US Imper|a||sm

lorelgn Þollcyť pollcy of a soverelgn sLaLe and lLs lnLeracLlon beLween oLher soverelgn sLaLes
lmperlallsmť once counLry's pollLlcalţ soclalţ and economlc domlnaLlon of anoLher
O Ŷ uSţ !apanţ and Cermany conLrolled 83Ʒ of Lhe world
O uS beglns Lo be a world power by end of
Lh
cenLury
4 looklng Lo expand ouLward
4 bulld/sLrengLhen navy Ŷ aka CreaL WhlLe lleeL (under 18 admln)
4 expand oversea Lrade
4 SpanAm War
4 become colonlal emplre
4 expanslon encouraged by SenaLors 8everldge and Lodge and 18
O why does lmperlallsm sLarL?
Ŧ lndusLrlallzaLlon
aŦ Lhe need for new markeLs Lo sell abroad Lo
2Ŧ Alex Mahan urges Congress Lo expand navy
aŦ flgure he's 8rlLlsh
3Ŧ Mlsslonarles
aŦ !oslah SLrong Ŷ CongregaLlonallsL mlnlsLer
lŦ wroLe a book on rellglous sancLlon Lo naLural and raclal superlorlLy
Ŧ naLlonallsm
3Ŧ ellow Þress Ŷ sensaLlonal sLorles abouL exclLemenL abroad
aŦ lnduced Lravellng
O beneflLs
4 esLabllshed orderly governmenL
4 sLopped local wars
4 developed lndusLryţ agrlculLureţ and economy
4 bulldlng hosplLals and schools
4 sanlLaLlon
4 ldeas of democracy and lndlvldual rlghLs
O problems
4 blLLer feellngs beLween colonlsLs and colonlzers
4 colonlzers Lhlnk Lhey are superlor
4 colonlsLs could noL hold hlgher poslLlon ln lmperlal socleLy
4 colonlsLs blame colonlal powers for loss of land
4 colonlsLs forced Lo change cusLomsţ languageţ rellglonţ eLc



Þaclflc Lxpanslon
O us lnlLlally focuses on S Þaclflc
4 Samoa and Pawall
O 866 Ŷ 8ussla wanLs Lo sell Alaska
4 we buy lL for $7Ŧ2mll Lo eradlcaLe 8ussla from uS
4 boughL by SenaLor Seward under !ohnson
O Samoa was ma[or harbor
4 887 Ŷ clvll war broke ouL ln Samoa
Cermansţ 8rlLlshţ and Amerlcans ln Samoa
88 Ŷ 1rlparLlLe ÞroLecLoraLe peace LreaLy esLabllshed
O Pawall was declared a uS proLecLoraLe ln 8
4 uS Lhere slnce 820s
4 sLopplng polnL for Lrade rouLes
4 80s Ŷ us planLers owned 2/3 of sugar lndusLry and land
4 8 Ŵ Cueen Lllluokalanl abollshes Lhe consLlLuLlon LhaL granLed Lhe uS conLrol over
Lhelr pollLlcs
uS planLers lead a coup agalnsL her Ŵƽ she geLs overLhrown/abdlcaLes forcefully
4 8! Parrlson submlLs Pawall for annexaLlon
Cleveland agalnsL lL
O lnvesLlgaLes slLuaLlon Ŵƽ Lhlnks lL's unfalrť LhaL lL ls agalnsL uS pollcy
O Lrles Lo geL Cueen back on Lop
4 87 Ŷ Mcklnley llkes annexaLlon
SenaLe re[ecLs lL
O Mahan argues !apan wlll geL lL lf Lhey don'L
4 !uly 7
Lh
88 Ŷ Pawall becomes uS LerrlLory
SpanlshŴAmerlcan Warţ 88
O aka ºsplendld LlLLle War" by !ohn Paye
O 83 Ŷ Cubans rebel agalnsL Spanlsh rule
4 we slded wlLh Cubans Ŵƽ klnd of llke 8rlLlsh Lo uS durlng 700s
O uS newspapers carry exaggeraLed and dlsLorLed accounLs of Lhe war (aka ellow Þress)
4 PearsL sends palnLer 8emlngLon Lo Cuba
he says lL's noL LhaL bad Lhere
PearsL Lo 8emlngLonť ºou furnlsh Lhe plcLuresţ l'll furnlsh Lhe war"
O lebruary 88 Ŷ Cubans release prlvaLe leLLer wrlLLen by Spanlsh ambassador LhaL called
Mcklnley weak
4 3
Lh
Ŷ u55 Molo geLs blown up
we LhoughL lL was Lhe Spanlsh Ŵƽ Lurns ouL lL was faulLy exploslon
4 pollLlcal pressure bullds up Lo go Lo war
º8emember Lhe Malne! 1o hell wlLh Spaln!"
