiority (abstract prefix + 'noble. Version 3.aka: to treat with human dignity ('humanity' + 'to do') . reputation. confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + adverbial force suffix) + PN nam-kúr-re: 'may PN not change it' (na. nam-sa6-ga: pleasure (abstract prefix + 'to please. fine.. nam-sañ-ñá. used for work. 'to be' } + (-a)-m.. satisfy') .. 'it'.. axe'). bickering (abstract prefix + 'quarrel'). nam-maþ. to treat with respect (abstract prefix + 'first-class' + nominative + 'to do') . prohibitive prefix + nasal î. treachery (abstract prefix + 'to lie. concert. conjugation prefix 'and then' + me. nam-nir-ñál: nam-nu-tar: nam-nun: deep. distinction. humanity (abstract prefix + 'human being' nam-lú-inim-ma: + 'huge') . + -ib-.. prohibitive + { î. deceive') . enclitic copula). nam-luþ: nam-lul: nam-maþ: purification (abstract prefix + 'to clean'). mine'). deep') . sparkling (abstract prefix + 'stars') . nam-lú-ùlu: nam-lú-ùlu. captivity (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal'). conjugation prefix + ga. great').. 3rd. conjugation prefix + 'to be') . authority') . the act of witnessing (abstract prefix + 'witness') .

'to suck') .su-ub: ne-šè: on whose behalf ?. ne. fire. death (abstract prefix + 'to die'). unit of sixty.gub: ne-þa: rest. ní-bi(-a): (by) itself ('self' + adverbial force suffix) .. security'). incantation.gub). nam-ùkur/úku(-r): nam-umun-na: nam-úš: NÁM-di: sovereignty (abstract prefix + 'title of respect' + nominative). poverty (abstract prefix + 'to be poor') .. ne-sañ: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. ì-dub ). nominative ?). or -ri-. destiny (abstract prefix + 'to determine.nam-šilig. swindle (?) ('planning ability' + 'legal case') ..tar: to decree the fate (most often with -ni-. Version 3.gum/gú-ñá-àm: place' + 'it is'). NI-dub: (cf. ne-mur: iti glowing coals.. guilt (abstract prefix + 'to handle') . concerning someone ('this one' + terminative suffix) . 'peace. supplication (abstract prefix + 'clean. nam-til-la: life (abstract prefix + 'to live').. calendar month 5 at Nippur during Ur III.. after that. ní-a: by itself ('self' + adverbial suffix) . fine steed (from Akkadian nisqum). to position oneself ('precise' + 'to stand'. 2. ní-ba: by itself ('self' + bi. with -da. NE-izi-ñar: NE-ra: (cf.. sg. as a result ('destiny' + 'it' + genitive). a resin ('this one' + 'to restore' + 'loins') . nam-ugula[PA]: nam-ur5-ra: foremanship (abstract prefix + 'foreman'). cf. NI-KUŠ-NÍÑIN: a vessel.indicates that several parties are deciding the fate).... fate.. nam-ti. it is disastrous (?) ('violence' + 'mortar/back of neck' + 'to nam-šita: nam-šub: nam-tag: nam-tar: prayer.. to make a firm promise ('destiny' + 'to determine') . nam. ni-is-ku: choice. spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast') . ne. repose (from Akkadian neehtum. responsibility. a class of persons or animals. ni-gi-da: ni-gi4-íb: ni-ik-tum: a resin (loanword ?). nisañ ).0 125 .. decide') . ní. bathed') . nam-tar-eñir-ra(-/ak/): the future order ('fate' + 'future' + genitive).. to kiss ('an instance' + sub. bí-ra). thing of sixty = ba-rí-ga (níñ-ñešta).. 'its' + a.

allay. ní-mu: ní.... to be afraid of something.. ní-balañ: ní. to calm down. to submit oneself to someone's protection ('self' + 'hand.lá: to diminish or humiliate (your)self ('self' + 'your' + 'to diminish'). to inspire awe. níñ-bal-bal: níñ-bàn-da: Sumerian Lexicon... awesome ('fear. níñ-áña: a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure. a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift') .. ní-guru6: ní-ñu10. present ('thing' + 'to give'). Version 3. lengthen') . to raise oneself ('fear. have'). níñ). awe ('fear. cool down').. coward ('fear' + 'to suck. great fear.gíd: ní. awe. ní(-zu).dúb: ní-gal: ní-ñál: to sail ('self' + 'to float over'. cf. ní šu-a. 'to extinguish.. to cool ('fear. transfer.. níñ-ak-ak: deed. imposing.gub: ní-gùr-(r). níñ-ba: gift. a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior').ní-buluñ5[DÚB]. shatter').dar: pompous ('self' + 'to grow big'). ní-zu/zuþ: (cf... ní-diñir(-/ak/): the fear of god ('fear' + 'god' + genitive). níñ-á-sì-ga: lú well-established (?) ('thing' + 'strength' + 'to set in place' + nominative).ri: ní-su-ub: return to') . nì: (cf.. check') .. awe' + 'great').... to pray.. ní-te(-n): alone.. to be fearful ('fear' + 'to slice.te(-en): to rest. strength' + locative + 'to to be scared. lú-ní-zu. to inspire fear (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to strike').gub).íla: myself ('self' + 'my'). self' + 'to raise')... to stretch out ('self' + 'to reach out.dirig: ní. ní. deliver') . to fear.... body' + ten.. awe' + 'bearing'). activity ('thing' + reduplicated 'to do'). ní-zu: yourself ('self' + 'your'). ní[IM].gi4: ní.. ní. terrifying ('fear' + 'to place'). túg-níñ-XXX ). lú-ní-zuþ). prostrate oneself') . ní. túg níñ-XXX: (cf. níñ-a-ru: níñ-á-ñar: violence ('thing' + 'arm. to relax ('self' + 'to knock down') . respect (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to attack'). ne. Sumerian Proverbs). trading of merchandise ('things' + 'to revolve.. to position oneself ('self' + 'to stand'.0 126 ...tuku: to experience awe or fear. personally ('fear' + 'to be frightened'). strength' + 'to set'). ní reading from Alster.. awesome ('fear' + 'to get.te/ti(-ñe26): ní.

níñ-bún-na(ku6): níñ-dab5: lú turtle ('thing' + 'blister. níñ-en-na: 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive). dishonesty.. níñ-gig: evil. possession.dug4: níñ-DUN: submission ('thing' + 'subordinate). nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + contraction of marû participial and nominative suffixes). níñ-igi. mongoose ('thing' + 'to twist'. used to break the clods left after harrowing ('thing' + 'to destroy') .. property owner ('thing' + 'piled up'). prescribed. truth ('thing' + 'true. a measure for fruit ('thing' + 'to erect on the ground' + nominative). trustworthiness. níñ-gur 11).. níñ-dù-a: níñ-du7: níñ.. consumption... wickedness. to speak unjustly ('thing' + 'violence' + 'to speak') . a length measure. níñ-dím-dím-ma: níñ-diri: NÍÑ-DU: created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion. receive') . níñ-gi-na: justice.. or as it should be ('thing' + 'suitable') . Version 3. wages ('thing' + 'to hold.nu-du8-a: nominative). níñ-GA: níñ ga-ti: I promise it ('thing' + 1st person cohortative modal prefix + 'to keep alive').. to be swollen') . taboo.dug4: níñ-á-zi. receive') . níñ-ñiš-tag-ga: offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering'). hire. níñ-ñál(-la): sickle ('object' + 'to fill a storage basket' + nominative). dnin-kilim). something designated for consuming ('thing' + 'to eat' + marû participial suffix) . food consumed ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominative suffix) . níñ-gur11[GA]: property. níñ-þu-þu-nu: helplessness ('object' + 'helpless'). níñ-érim: gi evil. níñ gal-gal: things of all sort ('thing' + reduplicated 'big') . cf. wide ('things' + 'copious') . something never seen (by an eye) ('thing' + 'eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open' + níñ-íl(-l): support ('thing' + 'to raise up') . what is suitable. níñ-gilim: sieve. spoiling. create' + nominative). injustice ('thing' + 'hostile'). ruining. maul. abomination ('thing' + 'illness'). níñ-esir-ra: washbowl (made of bitumen-coated reeds) ('thing' + 'bitumen' + genitive). níñ-gu7: níñ-gu7-a: níñ-gu7-da: níñ-gu7-dè: níñ-gul: food ('thing' + 'to eat'). fattened. supplement ('thing' + 'addition'). (cf. warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold. something held or for which responsibility is assumed. níñ-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: níñ-dañal: teeming.0 127 . reliable' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon. to say something ('thing' + 'to speak') .

springtime fruit ('thing' + Akk. to beat (up) ('thing' + 'to strike'). price ('thing' + 'to buy. níñ-ka-bi ba-ak: account settled ('account' + 'its' + conjugation prefix + 'to make'). muthummu ). níñ-gu 7). níñ-na-me. good') . n i k k a s). happiness ('thing' + 'sweet. (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy. from nakaasu . nikkassu . níñ-nu-mu-da-sá: nothing is comparable with it ('things' + 'not' + conjugation prefix + 'with' + 'to equal in value') . níñ-sa-þa(2): fruit remaining after the harvest. esteem' + nominative). pleasure.. nothing is precious ('anything' + 'not' + 'valued') .. also Akk. níñ-gaz: half-reed = 3 cubits (Akk. Version 3.níñ-im-ba: loss ('thing' + 'the paid out'). níñ-sá[DI]: níñ-sa6-ga: níñ-sám: goal ('thing' + 'to compare with. nature ('thing' + 'fate'). . result (of a mathematical operation or calculation) (from níñ-kal-kal(-la): níñ-kas7/ka9[ŠID]: níñ-ka9-ak: Akk. deceive' + nominative). good') . sell') . accounting. níñ-nam: anything ('thing' + emphatic prefix + 'to be').. níñ-nu-sa6-ga: níñ. 'something small'. esteem' + nominative). níñ-nam-nu-kal: níñ-nam-tar-ra: níñ-nu-dùg: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. account. 'to cut off') .0 128 .. níñ-kas7. silence. beasts ('things' + 'ground') . níñ-ki-sè: funerary offerings (cf. to throw something. níñ-lul-la: níñ-maþ: a lot. treachery ('thing' + 'to lie. níñ-ki: vermin. cf. the 'perfect tribute' ('thing' + 'to make silent'). níñ-ku5(-da): níñ-kúr: belligerence. wedge to tighten a bound join ? on a plow ('thing' + 'to separate' + nominative). balanced account ('account' + 'made') .ra: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. sell' + nominative [ + terminative suffix]) . níñ-kal-la: precious ('thing' + 'to value. níñ-me-ñar: níñ-mí-ús-sá: wedding gift ('thing' + 'woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value'). ki-sì-ga) ('things' + 'ground' + 'to apply') . níñ-sám/sa10-ma(-šè): Sumerian Lexicon. níñ-nam-kù: property made of precious metal ('possessions' + abstract prefix + 'precious metal') . garden fruit. to compete') . (urudu) níñ-sa-sa: roasting oven ('thing' + 'roasting') .. breaking an agreement ('thing' + 'hostile'/'to change') . acclaim. 'deduction'. good') . too much ('thing' + 'to be large') . níñ-kú: ñiš (cf.sahharu . everything valuable ('things' + reduplicated 'to value.

