http://www.feralscholar.org/blog/index.

php/2008/04/29/humanure-composting/

Humanure Composting
29th April 2008, 07:47 pm by DeAnander [Thanks to T Millions who wrote to us asking for more commentary on vermicomposting, particularly as applied to humanure and local "health security"] It might be the ultimate kapu. After all, everything from child molestation to necrophilia to bestiality to gang rape is now routine fare in online porn, and anyone who‟s genuinely upset by that may commonly be mocked as an old-fashioned “prude”; but most Americans are still deeply shocked/upset by the idea of a composting toilet. In many municipalities you can‟t get a permit for one — i.e. it‟s illegal to operate one. In other countries however, such as forward-looking Sweden, the popular composting toilet called “Biolet” is being adopted by entire small towns/villages. The association between flush toilets and Modernity, Sanitation, and Progress (not to mention class and race superiority) is very strong in Gringolandia. The “outhouse” and other non-flushing toilet concepts are a mark of the despised rural life for which urbanites often have a cringeing biophobic contempt (ironically, but perhaps inevitably, coexisting with a saccharine fauxnostalgia expressed in kitsch art); and they are a mark of third world poverty and “primitive” conditions. Flush toilets are right up there with SUVs on the list of “things those goddamn Greenies want to pry from our cold, dead hands” in the fulminations of online antienvironmentalist or cornucopian cranks. It is an outrage — nearly a heresy — to suggest that the flush toilet might not be such a cool idea after all. Even those whose biophobia can be somewhat separated from their class, race, and national egoextensions often remain convinced that human waste [I'll come back to that term later, to challenge it and the assumptions behind it] management is a highly technical problem which can only be solved by expert technomanagerial cadres and heavy technology — i.e. the way we‟ve been doing it since the industrial revolution. Any less “scientific” and technocratic approach will, they fear, lead inevitably to outbreaks of cholera and parasitical infestation (conditions observed by Europeans among the poor of their own and other countries and “solved” by the introduction of centralised industrial sanitation). Basically, it‟s caca and it‟s dirty and we mustn‟t touch it, that is a job for the Authorities; don‟t try this at home, kids! Highly neurotoxic pesticides are available over the counter, for us to spray freely around our yards (and contaminate other people‟s), cleaning supplies that mix into lethal chemical cocktails are readily purchasable without ID or age check, but we can‟t be trusted to deal with our own — er — shit. But what happens when the Authorities, and their centralised services, fail to meet the public‟s needs? Many years ago there was a record winter storm in Santa Cruz County where I was living at the time; the power was out long enough that gravity-fed water supplies were exhausted, flooding had muddied and contaminated upstream reservoirs, and there was no rainwater catchment system in place. There was no power to pump cleaned water up to the city reservoir. A fairly big chunk of urban and suburban area was without water pressure for several days, and