4 Aprll 88 Ŷ
8
Lh
Ŵ Congress Lells Spaln Lo vacaLe Cuba Ŵƽ we creaLe naval blockade
1eller AmendmenL Ŷ uS has no plans for annexlng Cuba
22
nd
Ŷ ueclaraLlon of PosLlllLy
O flrsL baLLle occurs ln Manlla 8ay ln Þhlllpplnes wlLh Admlral uewey
O Þhlllpplnes
4 18's ldea Lo sLarL war Lhere Ŵƽ secreLary of navy
4 AugusL Ŷ uS occuples Manlla and Cuam
4 May Ŷ uS deploys navy
lands ln Manlla ln !une wlLh 8ough 8lders under 18
Spaln surrenders Lwo weeks laLer
O 88 Ŷ peace conference ln Þarls
4 forces Spaln Lo glve up Cuamţ Þhlllpplnesţ ÞuerLo 8lcoţ and Cuba
4 Spaln geLs $20mll
O afLer wlnnlng SpanlshŴAmerlcan Warţ uS becomes world power
O Cuba
4 lndependenL naLlonţ uS occupancy unLll 02
4 ÞlaLL AmendmenL Ŷ forces Cuba Lo be uS ÞroLecLoraLe
Cubans glve uS conLrol over Lhelr soverelgnLy
Cubans can'L make LreaLles wlLhouL uS approval
uS can lnLervene Lo preserve Cuban lndependenL and malnLaln order
Cubans glve us Cl1MC
Lhls ls effecLlve unLll 3
4 uS lmproves Lhelr LransporLaLlonţ creaLes a naLlonal armyţ lncreases sugar producLlonţ
beLLer publlc healLhţ and eradlcaLes yellow fever
CpposlLlon Lo lmperlallsm
O lL ls agalnsL uS morals
O SenaLe almosL overLurns Lhe 1reaLy of Þarls 88 Lo end SpanlshŴAmerlcan War
O AnLlŴlmperlallsL League Ŷ Mark 1walnţ Samuel Compersţ Andrew Carnegle
Þhlllpplnes
O far easL Lradlng supplemenL
4 refuellngţ Lradlng wlLh
O Lmlllo Agulnaldo declares Þhlllpplnes lndependenL ln 8
4 flghLlng erupLs beLween llllplnos and uS
O llllplnoŴAmerlcan War 8 Ŷ 02
4 000 Amerlcans dle vs 220000 llllplnos
4 llllplnos lllŴequlpped for war
we guerrllla foughL

O 0 Ŷ Agulnaldo capLured
4 backbone of rebelllon dledţ sLlll flghLlng wlll conLlnue Lhough
O 02 Ŷ uS esLabllshed colonlal governmenL ln Þhlllpplnes
4 !uly
Lh
6ţ llllplnos geL Lhelr lndependence
O Þhlllpplne CovernmenL AcL 02 Ŷ made Þhlllpplnes unorganlzed uS LerrlLory
4 all clLlzens ln Þhlllpplnes became uS clLlzens
O 7 !ones AcLŶ afflrmed uS lnLenLlon Lo granL Þhlllpplne lndependence ln fuLure
O 21ydlngsŴMcuuffle AcL Ŷ suspended freedom for 20 years
lar LasL
O 03 1afLŴkaLsura AgreemenLŶ !apan conLrols koreaţ promlses noL Lo aLLack Þhlllpplnes
O 07 CenLlemen's AgreemenL Ŷ [olnL conLrol of lnflux of lmmlgranLs from !apan Lo uS
4 raclal aglLaLlon ln Callfornla agalnsL !apanese
!apanese don'L llke Lhlsţ nelLher does Lhelr governmenL
O 08 8ooLŴ1akahlra AgreemenL Ŷ recognlzes !apan's lnLeresL ln Manchurlaţ !apanese agrees Lo
respecL uS colonlal lnLeresLs ln Asla
O 88 Ŷ Cpen uoor Þollcy Ŷ SenaLor !ohn Paye
4 uS wanLed ºplece of Chlnese ple"
4 esLabllshed equal Lrade wlLh Chlna for uS and all ma[or powers
4 8oxer 8ebelllon Ŷ Chlna dld noL llke Lhe blg Þowers ln Lhelr counLry
superpaLrloLlc group forms Ŵƽ Lhe 8oxers
Lhey Lake forelgn hosLages ln 8el[lng
mulLlŴnaLlonal conLlngenL formed Lo rescue Lhem
Chlna flned $333mll lndemnlLy
O we geL $2Ŧ3mllţ buL glve Lhem back $8mll
LaLln Amerlca (Þanama Canal)
Ŧ ClayLonŴ8ulwer 1reaLy Ŷ 8rlLlsh had canal conLrol ln CenLral Amerlca
4 uS needed Lo abollsh Lhls ln order Lo galn access Lo Lhe canals
0 PayŴÞauncefoLe 1reaLy Ŷ gave uS permlsslon from 8rlLlsh Lo bulld canal