nin-diñir: high priestess ('lady' + 'gods'). justice. everlasting. 'to feel comfortable'). lustration priestess ('lady' + 'to purify'). weak'). níñ-šà-ñar-ra: famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominative).. livestock ('thing' + 'legs' + 'four').. níñ-u4-da-rí(-/ak/): níñ-u4-ì[ZAL]-li: with vowel harmony). níñ-zi(-šà)-ñál: living creature ('thing' + 'alive'). food' + 'to spit out ?'). pack-saddle ('thing' + 'cloth').. níñ-túg: níñ-tuku: blanket (for an animal).. níñ-ú-rum: possession. nim.níñ-si-sá: equity. wealthy ('thing' + 'to have') . to flash ('upper country' + 'lightning flash'). (sexual) happiness ('thing' + ur5. nin-uru 16). níñ-šu-ñá: everything in my hands ('thing' + 'hands' + 'in my').. rob') . níñ-ZUM-DIM4: niñir-si: paranymph. nin-išib: Sumerian Lexicon.. níñ-šu-ti-a: what(ever) one receives ('object' + 'to receive' + nominative). níñ-ŠID: (cf. níñ-šà-te-na: soothing to one's heart or mood ('thing' + 'heart. abandon' + nominative). private'). dough.. something coincidental ('thing' + 'if' + 'from' + genitive). something for the future ('thing' + 'days' + 'to pass' + participial marû e(d) níñ-ul: what is fit for the cult ('thing' + 'primordial'). a temple servant. níñ-tukum-ta(-/ak/): níñ-tur: a small amount ('thing' + 'small'). a man who had to take care of the bride before the young couple was married ('a bride's male attendant' + 'upright. níñ-sila11[ŠID]-ñá: níñ-šà-bi: what is in it. acquisition ('thing' + 'personal. níñ-sig-ga: weakness ('thing' + 'small. mood' + 'to soothe' + nominative). rich. níñ-kas 7/ka 9). something stolen ('thing' + 'to steal. fairness ('thing' + 'straight'). nin-EN: (cf.. normal') . persistent ('thing' + 'days' + 'long lasting' + genitive). Version 3. níñ-šu-taka4-a: objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send. níñ. contents ('things' + 'interior' + 'its').sa6. níñ-ú-zug4[KA×LI]: foul food ('thing' + 'plant.šub: to neglect something ('thing' + 'to let drop').ñír: to lighten. níñ-zú-gub: níñ-zuþ: lú food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set') .0 129 . níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6: sweetness. níñ-úr-limmu: four-legged creature.

supervisor of works. ninda-pad-rá: morsels of bread ('bread' + 'bite.5: nu-dùg(-ga): nu-dug4-ga: nu-èš: knife bearer . hierodule ('not' + 'sick. Sumerian Lexicon. bread to eat while sitting (?) ('bread' + 'to sit. nu-gi-na: nu-gig: unjust. ninda-durunx[DÚR. Version 3. a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat'). trip').DÚR]-na: ninda-gu: ninda-gu7: ninda-ñíri: ninda-KA-gu7: long-lasting bread (?). temple prostitute. to rely. dwell. nin-uru16: mighty queen ('lady' + 'mighty'). (cf. likeness' + 'shrine').ñál: to have authority. nin-nínnamušen: owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl'). nin ur5 ì-sa6: lady. nir-ñál-mè-a: respected in battle ('authority' + 'battle' + locative).d d nin-kilim: mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals'. food' + 'to eat') . authority. a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' ?). morsel'). ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mortar-ground flour' + nominative). to be reliable.a cultic functionary ('image. noble (one). trust in (with -da-) ('authority' + 'to be with'). ninda-àr-ra: ninda-ba: bread offering ('bread' + 'to give. a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter'). expert. NITAÞ-dun-gi: a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' ?). cf.. sweetheart ('lady' + 'to be/make comfortable. overseer ('not' + 'young') . 'snack-bread') . to divide. a type of bread ('bread' + 'expedition. a type of bread.. nu-a: to lack. reliance ('raised high' + 'to be') . opposed to ninda-gub-ba. ninda-bar-si: a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour. food ('bread. firm' + nominative).. apportion') . nir. pulpy dish (prepared) of green-malt ('bread' + 'to chew' + nominative).. a fish ? ('frog' + 'bite. nir-gam-(m): nir-padku6: vault ('raised high' + 'to curve') . ninda-sañ-gu7: ninda-síki[UD]: ninda-SÌLA: NIR-da: nir-ñál: the best bread for eating ('bread' + 'prime' + 'to eat'). nìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: husband ('male' + 'spouse'). níñ-gilim). be without ('not' + nominative). nu-banda3. to dry out' + nominative. not talking ('not' + 'to speak' + nominative). unpleasant ('not' + 'sweet. authorities. painful'). unfit ('not' + 'just. good' + nominative).0 130 . small repast'). šer 7-da ). happy').

pa-áñ: nostrils ('wings' + 'to measure. check')....aka: to show. Sumerian Lexicon. pa. luriinu..0 131 . sing. a worthless penny ('not' + 'silver. numun.ME(. ('not' + 'to be' + nominative).nu-ñar-ra: thriftless.. pa-è. payment.. nu-zu-a: unknown ('not' + 'to know' + nominative).PÙ): a tool ('seed' + 'rudder') .è. (cf. a plant (asa foetida) the fetid gum resin of whose root was used as a medicine ('not' + nu-kúš-ù: nu-luþ-þa(sar): nu-ma-su: nu-me-a: suffix) ... restlessness ('not' + 'to be tired'). you don't exist ('not' + me-en. PA+DUG-um: an allowance. to run out of seeds ('seeds' + 'to finish.. sprout' + 'to send forth' + 'to make') . nu-ñiškiri6(-k): ñiš gardener (pronominal prefix or dialectal lú --> nu ?).. to not recognize. fresh' + nominative). orphan ('not' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]') .e. to let shine. which is not. nu-kù: no money. good') .'fruit').ñar: ñiš to issue seed. to sow ('seed' + 'to place. deposit') .è/i-i: numun. numun-ñar-GUL: NUMUN-ñisal: numun-sum-gaz: numun. a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct') ... bring forth offspring ('seed' + 'to send forth') . precious metal'). rubbish' + genitive). disorderly ('not' + 'to store' + nominative). nurmû. pa(4)-þar: wages ('small canal' + 'coil of silver'. to make appear. nu-kúš: door pivot ('not' + 'to be tired'). nu(-un/ub)-zu: nu-zu: ignorant ('not' + 'to know'). a-pa4). nu-sa6: (ñiš) not good ('not' + 'sweet. 2nd pers. to not notice ('not' ( + 'him. temporal clause nu-me-en-na-ta: nu-mu-da-sá: (cf. nu-ma-su: widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]') . Version 3. 'to be clean.. nu-mu-un-su ).. 'to be'. put an end to') . níñ-nu-mu-da-sá ). lurmûm. Orel & Stolbova #2122 *riman.. nu-siki/síg: nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree) (Akk. i. to make resplendent (often with -nior bi -) ('bud. (cf. to not know. crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed') .til: NUN. num-saþar-ra: fly (insect) ('flying insect' + 'dust. her'/'it') + 'to know'). + a-ta. nu-ra: not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp').. cf.. nu-mu-un-su. abgal (2)).

puhru 'assembly'. a shepherd. garden' ?). cf.. lú ša13-dub-ba) ('vessel' + 'clay tablet') .. a part of the seeder plow (barig. leg. v. pa4-úgur[SIG7]: pa5-sig: paþ-zil: small branch canal ('irrigation ditch. stretch.. dried figs ('figs' + 'dried').. Sumerian Lexicon. Version 3. pil (2)). very wide. cf.zil). iti pa4-ú-e: calendar month 11 at Umma during Ur III. to bind' + nominative). leprosy' + 'to divide. parim ).. adj. (cf. leather worker (??) ('bellows' + 'to cut'. pisan-dub: container for clay tablets piš10. '36 liters in Old Sumerian period'. walking about. movable. peš-mur7: peš-peš: péš-(ñiš)gi: ñiš ñiš ñiš a palm tree product ('palm frond' + 'ridge'). strike') . to peel') .TUR: (cf.. þal. pi-lá: (cf. metaphor in pe-el(-lá): pe-en-zé-er: dùg. inner sanctum of a temple (cf... physically handicapped (reduplicated 'womb.tag: pu-úþ-ru-um: púñiškiri6: (cf. + 'plow'). an intestinal disease (?) ('legs. pú-lá: deep well ('well. thigh. share (Akk. irrigated orchard ('well.. þa-la). confinement. a functionary. to go aground (said of a boat) ('shore. ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'field. to declare' + nominative). pa4[PAB]-a-da-ga: flowing irrigation ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'flowing with water').. nemurx). pil(2)). hearth tender (?).. poverty. spacious. fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh'). pi-lu5-da: (cf. to walk.pa-paþ: pa-rim4: cella. ñadub. canal' + 'small')... PIRIÑ. pa4. pap-hal(-la): n..ba-al: to dig ditches ('irrigation ditch' + 'to dig'). carry. pil(2)). billuda ). pa-sa-lal-a: pa-TAR: PA+USAN: cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off') . cf. to expand. pèš-duru5: pèš-þád: PI-apin: pi-il: (cf. canebrake mouse or mole rat ('mouse' + 'reeds') . river bank' + 'to touch.0 132 ... (cf. to be wide') . *pah.. Orel & Stolbova #1926. pà-da: an occupation ('to find. cistern' + 'orchard'). unkin). a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift. assembly (Akk. loan.."close. cistern' + 'to be high. to hang.. lock").. reach') .

