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- Iutam.paper
- Gary A. Williams- Vortex-Loop Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium, Cosmic Strings, and High-Tc Superconductors
- firstintegral20180410
- Knowing Power Grids
- Systems Theory - NSC
- Propeller Blade Shape Optimization for Efficiency Improvement
- Bergamasco PhD thesis Defence
- Pinkall, Springborn, Weißmann - 2007 - A New Doubly Discrete Analogue of Smoke Ring Flow and the Real Time Simulation of Fluid Flow
- mk1999
- Castelao 2010 the Sea-surface Structure of North Brazil Current Rings Derived From Shipboard and Moored ADCP Observations
- Report Differential Drive
- DE ZG515
- [E-Book] - Pentagonal Domain Exchange - Shigeki Akiyama and Edmind Harriss
- Alexander Wonhas and J.C. Vassilicos- Mixing in frozen and time-periodic two-dimensional vortical flows
- [DETC2007-35003] Spring-Mass Jumping of Under Actuated Biped Robots
- 3_17_note
- PVNewsletter June2014 UT
- CFD Numerical Simulation and Experiments of Jets in Cross.pdf
- 1.Experiment Bfc Chinese Journal
- Mary, 2003
- auto97
- Hi-Chrome Pumps
- On the Lebesgue Nonlinear Transformations_-_Ganikhodjaev-Saburov-Muhitdinov
- Bifurcation Analysis for the Delay Logistic Equation with Two Delays
- Mixing and Agitation Class Lecture
- Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles
- A Descent Into the Maelstrom-EAP
- Mp Mp 104111430422200
- Digital Vortex 06182015
- Absolute Ceiling
- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- On a class of steady confined Stokes flows with chaotic streamlines
- J. Etay, A.J. Mestel and H.K. Moffatt- Deflection of a Stream of Liquid Metal by Means of an Alternating Magnetic Field
- J. Etay, A.J. Mestel and H.K. Moffatt- Deflection of a stream of liquid metal by means of an alternating magnetic field
- H.K. Moffatt- The energy spectrum of knots and links
- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- Current-Sheet Formation in Relaxing Plasmas Inhibiting Action of alpha-Effect
- H.K. Moffatt- On the Existence, Structure and Stability of MHD Equilibrium States
- H.K. Moffatt- Stretch, Twist and Fold
- H.K. Moffatt- KAM-Theory
- H. Branover, H.K. Moffatt, M. Mond, E.S. Pierson, P.S. Sulem and A. Yakhot- Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Turbulence : a report on the Fifth Beer-Sheva Seminar
- H.K. Moffatt- On the behaviour of a suspension of conducting particles subjected to a time-periodic magnetic field
- H.K. Moffatt- Fixed Points of Turbulent Dynamical Systems and Suppresion of Nonlinearity
- S. Childress, P. Collet, U. Frisch, A.D. Gilbert and H.K. Moffatt- Report on Workshop on Small-Diffusivity Dynamos and Dynamical Systems
- H.K. Moffatt- The Topological (as opposed to the analytical) Approach to Fluid and Plasma Flow Problems
- H.K. Moffatt- Liquid Metal MHD and the Geodynamo
- K. Bajer, H.K. Moffatt and Francis H. Nex- Steady Confined Stokes Flows with Chaotic Streamlines
- David E. Loper and H.K. Moffatt- Small-Scale Hydromagnetic Flow in the Earth's Core: Rise of a Vertical Buoyant Plume
- H.K. Moffatt, S.Kida and K. Ohkitani- Stretched vortices - the sinews of turbulence; large-Reynolds-number asymptotics
- H.K. Moffatt- Spiral structures in turbulent flow
- H.K. Moffatt- Structure and stability of solutions of the Euler equations : a lagrangian approach
- H.K. Moffatt- Cosmic Dynamos: From Alpha to Omega
- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- Chaos Associated with Fluid Inertia
- H.K. Moffatt- The Earth's Magnetism: Past Achievements and Future Challenges
- H.K. Moffatt- Electromagnetic Stirring
- H.K. Moffatt- Fluid Mechanics, Topology, Cusp Singularities, and Related Matters
- A.Y.K. Chui and H.K. Moffatt- A Thermally Driven Disc Dynamo
- Jae-Tack Jeong and H.K. Moffatt- Free-surface cusps associated with flow at low Reynolds number
- A.Y.K. Chui and H.K. Moffatt- Minimum Energy Magnetic Fields with Toroidal Topology
- H.K. Moffatt- Relaxation Under Topological Constraints
- FL Bolcato, J. Etay, Y. Fautrelle and H.K. Moffatt- Electromagnetic Billiards
- H.K. Moffatt- Helicity in Laminar and Turbulent Flow

, 2009

Renzo L. Ricca

Department of Mathematics & Applications, U. Milano-Bicocca, ITALY E-mail: renzo.ricca@unimib.it – URL: http://www.matapp.unimib.it/~ricca renzo. ricca@ unimib.it http://www.matapp.unimib.it/~ricca

Aims

Theoretical goals: - describe and classify complex morphologies; - study possible relationships between energy and complexity; - understand and predict energy localization and transfer; Applications: - implement new visiometric tools and diagnostics; - develop real-time energy analysis of dynamical processes.