2Ŧ Þanama ls chosen as Lhe canal
4 lrench owned Lhe rlghL Lo panama (new Þanama Canal Company)
4 we pay Lhe lrench $0mll for Lhe rlghL of way
3Ŧ SecreLary of SLaLe !ohn Pay negoLlaLes wlLh 1om Perran (Columblan ºsecreLary of sLaLe")
4 year lease for 6 mlle wlde zone across lsLhmus of Þanama
4 $0mll down paymenL and $230ţ000 each year for renL
4 0 PayŴPerran 1reaLy Ŷ re[ecLed by Columbla Ŵƽ ºWL WAn1 MC8L MCnL" Lhey say
Lhls plsses of 18ţ breaks negoLlaLlonţ and seeks anoLher way for rlghL of way
Ŧ 03 Ŵ Þanamanlans rebel because Columbla re[ecLed Lhe PayŴPerran 1reaLy
4 uS does noL helpţ
4 03 Ŵ Þanama geLs lndependence ln november
3Ŧ 03 Ŷ Pays negoLlaLes wlLh Þanamanlan Þhlllppe 8unau verllla
4 PayŴ8unauŴverllla 1reaLy Ŷ uS geLs 0 mlle wlde zone
same money/Llme as Lhe PayŴPerran 1reaLy
approved by SenaLe ln 0
6Ŧ AugusL 3ţ Ŵ Þanama Canal opens
4 LaLln Amerlcans feel Lhe Canal ls ankee lmperlallsm
duh
4 22 Ŷ uS pays Columbla $23ţ000ţ000 Lo recognlze Þanamanlan lndependence
4 78 Ŷ uSţ under CarLerţ slgn LreaLy ln Þanama reLurnlng Lhe Canal Lo Þanama by 2000
1eddy 8oosevelL and LaLln Amerlca
O ºSpeak sofLly and carry a blg sLlckŦ"
O 0 8oosevelL Corollary Ŷ added Lo Monroe uocLrlne
4 warns LaLln Amerlcans counLrles Lo organlze governmenL and flnance Lo prevenL
Luropean lnvaslon
4 even Lodayţ Lhelr governmenL ls bad
O uS ls Lhe reglonal waLchdog
4 8oosevelL Corollary used Lo [usLlfy any lnLervenLlon ln LaLln Amerlcan counLrles
O 00Ŵ7 Ŷ uS lnLervenesť
4 Cuba Ŵ afLer Lhe SpanlshŴAmerlcan War
Lhere unLll 02
ÞlaLL AmendmenL valld unLll 3
4 Þanama
Þanama Canal bullL by
O glven back ln 78
4 nlcaragua
4 PalLl
4 Mexlco
O we Lake over Lhelr governmenL and lLs problems and flnance
4 conducL elecLlons for proŴuS candldaLes
O uollar ulplomacy Ŷ promoLe uS commerclal lnLeresLs ln LaLln Amerlca and creaLe sLablllLy ln
Lhelr counLrles
4 by 1afL
4 lneffecLlve
Mexlco
O 0 Ŷ Mexlcan revoluLlon overLhrew dlcLaLorţ ulaz
4 he was proŴuS
4 Mexlco had a very LranslenL governmenL
4 Wllson wanLs Lo esLabllsh democracy
4 3 Ŷ uS wanLs PuerLo removed from Lhroneţ have ConsLlLuLlonallsL Carranza lnsLead
O Aprll Ŷ uS sallors arresLed by Mexlco Ŵƽ causes glanL messţ caused by uS claro que sl
4 sLrayed lnLo resLrlcLed area
4 Mexlco qulckly released Lhem and apologlzed
4 uS naval commander forces Mexlco sLlll Lo saluLe uS flag
Mexlco LhoughL Lhls was LhreaL Lo lndependence and naLlonallsm
4 A8C counLrles asked Lo medlaLe Ŵƽ falls Lo
4 PuerLo flees Lo Luropeţ Carranza geLs lnLo power
O Þancho vllla Ŷ separaLes from Carranza Lo form hls own gang
4 he wanLed Lo Lrlgger uS lnvaslon Lo dlscredlL Carranza and have hlm removed from
power
4 6 Ŵ hls gang kllls 6 uS mlners
7 more afLer crosslng Lo Columbusţ new Mexlco
O !Ŧ Þershlng senL Lo lnvade Mexlco wlLh ţ000 men Lo capLure Þancho vllla
4 wlld goose chase for over a year
4 Lhls angers and scares Mexlcans
4 lebruary 7 Ŷ army wlLhdraws because of World War l















Jr|d Jar I
Causes
O lmperlallsLlc rlvalrles over Lradlng colonles
O Lwo rlval coallLlonsť
