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Trig Cheat Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions


Right triangle definition
For this definition we assume that Unit circle definition
π For this definition θ is any angle.
0 <θ < or 0° < θ < 90° .
2 y

( x, y )
hypotenuse 1
y θ
opposite x
x
θ
adjacent
opposite hypotenuse y 1
sin θ = csc θ = sin θ = =y csc θ =
hypotenuse opposite 1 y
adjacent hypotenuse x 1
cos θ = sec θ = cos θ = = x sec θ =
hypotenuse adjacent 1 x
opposite adjacent y x
tan θ = cot θ = tan θ = cot θ =
adjacent opposite x y

Facts and Properties


Domain
The domain is all the values of θ that Period
can be plugged into the function. The period of a function is the number,
T, such that f (θ + T ) = f (θ ) . So, if ω
sin θ , θ can be any angle is a fixed number and θ is any angle we
cos θ , θ can be any angle have the following periods.
⎛ 1⎞
tan θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,…
⎝ 2⎠ 2π
sin (ωθ ) → T=
csc θ , θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… ω
⎛ 1⎞ 2π
sec θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… cos (ωθ ) → T =
⎝ 2⎠ ω
cot θ , θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… π
tan (ωθ ) → T =
ω

Range csc (ωθ ) → T =
The range is all possible values to get ω
out of the function. 2π
−1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 csc θ ≥ 1 and csc θ ≤ −1 sec (ωθ ) → T =
ω
−1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 sec θ ≥ 1 and sec θ ≤ −1 π
−∞ ≤ tan θ ≤ ∞ −∞ ≤ cot θ ≤ ∞ cot (ωθ ) → T =
ω

© 2005 Paul Dawkins


Formulas and Identities
Tangent and Cotangent Identities Half Angle Formulas
sin θ cos θ
sin 2 θ = (1 − cos ( 2θ ) )
1
tan θ = cot θ =
cos θ sin θ 2
Reciprocal Identities
cos 2 θ = (1 + cos ( 2θ ) )
1
1 1
csc θ = sin θ = 2
sin θ csc θ 1 − cos ( 2θ )
tan 2 θ =
sec θ =
1
cos θ =
1 1 + cos ( 2θ )
cos θ sec θ
Sum and Difference Formulas
sin (α ± β ) = sin α cos β ± cos α sin β
1 1
cot θ = tan θ =
tan θ cot θ
Pythagorean Identities cos (α ± β ) = cos α cos β ∓ sin α sin β
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 tan α ± tan β
tan (α ± β ) =
tan 2 θ + 1 = sec 2 θ 1 ∓ tan α tan β
Product to Sum Formulas
1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ
1
Even/Odd Formulas sin α sin β = ⎡⎣cos (α − β ) − cos (α + β ) ⎤⎦
2
sin ( −θ ) = − sin θ csc ( −θ ) = − csc θ 1
cos α cos β = ⎡⎣cos (α − β ) + cos (α + β ) ⎤⎦
cos ( −θ ) = cos θ sec ( −θ ) = sec θ 2
tan ( −θ ) = − tan θ cot ( −θ ) = − cot θ 1
sin α cos β = ⎡⎣sin (α + β ) + sin (α − β ) ⎤⎦
2
Periodic Formulas 1
If n is an integer. cos α sin β = ⎡⎣sin (α + β ) − sin (α − β ) ⎤⎦
2
sin (θ + 2π n ) = sin θ csc (θ + 2π n ) = csc θ Sum to Product Formulas
cos (θ + 2π n ) = cos θ sec (θ + 2π n ) = sec θ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞
sin α + sin β = 2sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟
tan (θ + π n ) = tan θ cot (θ + π n ) = cot θ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞
Double Angle Formulas sin α − sin β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
sin ( 2θ ) = 2sin θ cos θ
⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞
cos ( 2θ ) = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ cos α + cos β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
= 2 cos 2 θ − 1 ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞
cos α − cos β = −2sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟
= 1 − 2sin θ 2
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
2 tan θ Cofunction Formulas
tan ( 2θ ) =
1 − tan 2 θ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞
sin ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cos θ cos ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sin θ
Degrees to Radians Formulas ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
If x is an angle in degrees and t is an ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞
csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ sec ⎜ − θ ⎟ = csc θ
angle in radians then ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
π t πx 180t ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞
= ⇒ t= and x = tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ
180 x 180 π ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

© 2005 Paul Dawkins


Unit Circle

y
( 0,1)
π ⎛1 3⎞
⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟
⎛ 1 3⎞
⎜− , ⎟ 2 ⎝2 2 ⎠
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ π ⎛ 2 2⎞
2π 90° ⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟
⎛ 2 2⎞ 3 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠
⎜− , ⎟
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 3
120° 60°
π
3π 4 ⎛ 3 1⎞
⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟
⎛ 3 1⎞ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠
⎜− , ⎟ 135° 45° π
⎝ 2 2⎠ 5π
6
6 30°
150°

( −1,0 ) π 180° 0° 0 (1,0 )


360° 2π x

210°
7π 330°
11π
6 225°
⎛ 3 1⎞ 6 ⎛ 3 1⎞
⎜− ,− ⎟ 5π 315° ⎜ ,− ⎟
⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠
4 240° 300° 7π
⎛ 2⎞ 4π 270°

2 4
⎜− ,− ⎟ ⎛ 2 2⎞
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 3 3π ⎜ ,− ⎟
3 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠
⎛ 1 3⎞ 2 ⎛
⎜ − ,− ⎟ 1 3⎞
⎜ ,− ⎟
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠
( 0,−1)

For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( x, y ) : cos θ = x and sin θ = y

Example
⎛ 5π ⎞ 1 ⎛ 5π ⎞ 3
cos ⎜ ⎟= sin ⎜ ⎟=−
⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2

© 2005 Paul Dawkins


Inverse Trig Functions
Definition Inverse Properties
y = sin −1 x is equivalent to x = sin y cos ( cos −1 ( x ) ) = x cos −1 ( cos (θ ) ) = θ
y = cos −1 x is equivalent to x = cos y sin ( sin −1 ( x ) ) = x sin −1 ( sin (θ ) ) = θ
y = tan −1 x is equivalent to x = tan y
tan ( tan −1 ( x ) ) = x tan −1 ( tan (θ ) ) = θ
Domain and Range
Function Domain Range Alternate Notation
π π sin −1 x = arcsin x
y = sin −1 x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 − ≤ y≤
2 2 cos −1 x = arccos x
y = cos x−1
−1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0≤ y ≤π tan −1 x = arctan x
π π
y = tan −1 x −∞ < x < ∞ − < y<
2 2

Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents

c β a

α γ

Law of Sines Law of Tangents


sin α sin β sin γ
= = a − b tan 12 (α − β )
=
a b c a + b tan 12 (α + β )
Law of Cosines b − c tan 12 ( β − γ )
=
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos α b + c tan 12 ( β + γ )
b 2 = a 2 + c 2 − 2ac cos β a − c tan 12 (α − γ )
=
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos γ a + c tan 12 (α + γ )
Mollweide’s Formula
a + b cos 12 (α − β )
=
c sin 12 γ

© 2005 Paul Dawkins