0 133 .. to face (cf. ru-gú: to withstand. reddish (reduplicated 'to roast (barley)'). Sumerian Lexicon. roasting' + 'residue' + nominative). to shake ('to strike' + þ. lú-ru-gú-da). sa-sa: roasting. 'many. sa-gaz. ñiš ri-gi4-bil-lú: a tool... samaanu 'skin disease') . ra-ra: to flatten. Version 3.. regular "tithe" or "offering" important to the temple economy ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') . cistern' + 'thing' + 'path' + genitive). sa-ZI-ZI-ŠÈ: terminative suffix) . si-par4: a type of net ('net'/'to fill' + 'to stretch out').. 'to cover' + 'big')..pú-níñ-ñìr(-/ak/): pitfall ('well. ra-aþ: to strike repetitively [with a hoe].g. to move in a direction opposite to. a trawling (?) net ('net' + 'to take out.lal/lá: to stretch the net. RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds'). burning. sa-ZI-ZI-a.. to commit murder ('robber' + 'to do').. cf. sa-tu: mountain. numerous'). yield') . to sweep. sa-li: a type of lyre ('string' + 'true measure'). bundle. supreme (Akkadian rabbu). sa-dúr) ('sinew.gi4: sa-þab: sa-þir: to prepare ('mat' + 'to restore' ?). to make wide (reduplicated 'to stamp') . šadû(m) I. courier (Akkadian rakbu). 'mountain(s)'). sabiitu 'gazelle').. ñiš sa-bí-tum: a musical instrument (Akk. sañ-gaz: highway robber ('head' + 'to smash'). to roast ('to roast (barley)' + 'for the sake of' + 'to go') . tendon' + 'to build ?'). rib-ba: enormous.. ri-ba: enormous. of straw) ('net' + 'produce. to tie with cords ('net' + 'to stretch') . ra(2)-gaba: rider. ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: sa-gaz... a tool ('net.. sa-par4. sa-šú-uš-gal: huge net ('cord. = 24 sìla in Presargonic Girsu and 40 sìla starting with Akkad period. sa. sa. low-lying end of a farmer's field ('?' + 'buttocks') . bundle (e. (metathesis of zipaþ ). supreme (Akkadian rabbu). sa-ma(-a)-ná: skin disease. net' + šúš/šú. im-ri-þa-mun). net. extract' + locative or sá[DI]. ri-þa-mun: (cf. sa-šè. grain diseases such as leaf rust (Akk. upper parts (Akk.DI: to evaluate ('value' + 'to judge') . to oppose. sá-dug4/du11: a capacity measure. sa-KU: arms (rare meaning.aka: to rob (someone: dative infix)..DU: ñiš sa-du8(-a): sa-dúr(-ra).

..dúb: to smash the head (often with -da-) ('head' + 'to knock down') . sañ-du: head ('head' + 'to walk'). sa 12-du 5.. sañ. librarian ('head' + 'to lay the warp of the land' ?.. to plan ('advice' + 'to apply. to compare') . from the Akkadian form šassukkum). sañ-èn-tar: overseer. sa12-ti-umki: sag9-þul: the eastern mountains.aka).. sañ-an-na: upper end of a field ('head' + 'to be high' + nominative).bala: plow guide ('head' + 'plow' + genitive). cf... sañ-du nu-tuku: sañ-dù: sañ-dub: triangle ('head' + 'shape') . to admonish ('head' + 'to fasten' + 'to do'. sa-gaz).gi4: to slay ('head' + 'smash' + 'to do'. regular worker ('head' + 'tablet-recorded') .aka: to enslave ('slave' + 'to take captive'). overwhelm (often with -ni -). both good and bad ('good' + 'bad') . wing'). sañ-kešda/kéš. sa12-du5: read sa12-sug5 ?. sañ. sa12-sug5. to pay attention (with -ši -). Version 3...0 134 .. sañ. to close ('head' + 'to send back') . sañ-apin(-na): sañ.tar: to notice ('head' + 'to investigate') .. adviser. to turn round') .... Sumerian Lexicon..sè(-g/k): to plot.. šaaqû).. to provide regular offerings (reduplication class) ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') . cf. handle') .sá.. registrar of deeds.. sañ-a-ki-ta: sañ. a term of derision ('head' + 'not' + 'to have') .... to shake the head ('head' + 'to turn') . lower end of a field ('head' + 'water' + 'to be lower' + nominative). to topple. sa12-su5[SAÑ-KU].bul: to toss or shake the head ('head' + 'to blow'. sañ-èn.. guardian ('head' + 'to investigate.. sá-sug5: land register manager.gíd: (cf. to take care of. sañ-ki. to turn round') . SAÑ-DÙN: (cf. sá..aka: to care ('head' + 'to do').... sañ. sañ...bala). sá-niñin(2): sá-pa: part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'branch.. idiot.gíd). ñizzal. sañ-gaz..... counselor ('guidance' + 'to halt. šassuk)..aka: sañ.aka: cf. sañ-gú-ne(-/ak/): cupbearer (loan from Akk. part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'to halt..ñar/ñá-ñá: to proceed. sañ šu.dug4/du11/e: sá-ñar: to reach. also read sa12-du5). arrive. to oppose (someone/something: -da-) ('the head' + 'to set') .

where these meanings derive by back-formation from this compound which derives from Akkadian šaraakum). sañ. at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive]. sañ. to surround') . bestow. sañ.0 135 ... to attach securely ('head' + 'to hold.ñar: weak' + 'to place') . sañ.kal: to choose. give as a present (with -ni.þa-za: up') . sañ/sa12. (cf. bow of a boat ('head' + 'boat') .sal-la: to be silly (?) ('head' + 'to belittle'). to take care of... prefer. point' + 'location' + 'bulky like an ox').kéš: to attend to. slave' + 'male').sè/sì-(g): to entrust. grant'. leader ('head' + 'excellent'). slave' + 'female')... guard ('head' + 'to bind').rig7: to donate. head-crown (cf. men-sañ ). Sumerians ('head' + 'black' + nominative. retain') . sa 12-su 5). sañ.. dowry. black-headed people.. sañ-ki: forehead ('head. female slave ('head. capital on hand ('in front.... grant.. prominent ('head' + 'to value'). sañ-ñišmá: sañ-men: sañ-mí: sañ-nitaþ: male slave.. sañ-kul: sañ-kur-ra: ku6 sañ-kúr[PAB]: a fish ('head' + 'strange'). sañ and 'capital' refer to the 'head' of an accounting column in different languages).. sañ-ki-gud: SAÑ-KU: ñiš trapezoid ('head. gift' + 'to deed. to pay attention ('head' + 'to apply... to lift the head (towards heaven). to raise up ('head' ( + 'unto heaven') + 'to lift sañ (an-šè). sañ-ñiš.. cf.. sañ-ki.. sañ-níñ-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): sañ-rib: sañ-rig7: (cf..sañ-sig.íl: sañ-kal-(l): foremost...sá: to vie with (with -da -) ('head' + 'to compare') . ki-en-gi(-r)).gíd: to get angry (with someone: -da-) ('forehead' + 'to lengthen').ra: to kill. sañ-kal-(l) ). lock ('head' + 'thick'). point' + 'place') .and -ri-) ('present.. Sumerian Lexicon. to watch.sar: to shave the head ('head' + 'to crop ?').. to bend or lower one's head (before someone/something: -ši -) ('head' + 'small. (grown) man ('head. sañ. grasp. sañ. murder ('head' + 'wood tool' + 'to strike'). Version 3... a foreign slave ('slave' + 'foreign land' + genitive).. to make foremost. gift. sañ-sig-ga: head-covering ('head' + 'small' + nominative). dumu-gir15/gi7 sañ-ñi6(-ga): and ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r).. kuš sañ-kéš: a thong connecting the yoke to the plow ('head' + 'to bind') .

saþar šu-bal-a: saþar šu-ti-a: saþar zi-ga: sar-KA×SAR-KA×SAR: SI. to turn into dust.A: (cf.gi4: saþar-ñar-ra: volume ('earth' + 'to accumulate' + nominative) (cf. to cover with dust or silt (redup. si-il: to split. weak (cf. sañ.. si-ga kala-ga: si-gal: ñiš weak and strong points... euphemism for 'to die' ('dust' + 'to turn.. straight' + 'form. Sumerian Lexicon.. si-ga: adj. earth moving ('earth. croissant ('horn-shaped' + 'large') .. to place into the ground.g. sig5). quiet. si-ga/ge: v. to collect earth ('earth' + 'to receive' + nominative).. silt' + 'to tear out.sañ.su(3): to pile up earth. a vegetable. 'to leave v. saþar si-ga: saþar. deliver' + nominative). to tear apart.dub: to raise a cloud of dust ('dust' + 'to shake. Version 3. silent.. cap ('head' + 'to cover') . sila). sig5 and sig). sáñ.. appearance') . 'remainder. earth for a levee or temple foundation). adj.sum: to hurry towards ('head' + 'to give'). silt' + 'to sprinkle. balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiaatum. lá-ìa[NI]). saþar(-da).sìg: to tremble. to go away. šassuk). return') . to si-ñar: si-ì-tum: behind'. sa 12-sug 5.. deduct' + nominative). si-BÀD-na: top of the sky ('straight up' + 'to ascend' + nominative).... to calm or put out a fire. constant. royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior').. dirig or (gi) ušub).. to scatter (with -da .. agitate') . to pile or fill up (e. immerse'). class) ('dust. silence (cf. to care for something's maintenance ('point' + 'to be moored to') . sañ. eunuch. sig5 and sig).0 136 . absent oneself (cf.. weak (cf.. sañ ú-a. silt' + 'hand' + 'to transfer.. increase' + nominative). SAÑ-SUG5: (cf.or -ta -) ('scattered' + 'to effect') .. bolt ('horn.. to move the head from side to side (with -da-) ('head' + 'to shake'). to strike down. deficit') (cf.túm: to defame ('first position' + 'to carry away').. level. sañ-sum-sikil: sañ-šu4: bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic'). to be available... silt' + 'to fill. ki-lá).. to remove earth or silt.. si-ig.dug4/du11/e: saþar. to transport earth ('earth..šub: sañ-ur-sañ: sañ-ús: to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop') ... si(-g): silence. šittu. si-ga: n.. earth piling ('earth.