4 1rlple Alllance Ŷ Cermanyţ lLalyţ and AusLrlaŴPungary
4 1rlple LnLenLe Ŷ 8rlLalnţ lranceţ 8ussla
O aka Lhe ºpowder keg"
4 needed only a slmple spark
O !une 28ţ Ŷ Archduke of Serblaţ lranz lerdlnandţ kllled on peace vlslL Lo Sara[evoţ 8osnla
4 he was Lhe helr Lo Lhe Lhrone
4 Serblans wanLed concenLraLlon of Serbs ln 8osnla Lo become parL of Serbla
Ŧ elLher Lhey geL Lhe area or Lhey move back
O AusLrlaŴPungary and Serblans say nC WA nCLL (geL lL?)
4 8lackhand Ŷ Serblan naLlonallsL group
Ŧ geL all Serbs under one roof
2Ŧ Cuarllo Þrlnclp shooLs Lhe archduke and hls wlfe
O 8eacLlon??
4 AusLrlaŴPungary goes Lo Cermans and Lhey back Lhem up
4 AusLrlaŴPungary dellvers ulLlmaLum Lo Serbla
Ŧ Serbla agrees Lo all faceLs buL one Ŵƽ PLLL nCţ SL88lA
O Ŵ AusLrlaŴPungary declares war on Serbla
O Serbla appeals Lo 8ussla
4 8ussla has repeaLedly Lurned down help Ŵƽ Lhey felL bad Lhls Llme and agreed Lhough
4 would Lake Lhem a whlle Lo moblllze
4 Cermans asked 8ussla Lo please sLop Ŵƽ PLLL nCţ SAuL8k8Au1
O AugusL ţ Ŷ Cerman declares war on 8ussla
O AugusL 3ţ Ŷ Cermany declares war on lrance
4 allles Lo 8ussla vla 1rlple LnLenLe
4 8rlLlsh Loo far away Lo geL lnvolved (for now)
O Cermans wlll flghL a LwoŴfronL war
4 Shlleffen Þlan Ŷ Lhe soluLlon Lo flghLlng Lhe LwoŴfronL war
Ŧ go Lhrough neuLral 8elglum
O agalnsL lnLernaLlonal law
O AugusL ţ Ŵ plsses off 8rlLaln Ŵƽ Lhey declare war on Cerman
2Ŧ defeaL lrance before 8usslans can moblllze
3Ŧ by Lhe Llme 8ussla has moblllzedţ Lhey have defeaLed lrance and can flghL only
Lwo oneŴfronL wars
O 1urkey and 8ulgarla [oln 1rlple Alllance Ŵƽ CenLral Þowers ln WWll
O 3 Ŷ !apan and lLaly [olns Allles
O Lu8CÞL A1 WA8 Ŵƽ Amerlca neuLral Lhough (Lhey LhoughL lL would be over by ChrlsLmas)
uS lsolaLlonlsL Þollcy
O Wllson declares uS neuLral
4 Wllson feared a eLhnlc populaLlon would cause clvll war ln Amerlca
O more on Allles' slde
4 Cerman lnvaslon of 8elglum pushed uS
4 propaganda enforced proŴAllles
8rlLlsh and CÞl (Ceorge Creel)
O economlc Lles prevenLed LoLal neuLrallLy
4 $27mll Lo Cermans
4 $2bll Lo Allles
4 more Lrade wlLh Allles
Cermans complalnedţ buL lL ls Lhelr problem lf Lhey wanL lL Lo sLop
O Wllson wanLs no war
4 sends Amerlcans Lo medlaLe
4 spends years creaLlng anLlŴwar pollcy Ŵƽ uSLLLSS
8rlLlsh Þollcy
O wanLed Lo crlpple Cerman economy vla Lhelr sea power
O 8rlLaln would harass neuLral shlpsţ llke ours
O Lhey armed merchanL shlps and halLed armamenLsţ merchanLţ and passenger shlps
4 agalnsL lnLernaLlonal law
O fly flags of neuLral counLrles
O broad deflnlLlon of conLrabandţ aka war wlns/capLures
4 lncluded food and raw maLerlal as well
O backed up by Wllsonť
4 Lhey wlll buy uS producLs
4 Lhey aren'L kllllng Amerlcansţ unllke Lhe Cermans
Cermany
O wanLed Lo desLroy Amerlcan Lrade
O Cermans used submarlne warfare
4 all enemy shlps wlll be sunken
agalnsL lnLernaLlonal lawţ whlch sLaLes LhaL you are Loť
O noLlfy a shlp before blowlng lL up
O allow passengers Llme Lo geL off before blowlng lL up
lnLernaLlonal law would glve lL away
O lebruary 3 Ŷ Cermans creaLe warzone around CreaL 8rlLaln