how many electric pumps and motors and miles of pipe. and this inflicted diseases (particularly in vulnerable children) and death on the civilian population. earlier. using various biocides to sterilise and perfumes to mask the smell of mixed sewage). by other national bad actors. But vulnerability to terrorist attack (whether by the US. US bombing of centralised sewage treatment systems in Iraq greatly increased urban misery and inflicted disease on neighbourhoods with this kind of absolute dependency on a complex infrastructure. At its heart. and (c) that you don‟t care about the impact on the “somewhere else. In a few more days. In an epoch where we may confidently anticipate more extreme weather events — and where we are already experiencing the erosion of public services and the escalation of deferred maintenance costs in civic infrastructure — disruptions in centralised.e. chemical outhouses with holding tanks. Centralised flush toilet systems are fragile. so I‟ll venture to suggest that this attitude may be summed up as “just shit in the river and the hell with anyone downstream” — once the shit has been carried away by the river. it‟s not our problem. and this is perhaps the first and most obvious potential downside of our utter dependency on them for basic sanitation. The enormous volume of human wastes produced by urban areas is such that it overwhelms the sink capacity even of large lakes and near-shore ocean waters. are involved even in a semi-”natural” waste treatment process. pumpout trucks to empty the tanks. the idea has been the perennial human wishful thinking of “send it elsewhere” or “sweep it under the rug”. and so on.” or your population is small enough that the impact is slight and local biotic systems can absorb it. and the impacts on these waters are not minor and have other knock-on effects. . but this again is dependent on clear roads. fuel for trucks. the chemicals for the tanks.the most urgent aspect of this mini-crisis was “lack of sanitation” — i. fossil-fuel-powered civic water/sewage systems seem pretty much written into our immediate future. In our increasingly crowded world — especially with massive urbanisation creating correspondingly massive concentrations of human wastes — we don‟t have a “somewhere else” within easy pumping distance — there is always someone downstream. or by domestic insurgents) and to extreme weather is only one of the downsides of the flush toilet concept. The subject seems to demand a certain crude bluntness of speech. the city‟s unflushed toilets would have presented an offensive smell and a potential sanitation crisis. The official response to this in larger-scale and longer-lasting disasters is to truck in “Portapotties” (basically. flush toilets stopped working and there was no backup system. a supply of portapotties to bring in. To use fresh water to transport (flush away) human wastes to “somewhere else” implies (a) that you have an abundant supply of fresh water. You can see from the Wiki page on sewage treatment how elaborate this process can get and how much infrastructure. from 3000 BC on. If all of Iraq had been equipped with composting toilets. though more recently aeration and settling lagoons and wetlands are becoming popular. predictably in our biophobic era. the blockade that visited collective punishment on Iraqis for over a decade prior to the most recent US invasion prohibited the import of chlorine and other chemicals on which the “modern” municipal water treatment regime is based. Our traditional solution to this. is to try to “kill the germs” in the waste stream by various means: this has often meant toxic chemicals. (b) there is a “somewhere else” to dump them. the US might have found it harder to kill so many children with such deniability. lesstoxic alternatives.

involves composting.] So what municipal waste treatment plants try to do is purify the waste stream — to make it safer to dump into coastal and inland waters. . we “flush away” our own metabolic byproducts and (in modern times) dump them far. I‟ll recommend the entertaining and interesting Humanure Handbook by Joseph Jenkins — for Anglophones. chronic parasitic infestation. He offers solid scientific analysis of the pathogenic potential of human wastes. etc. city plumbing. elements which are not replaced). Instead of returning the excess or byproduct of our metabolic function to the soil that produced the food we ate — as every other living creature on Earth does in a healthy biotic system — we have intervened. The good news is that much of this elaborate. But rather than go into a lengthy discourse on the dysfunctions and false economies of municipal waste management systems. far from the fields which fed us. Jenkins covers the design and function of centralised municipal waste treatment systems. we use up an enormous amount of a critical resource: fresh. And the nutrient cycle can be closed — for those with a bit of garden to call their own — right in your own back yard. not surprisingly. and maintenance overhead needed to keep it all running. As with electric cars. as dross or discard. (We are still basically shitting in the river. and that it‟s quite possible to return human “wastes” — i. pathogenic. mostly due to the hypernutrient nature of the biotically rich waste stream which encourages massive algal blooms and hence anoxic post-bloom “dead zones”. it would be no more absurd. to stop wasting them — to local soil.e. The book is available for sale in paper form. etc. and for free online in PDF form. we‟re firmly attached to the notion that “emissions elsewhere” somehow solves the problem.e. that the pathogenic potential in humanure. just trying to do it more cleverly. the runoff of excess artificial fertilisers and pesticides from industrially-farmed land is currently believed to be the primary cause. doesn‟t merit the near-superstitious dread that the biophobic culture has instilled in us. the Bible of humanure composting and the contrarian voice of record when it comes to the culture of the flush toilet. minerals. and it‟s a lot more work to “separate out the solids” after the waste stream has been diluted and mixed into runny sludge. The process. etc. without high risk of epidemics. and a solid explanation of the role of thermophilic composting in rendering humanure wholly benign.). — and the huge costs in water wastage. i. and increase the cost of agriculture by having to replace artificially the missing nutrients. energy consumption. We thus impoverish the soil (by removing nutrients. This requires — even without crude chemical biocides — significant energy investment. The collection of humanure and urine into centralised processing centres to be biocidally or biotically neutralised and then dumped into bodies of water means that we have interrupted the nutrient cycle. turned what should be a circular energy diagram into a linear one. vulnerable infrastructure is not necessary. If a herd of antelope grazing on savannah were to club together to have their manure removed by train to the coast and dumped on a beach. and in the process of transporting the waste stream to the energy-intensive treatment plant. overcapitalised. while genuine. a substance with no value — or a substance with extreme negative value (dirty. centralised. potable water. the pressurised water mains needed to supply urban/suburban toilets. [Here we should note that though raw sewage dumping contributes to these dead zones. The fundamental (so to speak) error in the way we have thought about human wastes for a couple of centuries is to think of them as waste at all. icky).Dumping raw sewage into coastal or inland waters is disastrous.