to make straight.or bi -) (redupl. síg-ba: síg-bar: wool allotment. half-brick ('brick' + 'cow' = 'cow pat'). to sniff (reduplicated 'to fill' + 'wind' + 'to do'. calendar month 2 at Umma during Ur III. si-mú: to have horns.. 'coal').peš5: to card wool ('hair. wool' + 'to comb and clean') . (cf. síg-ud5: goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat') .. horned [can indicate a 'male' animal if only the male sex grows horns] ('horns' + 'to sprout..si-sá: si-si-ig: si-šuš-nu: a sea creature ('antennae' + 'to go down' + 'do not') . si-mùš: si-par4: shining horns. expel' + nominative). ration ('hair. expose') . Version 3. sa-par 4).. síg-babbar: síg ga-zum-aka(-a): carded wool. to yoke (often with -ni . si4-lum: sig-sig: a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly')..gub: sig4-ba: iti iti turtle shell (?) ('brick... to put in order. cf. 'an aromatic si-im-si-im. rays' + 'to glisten. whirlwind (reduplicated sìg. to tune (an instrument). white wool ('hair.0 137 . silig). shine') ..... sig4-báþar(-ra): sig4-ga: calendar month 3 at Nippur during Ur III. sig4-ñišì-šub-ba-ñar: Sumerian Lexicon. sig4-al-ur5-ra: sig4-anše. 'to demolish.. sìg. kiln-burnt brick(s) (cf.sá: to do something in the right way. si..aka: si-li-ig: (cf. legal ('straightness' + 'to equal') . to prepare. to stack a brick pile ('brick' + 'donkey' + 'to set'). light rays ('horns. síg-sur(-ra): spun wool ('hair.dug4/du11/e: sìg-sìg: sig4-áb: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg.(urudu) si-im: substance') . wool' + 'white').. baked brick (?) or potter's brick(?) ('brick' + 'potter' + genitive). 'to demolish. flatten') . get ready.ñar: to prostrate onself ('low' + 'to set'). narrow (reduplicated 'small'). to assemble in order. wall' + 'turtle'). si-sá: right. sig.. wool' + 'to spray out.. kettledrum(s) ? ('to fill' + 'wind'). síg.. to be destroyed ('stroke. to march in line. si.. šilig. flatten') . wool' + 'share. blow' + 'to apply') . appear') . class) ('straightness' + 'to equal') . rations') . ízi-ur5. šim-im. loosely hanging hair ('hair' + 'to uncover.

to howl (reduplication class) ('walls' + 'to sig4-gi4-a: roaring ('to resound' + nominative). su-zi: terror.. su(11)-lum.sum: to greet. apply'. s/šu(t)tinnu)... su(3)-þé[GAN]: su-lá-a: su-lim: salted or cured meat ('flesh' + 'to hang' + nominative). zi. Akk. šudun). to have/give gooseflesh. cf. su-ub: (cf... su-zìg/zi. borax (?) powder ('to stretch' + 'to support') .0 . su-gu7/kú: skin disease ('flesh..ri: su..gi 4). sig14[KA×LI]. quoted speech in the texts] ('prayer' + 'to speak') .. bat ('body' + 'to cure'.mar: sulummar). to be afraid of (with -da -) ('flesh' + zìg. awesome radiance.. 138 Sumerian Lexicon. še25. šalummu ). to resound. sig14.e: su-a: to say a prayer [often introduces direct. to greet. sig7-sig7: to be beautiful (reduplicated 'to be beautiful. 'to restore' + shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive). to take a different way ('street' + 'different' + 'to take'/'to traverse') .dug4/du11/di/e: to greet. pleasing') .sig4.. say') . sug 8). slag. skin' + 'to eat.. say "Hello" ('greeting' + 'to give') .gi4: answer') . to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into') . 'to stand up. mature young of animals ('lambs' + 'to stand') .. consume') .. quagmire ('to immerse' + 'to dissolve. to disgrace. sipad-udu-siki-ka: siskur.. silim. Version 3.. ñiš su-búru: su-din(-dal)mušen: su-din: butterfly. sub). sipad-ama-[ŠA.dé: silim. say "Hello" ('health' + 'regarding' + 'to call. cat (cf.zìg/zi: rise').. splendor (Akk.gi4: sila-kúr.dab5/díb: sìla-bàn-da: small sìla -vessel ('liter' + 'junior').]GAN: shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth'). treat with contempt. še26. shepherd of brought back (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rúg.... quicksand.. šalummatu. sila4-ga-sub-ba: sila4-gub: sila4-nim: offspring (children or of flocks). a type of copper. part of a wagon or plough (cf. early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early'). to shout. say "Hello" ('health' + 'to speak'). silim-šè gù. sila4-nitaþ: lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male'). milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominative).. sig 4.... loosen') .. sipad-amar-ru-ga: genitive).. mock ('body' + 'manure' + 'to coat. (cf.

šà-bi-ta: therefrom.su(3)-ud: (cf...li9-li9). pleasing') . ša-ga-ru: a kind of copper. Version 3. prime minister. sum-za-þa-ti/din: sún-si-mú: horned (or male) aurochs cow ('aurochs cow' + 'horned') . concentrated') .. su6-nam-ti-la: su6-za-gìn(-na): gi beard of life ('beard' + 'life' + genitive). brass ? ('to be lasting. 'minister of the interior' ('minister' + 'grand'). offspring ('womb' + reduplicated 'to revolve. to rejoice' + 'to measure. a type of onion ('onion' + 'good.. deliver'). lapis lazuli (-colored) beard. šà-bar: cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open. sù-ga: deceitful(ly) (cf. šà.. clean' + genitive.. za-þa-ti/din ). ziqnu. sù-rá: far-reaching ('far away' + 'to go'/indicator of ð phoneme in sud). deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-àm] ) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from')... šà. check') .. clean beard ('beard' + 'lapis lazuli. electrum ?. to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off').gu7: suþ-kešda: ornament ('carefully chosen' + 'to fasten'). ša-ra(-g): to dry up. ša-ra-ab-du: (cf.li9-li9: (cf. 'numerous'. sù(-ud)-áña: diamond ?.bala: to breed ('womb' + 'to revolve. clench') ... immerse' + 'freshness') .. šà-da: voluntarily ('heart' + 'with'). a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle. (cf.0 139 . Sumerian Lexicon. wither ('to dry up' + 'inundation') . su11-lum: SUD-la: (cf. 'beard'). su7-su7: a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor') . zú-lum(-ma) ). šà-a-bar-ra: bastard ('womb' + locative or 'seed' + 'to be foreign' + nominative).. šár-ra-ab-du ). sum-tab-ba: binding double sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominative).ÁB: creation ('womb' + 'cow')..dab5: to be angry ('heart. ŠÀ. stomach' + 'to grasp.. remove') . sug4). zú. sukkal-maþ: sum-GUD: sum-sag9: vizier. might be some wordplay with Akk. sug-zag-gi4. šà-bal-bal: ku6 descendant. ša-ra: syllabic spelling for šár-ra. sud ). deliver') . sum-sikil: garlic ('onion' + 'pure. a type of onion ('onion' + 'robust like a bull'). su11..

gíd: to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to measure') . stomach' ( + 'in the') + 'to find. shape') .. šà-þúl-la: delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominative)... to make haste').šà.lá: šà-lá-lá: to (en)gorge.. to be hungry ('hunger' + 'to have') . sustenance ('stomach' + 'enlarge') .. grain heap') . to care. stomach' ( + 'to the') + 'a large silo'). cf. true' + nominative).. šà-ka-tab: hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble. šà-íb-ba(-/ak/): anger ('midst' + 'loins' + genitive).. will. šà-gada-lal).. worry') .. to change one's mind ('heart. šà(-ge)... šà(-ge). cf.. linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape'.. one's nature ('heart' + 'to be firm. true heart. šà-dub-didli: recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate. šà-lá-lá)..kúr/kár: change') . to make love to. will' + 'gods').. load') . be bright.dar)..tuku: šà.dar: to be afraid ('stomach' + 'to slice'. the heart's desire ('heart' + 'to dwell'). šà-ne-ša4: supplications ('heart' + 'this' + 'to grieve')..diri: to overeat ('stomach' + 'to exceed').e. mood' + ergative agent marker + 'to šà. the (secret) will of the gods ('interior. to calm down the heart ('heart' + 'to rest').... declare') . to choose ('heart. šà-lá-sù(-d): merciful..0 140 . belt ('stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. stuff ('stomach' + 'to extend. šà-þul-gig: hatred ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to be sick. fodder. šà-ñar....pàd: Sumerian Lexicon. šà-gi-na: šà-gi8[IGI]-guru6/7: šà-gig-ga: an aching heart ('heart' + 'to be sick. to take counsel with (with -da-) ('heart' + 'to be tired.kúš(-ù): to rest the heart. šà-ki-áña: a loving heart ('heart' + 'to love' + nominative). shepherdess ('heart' + 'to extend' + 'far'). painful' + nominative)..dím: to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make').. šà(-ge). all that one wants ('heart... clothed (cf. šà-šè.. šà-dùg: a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet')... Version 3. šà-þúl-la. šañar). cf. šà-diñir-re-e-ne: šà. painful'). šà-ga-dù: šà-gada-lal: šà-gal: food. individual').þuñ: to pacify. hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit'. a voluntary offering ('heart' + 'eyes' + 'to shine.dirig: to be overflowing with joy ('delight' + 'to exceed'). šà-þul. i.guru7: šà-ñál: šà-ñar: what is in one's heart. šà. ní.

porcupine ('pig' + 'to cut' + 'to protect' + 'outside. starved.. without recompense ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative). pisan-dub). etc. trustworthy. small. šà-zu: midwife ('womb' + 'to know').. še-ba: barley rations distributed by the administration of the temple. še-ba: to be careless. pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants.0 141 . + 'to follow' + nominative. šagan-lá: peddler. acre ('womb' + 'to be suitable. and further distribution ('barley' + 'to open. to prepare. šàr-ra-ús-sa: body guard (from Akkadian šarru . to obtain') . porcupine ('pig' + 'outside. (reed-mat) sieve ('gut-like container' + 'to press out a liquid') . empty' + nominative). wrap'). to cool/soothe the heart ('heart' + 'to calm. Version 3. weak' + nominative).. barley lost in processing. 'to fall. še-bal: iti šab.. grass') . šub. fleece' + reduplicated 'dot. dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4. šakan-kéš: basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil'. 'king'. + 'to bind. crush') . ñadub. Sumerian Lexicon. speckle') . calendar month 3 at Umma during Ur III.. disappear') . šár-ra-ab-du: a temple official (from Akkadian šarru . šà-uru(-/ak/): šà-zi-ga: excitement ('heart' + 'to rise up' + nominative). cool down'). administrative director.sìg: šà-su-ga: šà-sù-ga: (gi) to be oppressed ('heart' + 'to strike. palace. še-bar-ra-ñál-la: še-bi: value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its'). 'to lay bare. 'slave'). to spawn eggs (said of a fish) ('intestines' + 'to expel a liquid'). release')..sur: šà.. šáþ(2)-bar-gùn(-gùn)-nu: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4): "bush pig" ('pig' + 'trees' + 'reeds').. šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4)(-ì)-gu7-e: šáþ(2)-niga: šaþ(2)-ú: fattened pig ('pig' + 'fattened'). field. šà. 'king'. to have diarrhea. šà-sur: šà. negligent (cf.šà-sig-ga: a depressed heart ('heart' + 'low. town center ('interior. porcupine ('bush pig' + 'it eats') . še-búr-ra: grain released for transport. hungry. storage. grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish'). fleece' + 'to šáþ(2)-zé-da-bar-sur-ra: spray out') . áña-ús. cf. lú ša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba: archivist (cf. midst' + 'town' + genitive). + abdu. womb ('insides' + 'child'). commissioner ('heart' + 'to be polished') ..šed7: šà-tam: šà-túm: šà-tur: credible. trader ('a large jar for oil' + 'to carry'). rations') . ('barley' + 'portion. 'policeman').

