Manure N Availability to Corn & Use of Mn in Soybean

2011 Corn/Soy Expo February 3, 2011 Carrie Laboski

Carrie Laboski, Ph.D. CPSS, Assoc. Professor, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist

1

GO PACK GO!

Carrie Laboski, Ph.D. CPSS, Assoc. Professor, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist

2

Application Timing Effects on Manure N Availability

Carrie Laboski, Soil Science Bill Jokela, USDA

Background
• Current N credits are the same regardless of time of application (fall v spring) • Other states decrease N availability based on time to incorporation somewhat more precisely • Sidedressing corn with manure may:
– Provide another window of opportunity for manure application – Provide adequate N to the crop

Carrie Laboski, Ph.D. CPSS, Assoc. Professor, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist

4

Objectives • Evaluate the effect of timing of incorporation of preplant surface applied manure on N credits • Determine if preplant injected manure has greater N credits compared to incorporating surface applied manure • Assess the feasibility of using sidedressed dairy manure as an N source for corn Carrie Laboski. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 5 .D. CPSS. Professor. Ph. Assoc.

D.Study details • Located at Marshfield ARS in 2009 & 2010 • Withee silt loam • Corn following corn Carrie Laboski. Assoc. Professor. Ph. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 6 . CPSS.

500 6. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist . Ph.500 6. Professor. incorporated 72 hours after application Sidedress injected Sidedress surface applied 7 Carrie Laboski. CPSS. incorporated 1 hour after application Preplant surface applied.D.500 Preplant injected Preplant surface applied.500 6.500 6.500 6.Treatments TRT 1 2 3 4 5 6 N source None Fertilizer Fertilizer Fertilizer Fertilizer Fertilizer N (lb/a) or Application timing/ incorporation method Manure (gal/a) rate 0 None 40 80 120 160 200 Preplant broadcast incorporated Preplant broadcast incorporated Preplant broadcast incorporated Preplant broadcast incorporated Preplant broadcast incorporated 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dairy Manure Dairy Manure Dairy Manure Dairy Manure Dairy Manure Dairy Manure 6. Assoc. incorporated 24 hours after application Preplant surface applied.

Assoc.D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 8 . Professor. Ph.Manure applicator Carrie Laboski. CPSS.

CPSS.D. Assoc.Manure Sampling Carrie Laboski. Ph. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 9 . Professor.

lb/1000 gal Rate applied. Assoc. lb/1000 gal Rate applied.6 % Total N 28.9 % 45.4 74 11.9 128 23.9 % 26. Professor.9 38 12.8 % Carrie Laboski.3 171 16.4 61 5.D.5 107 9.3 294 19. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 10 . lb/1000 gal Rate applied. lb/a 2010 Preplant Total nutrients.Manure Analysis Year 2009 Time of application Preplant Total nutrients. Ph. CPSS. lb/1000 gal Rate applied. lb/a § Sidedress Total nutrients.4 185 NH4-N 11. lb/a § Sidedress Total nutrients. lb/a Dry matter 16.

Professor.D. CPSS. Ph. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 11 .Results Carrie Laboski. Assoc.

Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 12 . Assoc. Professor.Plot area 6/30/10 day of sidedress applications Carrie Laboski.D. Ph. CPSS.

Professor. Ph. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 13 . CPSS.6/30/10 no preplant fertilizer or manure Carrie Laboski.D. Assoc.

Assoc.Sidedress application Surface band Injected Carrie Laboski. Ph. Professor.D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 14 . CPSS.