the fancy purpose-made composting loos have molded features for separating the wee from the poo. Urine allowed to age/ferment stinks badly. However if your household is small. in a neighbourhood with very high density. building very simple “sawdust loo” toilets (you really don‟t need an elaborate industrially-fabricated loo like the Biolet. not local (they come from the coconut industry in the S Hemi). and worms seem to like the texture and granularity of bricked coir. It was now ready for use. over an hour or three it would swell up to several times its compressed size and I‟d have a “sawdust bank” for use with the toilet. A different bucket would be the working toilet. or you haven‟t the affinity for thermophilic composting that some folks do. though they do offer convenience and a reassuringly toilet-like look and feel). they say (or think — I know I did). alas. grainy coir (a bit like potting mix in texture). and urine separated from excrement and not allowed to ferment doesn‟t smell much either. I used a standard 5 gal white plastic bucket with one of the (several are available) stock plastic “convert a bucket” seats for comfort (those bucket edges really are not meant for sitting!). So. I simply peed in a . as I no longer live there and the compost piles are fully mature and wholly inoffensive. and his Handbook dwells primarily on the construction of thermophilic compost piles for the breakdown of nitrogen-rich humanure mixed with high-carbon dry plant materials (like sawdust. I used at various times peat moss (from this I desisted quickly after learning how unsustainably and destructively it is “mined” from peat bogs). (I guess I can safely confess to this heinous crime now. etc). filled with slightly damp. but if you‟re strictly DIY the options are a bit more crude and limited. because after reading Jenkins‟ book I corresponded with him and others on his forum and for two years did a living experiment: I used exclusively a sawdust loo in my surburban home. but they are an ideal high-carbon. that must stink! But the folk memory of stinky outhouses. I would put some water in the bottom of a clean bucket and drop a coir brick into it. or stinky bathrooms with inadequate flush toilets. is based on a fundamental “user error”. and (most successfully!) compressed coir bricks (available from garden supply houses and by mail order). very small back yards. This is very do-able and many have succeeded. I terminated the experiment about 1 year before moving so as to be sure the new owner would not inherit any toofresh composting humanure. protected from air and bugs. recycled newsprint “small animal bedding” from a feed/seed store. Here I can speak from experience. doesn‟t smell much at all. Urine mixed with excrement stinks badly. hydrophilic (they like to soak up water). One of the biggest concerns people have about composting loos is the smell. The coir bricks are. But excrement separated from urine and covered with high-carbon “sawdust” or equivalent material. Omigawd. odour-absorbing medium. how to do the separation? Well.) Here‟s how it worked for me — in a temperate central California climate. soft. I‟d fill the bottom of the working toilet 2 inches or so deep with nice soft coir.Jenkins is very keen on thermophilic composting. another very do-able option is vermicomposting of humanure. Sawdust where I lived was ironically rather expensive. I used various high-carbon “bedding” material for the bucket. finely crushed dry leaves and grass.