še.ñál: to have authority (Emesal dialect for nir. ox' ( + dative) + 'to feed').. to obey.. join' + nominative). še-sañ11-ku5). to cover with. to agree (with -ši -) (cf.. (cf. še-lum-lum: še-muš(5): še-namušen: bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter').. 'to be many' or zár.še.. good crops. sim. grain' + 'to pour')..dug4/du11/e: decorate with colors' + 'to effect') .. barley sprouts ('grain corn' + 'juniper').. shine. barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver. to sow barley. fresh'). light. 'to še-er.. 'load' ?). še-er-tab-ba: haystack. deposit') .. glimmer (syllabic spelling of šér. 'to be many' + gùn. še-li: pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). harvested grain that has just been threshed and only roughly measured with a stick še-ñar: še. interweave') .ñar: še ñiš-è-a: ('grain + 'stick' + 'to exit from' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon.. fine grains. še-ì-ñiš: sesame seeds. Version 3. še-GUD: einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'robust like a bull'). še-gibil: še-gu-nu: še-gub-ba: barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand. deposit') ... grain spent as oxen feed ('barley' + 'bull.. še-er-gu/kum: a long string of dried fruit (probable syllabic spelling of Semitic root.è: ñiš-è-a). še-LÚsar: coriander ('grain corn' + 'man or many') [ŠELU archaic frequency: 28]. late barley ('grains. new grain ('grains' + 'new. še-íl-la: calendar month 12 at Lagaš during Ur III.. cornstack. set' + nominative).. sínmušen). še-ñiš-ì. barley' + gunu. to adorn (with -ni -) (šár.dé: ñiš to clean barley after winnowing ('barley. še ñiš.ñál). še-er. crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush') . sig10). še-ga/ge: še-GAZ: favorite.lá: to carry grain. še-gur10-ku5: (cf. 'sheaf' + 'to bind.. sè(g).. itiše-sañ11-ku5). še-er-zi: shine brightly') . 'to še-er-ka-an. 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('corn' + 'sweet')..0 142 . to buy with barley ('barley' + 'to deliver. še-er-še-er.. še gud(-rá) gu7: iti še-gur10-ku5: (cf. sesame oil ('grain' + 'tree' + 'oil'). (cf.. še še-dùg: še. a type of reed fence (šár. to winnow grain ('grain' + 'to lift').ra(-an/aþ): iti to thresh grain by beating with a flail ('grain + 'stick' + 'to strike'). 'to lace. to be obedient.

gi4: (cf. ŠIM×KÚŠU: šìr-kug: ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle. calendar month 3 at Ur during Ur III. an aromatic substance . crime. še. sacred song.0 143 . gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring'). calendar month 3 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3... calendar month 12 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3. compete with') .. whale ?') .. šim-gam-gam(-ma): to shrivel') .ak. šim-su-SÁ: cologne. blame.. še10. junior') . šim-nañ: šim-PI-PI: an aromatic substance.šub: še. šìr. an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'.áña: to sing. še-sañ(11)-ku5: iti harvest ('grain' + 'to harvest ?' + 'to cut') .zil-zil(-la): ŠÈ-ba-an: a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'. incantation ('song' + 'sacred.. punishment. šeš-bàn-da: šeš-da-gu7: calendar month 2 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. capital offense. si-im-si-im... to dehusk barley ('barley' + reduplicated 'to peel') . šeš-gal: šika-ri: older brother ('brother' + 'large'). sa-dúr(-ra)). to throw away') . Sumerian Lexicon.gi4). younger brother ('brother' + 'young. shattered potsherds ('potsherd' + 'to break open. šen-šen: šer7-da: iti combat. tiny' + 'to mourn'). to moan ('grain. strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' ?)... calendar month 1 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.ša4: še..used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick'). to follow'). ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: (cf. calendar month 1 at Ur during Ur III. še-sa: roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast').... še.su-ub: še... šim-gig: šim-im: lú frankincense .. ba-an). 'treading' by animals as a way of threshing grain ('barley' + 'to drive. holy') .. to cry (out) ('song' + 'to mete out') . calendar month 11 at Lagaš during Ur III.dúr: to fart ('excrement' + 'to break wind'). še25/še26. calendar month 1 at Umma during Ur III.. še-sañ11-ku5: calendar month 12 at Nippur during Ur III.turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend.še-numun: še-ri-ga: seed ('grain' + 'seed'). perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal.. to thresh grain by beating ('barley' + 'to throw'). cf.ús: to harvest barley ('barley' + 'to suck'). Version 3. cf. spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink')... sig4.. 'to sniff')..

šìr-ra-nam-en-na; šìr-re-nam-nir-ra:
genitive).
ñiš/urudu

song of lordship ('song' + 'lordship' +

šìr-šìr:

chain (probable Akkadian loan word). regular, daily offering ('hand; portion' + locative + 'steady' + nominative).

šu-a-gi-na: šu...aka:

to take captive ('hand' + 'to do') .

šu-bal...aka: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do') . šu-gibil-gibil...aka:
to renew ('hand' + 'to renovate' + 'to renovate' + 'to do') .

šu/šú-luþ...aka: to clean (a canal) ('hand' + 'to clean' + 'to do'). šu...ba: šu...bad: šu...bal: šu...bar:
(cf., šu...bad , šu...bar ). to release ('hand' + 'to open') . to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change') . to release, let loose ('hand' + 'to open, release') .

šu...búru: to open the hand ('hand' + 'to open') . šu-da: hand and forearm, as a unit of measurement, ell/cubit (cf., kùš) ('hand' + 'arm'). šu-dab(5)(-ba): šu...dab(2,4,5):
sale ('hand' + 'to clasp, take away' + nominative). to take or accept ('hand' + 'to hold, take, receive') .

šu-kíñ...dab(5): to perform a service; to kneel down ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize'). šu...dag: šu...dar: šu...de6:
to roam about; to run away ('hand' + 'to roam'). to slaughter (redupl. class) ('hand' + 'to slice, split, shatter') . to set to work ('hand' + 'to bring') . loyal ('hand' + 'subservient' + nominative).

šu-dim4-ma: šu-dù-a: šu...dù:

length measure of 10 fingers = 16.666 cm. ('hands' + 'to stack') . to bind the hands; to apply one's hands to ('hands' + 'to fasten') . to destroy ('hands' + 'evil' + 'to fasten') .

šu-þul...dù: šu...du7: šu...du8: šu-du8-a:

to embellish; to put on the finishing touches; to complete; to make perfect (with -ta -) (reduplication class) ('hand' + 'to complete') . to hold in the hand (with -ni - or bi -) ('hand' + 'to open') . guarantee ('to hold' + nominative).

šu-du8-a...DU(de6/túm): to act as guarantor for ('guarantee' + 'to bring, carry'). šu...dug4/du11/e:
to touch; to place, put ('hand' + 'to effect') . to supply, to provide (generously) with (with -ni -) ('hand' ( + to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to effect') .

šu(-dañal)...dug4/du11/e:
'wide, copious') + 'to effect') .

šu líl-lá...dug4/du11/e:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

144

šu pe-el lá...dug4/du11/e:
'to penetrate, pierce' + 'to effect') .

to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' +

šu sá...dug4/du11/e:
effect').

to attain ('hand' + 'to reach, arrive') .

šu sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: to confuse, disconcert; to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to šu-tag...dug4/du11/e: šu ùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: šu-dul5:
iti

to adorn; to decorate (with -ni -); to sprinkle; to paint ('hand' + 'to (cf., šu

weave, decorate, strike' + 'to effect') .

sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e).

(cf., šudun ). calendar month 8 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Ur during Ur III.

šu-eš-ša:

šu-gána: šu-gi(4):
return') .

agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field'). old ('hand' + 'to return' ?, 'to lock up' ?, 'reed-like' ?). to bring back; to lead back; to repay; to repeat; to answer ('hand' ( + locative) + 'to

šu(-a)...gi4: šu-gíd:
out') .

dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out') . to accept; to observe/inspect the offering animal (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd; 'hand' + 'to reach to jumpily move around ('hand' + 'to leap, dance') .

šu...gíd:

šu...gu4-gu4-ud: šu...gur: šu...ñál: šu-ñar:

to roll; to wrap; to wipe ('hand' + 'circular motion'). to hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in') .

effect ('hand' + 'to deliver'). to perform a task; to carry out; to be favorable; to cease doing something (with -ta -)

šu...ñar:

('hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu(-a/šè)...ñar: to be/place in the hand; to subdue ('hand' + locative/terminative + 'to deliver'). šu-šu...ñar:
to grant a pardon ('hand' + 'hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu-þa: robber (cf., šu-ku6(-d)). šu...þa-za:
to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to hold, grasp') .

šu-þal-la: open hand ('hand' + 'to divide, distribute' + nominative). šu...þu-uz:
(lú)

to roast; to burn ('hand' + 'to rage at') (cf., šu...ru-uz ).

šu-i:

barber ('hand' + 'to sprout' ?). prayer (hand-raising) ('hand' + 'to raise' + nominative).

šu-íl-la(2): šu...íl:

to build; to grow rich ('hand' + 'to raise') . to take away; to withdraw ('hand' + 'to take away') .

šu...kar(2):
ñiš

šu-kár:

tools, parts, components ('hand' + 'to encircle, besiege') .

šu ki-in-dar: full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices'). Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0 145

ñiš gi

šu-KIN:

sickle ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . faggot of reeds ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . fisherman ('hand' + 'fish' + ?; should read ešsadx ?).

šu-KIN:

šu-ku6(-d):

šu(-a)-lá: paralyzed, folded, idle (said of hands) ('hands' + locative + 'to bind, diminish'). šu-lá-a:
entrusted ('hands' + 'to hold' + nominative). to defile; to reach; to bind (the hands); to wring the hands ('hand' + 'to pierce, to hold in the hand, suspend from the hands ('hand' + 'to bind, hold, hang') .

šu...lal/lá-lá: šu-šè...lal/lá: šu(4)-luþ:

penetrate; to stretch; to bind; to hold') .

ritual cleansing, purification ritual, lustration ('hand' + 'to clean') . purification ritual man, lustration priest ('ritual cleansing' + nominative). diviner; omen (cf., šu...gíd; 'hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out') .