4 Wllson saysť lf uS properLy or llves are losLţ Cermans wlll be held accounLable
LhreaL of war
4 Cermans dld noL llke us3for Lhls Ŵƽ sLop anywayţ because Lhey dld noL wanL Lo flghL us
O 3 Ŵ ¾ltoolo Ŷ 8rlLlsh passenger llner
4 Amerlcans were warned noL Lo Lravel on 8rlLlsh shlps
4 Lhe shlp had 200 people
4 shlp lllegally sLocked ammunlLlon
agalnsL lnLernaLlonal law
4 geLs Lorpedoed by lrlsh coasL Ŵƽ all buL 3 dle
4 Wllson sLlll doesn'L wanL Lo go Lo war
Wllson wrlLes Cermans as noLe Lo back off Ŵƽ re[ecLed aL flrsLţ Lhen agreed Lo
prevenL war
4 Cermans Lechnlcally [usLlfled Ŵƽ lllegal shlp wlLh munlLlons
O AugusL 30ţ 3 Ŷ Cermans Lorpedo 8rlLlsh llner Atoblc
4 2 uS clLlzens dle Ŵƽ Cermans apologlze
O March 6 Ŵ Cermans accldenLally Lorpedo lrench 5¾¾ Ŵƽ mlsLaken for a mlnesweeper
4 ln[ures four uS clLlzens
4 Wllson orders Cermans Lo sLop
Sussex Þledge Ŷ Cermans wlll sLop submarlne warfare Lo prevenL war wlLh uS
LlecLlon of 6
O uemocraLsť Wllson
4 ºPe kepL us ouL of Lhe war!" Ŵƽ PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPAPAP
O 8epubllcansť Chlef !usLlce Charles even Pughes
4 exŴnew ork governor
4 accused Wllson of noL proLecLlng uS neuLrallLy rlghLs agalnsL Cerman assaulLs
4 accused of belng proŴCerman
O blLLer elecLlon Ŵƽ showed Lhe spllL ln Amerlcan socleLy
O Pughes favored Lo wlnţ buL he was a bad publlc speaker and campalgner
8ack Lo War
O lebruary ţ 7 Ŷ Cermans LarL up submarlne warfare agaln
4 Lhey need Lo rlsk lL because of 8rlLlsh blockade
prevenLlng baslcs from geLLlng lnLo Cermans Ŵƽ deprlved of vlLals
4 Cermans Lry Lo cuLoff vlLal shlpmenLs Lo Allles vla Lorpedolng
4 Cermans wanLed Lo flnlsh war before uS moblllzaLlon
4 Wllson severs dlplomaLlc Lles wlLh Cermany Ŵƽ no declaraLlon of war
uavld Lloyd Ceorgeţ ÞM of 8rlLalnţ accuses Wllson of belng a coward
O 8rlLlsh ln ma[or uS debL
4 almosL bankrupL wlLh sLarvlng populaLlon
O lrench exhausLed and demorallzed
O Allles need help! Ŵƽ slLLlng ln Lrenches for years

8ussla
O 8usslan 8evoluLlon
4 caused byť
lack of Lechnology
loss of mllllons of money
lll prepared for war
Czar can'L provlde leadershlp
O losL conLrol of army
O abdlcaLes Lhrow ln March 7
O March 7ţ 7 Ŷ republlc formed ln 8ussla
4 Lemporary under Alexander kerensky
soldlers noL here Lo lnpuL abouL governmenL esLabllshmenL Ŵƽ LhaL's why lL's
Lemporary
promlses Lo conLlnue war
O 8olshevlks
4 vladlmlr Lenln
4 Lhey preached peace land and bread
aka Communlsm
4 Cermans Lrled Lo geL Lenln back Lo 8ussla
senL hlm Lhere vla sealed Lraln
Cermans wanLed hlm Lo advocaLe no war
4 Lenln geLs Lo 8usslaţ and pulls 8ussla ouL of war
O 8resLŴLaLosk 1reaLy Ŷ Cermany and 8ussla LreaLy
4 Lechnlcallyţ Lhey were sLlll enemles
4 gave Cermans some land and people from 8ussla
O Communlsm sLarLs up ln 8ussla
8ack Lo War (parL ll)
O 7 Ŷ Lhe Zlmmerman noLe ls lnLercepLed by Lhe 8rlLlsh and glven Lo uS
4 beLween Cermans and Mexlco
4 says Cermany wlll help Mexlco geL back land losL ln MexlcanŴAmerlcan War lf Lhey [oln
Lhe 1rlple Alllance
4 Wllson sLlll relucLanL even afLer hearlng lL
Wllson asks Congress of Armed neuLrallLy