Yield response to preplant fertilizer N.10 149 bu/a Plots with 0 N had 79% of max.2009 180 160 Grain Yield (bu/a) 140 120 100 N at Yield max Yield max EONR0. Ph.10 182 lb N/a 151 bu/a 126 lb N/a 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 N Fertilizer Rate (lb N/a) Yield EONR0. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 15 .D. yield Carrie Laboski. Professor. CPSS. Assoc.

method and time to incorporation on yield at Marshfield in 2009 N Source Rate lb N/a or gal/a 0 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 Appl.5 29.1 Grain yield bu/a 120 144 ab † 134 bc 133 c 137 bc 148 a Grain moisture % 29. Assoc. Carrie Laboski.6 17. Time hours Preplant Preplant Preplant Preplant Sidedress Injected Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Injected 0 <1 24 72 0 Silage yield Ton/a 15.0 c 30. Ph. Method Incorp.7 18.1 a None Manure Manure Manure Manure Manure † With a column rows with the same letter are not significantly different at the 0. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 16 .7 18. Comparison does not include the 0 lb N/a treatment.0 19.10 probability level using Fisher’s LSD.D.1 16. Professor.9 bc 30. Time Appl.8 b 29.Effect of manure application timing. CPSS.3 bc 33.

Time Appl. Ph.D. Professor. Method Incorp.N fertilizer equivalence of manure and manure N availability as a % of total N. Time hours 0 <1 24 72 0 N fertilizer equivalence value† Silage Grain ------. Assoc.lb N/a ------85 33 22 61 109 88 40 36 56 115 Manure N availability § Silage Grain % of total N applied 46 18 12 33 37 48 22 19 30 39 Preplant Injected Preplant Broadcast Preplant Broadcast Preplant Broadcast Sidedress Injected † Yield values from the manure treatments were entered into the yield (grain or silage) response to N regression models and the N fertilizer rate that would have produced the same yield was determined and reported as NFEV. Carrie Laboski. CPSS. 2009 Appl. § Manure N availability = (NFEV / total N rate applied in manure) x 100. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 17 .

10 154 bu/a Plots with 0 N had 49% of max. Assoc.2010 180 160 Grain Yield (bu/a) 140 120 100 N at Yield max Yield max EONR0. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 18 . yield Carrie Laboski.10 145 lb N/a 154 bu/a 145 lb N/a 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 N Fertilizer Rate (lb N/a) Yield EONR0.Yield response to preplant fertilizer N. Professor. Ph. CPSS.D.

Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 19 .Effect of manure application timing. Method Incorp. Time Appl. Ph.7 Grain yield bu/a 89 122 a † 124 a 122 a 105 ab 98 b 89 b Grain moisture % 16.6 12.10 probability level using Fisher’s LSD.6 16.4 † With a column rows with the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.6 17.4 16.D. Time hours Preplant Preplant Preplant Preplant Sidedress Sidedress Injected Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Injected Surface band 0 <1 24 72 0 Silage yield Ton/a 4.0 17.15 15. Assoc. CPSS.1 13. Professor.1 15. Comparison does not include the 0 lb N/a treatment.0 11.4 16. method and time to incorporation on yield at Marshfield in 2010 N Source Rate lb N/a or gal/a 0 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 Appl.4 17.0 None Manure Manure Manure Manure Manure Manure 15. Carrie Laboski.

lb N/a ------80 83 80 55 86 83 86 55 Manure N availability § Silage Grain % of total N applied 47 48 47 32 51 48 51 32 Preplant Injected Preplant Broadcast Preplant Broadcast Preplant Broadcast Sidedress Injected Sidedress Surface 29 20 42 26 27 18 40 24 † Yield values from the manure treatments were entered into the yield (grain or silage) response to N regression models and the N fertilizer rate that would have produced the same yield was determined and reported as NFEV. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 20 . § Manure N availability = (NFEV / total N rate applied in manure) x 100. Time hours 0 <1 24 72 0 - N fertilizer equivalence value† Silage Grain ------. CPSS. Professor. 2010 Appl. Assoc. Time Appl. Ph. Method Incorp.D.N fertilizer equivalence of manure and manure N availability as a % of total N. Carrie Laboski.

