Brian’s 7.

012 Study Guide R08/R09

Topics Covered and to be Familiar With
Genetics • Phenotypes and genotypes • Dominant vs. recessive • Monohybrid crosses • Dihybrid crosses • Mitosis vs. Meiosis • Crossing over • Linked genes and recombination frequency • Pedigree analysis o Modes of inheritance o Probability of disease • Determining complementation groups • Epistasis and ordering biochemical pathways Biochemistry • Chemical bonds o Types o Relative strengths • Hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity • Properties of the four major biomolecules o Lipids o Carbohydrates o Proteins Classification/interactions of amino acids o Nucleotides Polymer synthesis • Joining monomers o Ester linkages, glycosidic linkages, peptide bonds, phosphodiester bonds o Condensation Reaction • Enzymes/catalysts o Denaturation and renaturation o Thermodynamics/∆G Respiration • ATP production • Glycolysis inputs/outputs • Aerobic respiration o Electron transport chain • Anaerobic respiration o Fermentation in yeast/humans • NAD regeneration

Molecular Biology • Transforming principle • Steps and requirements of DNA replication o Template and non-template o Direction of synthesis • Transcription o Promoter, start/stop site o Post-transcriptional modifications • Translation o Ribosome binding site o Ribosome/tRNAs/genetic code • Mutations o Silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift Gene Regulation • Tissue specific gene expression • Lac operon o Partial diploid system o X-gal/IPTG Recombinant DNA and Cloning • Restriction enzymes, genomic/cDNA libraries, vectors, transformation, screening • Cloning by complementation • Directional cloning • Gel electrophoresis • PCR • Gene fusion • DNA sequencing Genomics • SNP mapping Protein Localization • Localization signals • Secretory and transmembrane protein pathway Cell Signaling • Following pathways • Growth factor pathway/Ras • Forms of activation/regulation Viruses • Different requirements and life cycles of each virus type o Host cell requirements o Viral requirements

• •

Enveloped vs non-enveloped Retroviruses/HIV

Cancer • Tumor suppressors/proto-oncogenes o Transforming vs. non-transforming mutations • Inherited genotypes vs cancer cell genotypes • Somatic vs germline mutations • Cancer pedigrees o Rb/APC • RSV/src • Breast cancer/HER-2/Herceptin • CML/ABL-BCR/Gleevec Neurobiology • Movement of ions • Establishing the resting potential • Channels/events generating the action potential • Synapse • Inhibitory/excitatory neurons • Effects of drugs that target specific channels/neuronal enzymes Stem Cells • Properties of stem cells • Identifying stem cells • Confirming stem cells • Intestinal stem cells o Crypt o Cell migration/APC/intestinal cancer Immunology • Innate response • Cell-mediated response • Humoral response • Memory • Antigen receptor/antibody structure and diversity • Self vs. non-self • Receptor interactions o TCR/B-cell receptor/MHC Class I/MHC Class II • Vaccination • HIV Cholesterol • Functions/sources • Familiar hypercholesterolemia

• • •

LDL properties LDL receptor Cholesterol therapy

Molecular Evolution • Tracing lineages • Tracing divergence • Traceable DNA Microarrays • What they measure • How they work