O Aprll 2ţ 7 Ŷ Wllson asks Congress Lo sLarL all war
O Wllson's Speech
4 wanLs Lo lncrease Laxţ use drafLţ and glve bllllons Lo Allles
4 [usL wanLs people Lo be safe and have peace Ŵƽ wanLs all powers Lo bake a cake of
ralnbows and smlles and Lo eaL lL and be happy
O war declaraLlon caused fourŴday debaLe ln Congress
4 !eaneLLe 8ankln Ŷ flrsL Congresswoman
uS ln World War l
O offlclal ln Sprlng of 7
O scared of Allles loslng
O we wanL Lo be ln peace conference
O we sLarL Lo bulld army ln 3
O 6 naLlonal uefense AcL Ŷ lncrease slze of army and naLlonal guard
O 6 naval ConsLrucLlon AcL Ŷ LhreeŴyear naval expanslon program
O 6 Clvlllan Councll of naLlonal uefense Ŷ sLudles problems of economlc moblllzaLlon
O 6 War 8evenue AcL Ŷ Lo flnanceţ uS creaLes Þrogresslve Lax Ŵƽ a graduaLe lncome Lax
O uS sLlll noL ready
4 small army
4 old weapons
4 old LacLlcs
O 7 SelecLlve Servlce AcL Ŷ drafL of all males 20Ŵ30
4 8Ŵ3 by 8
4 3mll drafLees by end of war
2mll senL ouL Lo flghL
O 300ţ000 volunLeers
many sklp ouL
poor usually geL drafLed
4 uoughboy Ŷ regular drafLee
22 years oldţ whlLeţ slngleţ sevenLh grade educaLlon
4 8Ʒ of drafLees forelgn
4 00ţ00 blacks drafLed/volunLeered
sLlll ln segregaLed Lroops
usually klLchen workers
could noL fly planes or be ln navy
O uS has ma[or lmpacL ln warť
Ŧ uS had ºendless" fresh Lroops
relleved allles
2Ŧ navy develops ºconvoy sysLem"
warshlps escorL merchanL shlpsţ screenlng for subs
very effecLlve Ŵƽ replenlshes 8rlLlsh vlLals
3Ŧ uS glves supplles Lo Allles
foodţ manpowerţ munlLlonsţ oll
O ť00 november ţ 8 Ŷ Cermans lay down weapons
4 armlsLlce Ŵƽ need of formal LreaLy sLlll

lnlLlal ÞosLŴWar
O Wllson's lourLeen ÞolnLsť
4 Ŵ3ť esLabllshed llberal prlnclpals LhaL peace musL be based on (open dlplomacy)
Ŧ open negoLlaLlons
2Ŧ sea freedom
3Ŧ free Lrade
Ŧ dlsarmamenL
3Ŧ proŴcolony colonlal sysLem
O more power Lo colonles
O less dlcLaLorlal
4 6Ŵ3ť LerrlLorlal Lransfers backed by prlnclple of selfŴdeLermlnaLlon
remake map Lo clusLer same eLhnlcs and rellglons under one roof
O Lhey can creaLe a governmenL Lhey choose
4 ť esLabllshed an lnLernaLlonal agency Lo oversee new order Ŵƽ League of naLlons
4 forces oLher powers Lo accepL Lhls as peace LreaLy
Lhey don'L llke lL
4 Cermans and some Luropean counLrles LhaL are noL Lhe Allles love Wllson for Lhls
unLll 1reaLy of versallles
Amerlcan PomefronL
O governmenL lnLervenes a loL ln Amerlcan llfe ln order Lo prepare for war
4 buslness and governmenL acLually become parLners
4 hundreds of new governmenL agencles emerge
4 governmenL conLrolled Lelephoneţ Lelegraphţ and rallroad companles Lo prevenL sLrlkes
4 6 Lever luel and ConLrol AcL Ŷ aka lood AdmlnlsLraLlon
PerberL Poover
ralses number of agrlculLural producLs made vla reduclng clvlllan usage of food
O saved food used for oversea Lroops
4 War lndusLrles 8oard Ŷ mosL powerful creaLed agency Lhen
8ernard 8anuch
coordlnaLed war economy
found resources
flxed prlces
dlrecLed purchaslng
O lnexperlence and lnefflclency wlll cause delays ln moblllzaLlonţ buL
4 23Ʒ of uS producLs go lnLo war efforL
farmers acLually prosper!