Coherent structures

Leonardo da Vinci (Water studies, 1506)

Werlé, ONERA, 1974 (Van Dyke, 1982)

**Vorticity localization in classical and quantum fluids
**

Kida et al. (Toki-Kyoto, 2002)

Miyazaki et al. (Physica D, 2009)

Geometric approach to vortex filament motion Localized induction approximation (LIA) and intrinsic kinematics Solitons and integrable vortex dynamics Stationary solutions Topological properties and fluid invariants Structural complexity analysis of vortex dynamics

χ

Geometry and topology of fluid flows Measures of morphological complexity Energy/complexity relations Shapefinders and eigenvalue analysis Dynamical properties in terms of graph analysis

T

**Localized induction approximation (LIA) homogeneous incompressible inviscid
**

fluid in

3 :

u = u ( X,t )

ω =∇×u 3 ∇ ⋅ u = 0 in u = 0 as X → ∞

Space curve

Ct , given by:

Ct :

X(s,t) := Xt (s) ∈ Cν

s ∈ [0,L] → R 3

ˆ t

ˆ n

Intrinsic reference on (Frenet frame)

Ct , given by:

ˆ ˆ {tˆ,n, b}

,

ˆ b Ct

∂X , ˆ t := X ′(s,t) = ∂s

Vortex line on

ˆ Ct : ω = ω 0t

ω 0 = constant

asymptotic theory ( R /a 1) no self-intersections

LIA:

ˆ ˙ (s,t) ≡ ∂X ≈ X ′ × X ′′ = cb ≡ u LIA X ∂t

(Da Rios, 1906; Hama & Arms, 1961)

**Intrinsic equations under LIA and NLSE
**

Intrinsic description: under LIA:

u = (ut ,un ,ub ) , c ( s,t )

.

curvature,

τ ( s,t ) torsion;

ˆ u LIA = cb , ut = un = 0 , ub = c

˙ c = −(cτ )′ − c ′τ

⎛ c ′′ − cτ 2 ⎞′ ˙ τ =⎜ ⎟ + c ′c c ⎝ ⎠

Ct := ϕ t (C)

Da Rios, 1906 Betchov, 1965

NLSE via Madelung transform:

τ

ψ ( s,t ) = c ( s,t ) e

NLSE:

i

∫0 τ (ξ , t ) dξ

s

2

c

ℑm

ℜe

ψ

˙ + ψ ′′ + 1 ψ 2ψ = 0 iψ 2

(Hasimoto, 1972)

Da Rios-Betchov eqs. from NLSE: by taking log-derivative of ψ ( s,t )

Ct := ϕ t (C)

˙ c = f c (s,t) ˙ τ = fτ (s,t)

**Higher-order LIAs and integrable geometric dynamics
**

Higher-order effects:

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u = (α + βs)cb + (γ + δs)t + µ 1 c 2t + c ′n + cτb 2

(

)

**(Lakshmanan & Ganesan, 1985) (Onuki, 1985)
**

β ,δ : inhomogeneities

µ

γ : non-linear stretching

(Fukumoto & Miyazaki, 1991)

: axial flow and vorticity

Higher-order LIAs:

u ( 0) = u LIA

u ( j +1)

j +1

⎛ ∂ ν u ( 0) ⎞ = ∑ F ⎜ ν ⎟ = R (u ( 0) ) ⎝ ∂s ⎠ ν =1

˙ ψ = P ψ ( un e iΘ ) + Q ψ ( ub e iΘ )

(Nakayama et al., 1992)

**(Langer & Perline, 1991)
**

Integrable geometric dynamics:

u = ( ut ,un ,ub )

Ct := ϕ t (C)

˙ = f s (t ) s ˙ c = f c (s,t) ˙ τ = fτ (s,t)

Germano, 1983 Ricca, 1991

**Conserved quantities from integrable dynamics
**

A = ∫ X × X ′ ds = const.

Arms & ; Hama, 1965

L = ∫ ds = const.