Carrie Laboski. 2008 & 2009 N Source Rate Appl. Time lb N/a or gal/a 0 6500 6500 6500 6500 Preplant Preplant Preplant Preplant Appl. ‡ Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0. Method Incorp.D. Assoc. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 21 . Professor.Effect time of incorporation and application method on PSNT values.10 probability level using Fisher’s protected LSD test. Ph. CPSS. Time† days PSNT 2008 2009 ppm NO3-N None Manure Manure Manure Manure Injected Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast 0 0 1 3 9b‡ 17 a 11 b 11 b 10 b 4b 9a 6b 6b 5b † Number of days following application where 0 is the same day.

but reduced yield in 2010 compared to incorporating within <1hr or 1 day • Sidedress applications – 2009: injected 9% less available than preplant injected – 2010: injected 11% less available than preplant injected – 2010: surface band 27% less available than preplant injected and 8% less available than preplant & incorporated 3 days after application • Research will continue in 2011 & 2012 Carrie Laboski. Assoc. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 22 . Ph.Preliminary Summary • Preplant applications – Waiting 3 days to incorporate surface applied manure did not affect yield in 2009.D. CPSS. Professor.

CPSS.Living on the edge Carrie Laboski. Assoc. Ph.D. Professor. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 23 .

Soil Science Shawn Conley.Understanding plant availability of manganese in glyphosate resistant soybean systems Carrie Laboski. Agronomy .

D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 25 . and Sauk Co. • Most. Assoc. CPSS. Ph. south to Jefferson Co. Professor. glyphosate resistant (GR) soybean varieties • Typical soil conditions – OM > 4% and pH > 7 Carrie Laboski. but not all cases. – Primarily east of Lake Winnebago – Also western Dane Co.Justification • Soybean Mn deficiency a problem in 2007 • Greatest concentration of deficiency – Eastern Waupaca Co.

Ph. reported on soils where Mn shouldn’t be limiting • More glyphosate is being applied to corn – Perhaps as much as 45% of corn acres Carrie Laboski. • Grower concerns about yield plateau with GR soybean – GR soybean represents 90% of soy acreage • Early concerns on low Mn soils • Outside of Wis.D. Assoc. Professor.Justification cont. CPSS. Mn def. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 26 .

Ph. Professor. Assoc.D. CPSS. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 27 .Previous research • Purdue research (Huber 2007) – Glyphosate reduces uptake and translocation of Mn via physiological immobilization of Mn in the plant – Glyphosate is toxic to Mn reducing soil bacteria – Root Mn uptake and translocation are reduced when glyphosate residue are present in soil • Purdue & Kansas found yield increases when: – Foliar Mn applied at least 8 days following glyphosate application – Mn sulfate applied at planting – Gypsum at plant (to immobilize glyphosate) Carrie Laboski.

CPSS. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 28 .D. Assoc.Previous Research • UWEX Mn guidelines based on research conducted in early 1970s – OM ≤ 6% use soil test – OM > 6% and pH >6.25 or 0.9 Mn is low – For crops with a high relative Mn need (soybean) and low soil Mn • Apply 5 lb Mn/a as starter in sulfate form • Apply 1.2 lb Mn/a (sulfate or chelate) foliar – Foliar applications most effective at R1 or R3 – Multiple applications sometimes needed Carrie Laboski. Ph. Professor.

Professor. Ph. Assoc. CPSS.Objective • To quantify the effect of glyphosate on Mn availability in GR soybean systems • To develop new Mn management guidelines for GR soybean systems Carrie Laboski.D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 29 .

Assoc. Professor.510 seeds/a 2010: 150. CPSS.25 lb Mn/a as Mn sulfate at R1 1.000 seeds/a Carrie Laboski.25 lb Mn/a as Mn sulfate at R1 and R3 ManGro DF used for starter and foliar. 31% Mn.D.Treatments • Variety/weed management (main plot) – Conventional variety. glyphosate weed control – – – – 0 1. convention weed control – GR variety. 15% S • Foliar Mn application (split plot) • Mn in starter fertilizer 2x2 (split split plot) –0 – 5 lb Mn/a as Mn sulfate 30” rows 2009: 155. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 30 .25 lb Mn/a as Mn sulfate at R3 1. conventional weed control – GR variety. Ph.