This isn‟t always possible (I don‟t think I need to spell it out for anyone) but as long as you manage mostly not to pee in the sawdust loo. no whiff of excrement in the bucket should be detectible without the nose being positioned within a foot or so of the rim. One way to overcome this is to dump in extra bedding material around the sides to make it all level again. I would nonchalantly take my gallon jug and pour it in long lines along the flower beds around my yard. Eeee-yew! — but it‟s all covered with nice clean coir or sawdust. This I made with hardware cloth sufficient to form a cylinder about 3 feet across. which was reinforced with wooden stakes hammered into the ground in a shady spot under a tree and in a fairly private location (as much . but as it sank into the ground the smell vanished instantly. when done. recycled newsprint pet bedding. Fully covering it is important. Here‟s an important tip I learned somewhere online: if you‟re storing the urine in a jug (capped. and your plants will thank you. Another is to press down on the mound (yeah. or should be) to flatten it a bit. then instead of flushing. add some sugar to the jug. out in the back yard I built a contained compost heap or bin. and also add a bit more bedding around the edges to preserve a flat surface. If you cover it conscientiously and consistently (just like a cat covering up its own poo). but women can manage with — for example — the Lady J female urination aid). and promote some other kind of bacteria that don‟t smell nearly so bad. giving each plant a modest dose. Those with little privacy and/or small gardens will want to pee indoors into a container which can then be emptied outdoors. scoop (with a scoop or bare hands) enough “bedding material” (sawdust. There was a brief “urine smell” for a second or so after pouring. I know. which I found unaesthetic (and annoying to clean up). potting mix. Properly covered. I found that a gallon jug and a funnel worked pretty well (this is easier for guys. On Saturday morning early. you sit down and relieve your bowels as you would on any flush toilet. the raw humanure shouldn‟t touch the bucket sides or bottom and the bucket stays pretty clean. Those with big gardens and good privacy from neighbours can simply pee out in the back yard — so long as you don‟t pee in the same place every time. There‟s a tendency over the course of a few deposits for the accumulating material to form an unstable mound — this presents a risk of fresh deposits slithering down the mound and sticking to the bucket sides. it should be OK. And I have to say. coir) to fully cover this most recent deposit (I rather liked thinking of it as a deposit in the nutrient bank for my garden). The routine with the poo bucket was simple. and keeps the smell down. I used “normal” toilets at work and peed at home only on my own time) I filled a gallon jug a week. of course) for several days. At the end of the week you have a somewhat heavy bucket full of damp sawdust or coir and humanure. my roses and other yard plantings seemed to do exceptionally well during the experiment! So that leaves the poo bucket to manage. wipe and drop the TP in. Now what??? Well. This is what keeps the flies and bugs away. I found that as a lone pee-er (working full time. never pouring it all out in one place (except occasionally down a gopher hole to discourage the little marauders!).different container. but it seems to discourage the anaerobic bacteria that cause the sulphurous stench of stale urine. you won‟t over-nitrogenate any one patch of soil. Urine can be disposed of several ways. I am not sure how this works.

of more yard waste — long switches from my fruit tree curved and woven together like a sloppy basket. What I found in there was nothing but fluffy. leaving the other side less “fresh”. grass clippings. old vegetable plants. not local.as anywhere was private in my tiny back yard overlooked by two-storey neighbouring houses). I also built up a “wall” or insulating layer around the edge of the bin on the inside. and this smell vanished as soon as fresh cover material was sprinkled on top. and covered it up with more high-carbon dry materials. (The rinse water went onto the top of the pile to damp down the latest layer of bedding. I was very happy to see hordes of red wrigglers. one ageing and one in current use. at the end of year 2. for example — but my favourite turned out to be cocoa hulls from the garden store. whatever — to a height of about 1 foot. the nightcrawlers. This is a well-known “worm loo” technique — to have two bins. and when they arrived. Days went by. Magic! During the entire experiment. Due to the nature of the bin. I wasn‟t keen on digging into it to check But I dumped the buckets on one side of the bin. At first I planned to emulate Jenkins and do thermophilic composting. twigs. I ordered a pound of red wrigglers (tiger worms or Eisenia fetida) and a pound of nightcrawlers from a vermiculturist. I dumped the loo each Saturday and hoped that the worms would do their thing. I then dumped in my first bucketload. I dug into the original bin. and later read that they have a reputation for escaping from worm bins that are not fully enclosed). staler side just to see what was going on in there. chopped-up small branches. however. I resisted the temptation to dig into the bin to see how my wrigglers were doing. the only moment when there was any offensive odour was the instant of dumping the bucket into the bin. The bottom of the cylinder I filled in with cut-up yard waste: leaves. the first bin was getting kind of full and I built a second one. I was delighted by the result. Each loo bucket spent one week out in the sun. But I just couldn‟t get the thermo reaction going. maybe I wasn‟t getting the carbon/nitrogen balance right. and after a few weeks I dug into the lower. Maybe 3 foot was too small a diameter. eagerly dumped them into the bin and covered the whole shebang with a layer of damp bedding. So I did some more reading on composting and decided to try worms. It was right next to a fence line. rich topsoil that smelled like the duff from a forest floor. while using the second one. flexible weeds bent to match the curve. Again. and one week in service. and vines and long. but they were a wonderful worm bedding and — this really tickled me — they smell like chocolate! I would then rinse out the bucket and set it in the sun to dry and be sterilised with UV. After about a year. My plan was to allow the first bin to sit idle for a year (so as to be quite sure of the vermicomposting process and natural. but I just never got heat.) A second (third if you count the bucket for the coir) bucket would then be brought in to be the new “working loo” for the next week. all absconded (over the next month I found one or two — at night — elsewhere in the yard. This was to ensure drainage and oxygenation at the bottom of the pile. low-temperature composting for reduction of any pathogens). So. I tried various kinds — “found” oak leaves swept up from neighbours‟ yards and crushed by tromping on them inside plastic bags. The weekly routine went on. This layer was to prevent the migration of any raw humanure to the visible (and smellable) edge of the bin. My neighbour right across the fence — his back door only about .