šu-luþ-þa:

šu-maš-gíd-gíd: ŠU-ME-EREN: šu...mú:
na4

cypress resin (cf., (ñiš)šu-úr-me).

to enlarge; to expand (with -ni -); to pray (with dative) ('hand' + 'to grow') . pestle ('hand' + 'stone') . grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole') [? ŠUNIGIN archaic frequency: 1]. subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole'). to proceed; to hurry ('hand' + 'to make the rounds') .

šu-na:

ŠU+NIÑIN: ŠU+NÍÑIN: šu...niñin:

šu-nim-ma: early to work ('hand' + 'early' + nominative).
(ñiš) iti

šu-nir:

standard; emblem with woolen streamers; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high') . calendar month 4 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 4 at Nippur during Ur III. to expand; to spread out ('hand' + 'womb; to expand') . to knead clay and form it into a tablet; to erase ('hand' + 'to beat, stir') . to wring the hands over (with -ši -) ('hands' + 'to place against') .

šu-numun:

šu...peš: šu...ra: šu...ri:

šu-ri(2)(-a): one-half ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominative). šu...ru-uz:
to burn; to roast; to glow (cf., šu...þu-uz ). to rub ('hand' + 'to make a harvesting motion') .

šu...sañ11/siñ18:

šu-si: finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna') . šu(-a)...si: šu-šè...si: šu si...sá: šu...si-ig:
to fill the hands (with) ('hand' + locative + 'to fill'). to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'towards' + 'to fill'). to do things to perfection; to see that all is right ('hand' + 'right; legal'). to hit with the hand ('hand' + 'to strike down, silence') . to wave the hand ('hand' + 'to beat rhythmically') .

šu...sìg(-sìg): šu...su-ub:

to gather up; to collect; to scrape together ('hands' + 'to suck') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

146

0 147 .... to take up.sud/sù: šu.. (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work').tag: šu. to gain.and bi -. + 'to speak/do') . ta-àm )..ùr: šu-ùr-ra: šu.. šu. šu. to send.. to be double' + nominative).. to cover. Sumerian Lexicon. to erase. dispatch... adopt. escape ('hand' + reduplicated 'to interfere') .. staples. sing. to receive.. (cf. to push or knock on (a door). 'together'. bound' ? + 'grain. to send.. perhaps from the boxwood ('shiny.rá: lú to pray ('to pray' + 'plural. accept.lal: to open ('to open' + 'to reach').zi-zi(-g): šub-lugal: subordinate of the king ('to drop... etc. accepted (with terminative and -ši -) ('hand' + 'to approach') . tab-ba: TAG.. goods. ten ). enclitic copula). to be taken. to come.. dispatch (with dative) ('hand' + 'to push') .. to delegate' + 'king'). furious'). te-eš..ME: partner ('to join. to deprive') . šu-úr-me: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('to pour' + 'tree trunk' + 'to be'). to adorn. go') . (cf. to grab.. to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push') .taka4: šu.. true') .. also with -ta -) ('hand' + 'to drag over') .. to nibble or lick one's fingers ('hand' + 'to gnaw.. scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to shear' + nominative). Version 3.. šu. šul-zi: worthy young man ('young man' + 'good. tám-še-lum: te-àm: te-en: a resin. person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominative). šúr-dùmušen: ta-àm: what is it? ('from' + 3rd.šu.ti: šu-ti-a: šu-tu-tu: šu. received ('to receive' + nominative). (cf. 'to plunder. to give..sum: šu-šúr: to stretch the hand out after something ('hand' + 'to make remote'). to hold out in the hand ('hand' + 'to reach to raise one's hand (in violence) ('hand' + reduplicated 'to rise up') . nibble') . decorate') ..te: šu... taka4. to wipe (with -ni .ti).dug4/du11/e: to put together (?) (téš. šùd. to entrust ('hand' + 'to give') . decorate (often with -ni -) ('hand' + 'to weave. šuku-dab5-ba: šul-a-lum: punishment (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu.. seizing ('hand' + 'fierce.. to borrow. šum ).ús: out') .túkur: (ñiš) to take (variation of šu. seed' + 'productive') .taka4: šu-a...

. tu-lu: to be/make loose or limp (Akkadian tulluu. ti-mud. téš. te-te(-ma): téš-bi: (cf. TU-gur4mušen: (cf. brace.. Sumerian Lexicon. te-me-en... tigi-nì-du10-ga/e: til-lu-ug: elephant ('lion-killer' ?). cause'). strongly ('to live.. rib ('rib').dirig: tud-sum: onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion') . tud). ti-rí-ñálal: ñiš ti-zú: barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth. téš(-bi).. tum12-gur4mušen).i-i: to pray ('together' + 'to rise'). to be frightened. shameless ('shame.. tir-an-na: rainbow ('forest' + 'sky' + genitive). healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/). ti... assault. tu15... modesty' + ('not' + ) 'to have'). tu-ud: (cf... tu6-tu6: incantations (reduplicated 'exorcistic formula'). to answer') . deep')... (cf. to consume ('together' + 'to eat').ñál: to create life ('life' + 'to give birth' + 'to be'). téš(-a).sì-ke: to make agree ('together' ( + locative) + 'to put. marû stem.dirig ).0 148 . flint'). 'arrow' + 'to enclose' + 'high. 'flood'. to bake') . temen). túg-dim-gal(-la-k): sail on a mast ('cloth' + 'mast' + genitive)... ti. ti-na: adv. téš. place.. together ('together' + adverbial force suffix) .. to signal (?) ('arrow' + 'to revolve'). Version 3. tu-ra: (cf. a small bird ('arrow' + 'city' + 'to dwell'). to attack. 'to hang up') ... cf.ra: to shoot an arrow ('arrow' + 'to stab').(nu-)tuku: to have (no) shame. TÚG-DU8: textile fuller ('cloth' + 'residue. te) ... ti-mar-uru5: arrow quiver (?) (play on tu15-mar-uru5 (?).. 'Oriental plane tree').gu7: to devour everything.. túg-bir7-ra: torn clothes ('cloth' + 'to rip to pieces' + nominative)..bal: ti-gi4: dug kettledrum ('to approach. tur5). ní. te-ñe 26). ñiš tu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum. harp of beautiful sound ('harp' + 'thing' + 'sweet' + genitive). to assault' + 'to return. worried (alternating class. te-me: (cf. meet (someone: dative). ñiš ti: strut. ti-lim-da: a vessel ('lives' + 'thousand' + 'with').te-ñe26(-d): to approach.

.0 149 . túg-níñ-dára-gála-sír-ra: túg-níñ-dùn-dù: túg-níñ-lal: túg-níñ-lám: pubic band or napkin for a woman ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind. little ones (cf.ñá-ñá: Sumerian Lexicon. túg-ZI-ZI-a: ñiš tukul. harvest') . the first plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'to cut. Version 3. sash' + 'vulva' + 'dense. di 4-di 4-la ) (reduplicated 'little').. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould'). TÙN. break' + nominative). sash') .sìg: tukumbi. morsel of food ('stomach. depression. tùr-gù-nun: tuš. túg-me-zé-er-ra: rags ('cloth' + 'function' + 'to tear up.... túg-ku-ru-um: mourning (?) clothes (Akkadian kuuru . a festive garment. weapon' + 'to strike. sanctuary with the loud voice ('birth-hut as metaphor for sanctuary' + 'voice' + 'great. túg-mu-dur7[BU]-ra: túg-níñ-bàra-(g): (cf. túg-níñ-dára: loincloth ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape') . mu-dur 7(-ra) ).. feverish' + nominative). northwind ('wind' + 'anger'). didi . to strike') .gu7: tur-tur: noble') . bed spread ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'stretched out') . hurt') ... to dwell ('home' + 'to establish') . belt. fine quality clothes ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to gasp' + nominative).... the last plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'deep').-nu: tum12[TU]-gur4mušen: turtle (?) dove ('dove.ùr: to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave.. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'vulva' + genitive). pigeon' + 'plump. 'daze. to make a sacrifice ('clothing' + 'to drag') . break. túg-íb-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist. big'). túg-šà-ga-dù: cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. TÚG-TAG: túg-TAR: túg.. except ('if' + 'not'). hips' + 'to mould').túg-gú-lal: túg-gur8/gur: blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape') . tumu-mer: north. short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut'). to slaughter ('mace. to eat modestly ('little' + 'to eat').. belt. stupor') . magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominative). dress ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality') .PAD: tur. lip' + 'bite of food') . TÙN. túg-níñ-sal-la: túg-níñ-ur5-ra-ak-a: túg-siñ18: shape') .bar: to hew or split with an axe. slice.

. plants' + 'to persist') .0 150 .ri(-g): a resin measured by volume. to stem (the flow of water). lu-úb (cf. harvest') .. udul )... udug ).. kušu/kušum x(-ki). ú-gu(3).tag ). hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dwell. 'to watch... ú-sañ11: fascine to sustain a canal bank or levee ('plants' + 'to cut.nú: ú-si4-an to lie down in security ('food' + 'to persist' + 'to lie down') ..tag: ú-a: (cf.. ú-šè.. ú-durunx[DÚR. úzug).. ). Sumerian Lexicon.. to dry out' + nominative). ulušin ). ú. Version 3.GÙN: (cf.. (cf.zé: ú-sal: a low-lying fertile area along a watercourse ('grass. break. to disappear. U. Ú-TIR: a spice or seed measured by weight.. to diminish. to be deaf.. the eating of which is a metaphor for sexual intercourse ('plant' + 'honey'). ú-làl: a sweet water-plant. pasturage ('plants. to dine.. protect') . caretaker...PIRIÑ. to bring') . evening ('food' + 'red' + 'sky'). guard. provider ('food' + 'water' or nominative).þúb: ú-kíñ-ñá: ú.U... to collect firewood ('plants' + 'to glean. nettles (?) ('plant' + 'anger/heart' + 'illness'). to sprinkle') .DÚR]-na: ú-gíd-da: long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominative).dé: to lose. grass. to cut fascine plants ('fascine' + 'to cut') .. udul)... to be lost (ugu. possession (cf.. Ú-NINNI5 [TIR/TIR]: ú-nu-kíñ-ñá: ú. to tear out plants ('plant' + reduplicated 'to tear out') . personal (property).'top of the head' + 'to sink') . food' + 'to seek.. ú-rum: private. ú-tul: (cf.bu-bu(-r): ú-du(-l): ú-dug4: (cf. ú-sañ11.sud/sù: ú-sug4: unclean.lá: to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand') .... to eat ('food' + 'to sip.. menstruating woman (cf. ugun). ùru[-m].. sar ú-lipiš-gig: ú-lu-úbsar: ú-lu5-ši: leeks (cf. ú-li: herb(s) ('plant' + 'fine smelling'). ú-sal-la. to deafen. ú-šim: grass and herbs = pasture (a Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). ú-kíñ-ñá )... ú. untested grazing grounds (cf. work' + nominative)..ñin/gub: ú.