= Dairyland DSR2118.8 6. Ph. grain none 33 (Low) Corn. % Soil Mn.1 6. One site lost to flooding in June.2 2 (Low) Watertown Wacousta silty clay loam 7. CPSS. GR = Asgrow AG2204 † Leaf Mn concentrations of 54 to 300 ppm are considered sufficient at R1. Carrie Laboski. Other site lost to brown stem rot in August. Note: Two sites in 2008. ppm † Prev. Professor.3 2 (Low. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 31 . ppm Granby fine sandy loam 8.D.1 5.2 2. crop Tillage Variety 44 (Low) Corn. grain Spring chisel/disk 17 (Low) Cont.6 14 (Opt) Leaf Mn at R1. Assoc. pH/OM) Shiocton silt loam 7.1 4 (Low.Sites 2009 Hubbleton Soil pH OM. pH/OM) 2010 New London A New London B Shiocton silt loam 7. soybean No-till since 2003 46 (Low) Corn. grain Spring chisel/disk Conv.

Professor. Assoc./Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 54 53 51 0 5 51 54 0 1. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 32 . Carrie Laboski. Ph.10 probability level.25 @ R1 & R3 37 b † 38 b 69 a 67 a † Mean values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0. 2009 Variety/herbicide: Leaf Mn ppm Starter Mn Leaf Mn lb/a ppm Foliar Mn lb/a Leaf Mn ppm Conv. CPSS.25 @ R1 1.D.Leaf Mn 10 days after R3 foliar application. Hubbleton.25 @ R3 1.

25 @ R3 1.Yield./Convention al GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 49 49 48 lb/a 0 5 bu/a 49 48 lb/a 0 1. CPSS.25 @ R1 1. Ph. Hubbleton.25 @ R1 & R3 bu/a 49 49 49 48 Starter Mn Yield Foliar Mn Yield Carrie Laboski. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 33 . Assoc. Professor.D. 2009 Yield Variety/herbicide: bu/a Conv.

/Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 75 65 71 0 5 68 72 0 1.10 probability level.Leaf Mn 10 days after R3 foliar application. Professor. Assoc. Watertown. 2009 Variety/herbicide: Leaf Mn ppm Starter Mn Leaf Mn lb/a ppm Foliar Mn lb/a Leaf Mn ppm Conv.25 @ R1 1. Ph. CPSS.25 @ R3 1.25 @ R1 & R3 33 b † 36 b 105 a 106 a † Mean values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 34 .D. Carrie Laboski.

Professor.25 @ R1 1. Assoc./Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 0 1. Ph.01 0.25 @ R1 and R3 ---------------------.D.25 @ R3 47 48 47 47 p 0./Convention al GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate Yield Starter Mn Yield Foliar Mn Yield 47 47 48 0 5 47 48 0 1. 2009 Variety/herbicide : Conv.yield. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 35 .25 @ R1 1.Yield. lb Mn/a Variety/herbicide Conv.25 <0.25 @ R3 1. CPSS.25 @ R1 & R3 Foliar Mn rate/timing.42 1. bu/a -----------------49 50 a 46 48 45 b 48 46 49 a 47 47 46 b † 49 Carrie Laboski. Watertown.

Ph. Professor. Photo above is R2. Carrie Laboski. CPSS.Mn deficiency symptoms New London A Photos at left are R1. symptoms apparent on lower leaves only. Assoc.D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 36 . symptoms apparent on newest leaves.