O war ƹ $3bllllon for uS
4 /3 Laxes
4 2/3 borrowlng (bonds and donaLlons)
O organlzed labor (unlons) prosper
4 Compers promlses Wllson Lo noL sLrlke
4 naLlonal War labor 8oard Ŷ proLecLed rlghL of workers Lo organlze and compromlse
4 wages rose for unlon members
4 many recelved 8Ŵhour work day
O mlnorlLles
4 6Ʒ flghLlng abroad
4 no lmmlgraLlon durlng WWl
4 lndusLrles Lurn Lo womenţ Spanlshţ and blacks
pald less and excluded from unlons
4 CreaL MlgraLlon Ŷ 300ţ00 blacks leave SouLh for norLhern clLles
Lhey are aLLracLed Lo Lhe boom and prospecL of less raclsm
O norLh llLLle beLLer Lhan souLh
Lhls revlves Lhe kk
race rloLs
O clvll llberLles
4 CermanŴAmerlcan's loyalLy ls suspecLed
4 CÞl Ŷ CommlLLee on Þubllc lnfo
headed by Ceorge Creel
conLrolled press on whaL and whaL noL Lo release
O usually proŴwar cause and anLlŴenemy and anLlŴCerman
propaganda agency
4 7 Lsplonage AcL Ŷ allows governmenL Lo suppress war opponenLs
glve flnes and lmprlsonmenL lf you obsLrucL mlllLary ob[ecLlons
ÞMC banned anLlŴwar propaganda
banned any anLlŴdrafL propaganda
4 8 SedlLlon AcL Ŷ crlme Lo obsLrucL sale of bonds or Lo express anLlŴwar feellngs
publlcly
4 Ŵ 5cbok v¾ u5 and Abtom¾ v¾ u5
Supreme CourL upholds boLh Lhe Lsplonage and SedlLlon acLsţ respecLlvely
4 20 Lugene vŦ uebs Ŷ arresLed under Lsplonage AcL
ran for presldenL
2pardoned by Pardlng ln
1reaLy of versallles
O Wllson flrsL presldenL Lo go Lo Lurope durlng Lerm
4 conLroverslal
4 8epubllcans say LhaL he [usL wanLs all Lhe credlL
O 8 Ŷ Wllson Lrles Lo geL uemocraLlc Congress elecLed
4 publlc elecLs 8epubllc one
4 Wllson loses pollLlcal sLaLure w/ Congress and forelgn powers
brlngs no 8epubllcans wlLh hlm Lo Þarls
doesn'L consulL wlLh SenaLe's lorelgn 8elaLlons CommlLLee
O Penry CaboL Lodge angry aL hlm
O Wllson aL Þarls
4 obsLacles galore!