contamination of drinking water with excrement is part of the story. is that the excrement of a healthy person (not parasitised or diseased) does not present a high disease risk — if it did. and wasting fertiliser. I installed a composting toilet on my boat — a pricey commercial unit because it is the only one that is „Coast Guard Approved‟ and hence protects one from harassment by the US Coasties.12 feet from my compost bins — never noticed a thing (I know because I asked him. whenever I used a “normal” flush toilet (at work. which I think bears some careful thought. it would not have affected me. I felt a kind of annoyance that this valuable material which so intimately belonged to me was being flushed away where I could get no use out of it and where it might actually do harm (to the local ocean biome. I used it meanwhile for a kitchen compost bin. I did not flush my toilet for almost 2 years. The beautiful topsoil went onto my garden beds. SSRIs. healthy people might shrug off exposure to bacteria that will take down a person with a weakened metabolism (for example. and he said he hadn‟t ever smelled anything and didn‟t know I had one). The prevalence of infectious diseases and parasites associated with “poor sanitation” in scenarios of extreme poverty is not a simple “human shit is making them sick” story. inoffensive topsoil. One last note. One interesting side effect of my sawdust-loo adventure was the nagging sense. no more so than the rest of the gardening chores of the weekend. inoffensive (particularly compared to any holding tank I‟ve ever met on a boat!). And I could have kept this up indefinitely. at a friend‟s house etc) of waste — that I was wasting fresh water. parents would be dropping dead from handling their babies‟ diapers and caca-smeared bums. If the municipal sewage treatment facility had broken down during my 2 year sawdust-loo experience. However it is not worm-based and requires electricity (a fan for dehydrating the humanure/carbon mix) and works best at warmer temperatures than one generally experiences on a boat in BC in the winter. etc). but seldom. Another related topic beyond the scope of this basic how-to primer is the role of pharmaceutical agents in rendering humanure genuinely unsafe to release into the biotic world. but I was planning to move within a year and felt I should not bequeath to some unknown new owner a half-composted 3-foot-diameter bin of humanure so I suspended the experiment and allowed bin 2 to age away for a year into sweet. that a composting loo is quite sanitary. Malnourished people are far less able to resist parasitisation and disease. since the worms are equally happy with any decaying matter. small children can be killed or made seriously ill by “food poisoning” that would only give a healthy adult a bad tummyache). at a restaurant. and simple to manage. except after cleaning (scale and mildew build up even when you don‟t use the thing). but massive doses of hormones. if he was being bothered at all by my compost pile. The weekly chore of loo-emptying was not particularly arduous. often overlooked. after my 2 year experiment in suburbia. and a panoply of other high-tech meds are . and work out some kind of worm processing component — but I have no doubts. The question of public health in the Third World is far more complex than “they need modern flush toilets” — but that‟s a topic for a different day. and malnutrition is a very big part of the story. solicitously. Inadequate clean water for washing hands and bodies is part of the story. I still have plans to modify it — give it its own individual solar panel to run the fan. not only overuse of antibiotics. a guest occasionally flushed it.

