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Quantization

L. M. Morato

Universit ` a di Verona

Verona,16 09 2009

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 1

CANONICAL QUANTIZATION

Quantum Hamiltonian ( := coupling parameter)

H =

N

i=1

_

2

2m

2

i

+ (r

i

)

_

+

int

(r

1

, ....., r

N

, )

( H is bounded from below)

i

t

=

_

2

2m

2

+

,N

tot

_

where

:= (

1

, . . . ,

N

) and

,N

tot

:=

N

i=1

(r

i

) +

int

(r

1

, . . . , r

N

, ).

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 2

STOCHASTIC QUANTIZATION BY LAGRANGIAN VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE

The basic object is the classical lagrangian

L[ q

cl

] =

N

i=1

_

1

2

m( q

cl

i

)

2

(t) (q

cl

i

(t))

_

int

(q

cl

1

(t), ..., q

cl

N

(t), )

q

cl

:= classical N- body conguration.

Quantization comes from requiring that the conguration of the system evolves as a Markov

diffusion (with diffusion coefcient equal to

m

) and that it makes stationary the mean classical

action

- Eulerian ( or " stochastic control" ) approach, with pre-regularization of the action : Guerra and

M., Phys. Rev. D 83.

- Lagrangian ( or "path-wise") approach, with self-regularization of the action : M. , Phys. Rev. D

85.

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 3

diffusion

i) q is a solution of the stochastic differential equation

dq(t) = b(q(t), t)dt +

_

m

_1

2

dW(t)

ii) The drift b, is smooth

The Brownian Motion W models "quantum uctuations"

:= time dependent probability density of the conguration

V := current velocity eld

b = V +

2m

ln

and the continuity equation holds

t

= ( V )

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 4

Eq. of motion in the Lagrangian approach

d = 3 ) ( , V )

_

t

= ( V )

t

V + (V ) V

2

2m

2

_

+

+

2m

(ln +) ( V ) =

1

m

d = 3N ( ,

V )

_

t

=

_

V

_

_

t

V +

_

_

V

2

2m

2

__

k

+

+

2m

3N

p=1

(

p

ln +

p

)

_

k

V

p

p

V

k

_

=

1

m

,N

tot

k = 1, . . . , 3N

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 5

Equations of motion in Schrdinger form

d = 3 ) (for simplicity of notations)

There exists S s.t. :=

1

2

e

S

, A := mV S

_

_

_

t

=

1

2m

(+A)

2

+

t

A = b

( A)

2m

( A)

b

:=

1

m

[S A

2

ln ||

2

] (Loffredo, M., JMP 89)

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 6

Relaxation to dynamical equilibrium

Energy Theorem (Loffredo and M., JMP 89; extended in 2007)( d = 3 for simplicity of notations)

E[, V ] :=

_

R

3N

_

1

2

mV

2

+

1

2

mU

2

+

_

dr

with U :=

2m

ln (osmotic velocity).

d

dt

E[, V ] =

2

_

R

3N

( V )

2

dr

NOTE: Irrotational solutions conserve the energy and

E =< , H >

For generic initial data Schrdinger solutions act as an attracting set, which corresponds to

DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM.

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 7

SCHRDINGER VERSUS ROTATIONAL SOLUTIONS

Schr odinger solutions

Rotational solutions

t

(

t

, v

t

)

t>0

Note

Schrdinger solutions :

singular velocity eld in cor-

respondence of nodes of the

wave function.

Rotational solutions : smooth

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 8

Non trivial behavior of vorticity 1

1) For > 0 : the vorticity A does not go to zero monotonically

(rstly conjectured by Guerra in 1992)

gaussian solutions to the bidimensional harmonic oscillator

(M. and Ugolini, AHP 94) ( global existence and center manifold )

:= (r) =

1

2

k

2

r

2

(r, t) =

A

exp(Ar

2

), V (r, t) = ar r r

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

a

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

A

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

t = 0

trajectory

t

E

20 15 10 5 0

250

200

150

100

50

0

energy vs. time

t

2

20 15 10 5 0

24

20

16

12

8

4

0

vorticity vs. time

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 9

Non trivial behavior of vorticity 2

2) The vorticity can concentrate in the zeroes of the density

Non gaussian solutions to the bidimensional harmonic oscillator, numerical results:

[Caliari, Inverso and M. 2004, New J. Phys., Vol 6, no. 69,

http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/NJP]

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 10

Numerical experiment (t=0)

at time t = 0, E = 195 v = 2

o

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 11

Numerical experiment (t=0.08)

at time t = 0.08, E = 43 v

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 12

Numerical experiment (t=0.14)

at time t = 0.14, E = 17 v

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 13

Numerical experiment (t=0.16)

at time t = 0.16, E = 15 v

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 14

Numerical experiment (t=0.19)

at time t = 0.19, E = 11 v

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 15

Numerical experiment (t=0.23)

at time t = 0.23, E = 9 v

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 16

Cubic Schrdinger equation with vorticity

(Caliari,Loffredo , M. and Zuccher : New.J. Phys. (10) 2008) ( for the connection with the N-body

problem see some results in Loffredo and M. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical40 2007)

:=

1

2

e

S

, A := mV S

_

_

_

t

=

1

2m

(+A)

2

+ (g||

2

+ )

t

A = b

( A)

2m

( A)

b

:=

1

m

[S A

2

ln ||

2

]

Extension of the energy theorem ( dissipation independent of g ! )

E

A

[, S, t] :=

_

(S A)

2

2

+

2

2m

(log )

2

+ +

g

2

d

dt

_

E

A

[, S, t]dr =

2

_

( A)

2

dr

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 17

exp

c = 100

c = 10

c = 0

x

(

x

,

0

,

0

)

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

Proles of the two-dimensional ground

state densities ( t=0) for different values of

the coupling constant

c = 100

c = 10

c = 0

t

E

(

t

)

0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Energy as a function of time

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 18

exp1

v

t = 0,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

20.20

20.15

20.10

20.05

20.00

19.95

19.90

19.85

19.80

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.160

0.140

0.120

0.100

0.080

0.060

0.040

0.020

0.000

Density versus vorticity (c = 0)

v

t = 0.237,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.016

0.014

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

v

t = 0.248,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.035

0.030

0.025

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000

v

t = 0.268,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

-50.0

-100.0

-150.0

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.025

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 19

exp2

v

t = 0,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

20.20

20.15

20.10

20.05

20.00

19.95

19.90

19.85

19.80

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.035

0.030

0.025

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000

Density versus vorticity (c = 100)

v

t = 0.193,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.014

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

v

t = 0.202,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.030

0.025

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000

v

t = 0.212,

x

v

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

(

x

,

0

,

t

)

800.0

600.0

400.0

200.0

0.0

-200.0

-400.0

-600.0

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

-0.002

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 20

exp3

c = 100

c = 10

c = 0

t

(

0

,

0

,

t

)

0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

Density at the origin as a function of time

c = 100

c = 10

c = 0

t

v

0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

20

15

10

5

0

Vorticity ( v) at the origin as a func-

tion of time

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 21

comment

Application to conceptually simple experiments where the condensation occurs after the stirring

of a normal cloud ?

( P.C. Haljan, I. Coddington, P. Engels and E.A. Cornell*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 210403 (2001))

Dissipation and concentration of vorticity p. 22

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