pollLlcal rlvals and hls own mlsLakes
O Allles wanL sLrong punlshmenL (malnly Lhe 8lg mlnus Wllson)
4 all buL uS slgned secreL LreaLles LhaL enlarged Lhelr emplres aL Cermany's expense
4 Lhey all LhoughL Wllson's lourLeen ÞolnLs was cowardly and sLupld and foollsh and
dumb
4 Clemenceauť ºCod gave us Lhe 1en CommandmenLsţ and we broke LhemŤ Wllson gave
us Lhe lourLeen ÞolnLsţ we shall seeŦ"
O 1he 1reaLy
4 dlscussed behlnd closed doors
many Amerlcans dld noL llke Lhls
4 speedlness requlred Ŵƽ Lurope was falllng lnLo anarchy
Communlsm scare
4 Allles develop War CullL Clause LhaL blamed Cermany
$33bll ln reparaLlons
4 parLs of Cermany and colonles spllL up beLween lranceţ !apanţ and 8rlLaln
4 Wllson creaLes ugoslavlaţ Czechoslovaklaţ AusLrlaţ and Pungary ouL of AusLroŴ
Pungarlan Lmplre
4 Cordon SanlLalre Ŷ creaLed llnlandţ LsLonlaţ LaLvlaţ and LlLhuanla ouL of 8ussla Lo
prevenL spread of Communlsm
4 Wllson flghLs hard for League of naLlons
O League of naLlons
4 flrsL body Ŵ domlnaLed by ellLes of ma[or powers
4 second body Ŷ assembly esLabllshed for dlscusslon and debaLe for all member naLlons
4 Lhlrd body Ŷ world courL
4 ArLlcle x Ŷ esLabllshed an open forum of dlscusslon over confllcLs beLween Lwo
belllgerenL naLlons
when confllcL arlses beLween Lwo naLlonsţ members of Lhe Ln wlll medlaLe
many problems wlLh Amerlcans when lL came Lo passlng Lhe 1reaLy of versallles
war ls always lasL resorL
O !une Ŷ Cermans slgn LreaLyţ relucLanLly and under proLesL
4 only four of Wllson's orlglnal lourLeen ÞolnLs were kepL
4 Cermans forced Lo spllL up Lhelr land
4 pay up $33bll
covered LoLal war debL of Alllesţ lncludlng mlllLary penslons
4 offends Cermany Ŵƽ creaLed resenLmenL (l smell WWll)
4 LreaLy was vlndlcLlve and humlllaLlngţ as well as soclally and economlcally crushlng
Amerlcan CrlLlclsm of Lhe 1reaLy
O League was a sLupld sewlng clrcle
4 overpoLenL supersLaLe
O 1reaLy was compleLely agalnsL WashlngLon's farewell address
O Þrogresslves felL LreaLy beLrayed Lhe lourLeen ÞolnLs
4 no free Lradeţ free seasţ or dlsarmamenLs
O llberals dlsllked closed sesslonsţ lmperlallsLlc concesslonţ and blg flne Lo Cermans
O conservaLlves LhoughL Ln would llmlL uS freedom of acLlon
4 ArLlcle x especlally
dlsllked by lsolaLlonlsLs and lrreconcllablesţ and mosL reservaLlonlsLs
O SenaLe's lorelgn 8elaLlons CommlLLee LhoughL Ln charLer dld noL represenL uS lnLeresLs
O Lhe Allles LCvLu Lhese problems
4 Wllson would have Lo go Lo Lhem and beg/negoLlaLe changes
O Wllson Lrles (errŴfalls) Lo defend Lhe LreaLy
4 many people haLe Lhe Ln
4 many argued we should be able Lo wrlLe revlslons and compromlses Lo Lhe 1reaLy and
Ln
4 Wllson says Lhe 1reaLy ls a necessary compromlse and Lhe Ln wlll flx everyLhlng
4 Lodge dlsllkes Ln Ŵƽ forms lourLeen ÞolnLs
changes needed onLo 1reaLy
O uS exempL from Ln
O Congress revlews all Ln acLlons
4 SenaLe spllLs lnLoť
lnLernaLlonallsLsť Wllson supporLers and LreaLy lovers
O mosLly llberal
O supporLed goals of Ln
reservaLlonlsLsť halfŴfollowers of Wllson
O wanLed Lo amend Lhe 1reaLy
O more powerful role ln Lnţ mlnus ArLlcle x
lrreconcllablesť h8ers
O agalnsL 1reaLy all LogeLher
O LhoughL lL was unfalrţ and lsolaLlonlsm ls Lhe besL pollcy
4 Ŷ Wllson beglns Lo Lour Lhe uS Lo defend Lhe 1reaLy
geLs a hearL aLLack Ŵƽ never Lhe same agaln
O oddly sLrlcL abouL loyalLyţ lmpalred [udgmenL
O lf he had allowed a few compromlses beLween uemocraLs and 8epubllcs
ln Congressţ Lhe 1reaLy mlghL have acLually passed
4 november Ŷ SenaLe voLes Lwlce on LreaLyţ re[ecLed boLh Llmes
4 March 20 Ŷ revoLe once moreţ re[ecLed agaln
4 2 Ŷ Pardlng creaLes separaLe LreaLles wlLh Cermanyţ AusLrlaţ and Pungary












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