also beyond our scope here. Fungi may be more effective than worms for the breakdown and neutralisation of these dangerous substances — at some point we (FS) will have to do a quick intro to the work of Stamets on “mycoremediation” of hazardous wastes and damaged ecosystems.present in the urine and excrement of those who ingest them. and so on. Vermicomposting may not be adequate to render safe some of the artificial toxins in humanure such as pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. biogas digester. Sunmar.e. A more general topic. is the nature of risk and risk assessment. redworms. vermicomposting. worm toilet. when riding a bicycle is seen as dangerous and reckless. composting toilet. More is happening here than an objective assessment of risk: cultural values are being heavily encoded as risk perceptions. General | Comment (RSS) . but a nuclear plant is seen as safe and reasonable technology. what it means when something like a sawdust loo is perceived as insanely risky and dangerous to the body politic. waterless toilet. when people who routinely eat food that has been sprayed with neurotoxins are convinced that organic produce is “dirty” and dangerous to eat. and these chemicals migrate along with human “wastes” into our water systems. Related keywords to Google for: Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia) Larvae as composting agents for manure management. but driving an SUV is seen as safe and reasonable. Biolet. humanure. vermiculture. i. Category: Ecology & Env Justice.

907390-4994241.09.0. 9009484.7941-7.70 .920898. 8.3/4728800294090 909:70../ 908.-01742./06:./:89-..43:93/:897390$02 -:990..40/94.47 9.3 147 :809909409 10/989/.3/0./ &730.47  4:/5:98420.8 3494. .3-:.80/43.0847 84/00593.07..0881: .47/07 %0.3/ /.7020398938-.3.39494. :80707747 &73020/ 90.1:3/..08419.907 4/4:7 .70.073850450.0.7/038:554:808..83470.47-7.:5.97442893.8 .4254893448890820  2.901:894098 8-.07.3:.8.-4:9.4.800/89470.3/ 24898:.47-7.0.. 4793 34// 9.34:7 47970094:/80:59480.42570880/..-905499323909:70  /1107039-:.2039.3/7.47-7..43.3//745.7-43  /745./147:80  304190-089.25 8419 7.094:/-0904739409  /190-49942419047394093.0.42570880/80.420174290.-847-320/:2 .3/-2..0/.92:89893:9901420247418934:94:808 47893 -..47 . 90.

70.3/-:8 /4083 98202:.4.3/:730805.9:708147805..90/1742.3/.3/290/ 825500/3.702039. .070/9 .7-43 8.990459438.907./0.702039805.7.10720398938-.-92470.7 .. 57490.9.7..3.4254893448.. .9390001742 90544 -:914: 70897.90/17420.7:/0./ :90.024/0/10.0907 $4 494/490805./:89 4706:.90/ 1742:730.3/349.40/94 1072039/4083 98202:.7.943 0 901.7.5:75480 2.0392.

3825 5004:9390-.. .307 %883 9.3430 -:9 ../1107039.84:/43 95003908.7/038.3/4:75...90..3/44/57.3989.02489349945003908.07 397403.174230-4:78.07..439.34: %480999057..85488-0 /43 993300/9485094:9147.3-0 /85480/4180..07920 4:43 9 4./:8944 984:/-0  &730.205.34305..00.8 %4809-.3.9.7/ 8443.3/.843.4184 ...84:2.