Marsden & Weistein, 1983

Geometric invariants:

P (L) = ∑ I j L j

j= 0

∞

I1 = ∫ c 2 ds

⎛ c4 2 2 2⎞ I 3 = ∫ ⎜ − c ′ − c τ ⎟ ds ⎝4 ⎠

I 0 = ∫ τ ds

I 2 = ∫ c 2τ ds

(Langer & Perline, 1991; Ricca, 1991)

**Physical conserved quantities:
**

kinetic energy: pseudo-helicity: Fukumoto, 1987 Ricca, 1992 enstrophy:

... ...

1 2 K = ∫ u d3 X 2 H = ∫ u ⋅ (∇ × u ) d 3 X

E = ∫ ω d3 X 1 P = ∫ ( X × ω )d 3 X linear momentum: 2 1 M = ∫ X × ( X × ω )d 3 X angular momentum: 3

Structural complexity analysis of 3D vortex tangles

experiment or simulation

domain extraction

projected diagram analysis

Measures of structural complexity: Algebraic information: - average crossing number Topological information: - minimal crossing number - linking numbers - topological changes Geometric information: - tropicity directions - coiling, writhing - alignment - signed area Dynamical systems analysis: - topological entropy - eigenvalue analysis

**Energy and helicity of a vortex tangle
**

2 1 3 3 Kinetic energy: E(T ) ≡ ∫T u d X = ∫T u ⋅ ( X × ω ) d X ; 2 ˆ ˆ ti ⋅ t j Γ2 from Lamb (1932), we have: E(T ) ≈ ∑ ∫∫ X − X dsi ds j , 8π ij χi χ j i j

**with total length of vortex filaments given by L(T ) =
**

∑ ∫ tˆ

i

i

dsi .

χi

**ˆ If ω ≡ ∇ × u = ϖ 0t , then the kinetic helicity is given by
**

(Moffatt, 1969; Moffatt & Ricca, 1992):

H (T ) ≡ ∫ u ⋅ ω d 3 X = ∑ Lki Γ i2 + 2∑ Lkij Γ i Γ j

T

i i≠ j

**Lki = Lk ( χ i , χ i ) = Wri + Twi
**

Lkij = Lk χ i , χ j

Calugareanu-White invariant Gauss linking number i-th vortex circulation

where

(

)

Γi

Tangle analysis by indented projections

**ˆ ˆ Let Πi = Π(Ti ) be the “indented” Ti –projection of the oriented tangle
**

component χ i ; assign the value ε r = ±1 to each apparent crossing in Πi .

writhing:

Wri = Wr( χ i ) =

r ∈χ i

T = χi

∑ε

r

, Wr = Wr(T ) =

r ∈T

∑ε

r

;

i

linking:

Lkij = Lk( χ i , χ j ) = 1 ∑ εr , 2 r ∈χi ∩ χ j

i≠ j

Lktot =

r ∈T

i≠ j

∑ Lk

χ χ ii

;

ˆ Ti

ij

**average crossing number:
**

r ∈χ i ∩ χ j

Cij = C( χ i , χ j ) =

∑

εr ,

C=

r ∈T

∑C

ij

;

Πi

−1 −1

+1

estimated values: ⎛ ⎞ Wr⊥ = ⎜ ∑ε r ⎟ , ⎝ r ∈T ⎠ ⊥

⎛ ⎞ C⊥ = ⎜ ∑ ε r ⎟ . ⎝ r ∈T ⎠⊥

**A vortex tangle test case (Barenghi, Ricca & Samuels, 2001)
**

ABC-type flow field super-imposed on initial vorticity distribution

t =0

t = 0.015

t = 0.050

t = 0.087

Vortex tangle test case: energy-complexity relation

logH

C(t) ∝ [ E(t)]

2

logC⊥

logC

logWr⊥

logLk tot

O(165 s−1 )

O(83 s−1 )

log(E / E 0 )

log(L /L0 )

mature tangle

time

**Energy-complexity relation
**

C(t) ∝ [ E(t)] : since

2

we have

ˆ ˆ Xi − X j ⋅ t i × t j 1 C= dsi ds j ∑ ∫∫ 3 , 4π ij χi χ j Xi − X j

2

(

)

⎛ δs ⎞ δC ∝ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Xi − X j ⎠

hence

,

and

δs δ (E / E0 ) ∝ Xi − X j

;

C ∝ (E / E0 )2 .

Helicity-complexity bounds If Lkii = 0 ,

Γi = Γ

2

**∀χ i ∈T , then we have (Ricca, 2008):
**

and

H (t) ≤ 2Γ C(t)

d H (t) 2 dC(t) ≤ 2Γ dt dt

.

