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Right triangle definition

For this definition we assume that Unit circle definition

π For this definition θ is any angle.

0 <θ < or 0° < θ < 90° .

2 y

( x, y )

hypotenuse 1

y θ

opposite x

x

θ

adjacent

opposite hypotenuse y 1

sin θ = csc θ = sin θ = =y csc θ =

hypotenuse opposite 1 y

adjacent hypotenuse x 1

cos θ = sec θ = cos θ = = x sec θ =

hypotenuse adjacent 1 x

opposite adjacent y x

tan θ = cot θ = tan θ = cot θ =

adjacent opposite x y

Domain

The domain is all the values of θ that Period

can be plugged into the function. The period of a function is the number,

T, such that f (θ + T ) = f (θ ) . So, if ω

sin θ , θ can be any angle is a fixed number and θ is any angle we

cos θ , θ can be any angle have the following periods.

⎛ 1⎞

tan θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,…

⎝ 2⎠ 2π

sin (ωθ ) → T=

csc θ , θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… ω

⎛ 1⎞ 2π

sec θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… cos (ωθ ) → T =

⎝ 2⎠ ω

cot θ , θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… π

tan (ωθ ) → T =

ω

2π

Range csc (ωθ ) → T =

The range is all possible values to get ω

out of the function. 2π

−1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 csc θ ≥ 1 and csc θ ≤ −1 sec (ωθ ) → T =

ω

−1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 sec θ ≥ 1 and sec θ ≤ −1 π

−∞ ≤ tan θ ≤ ∞ −∞ ≤ cot θ ≤ ∞ cot (ωθ ) → T =

ω

Formulas and Identities

Tangent and Cotangent Identities Half Angle Formulas

sin θ cos θ

sin 2 θ = (1 − cos ( 2θ ) )

1

tan θ = cot θ =

cos θ sin θ 2

Reciprocal Identities

cos 2 θ = (1 + cos ( 2θ ) )

1

1 1

csc θ = sin θ = 2

sin θ csc θ 1 − cos ( 2θ )

tan 2 θ =

sec θ =

1

cos θ =

1 1 + cos ( 2θ )

cos θ sec θ

Sum and Difference Formulas

sin (α ± β ) = sin α cos β ± cos α sin β

1 1

cot θ = tan θ =

tan θ cot θ

Pythagorean Identities cos (α ± β ) = cos α cos β ∓ sin α sin β

sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 tan α ± tan β

tan (α ± β ) =

tan 2 θ + 1 = sec 2 θ 1 ∓ tan α tan β

Product to Sum Formulas

1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ

1

Even/Odd Formulas sin α sin β = ⎡⎣cos (α − β ) − cos (α + β ) ⎤⎦

2

sin ( −θ ) = − sin θ csc ( −θ ) = − csc θ 1

cos α cos β = ⎡⎣cos (α − β ) + cos (α + β ) ⎤⎦

cos ( −θ ) = cos θ sec ( −θ ) = sec θ 2

tan ( −θ ) = − tan θ cot ( −θ ) = − cot θ 1

sin α cos β = ⎡⎣sin (α + β ) + sin (α − β ) ⎤⎦

2

Periodic Formulas 1

If n is an integer. cos α sin β = ⎡⎣sin (α + β ) − sin (α − β ) ⎤⎦

2

sin (θ + 2π n ) = sin θ csc (θ + 2π n ) = csc θ Sum to Product Formulas

cos (θ + 2π n ) = cos θ sec (θ + 2π n ) = sec θ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞

sin α + sin β = 2sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟

tan (θ + π n ) = tan θ cot (θ + π n ) = cot θ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞

Double Angle Formulas sin α − sin β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

sin ( 2θ ) = 2sin θ cos θ

⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞

cos ( 2θ ) = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ cos α + cos β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

= 2 cos 2 θ − 1 ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞

cos α − cos β = −2sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟

= 1 − 2sin θ 2

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

2 tan θ Cofunction Formulas

tan ( 2θ ) =

1 − tan 2 θ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞

sin ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cos θ cos ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sin θ

Degrees to Radians Formulas ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

If x is an angle in degrees and t is an ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞

csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ sec ⎜ − θ ⎟ = csc θ

angle in radians then ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

π t πx 180t ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞

= ⇒ t= and x = tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ

180 x 180 π ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

Unit Circle

y

( 0,1)

π ⎛1 3⎞

⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟

⎛ 1 3⎞

⎜− , ⎟ 2 ⎝2 2 ⎠

⎝ 2 2 ⎠ π ⎛ 2 2⎞

2π 90° ⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟

⎛ 2 2⎞ 3 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠

⎜− , ⎟

⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 3

120° 60°

π

3π 4 ⎛ 3 1⎞

⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟

⎛ 3 1⎞ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠

⎜− , ⎟ 135° 45° π

⎝ 2 2⎠ 5π

6

6 30°

150°

360° 2π x

210°

7π 330°

11π

6 225°

⎛ 3 1⎞ 6 ⎛ 3 1⎞

⎜− ,− ⎟ 5π 315° ⎜ ,− ⎟

⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠

4 240° 300° 7π

⎛ 2⎞ 4π 270°

5π

2 4

⎜− ,− ⎟ ⎛ 2 2⎞

⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 3 3π ⎜ ,− ⎟

3 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠

⎛ 1 3⎞ 2 ⎛

⎜ − ,− ⎟ 1 3⎞

⎜ ,− ⎟

⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠

( 0,−1)

For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( x, y ) : cos θ = x and sin θ = y

Example

⎛ 5π ⎞ 1 ⎛ 5π ⎞ 3

cos ⎜ ⎟= sin ⎜ ⎟=−

⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2

Inverse Trig Functions

Definition Inverse Properties

y = sin −1 x is equivalent to x = sin y cos ( cos −1 ( x ) ) = x cos −1 ( cos (θ ) ) = θ

y = cos −1 x is equivalent to x = cos y sin ( sin −1 ( x ) ) = x sin −1 ( sin (θ ) ) = θ

y = tan −1 x is equivalent to x = tan y

tan ( tan −1 ( x ) ) = x tan −1 ( tan (θ ) ) = θ

Domain and Range

Function Domain Range Alternate Notation

π π sin −1 x = arcsin x

y = sin −1 x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 − ≤ y≤

2 2 cos −1 x = arccos x

y = cos x−1

−1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0≤ y ≤π tan −1 x = arctan x

π π

y = tan −1 x −∞ < x < ∞ − < y<

2 2

c β a

α γ

sin α sin β sin γ

= = a − b tan 12 (α − β )

=

a b c a + b tan 12 (α + β )

Law of Cosines b − c tan 12 ( β − γ )

=

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos α b + c tan 12 ( β + γ )

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 − 2ac cos β a − c tan 12 (α − γ )

=

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos γ a + c tan 12 (α + γ )

Mollweide’s Formula

a + b cos 12 (α − β )

=

c sin 12 γ

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