091:41/.8420.098/0847 -49942.3//74590 %!3 9033890.31:8940903/430 50.00  3$../8549:3/07.-0//32.0984:/-0/090.//84208:.547-3 %82.4./09.943 .247330.4:934305.1.09.4:78041./  14:3/9.0890544-:.23498:70498478 -:998002894 /8.07.439.079.757.7 4:/ 343.498:11.0394:8...08 .43889039 :890.9...3 34907894 57088/43439024:3/ 0..0.5.33949074:3/90820.882504:89 /43.30/..857099..70..9.0754:739.82:.. 34 000 0 -:99 8.4:7. 94098.43:.84.04:7-408.4.3/ :2.4189.:2:.:/078 %070.09.843.  274808.43/47 84...380/389.39945003/4478394.-92470-0//3.3/3.-.32.8.43:.0.05943.80.3/8 034: -0//32.44547-.9 0 4:9390-...8.//. .10/05489814790.070/ 3411410.3.39 %88.438.14494784419072 14:.3:70 4.:2.47.3/4907.258.:80908:5:74:88903..9070/933419.31472.907.4:7.334394.-701 :730820 147.3.0:73./43 .-9 ..550/ 41..: .3903-002590/ 4:9/447814:3/9.4.8..3/700.0/3085739509-0//3 ..0790.0 %074:930990544-:.3 25479.9.  8.70 .7/038.090.907...807147:8 -:9 4203.3/54:79343308..43:.3/.0909902.190754:73 -:9.39 3/..9005890108.30.3.0798248970.941472.8703147.098/08 .0.4747 8....78411708/05489889073/439024:3/.45074094/8.730/8420070433014: 708947390:7303.0:730 .8./054893903:97039-.943...4.0.4254890.9./:8947.3/07.4.9.09942.0.9:7/..7/03 : .4782.7/  ./:89 4784:/-0 941.14:3/:3.393880020/94/40.430500 07 4731:920 :80/ 3472.9.0/:739005072039 $49.4.3/.98:71.3:5  30.74:3/2./:89 549932 70.039941472.74:3/908/08942.073:59843544 907.3:7084:/3 994:.1..8.904.399.7/-:9.79490: .08909./411:83 8.0.24/089/480 30.09 1470..907.3/89.-024:3/ 9857080398.070/93.39.7/.43901407-0/8.3/005890820/43  !74507.0948.3/.932..074-.8 .07.9420 4343243920 10/.0.702039390-:.0739825479.445 9.907.0  99003/4190004:..420 98894/:253097.90-:.039 /05489 7./.947....0 0.907.. ..99039.898.3/500/.90.02./ 070 8.3/-:8..0594.784-.903/03.84:4:/43.39950.944.47 941:.9-094:9903480 -035489430/93.1:330470/570990 9880.3/.22070/3949074:3/3.7488 .3/5742490 842049073/41-.4.250 90.9/43 982030.9700.7/5.0/944/0389.4:780  14780.3.-:.7.307. ../102.0.3/90-:.74:3/900/0894 570807.90.3  %070 8.-4:91009.0989.3 9490-:.3 :389.439.

3/-0890780/9&'  %07380.903293-.3/403.87930994.890 0.4.943 41.4:7909:730/4:994-0.94343 . 4738:.7/4.3//4907245.7/ ./ ..857.7-43.4:3990-:.09 4:/903-0-74:9394-09030 47344 1479030900 .3/.3/430003807.0 %8.0.89.25 /4390..990-49942419050  .7:80/- 9742534390238/05.-01449.3/4.74:3/900/04190-3439038/0 412470.0914790.8  970/.-05.9.0741-0//3 80.43/ 97/14:.8.9.8-0 .890 4389.3/820.-0..4.90..3070. .3/43 10-000/8-039942.:9 :5.398 .8455-.09..7/.4550/ :582.0.070/9:592470 .-.0/.009.7-43/72. 0941.08 98 .4254893 :9:89.3.330/9402:.3 3494.07 94.900338.0399027.250 -:921.93..0/20 908200...3.907.7/8.094.4:/3 90990 9072470. -:990070..894570.943.90703943949094541905094/.7/0389470 .47 -:.894038:70/7.:7.308.0  917895.84-:9:5.4.07440/-94 8947030-4:734:808 9 .5538 4/.-0 0/04190-3  903/:250/321789-:.3/0710/39.-7.43/071:472-0//3.0985039 430004:93908:3 .9089./.039409070.3/  9870.3/.4.3:709490.-4:91449 %8... :8174290.07.:7.20907 2.809 .07.081742217:99700.3/ .90.904:/90373804:990-:.088059:5174230-4:78 .83 9099390 ..4.88..3/80993 908:394/7.44-:..030 %0-499424190.:2..8 1470.74:83/8  14:3/ 4.103.37.08 7.894482..

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