**Tropicity interpretation of eigenvalues
**

**Eigenvalue analysis: let λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ λ3 . From (Vilanova et al., 2006), we have:
**

Cf = 2 ( λ2 − λ 3 ) λ1 − λ2 3λ3 , Cp = , Cs = . ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi

i i i

Shapefinders: let

⎛ 1 1 1⎞ 2 V = ∫ d X , A = ∫ d X , H G = ∫ ⎜ + ⎟ d X, D ∂D 2 ∂D ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠

3 2

1 1 2 χE = ∫ d X. ∂D R R 2 1 2

Then If

HG L= , 4πχ E

A W= , HG

3V T= ; A

(Sahni et al., 1998)

D

**is convex and L ≥ W ≥ T > 0 , we can define
**

L −W , CF = L +W +T 2(W − T ) 3T , CS = , CP = L +W +T L +W +T

so that

λ1 ∝ L , λ2 ∝ W , λ3 ∝ T .

**Interpretation of momenta in terms of projected areas
**

Linear momentum:

1 1 3 P ≡ ∫ X × ω d X = ∑ Γ i X × X ′ ds , ∫ χi 2 T 2 i

Angular momentum:

1 1 3 M ≡ ∫ X × ( X × ω ) d X = ∑ Γ i X × ( X × X ′ ) ds . ∫ χi 3 T 3 i

Under Euler (and LIA) equations:

dP =0 , dt

dM =0 . dt

Plane graph by standard projection

Λ ≡ p(T ) : →

3

2

Λ xy ≡ pz T

Axy

( ) ≡ A (Λ ) xy

xy

,

...

yz ;

,

...

zx

.

**Then (Arms & Hama, 1965; Ricca, 1992):
**

Pxy = Γ A xy , Pyz = Γ A yz , Pzx = ΓA zx

M xy = Γ dzA xy , M yz = ΓdxA yz , M zx = Γ dyA zx .

**Signed area and weight of projected graphs Let Λ j = p( χ j ) and R j ≡ int Λ j
**

Cauchy index I j = I Λ j : at each

intersection ρ Λ j assign ε i = ±1

and take

( )

( Π) :

.

Γj

χj

p

ˆ ρ

Ij =I Λj =

( ) ∑ε

ˆ ρ

Λj

i

Π

ˆ t

R j +1

Λj

Example

+1

0 –1 –2 –1

Signed area:

A j ( Λ ) = ∑I jA j (R j )

j

Weighted circulation: γ j =

∑ k Γ k Lk, j Lj

Momenta by signed area interpretation: geometric method (Ricca, 2008) Let T = χ i be a vortex tangle. Then, by considering the associated i principal projected graphs, we have

**P = Pxy , Pyz , Pzx : Pxy = ∑ γ jI jAxy R j ,
**

j

(

)

( )

Pyz = ... , Pzx = ... ;

M = M xy , M yz , M zx : M xy = dz ∑ γ jI jAxy R j ,

j

(

)

( )

M yz = ... , M zx = ... .

Examples

(a)

(b)

**Vortex analysis by geomertic method
**

Following Aref & Zawadzki (Nature, 1991):

+1

:

+1 +2

before

after

weighted areas

**Zero-area momentum (P = 0) interaction:
**

–1 0 +1 –1 + – +1 – +

Head-on collision and breakdown of vortex rings (Lim, Nature, 1992)

