PREPARED BY : SURIYA MUTHUSAMY CHEONG KOK LOON LEE (09-201105-00165) (09-201104-00609)



networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. A mail-order company. LANs increase the efficiency of workers by letting them exchange data and by eliminating redundant effort.Networking In the world of computers. resources. and shipping and inventory information. letting each user access the data that he or she needs. Why use a network? Connecting computers in a local area network lets people increase their inefficiency by sharing files. LANs improve communications by offering a way of sending messages electronically. Likewise. and more. It make the company far more efficient and organized to keep the data in one database. for example. there can be major savings in hardware purchasing because each network may need only one of each 3 . These are three of the most common benefits of using a LAN. * Increased efficiency * Improved communications * Lowered costs. works with customer name and address data. called elctronic mail (E-mail). local area networks (LANs) appeared more than ten years ago. LANs saved money by letting corporations license network versions of software to share among users. In reality. product numbers and pricing data. when the arrival of the microcomputer gave multiple users access to the same computer. Corporations commonly have several departments performing very differeent tasks. The most common means of sharing information on a LAN is the corporate database. through which users can send each other everything from corporate memos to informal hellos. but the departments are generally working with the same type of information. Local area networking has attained much popularity in recent years--so much that it seems networking was just invented. Many networks have full-fledged mail systems. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software.

one tape backup unit. Type of Network. However. but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. but it would be highly unlikely to find a ring topology there. it's often possible to purchase higher-quality equipment for the group than would have been possible for each individual. one fax machine. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. Rather than equipping each user with his or her own set of office equipment. bus networks work best 4 • . the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle in a family room.device. A single cable. Topology in Network Design Think of a topology as a network's virtual shape or structure. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see. For example. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. and one hard drive. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: • • • • • bus ring star tree mesh Bus Topology • Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. one CD-ROM drive. one laser printer. for example. By saving money in this way. a company can create a network consisting of a group of microcomputers with. the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector.

If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. Ring Topology • In a ring network. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). the entire network effectively becomes unusable. every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes.with a limited number of devices. 5 . performance problems will likely result. if the backbone cable fails. In addition.

• To implement a ring network. one typically uses FDDI. 6 . or Token Ring technology. SONET. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub. switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. (If the hub fails. • Compared to the bus topology.) 7 . the entire network also fails. a star network generally requires more cable. however.Star Topology • Many home networks use the star topology.

In its simplest form. 8 . and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.Tree Topology • Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus.

A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. employ mesh routing. (Recall that even in a ring. messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. • 9 . partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others. messages can only travel in one direction. although two cable paths exist. most notably the Internet.) Some WANs. As shown in the illustration below.Mesh Topology • Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies.