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**On vortex knots and unknots
**

Francesca Maggioni(∗) , S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

(∗) francesca.maggioni@unibg.it Mathematics Department, University of Bergamo ITALY

Mathematical Models of Quantum Fluids, Geometrical Analitical and Computational Aspects Verona, September 14-17, 2009

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Fluid ﬂow evolution Localized Induction Approximation (LIA) Torus knots and unknots Numerical results Future work

**Fluid ﬂow evolution
**

We consider a homogeneous, incompressible ﬂuid in R3 : ⎧ ⎨ ∇×u=ω ∇·u=0 u = u (X, t) : ⎩ u = 0 as X → ∞ in R3

velocity ﬁeld

Fluid motion is governed by: Euler equations ∂u 1 + (u · ∇) u = − ∇p ∂t ρ (1)

**Under Euler equations topology is conserved.
**

Kinetic energy Kinetic helicity T = H= 1 ρ 2

V V

|u|2 dV = cst;

u · ω dV = cst;

**Vortex circulation Γ = cst; topological quantities: knot type, crossing number, linking numbers.
**

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca On vortex knots and unknots

Fluid ﬂow evolution Localized Induction Approximation (LIA) Torus knots and unknots Numerical results Future work

**Biot-Savart Law
**

Let Ct be a smooth space curve given by: Ct : X (s, t) := Xt (s) s ∈ [0, L] → R3 ˆ n, b : t, ˆ ˆ

The intrinsic reference on Ct is given by the Frenet frame

Let identify Ct with a thin vortex ﬁlament of circulation Γ. The vortex line moves with a self induced velocity: Γ 4π ˆ × (X(s) − X (s∗ )) t ds |X(s) − X (s∗ )|3

Biot-Savart (BS) law

u (X, t) =

(2)

Ct

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Fluid ﬂow evolution Localized Induction Approximation (LIA) Torus knots and unknots Numerical results Future work

Vortex ﬁlament motion under the Localized Induction Approximation (LIA)

The Biot-Savart law can be simpliﬁed according to ⎧ t ⎪ ω = ω0 ˆ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ R =δ 1 Asymptotic theory : ⎪ a ⎪ |X (s ) − X(s )| ⎪ ⎪ i j ⎩ = o(1) |si − sj | ⇓

the following: ω0 = constant thin tube approximation no self-intersection

LIA law

∂X Γ Γ ˆ ˙ uLIA = X(s, t) ≡ = ln δ X × X = ln δ cb , ∂t 4π 4π

(3)

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Torus knots

Theorem (Massey, 1967) A closed, non-self intersecting curve embedded in a torus Π, that cuts a meridian at p > 1 points and a longitude at q > 1 points (p and q relatively prime integers), is a non-trivial knot Tp,q , with winding number w = q/p.

**p > 1 longitudinal wraps and q > 1 meridional wraps; For given p, q (p, q coprimes) Tp,q ∼ Tq,p topologically equivalent.
**

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca On vortex knots and unknots

Torus unknots

Case p = 1 or q = 1: Unknots U1,m ∼ Um,1 ∼ U0 (circle)

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

**Vortex torus knot solution under LIA
**

Theorem (Kida, 1981) Let Kv denote the embedding of a knotted vortex ﬁlament in an ideal ﬂuid. If Kv evolves under LIA, then there exist a class of steady solutions in the shape of torus knots Kv ≡ Tp,q in terms of incomplete elliptic integrals: ⎧ 2 ⎨ r = Fr (J) α = Fα (E) Kida 1981 : ⎩ z = Fz (Π) Solution Tp,q in explicit analytic closed form, based on linear perturbation from the circular solution U0 of NLS: ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ r = r0 + sin (wφ) , ⎪ r = r0 + r1 , ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ α = s + 1 cos (wφ) , ⎨ α= s + α , 1 r0 wr0 ⇒ Ricca 1993 : r0 1/2 ⎪ ⎪ ˆ ˆ ⎪ ⎪ 1 t ⎪ ⎪ z= t + z , ⎩ z= ⎩ + 1+ 2 cos (wφ) , 1 r0 r0 w

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca On vortex knots and unknots

Theorem (Ricca, 1993) Let Tp,q denote the embedding of a small-amplitude vortex torus knot Kv evolving under LIA. Tp,q is steady and stable under linear perturbation iﬀ q > p (w > 1).

Deﬁnition A vortex structure is said to be Lyapunov (structurally) stable if it evolves under signature-preserving ﬂows that conserve its topology, geometric signature and vortex coherency.

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca On vortex knots and unknots

Numerical study of evolution of vortex knots

The evolution of the vortex is obtained by integrating the equation of motion forward in time at each point from the initial vortex conﬁguration; Typical time step: ∆t ∈ [0.001, 0.1] chosen in relation of value N ∈ [100, 400] = number of sub-division of initial vortex conﬁguration; The calculation is non-dimensionalized: r0 = 1, Γ = 1, Dtot : distance travelled in time Ttot ; Convergence tested both in space and time (independently form N and ∆t); Computation performed on Intel(R) Core(2) Duo CPU T7300 2.00 GHZ, RAM 1.99 GB;

0

= 0.1;

Ttot : time elapsed at the occurrence of the ﬁrst knot self-intersection;

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Torus knots T2,3 and T3,2 under Biot-Savart (BS) law

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

BS evolution of vortex knots velocity

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

BS evolution of vortex unknots velocity

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

BS evolution of vortex knots kinetic energy

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

LIA evolution of vortex knots kinetic energy

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

BS evolution of vortex unknots kinetic energy

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

LIA evolution of vortex unknots kinetic energy

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Role of topology in global dynamics

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Stability of vortex knots

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

**Stability of vortex knots
**

the space travelled before a reconnection event decreases with increasing complexity; Tp,2 is faster than its isotope T2,p ; Tp,2 is not necessarely less stable than its isotope T2,p ; p 2 5 q 5 2 N 385 219 L 12,86 31,33 z 0,1414588451E+02 0,1548856926E+02 t 0,8761708008E+04 0,5851551758E+04

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Stability of vortex unknots

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

Future work

Future work Role of chirality under LIA and BS evolution; Structural stability under LIA and BS law. vortex bundles. References Maggioni, F., Alamri, S., Barenghi, C.F. & Ricca R.L. Kinetic energy of vortex knots and unknots. Il Nuovo Cimento C, 32, 1, 133-142. Ricca, R.L. (1993) Torus knots and polynomial invariants for a class of soliton equations. Chaos 3, 83-91. [1995 Erratum. Chaos 5, 346.] Ricca, R.L., Samuels, D.C. & Barenghi, C.F. (1999) Evolution of vortex knots. J. Fluid Mech 391, 22-44.

F. Maggioni, S. Alamri, C.F. Barenghi & R.L. Ricca

On vortex knots and unknots

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