pronominal prefix + 'to throw. ù.. ù-ma/ù-na.. 'confusion.di). to ignite. apportion out') . ù-nu-ñar-ra: ù-sá: sleep ('sleep' + 'to equal in value'.. to pray to.. pustule. cf. a platform for molding or drying bricks (same form as udun. fraud (pronominal prefix + 'not' + 'established' + nominative). unclean woman') . rejoice'). to enter') . u 4-bar ).gub: to attain victory.. ù-an-bar: ù-bu-bu-ul: ù-di: Akkadian bubu’tu(m) ).. cf.....sù: ù-ma. ñiš ù-suþ5: fir or spruce tree or wood (phonetic spelling shows original full pronunciation of suþ 5. adj. at the right moment ('time' + 'moment' + adverbial ù-tu-(d): ù-ur5-re: u4. cf. plop'..-a-gin7: u4... to create ('to lie down' + 'to create'. (cf. ('time' + 'as. daze.á-bi/ba(-/ak/): u4-an-na: light of the heavens ('light' + 'heaven' + genitive). cf.. to rest ('sleep' + 'to lie down.0 151 . nothing (pronominal prefix + 'numerous'). to sprout. n... to enter') . all this (pronominal prefix + 'these'). ù-sá. 'kiln for bricks'. 'sleep' + 'to seize'). 'to chip out. 'when in battle') . ('time' + 'after'). foul food ('food' + úzug.. victory. cf. (at the time) when. ñi6.. after (the time) when. flame (pronominal prefix + reduplicated bul(4)..ú-za-gìn: ú-zug4: ù-a: fresh hay ('grass' + 'clean').. ù-na: to send out offshoots (pronominal prefix + 'clean' + 'to stretch. sleep ('to sleep' + nominative)... tud).(-a): u4..ku(4): ù-la: anything. bu(5). Sumerian Lexicon. wild cow..... while.ñar/ñá-ñá: take oaths') . to give birth. ñi6. 'midnight'). šab. pugnacious. to entreat (with dative) (prospective modal prefix + 'evil' + 'to ù-gul. rest. Version 3. when').. to be or do on time. drop. bright light (?) (ù for u4 ?). 'menstruating. ù-lul-la. impetuous. ù-sun[BAD]: ñiš ù-šub: brick mold. [this brackets an entire phrase] ('time' + nominative or genitive). domineering... ù-mu-un: Emesal dialect. sleep.sá.. sún .. scepter of pure..... encircling wall') .. triumph (prospective modal prefix + me-a.. to uproot. depression (cf..dab5: to be overcome by sleep (ù-sá.. en .ku(4): to sleep (reduplication class). u 6-di ) ('sleep' + 'to go'.. u4. ù-luþ-gi4-rin: ù-luþ. cf. to sleep badly ('sleep' + 'treacherous' + 'to lie down. pus.-a-ta: force suffix) . triumph ('when in battle' + 'to emerge standing').

u4-ba: u4-bar:

at that time; in those days; then ('time' + bi-a, 'that; its') . midday (cf., an-bar). the past ('days' + 'those' + 'from'). at the time of the harvest ('days, time' + 'harvest') .

u4-bi-ta: u4-buru14: u4-da:

today ('day' + 'with, near, present') . if ('today' + irrealis suffix) .

u4-da ñiš-en: u4-da-tuš:

a clown who performed with bears and pigs ('today' + 'to set up camp') .

u4(-bar)-dañal: extensive daylight, long day ('day' ( + 'middle') + 'wide'). u4-gíd-da: u4-þuš: u4-imin:
all day long ('day' + 'to be long' + nominative suffix) .

raging storm ('storm' + 'furious, terrible, awesome'). seven days ('day' + 'seven') . there was never ('time' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'to not have'; cf.,

u4-na-me...nu-tuku:
lú...na-me...nu-).

u4-nu-dùg-ga: u4-ri-a: u4-sa9-a:

unhappy days ('day' + 'not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative suffix) .

in those (far remote) days ('days' + remote demonstrative affix + locative). half a day ('day' + 'half' + nominative suffix) .

u4-sakar[SAR](-ra):

crescent moon; new moon; segment of a circle; a plant, possibly rushes or nettles ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).
u4-sakar).

u4-sakar-gibil: reviving new moon, thin crescent moon ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., éu4-sud-ra:
for eternity ('time' + 'remote' + dative 'for').

u4...(al-)šú-šú-ru: u4-šú-uš(-e):
postposition).

to become cloudy or dark ('daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + šur, 'to rain' ? + marû 3rd. sing. ending with vowel harmony). daily; day by day ('day, daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + locative-terminative evening ('daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down') . morning ('daylight' + 'to approach') . birthday ('day' + 'birth' + genitive).

u4-te(-en): u4-te(-na):

u4-tu(-ud)-da:

u4-tur(-ra): early in the day; short in duration ('time' + 'small'). u4-u: ten days ('day' + 'ten'). u4-ul-la; u4-ì-li: u4-ul-lí-a-ta:
tomorrow ('day' + Akkadian elûm, 'to come up' and eli, 'above, beyond') .

from long ago ('days' + 'ancient' + nominative + 'from'). to waste a day; to disappear ('time' + 'to flee, hide, be lost' + 'to cause') .

u4-za-þa...(al-)aka: u4...zal:

the day dawns; to spend the day; to elapse; to waste time; to be late ('time' + 'to flow, pass').

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

152

u4-zal-la:

day, morning, dawn ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u4-X zal-la: on the Xth day ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative). u5-a: lullaby ('raised high' + nominative). u5-bímušen; ú-bímušen; ub-bìmušen:
iti

whooping swan (onomatopoeic).

u5-bí-gu7:

calendar month 3 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Ur during Ur III. admiration, amazement ('to be impressed' + 'to judge') .

u6-di:

u6(-di)...di/dug4/e: to admire; to gain admiration ('admiration' + 'to speak, do'). u6...è/i(-i): u6-e...gub: u8-udu-þá
to look; to appear ('to look at; to stare at' + 'to be or become visible') . to be wonderful ('amazement' + ergative agent marker + 'to stand') .

sheep; (flock of) sheep and goats. southwind [with classifier
IM

u18[GIŠGAL]-lu:

]; storm; sandstorm ('huge' + 'numerous, abundant') .

u18-lu(-da)...dul: u18[GIŠGAL]-ru(-n): ub-ba...gub:

to cover with a storm ('storm' + 'with' + 'to cover'). exalted; high; overwhelming; mighty ('huge' + 'to send'; cf., uru16(-n)).

to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set') .

ub-líl-lá: outdoor shrine ('niche' + 'wind, spirit (of a place), fresh air' + nominative or genitive). ub-šu-ukkin-na:

assembly ('corner' + 'power' + 'meeting' + 'human being').

ub5-kug-ga: keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + nominative).

ud: (cf., u4). UD.KA.BAR: (cf., zabar). UD.UD: (cf., babbar, dadag). udu-dub:
tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet') . fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened') .

udu-níñ-gu7-a:

udu-nitaþ: male sheep, ram ('sheep' + 'male'). udu-sar: udu-siki:
a vegetable (?) ('sheep' + 'vegetable') . wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool').

udu-šag5-ga: slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominative). udu-šár-a: perfect sheep ('sheep' + 'totality; to slaughter' + nominative). udu-še-gu7-a: udu šu-nir: udun-maþ:
(wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominative). sheep whose wool was used to make streamers for the group standards. huge baking oven ('oven' + 'huge') .

udun-še-sa-a: barley roasting oven ('oven' + 'barley' + 'to roast' + nominative).

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153

úgu...ba-a-ñar:

to place in a person's debit account ('account' + impersonal conjugation prefix +

locative infix + 'to deposit') (cf., gú-a...ñar).

ugu4-bi; a-gáb: ape, monkey ('to give birth' + inanimate demonstrative ["Inanimate are things and
animals." Thomsen, p. 49]) .

ugula-àga-ús: overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow'). ugula-íla: foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry'). ugula-ñéš-da: officer in charge of sixty men ('overseer' + ñeç, 'sixty' + genitival suffix /a(k)/). ugula-uru(-na-/ak/): ùña-lu-a: uþ...uš7: uku-ús: ÙKU.ÍL:
captain of the/his city ('overseer' + 'city' + 'his' + genitive).

multitudes ('people' + 'to be numerous' + nominative). (cf., aþ...uš 7).

(cf., aga (3)-ús ). (cf., un-gùr ).

ul.KU: receiver (?). ul-šár-ra: jubilation ('joy' + 'to multiply' + nominative). ul...šár:
to gladden; to exult ('joy' + 'to multiply').

ul-ti(-a): happy mood ('joy' + 'life' + genitive). ul4-la-bi:
very soon, quickly ('quick' + adverbial ending).

um-ma: elderly lady; witch ('old woman' + 'to bind'). um-me-da: um-mi(3)-a:
genitive).

(cf., ummeda ). schoolmaster; scholar; artisan ('wise or skillful teacher' + 'offices, functions' + nominative or

umbin-gud: oxen hooves; oxen tracks ('fingernail' + 'ox'). umbin...kud: umuš...kúr:
to shave; to shear; to manicure ('fingernail' + 'to cut off'). to change one's mind ('discernment; decision' + 'to change') . a menial worker ('people' + Umma reading for íla sign, 'to bear, carry' + 'to be') .

un-gùr/ga6(-me): un-íl-me: un sañ-ñi6:

menials ('people' + 'to carry' + 'to be'). black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black') .

unkin-ñar-ra: communal assembly ('people' + 'to fetch' + 'to establish' + nominative). unu(2,6)-gal:
iti

great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great') .

UR: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma before Šulgi 30.

ur-bar-ra: wolf ('dog' + 'outside' + nominative). ur-bi; ur5-bi: ur-gir15/gi7[KU]:
together (cf., téš-bi ). dog ('dog' + 'domestic') .