Professor.D. Assoc.10 probability level.25 @ R3 1. 2010 Variety/herbicide: Leaf Mn ppm Starter Mn Leaf Mn lb/a ppm Foliar Mn lb/a Leaf Mn ppm Conv. Ph. Carrie Laboski.25 @ R1 1. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 37 ./Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 116 99 107 0 5 102 113 0 1. New London A.25 @ R1 & R3 29 b † 41 b 172 a 188 a † Mean values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.Leaf Mn 10 days after R3 foliar application. CPSS.

Ph.25 @ R3 1. 2010 Variety/herbicide: Leaf Mn ppm Starter Mn Leaf Mn lb/a ppm Foliar Mn lb/a Leaf Mn ppm Conv. Assoc. Professor./Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 188 a † 110 b 112 b 0 5 134 139 0 1.Leaf Mn 10 days after R3 foliar application.25 @ R1 1. New London B. CPSS. Carrie Laboski.25 @ R1 & R3 71 b 72 b 188 b 215 a † Mean values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.10 probability level.D. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 38 .

Yield. New London B.25 @ R1 1. Professor.25 @ R3 1.25 @ R1 & R3 56 55 56 55 Carrie Laboski. 2010 Variety/herbicide: Yield bu/a Starter Mn lb/a Yield bu/a Foliar Mn lb/a Yield bu/a Conv. CPSS./Conventional GR/Conventional GR/Glyphosate 54 b 56 a 56 a 0 5 55 56 0 1. Assoc.D. Ph. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 39 .

Professor. yield response was expected at all locations • Starter fertilizer did not increase leaf Mn concentrations on any sampling date or at any location – Contradictory to past research in WI that showed starter Mn as being the most effective for increasing yields when deficiency occurred • Leaf Mn concentrations increased for at least 10 days following foliar application Carrie Laboski. Ph. Assoc. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 40 . CPSS.D.Summary • Based on soil test and/or R1 tissue test.

Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 41 . leaf Mn concentrations were significantly greater where Mn was applied at R3 – At New London B.Summary • At all locations. application at R1& R3 was significantly greater than. R1.D. except New London B. Professor. CPSS. 10 days after the R3 foliar application. R3. or none • No significant yield response to any Mn application method or timing at any location – New London A was not harvestable and was only location where Mn deficiency symptoms were present Carrie Laboski. Ph. Assoc.

CPSS. but there was no yield response to foliar application – Using the diagnostic criteria at growth stages other than R1 may not be useful Carrie Laboski. Professor.D. Ph. Assoc. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 42 .Summary • At R1 54 to 300 ppm Mn in leaf considered sufficient – Hubbleton & Watertown had less than 54 ppm (~36 ppm) at R3 and 10 days after R3 in 0 and R1 foliar plots.

Professor. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 43 . greater leaf Mn at R3 and R3+10 days • Further data analysis will be done Carrie Laboski. Ph.D.Summary • At Watertown only. GR/conventional had significantly greater yield if Mn applied at R1 or R1 & R3 – Did not occur for other variety/herbicide treatments • At New London B. CPSS. Assoc. Conventional variety had significantly lower yield (54 bu/a) compared to GR variety (56 bu/a) – Though it had sig.

it is unlikely you will realize a profitable yield response to foliar Mn applications Carrie Laboski. if Mn deficiency symptoms are not present.Take home message • If Mn deficiency symptoms are present – Apply foliar 1. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 44 . Assoc. Professor.D.25 lb Mn/a as sulfate form or 0.2 lb Mn/a as chelate form • Based on this data. Ph. CPSS.

Professor.D. USDA-ARS Institute for Environmentally Integrated Dairy Management Soybean Manganese Study • Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board • Wisconsin Fertilizer Research Program • Collaboration with Shawn Conley. CPSS.Thanks to our sponsors! Manure Timing Study • Wisconsin Corn Promotion Board • Collaboration with Bill Jokela. Assoc. Extension Soil Fertility Specialist 45 . Ph. UW-Agronomy Carrie Laboski.