A chemical reaction is a process that is usually characterized by a chemical change in which the starting materials (reactants) are different

from the products. Chemical reactions tend to involve the motion of electrons, leading to the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. There are several different types of chemical reactions and more than one way of classifying them. Here are some common reaction types:  Direct Combination or Synthesis Reaction In a synthesis reaction two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product. A + B → AB The combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide is an example of a synthesis reaction:

8 Fe + S8 → 8 FeS Chemical Decomposition or Analysis Reaction In a decomposition reaction a compound is broken into smaller chemical species. AB → A + B The electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas is an example of a decomposition reaction:

2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2 Single Displacement or Substitution Reaction A substitution or single displacement reaction is characterized by one element being displaced from a compound by another element. A + BC → AC + B An example of a substitution reaction occurs when zinc combines with hydrochloric acid. The zinc replaces the hydrogen:

Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction In a double displacement or metathesis reaction two compounds exchange bonds or ions in order to form different compounds. AB + CD → AD + CB An example of a double displacement reaction occurs between sodium chloride and silver nitrate to form sodium nitrate and silver chloride.

NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s) Acid-Base Reaction An acid-base reaction is type of double displacement reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. The H+ ion in the acid reacts with the OH- ion in the base to form water and an ionic salt: HA + BOH → H2O + BA

 Reactants and products are separated by putting an arrow between them to show the direction of the reaction. Worked Example Problem Tin oxide is heated with hydrogen gas to form tin metal and water vapor. . Redox reactions may involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. Tip: Start by balancing an element that appears in only one reactant and product. until all elements are balanced.provides an example of a redox reaction:  2 S2O32−(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) + 2 I−(aq) Combustion A combustion reaction is a type of redox reaction in which a combustible material combines with an oxidizer to form oxidized products and generate heat (exothermic reaction).  Use (s) for solids. Write the unbalanced equation.  Once one element is balanced. because this will change the formulas.  Write the state of matter immediately following the formula of the substance it describes. Usually in a combustion reaction oxygen combines with another compound to form carbon dioxide and water. 2. The reaction that occurs when In which I2 is reduced to I.  Use (g) for gaseous substances. 3.  Use (aq) for species in solution in water. Reactions at equilibrium will have arrows facing both directions. and another.and S2O32.The reaction between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide is an example of an acid-base reaction:  HBr + NaOH → NaBr + H2O Oxidation-Reduction or Redox Reaction In a redox reaction the oxidation numbers of atoms are changed.(thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62.  Use (l) for liquids.  Products are listed on the righthand side of the equation. Do not add subscripts. Indicate the states of matter of the reactants and products. Balance the equation.  Apply the Law of Conservation of Mass to get the same number of atoms of every element on each side of the equation.  Balance chemical formulas by placing coefficients in front of them. An example of a combustion reaction is the burning of naphthalene: C10H8 + 12 O2 → 10 CO2 + 4 H2O Balancing Equations 1.  Chemical formulas of reactants are listed on the lefthand side of the equation. proceed to balance another. Write the balanced equation that describes this reaction.

add a coefficient of 2 for the hydrogen gas. there are two oxygen atoms on the lefthand side of the equation and only one on the righthand side. Write the unbalanced equation. you need to be familiar with the properties of various compounds or you need to be told what the phases are for the chemicals in the reaction. so if we write 2 H2O it denotes 2x2=4 hydrogen atoms and 2x1=2 oxygen atoms. Balance the equation. 2 atoms of O. . Be sure to double-check your math! Each side of the equation has 1 atom of Sn. Look at the equation and see which elements are not balanced. SnO2 + H2 → Sn + H2O Refer to Table of Common Polyatomic Ions and Formulas of Ionic Compounds if you have trouble writing the chemical formulas of the products and reactants. and the term 'water vapor' indicates that water is in the gas phase: SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g) → Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g) This is the balanced equation for the reaction. Correct this by putting a coefficient of 2 in front of water: SnO2 + H2 → Sn + 2 H2O This puts the hydrogen atoms out of balance. tin is a solid. To do this. Now there are two hydrogen atoms on the left and four hydrogen atoms on the right. In this case.1. Oxides are solids. SnO2 + 2 H2 → Sn + 2 H2O The equation is now balanced. To get four hydrogen atoms on the right. coefficients are multipliers. and 4 atoms of H. Indicate the physical states of the reactants and products. hydrogen forms a diatomic gas. 3. 2. Remember.