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154

schedule. loan' + 'to have') . ur-ur-a. ús-sañ: rigging (of a ship) ('side. soul' + 'with'). uru-tuš: (cf.ša4: ur5-šè: ur5-tud: ur5-tuku: to be/make comfortable. wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon'). warrior ('young man' + 'first. ñišmá-sañ-ñá). outside the city.gúr: ur5 þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: ur5-ra-šè: to be like that ('in such manner' + nominative + 'towards') .ur-maþ: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty') . a pampered dog ('dog' + 'to be friendly' + nominative). ùsan-mar: usu-tuku: uš-bar: ñiš (cf. strength' + 'to have') ... soul' + 'to bow down. thus' + locative terminative e).. ki-tuš ).. uru-bar-ra: uru-kúr(-ra): (in) a foreign city ('city' + 'strange' + locative). ur5. creditor ('debt.. ur-mú-da: ur-sa6-ga: ur-sañ: ur-tur: hero. ruler's staff. a strong person ('skill.. bellow ('liver.. to roar. thus shall it be indeed ('thus' + 'it is indeed') . to assemble a list. ur5-re. debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion'). strong copper ('copper' + 'thing' + 'to be strong' + nominative). cf.. famous (one) (?) (cf.. lay bare (reduplicated 'to harvest') . a type of copper. debtor.sa6: ur5. outskirts of the city. to gasp ('liver. or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set') .ñar: úr. níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6). ušbar ). cf. urudu-A-EN-da: urudu-nì-kala-ga: us-ga: a type of priest.zé(-zé): to roam ('legs' + 'to cut continuously') . uš-bar: Sumerian Lexicon. thus ('it..ša4).aka: ur5-da: to be mindful. show') . happy ('liver..... submit') . scepter ('penis' + 'to see. ur5.. in front'). uru-šà-ga: the interior city (contrasts to uru-bar-ra)('city' + 'inside' + nominative). Version 3.0 155 . soul' + 'to do'). to hear ('heart.. domestic servant ('debt' + 'to be born') .. ur4-ur4: to devastate.. to join' + 'bow of a ship'. careful. 'to sing' + nominative). ur5-di-da: ur5. ur5-e: in such manner. a pet dog or puppy ('dog' + 'small'). soul' + 'to satisfy'. to bow down (in grief) ('liver.. soul' + 'to mourn') (contrast še. watchdog (?) ('dog' + mud6. lú-di-da ). the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominative).

shiny lapis lazuli ('lapis lazuli' + 'moist').. Sumerian Lexicon.. piling up an earthen block or dam (cf. breath (za. handle') . utu-è: sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise.dug4/du11: za-za: (cf. shaft of chariots. za-na. uzu-libx[Í..UDU]: (ñiš) mutton fat ('meat' + 'mutton fat').TURmušen: (cf. uš11. put in') .. za-ra.dug4: to spit ('spittle' + 'to speak. UZ. šìr... to lecture ('to you' + 'to speak') .sig10/sì: d to throw/inject venom on/in. zipaþ ). zaþ2..3). za-dím: za-e: na4 stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion') ... make'). a type of onion. bibad mušen ). za-a-kam.0 156 . lapis lazuli. za-þa-ti: cure') . to handle a puppet ('puppet' + 'to touch. precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful'). dates...áña)... say: it is thine ('you' + /ak/. clean ('precious stone') .tag: za-pa-áñ: za-pa-aþ: sound. é-uz-ga). wagons. za-þa-din.. yourself. araþ4) ('foundation' + 'to be long' + nominative).uš-gíd-da: storehouse. uš7. lustrous.. uš-ñar-ra: firm foundation ('foundation' + 'to establish' + nominative). ('venom' + 'to apply. cf. 'rhythmic sound' or zi. ùz-ga-nañ: milking goat ('goat' + 'milk' + 'drinking'). uzu-ì: fatty meat ('meat' + 'fat'). ki. to become visible') .. za-ra: pole..dug4/du11: za-ba-lum: a variety of juniper (resin) ('kernel' + 'to give' + 'abundance') .. uz-ga: (cf. do. za-gìn: za-gìn: (na4) za-gìn-duru5: za-þa: (cf.. you.. harrows. ñiš ñiš za-na: puppet. uš-sì-ga: úš-a: unsafe foundation ('foundation' + 'to damage' + nominative)... granary. a úš-a) ('to block' + nominative). ñišzar). za-za-ga: marjoram or oregano (?). 'of' + àm. and doors (cf... possibly Allium desertorium ('kernel' + 'many' + 'to za-na: caterpillar ('monotonous repetition' + 'distinct things or selves') .za). oil) (cf.. 'it is' + 'to speak'). (cf. Version 3. 'breathing' transformed by vowel harmony + 'puffing sound' + 'to mete out'. silo (for barley.

push'). Version 3. to mark ('side' + 'to throw down').a lyre. rival ('limit' + 'to equal'). zag-ša4: equal. zà[ZAG]-þi-li(-a)sar: a condiment made from a prickly plant such as wild safflower ('border. zi-bí: a form of caraway seed (Akkadian loanword. beginning' + 'charm. to overthrow... to reject. zag-è: buttress (?) ('barrier' + 'to rise'). zé-eb: Emesal dialect. sheared' + 'an individual case of') .sal: wide'). šáþ zé-eþ-tur: small pig (phonetic spelling of šáþ + 'small'). sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts') .. to set aside ('edge. a fifth (as a division) ('percentage' + 5 or other number + 'length') . limit' + 'to touch. to heap up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to be zàr-tab-ba: the work of binding sheaves ('sheaf' + 'to bind' + nominative). to tear out.0 157 . to remove. 'you'. launch ('edge...dib: to elevate over ('barrier' + 'to cross'). (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away') . to the bitter end. zà-mí: (hymn of) praise ('territory' + 'woman'). until disappearance ('to perish' + adverbial force suffix) . to spread') ... to border on.. sahlû). palm frond ('to be cut.tag: to push away. zà-mí). zag-gal-la: a type of chair.. zag-ša4[DI]: zag-še(3). appeal'.. adv.šuš: to brand. dùg. zag-gu-la. limit' + 'city'). limit' + 'to lean against').. to stand by.ús: záþ-bi: outskirts of the city ('edge. cf. zag-munus: (cf... to break (often with -ta-).du8: to pile up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to open. zé-èm: Emesal dialect.. zé-me ñiš that is yourself (za.. bed ('limit' + 'to the'). zag. sum. zag-du8: threshold ('boundary' + 'to adorn') . (ñiš) zà-mí: musical instrument . to slip. from zibû.zà: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. zi-re: to tear up. zé-er.. with vowel harmony + 'to be .. seat of honor ('side. zag). zar(-re-eš). zag-uru: zag 5-ús: zag. shoulder' + 'great'). zag-bar: zag. cf. Akk. strength. zé-na: zeþ-gaba: zi-ba-tum: an aromatic seed (?). 'black cumin'). to spread. zag. zar(-re-eš). zag-sá[DI]. to push off... zag.kéš: to endow with ('side' + 'to bind to').

zi..pà-da: to faithfully choose ('faithfully' + 'to choose'). zi.. zikru(m) I.zi-dè-eš(2)(-šè): adv. zíd-gú-gal: zíd-kum4[UD]-ma: zíd-milla[IŠ]: Sumerian Lexicon.. move in a circle. to place.. torn out.. adj. zi-du: a good person ('good' + 'to walk'). cheap type of flour ('flour' + 'mountain' or 'scorching' ?). zi-zi-i: subtracting. zíd)... shake. divine encouragement. strew') . chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea'). old men (Akk.. risen up ('to tear out. zi. to be on good terms ('faith' + 'to restore'). oar ('to rise up' + 'pestle') . zi-ri/rí-gúm/qum: a device for moving irrigation water. a reed or clay pipe or pipette (Akkadian loanword ziriiqu from zaraaqu).(ši)-tum2. fine barley flour ('flour' + 'net'). to breathe ('breath' + bun. 'to blow'). sustenance ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to be available').. zi. sprinkle off.ñál: to grant life. rebel.. 'male'). inspiration. flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + reduplicated 'to pour. zi-šà.. a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'mortar-ground' + nominative)..ñar: ñiš to tell the truth ('truth' + 'to speak') . zi-gan: rudder. zi-šà-ñál: n. to impose a levy ('to tear out. zi-ik-rum: zikru II. worried. oath ('breath. zi. Version 3..ir/ra: zi lugal: zi-maþ: to be troubled.. revolting (reduplicated 'to tear out') .dug4: zi-ga(-àm): zi-ga.... put') . to have life ('breath' + 'to be available.. a coarse..ñál: to provide (someone: -ši -) with life ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to place') .pà(-d): (ñiš) to take an oath. involving a water bucket hanging ñiš from a swinging beam (cf. zi-dè-eš(-šè).pa-an-pa-an: zi.gi4: zi-ñál(-la): zi. living being ('breath' + 'to be available' + nominative). legitimate (and) lofty ('legitimate' + 'lofty').. expended. faithfully ('truth' + adverbial force suffix) . sad. soul' + 'king') . to rise up' + nominative). Sumerian á-lá )... to conjure ('faith' + 'to swear').. extracted. to revolt. zíd-bar-si: zíd-dub-dub: zíd-gu: a type of emmer wheat flour ('flour' + 'to release' + 'like a sprout'). subtraction..0 158 ..3/de6: to take refuge ('life' + ('into') + 'to bring'). alive. zì: (cf. wise. deducted. to be broken ('faith' + 'to lead away [plural]'). loyally. 'utterance' and zikaru(m) and zi-ik-ru-um. deduct' + nominative + 'to establish') .

mar)... Version 3... zíz-AN: zíz-babbar: zíz-bal: emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish').li9-li9: zú-lum(-ma): zú-lum.. (cf. to thread') .sumerian.. gnash') .zalag: to chew.ra-aþ: to devour ('teeth' + 'to strike repetitively. gleam') . imñaña ). zú.zíd-sig15[KAL]: sig15). 1999 Home page for the Sumerian lexicon: http://www....org/ Sumerian Lexicon... All Rights Reserved. 'to pass through a hole.. kaš- ZÍD-ŠE: (cf. bite ('teeth' + 'to chew') ..ÞAR: zú. to rock. dabin )..ur5[ÞAR]: zú. white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white'). to crush with the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush') . shake') . zú.. zíd-za(-tum): a type of flour.ur 5).0 159 .ra(-ra): to bite ('teeth' + usually reduplicated 'to strike. zíz.. iti zíz-a: calendar month 11 at Nippur during Ur III. zu-a: acquaintance ('to know' + nominative). (cf. date fruit ('teeth' + 'to be satiated') . su(11)-lum... to laugh ('teeth' + 'to glisten') . zu-þu-ul: zú.du8: zur-zur: (animal) nurse..du 8). to rock') .. pierced (Akkadian sahlu....gaz: zú-gub: lunch ('teeth' + 'to stand') .. shake (reduplicated 'to tend. valuable'.. Last revised August 11. harness') .. cf. Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran. zú.. to oblige ('teeth' + 'to bind. zú. cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing. stab') . zú.kešda: zú...... zaatum flour.dé-a: zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ: a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs')..mar: (cf.. zar-re-eš.kud/ku5: zú... (cf.súd-súd[ŠÌTA]: to gnash the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush. cleaning emmer after winnowing ('emmer wheat' + 'to pour' + nominative). to show one's teeth ('teeth' + 'to shine... zur-re-eš. zú. to bite ('teeth' + 'to cut') . zíd-še-sa: flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley').