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# Dissipation and concentration of vorticity from Stochastic

Quantization
L. M. Morato
Universit ` a di Verona
Verona,16 09 2009
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 1
CANONICAL QUANTIZATION
Quantum Hamiltonian ( := coupling parameter)
H =
N

i=1
_

2
2m

2
i
+ (r
i
)
_
+
int
(r
1
, ....., r
N
, )
( H is bounded from below)
i
t

=
_

2
2m

2
+
,N
tot
_

where

:= (
1
, . . . ,
N
) and
,N
tot
:=

N
i=1
(r
i
) +
int
(r
1
, . . . , r
N
, ).
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 2
STOCHASTIC QUANTIZATION BY LAGRANGIAN VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE
The basic object is the classical lagrangian
L[ q
cl
] =
N

i=1
_
1
2
m( q
cl
i
)
2
(t) (q
cl
i
(t))
_

int
(q
cl
1
(t), ..., q
cl
N
(t), )
q
cl
:= classical N- body conguration.
Quantization comes from requiring that the conguration of the system evolves as a Markov
diffusion (with diffusion coefcient equal to

m
) and that it makes stationary the mean classical
action
- Eulerian ( or " stochastic control" ) approach, with pre-regularization of the action : Guerra and
M., Phys. Rev. D 83.
- Lagrangian ( or "path-wise") approach, with self-regularization of the action : M. , Phys. Rev. D
85.
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 3
diffusion
i) q is a solution of the stochastic differential equation
dq(t) = b(q(t), t)dt +
_

m
_1
2
dW(t)
ii) The drift b, is smooth
The Brownian Motion W models "quantum uctuations"
:= time dependent probability density of the conguration
V := current velocity eld
b = V +

2m
ln
and the continuity equation holds

t
= ( V )
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 4
Eq. of motion in the Lagrangian approach
d = 3 ) ( , V )
_

t
= ( V )

t
V + (V ) V

2
2m
2

_
+
+

2m
(ln +) ( V ) =
1
m

d = 3N ( ,

V )
_

t
=

_

V
_
_

t

V +
_

_

V

2
2m
2

__
k
+
+

2m
3N

p=1
(
p
ln +
p
)
_

k

V
p

p

V
k
_
=
1
m

,N
tot
k = 1, . . . , 3N
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 5
Equations of motion in Schrdinger form
d = 3 ) (for simplicity of notations)
There exists S s.t. :=
1
2
e

S
, A := mV S
_
_
_

t
=
1
2m
(+A)
2
+

t
A = b

( A)

2m
( A)
b

:=
1
m
[S A

2
ln ||
2
] (Loffredo, M., JMP 89)
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 6
Relaxation to dynamical equilibrium
Energy Theorem (Loffredo and M., JMP 89; extended in 2007)( d = 3 for simplicity of notations)
E[, V ] :=
_
R
3N
_
1
2
mV
2
+
1
2
mU
2
+
_
dr
with U :=

2m
ln (osmotic velocity).
d
dt
E[, V ] =

2
_
R
3N
( V )
2
dr
NOTE: Irrotational solutions conserve the energy and
E =< , H >
For generic initial data Schrdinger solutions act as an attracting set, which corresponds to
DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 7
SCHRDINGER VERSUS ROTATIONAL SOLUTIONS
Schr odinger solutions
Rotational solutions
t

(
t
, v
t
)
t>0
Note
Schrdinger solutions :
singular velocity eld in cor-
respondence of nodes of the
wave function.
Rotational solutions : smooth
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 8
Non trivial behavior of vorticity 1
1) For > 0 : the vorticity A does not go to zero monotonically
(rstly conjectured by Guerra in 1992)
gaussian solutions to the bidimensional harmonic oscillator
(M. and Ugolini, AHP 94) ( global existence and center manifold )
:= (r) =
1
2
k
2
r
2
(r, t) =
A

exp(Ar
2
), V (r, t) = ar r r

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
a
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
t = 0
trajectory
t
E
20 15 10 5 0
250
200
150
100
50
0
energy vs. time
t
2
20 15 10 5 0
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
vorticity vs. time
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 9
Non trivial behavior of vorticity 2
2) The vorticity can concentrate in the zeroes of the density
Non gaussian solutions to the bidimensional harmonic oscillator, numerical results:
[Caliari, Inverso and M. 2004, New J. Phys., Vol 6, no. 69,
http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/NJP]
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 10
Numerical experiment (t=0)
at time t = 0, E = 195 v = 2
o
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 11
Numerical experiment (t=0.08)
at time t = 0.08, E = 43 v
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 12
Numerical experiment (t=0.14)
at time t = 0.14, E = 17 v
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 13
Numerical experiment (t=0.16)
at time t = 0.16, E = 15 v
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 14
Numerical experiment (t=0.19)
at time t = 0.19, E = 11 v
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 15
Numerical experiment (t=0.23)
at time t = 0.23, E = 9 v
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 16
Cubic Schrdinger equation with vorticity
(Caliari,Loffredo , M. and Zuccher : New.J. Phys. (10) 2008) ( for the connection with the N-body
problem see some results in Loffredo and M. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical40 2007)
:=
1
2
e

S
, A := mV S
_
_
_

t
=
1
2m
(+A)
2
+ (g||
2
+ )

t
A = b

( A)

2m
( A)
b

:=
1
m
[S A

2
ln ||
2
]
Extension of the energy theorem ( dissipation independent of g ! )
E
A
[, S, t] :=
_
(S A)
2
2
+

2
2m
(log )
2
+ +
g
2

d
dt
_
E
A
[, S, t]dr =

2
_
( A)
2
dr
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 17
exp
c = 100
c = 10
c = 0
x

(
x
,
0
,
0
)
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
Proles of the two-dimensional ground
state densities ( t=0) for different values of
the coupling constant
c = 100
c = 10
c = 0

t
E
(
t
)
0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Energy as a function of time
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 18
exp1
v
t = 0,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
20.20
20.15
20.10
20.05
20.00
19.95
19.90
19.85
19.80
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.160
0.140
0.120
0.100
0.080
0.060
0.040
0.020
0.000
Density versus vorticity (c = 0)
v
t = 0.237,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
v
t = 0.248,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
v

t = 0.268,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
300.0
250.0
200.0
150.0
100.0
50.0
0.0
-50.0
-100.0
-150.0
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 19
exp2
v
t = 0,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
20.20
20.15
20.10
20.05
20.00
19.95
19.90
19.85
19.80
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
Density versus vorticity (c = 100)
v
t = 0.193,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
-5.00
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
v
t = 0.202,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
v

t = 0.212,
x

v
(
x
,
0
,
t
)

(
x
,
0
,
t
)
800.0
600.0
400.0
200.0
0.0
-200.0
-400.0
-600.0
8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
-0.002
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 20
exp3
c = 100
c = 10
c = 0

t

(
0
,
0
,
t
)
0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
Density at the origin as a function of time
c = 100
c = 10
c = 0

t

v
0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0
20
15
10
5
0
Vorticity ( v) at the origin as a func-
tion of time
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 21
comment
Application to conceptually simple experiments where the condensation occurs after the stirring
of a normal cloud ?
( P.C. Haljan, I. Coddington, P. Engels and E.A. Cornell*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 210403 (2001))
Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 22