Head-on collision of vortex rings (Lim, Nature, 1992): Re=1071

Head-on collision of vortex rings (Lim, Nature, 1992): Re=1573

Selected references

- Iutam.paperUploaded bysweet_aura_301092
- Gary A. Williams- Vortex-Loop Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium, Cosmic Strings, and High-Tc SuperconductorsUploaded byLopmaz
- firstintegral20180410Uploaded byDiego Henrique
- Knowing Power GridsUploaded byprem
- Systems Theory - NSCUploaded byAndrea Guidi
- Propeller Blade Shape Optimization for Efficiency ImprovementUploaded byahmsal
- Bergamasco PhD thesis DefenceUploaded byMarco Bergamasco
- Pinkall, Springborn, Weißmann - 2007 - A New Doubly Discrete Analogue of Smoke Ring Flow and the Real Time Simulation of Fluid FlowUploaded bypinkall
- mk1999Uploaded bynaufragato
- Castelao 2010 the Sea-surface Structure of North Brazil Current Rings Derived From Shipboard and Moored ADCP ObservationsUploaded byJaqueline Palmeira
- Report Differential DriveUploaded byUlinnuha Latifa
- DE ZG515Uploaded byAnu
- [E-Book] - Pentagonal Domain Exchange - Shigeki Akiyama and Edmind HarrissUploaded bySanny Peralta
- Alexander Wonhas and J.C. Vassilicos- Mixing in frozen and time-periodic two-dimensional vortical flowsUploaded byPelaggio
- [DETC2007-35003] Spring-Mass Jumping of Under Actuated Biped RobotsUploaded byh_tamaddoni
- 3_17_noteUploaded byscheimer
- PVNewsletter June2014 UTUploaded bynaveen_86
- CFD Numerical Simulation and Experiments of Jets in Cross.pdfUploaded bymojicap
- 1.Experiment Bfc Chinese JournalUploaded bypratikmitra30
- Mary, 2003Uploaded bymoromartins
- auto97Uploaded bymenguemengue
- Hi-Chrome PumpsUploaded bysahildhingra
- On the Lebesgue Nonlinear Transformations_-_Ganikhodjaev-Saburov-MuhitdinovUploaded byAndres Granados
- Bifurcation Analysis for the Delay Logistic Equation with Two DelaysUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Mixing and Agitation Class LectureUploaded byTanvir Ahmed
- Aerodynamics of Road VehiclesUploaded byandreadelft
- A Descent Into the Maelstrom-EAPUploaded byCara Murphy
- Mp Mp 104111430422200Uploaded byسایه سپید
- Digital Vortex 06182015Uploaded byraghvendra gupta
- Absolute CeilingUploaded byimranriyaz

- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- On a class of steady confined Stokes flows with chaotic streamlinesUploaded byVortices3443
- J. Etay, A.J. Mestel and H.K. Moffatt- Deflection of a Stream of Liquid Metal by Means of an Alternating Magnetic FieldUploaded byVortices3443
- J. Etay, A.J. Mestel and H.K. Moffatt- Deflection of a stream of liquid metal by means of an alternating magnetic fieldUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- The energy spectrum of knots and linksUploaded byVortices3443
- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- Current-Sheet Formation in Relaxing Plasmas Inhibiting Action of alpha-EffectUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- On the Existence, Structure and Stability of MHD Equilibrium StatesUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Stretch, Twist and FoldUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- KAM-TheoryUploaded byVortices3443
- H. Branover, H.K. Moffatt, M. Mond, E.S. Pierson, P.S. Sulem and A. Yakhot- Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Turbulence : a report on the Fifth Beer-Sheva SeminarUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- On the behaviour of a suspension of conducting particles subjected to a time-periodic magnetic fieldUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Fixed Points of Turbulent Dynamical Systems and Suppresion of NonlinearityUploaded byVortices3443
- S. Childress, P. Collet, U. Frisch, A.D. Gilbert and H.K. Moffatt- Report on Workshop on Small-Diffusivity Dynamos and Dynamical SystemsUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- The Topological (as opposed to the analytical) Approach to Fluid and Plasma Flow ProblemsUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Liquid Metal MHD and the GeodynamoUploaded byVortices3443
- K. Bajer, H.K. Moffatt and Francis H. Nex- Steady Confined Stokes Flows with Chaotic StreamlinesUploaded byVortices3443
- David E. Loper and H.K. Moffatt- Small-Scale Hydromagnetic Flow in the Earth's Core: Rise of a Vertical Buoyant PlumeUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt, S.Kida and K. Ohkitani- Stretched vortices - the sinews of turbulence; large-Reynolds-number asymptoticsUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Spiral structures in turbulent flowUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Structure and stability of solutions of the Euler equations : a lagrangian approachUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Cosmic Dynamos: From Alpha to OmegaUploaded byVortices3443
- K. Bajer and H.K. Moffatt- Chaos Associated with Fluid InertiaUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- The Earth's Magnetism: Past Achievements and Future ChallengesUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Electromagnetic StirringUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Fluid Mechanics, Topology, Cusp Singularities, and Related MattersUploaded byVortices3443
- A.Y.K. Chui and H.K. Moffatt- A Thermally Driven Disc DynamoUploaded byVortices3443
- Jae-Tack Jeong and H.K. Moffatt- Free-surface cusps associated with flow at low Reynolds numberUploaded byVortices3443
- A.Y.K. Chui and H.K. Moffatt- Minimum Energy Magnetic Fields with Toroidal TopologyUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Relaxation Under Topological ConstraintsUploaded byVortices3443
- FL Bolcato, J. Etay, Y. Fautrelle and H.K. Moffatt- Electromagnetic BilliardsUploaded byVortices3443
- H.K. Moffatt- Helicity in Laminar and Turbulent FlowUploaded byVortices3443