55

The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1

´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade1

Jan Kenneth Birksted

The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London

This study places Charles-Edouard Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s concept of the architectural promenade within the culture of La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1887–1917. It is based on in-depth empirical research being currently carried out in private and public archives in La Chaux-deFonds and in other Swiss towns. The paper also considers to a lesser extent specific aspects of the architecture of Le Corbusier in Paris after 1917, which are in accord with the La Chaux-de-Fonds period of 1887–1917, based on current in-depth research in private and public archives in France. The essay, which thus presents completely new empirical evidence, is part of research in progress towards a monograph in preparation for the MIT Press. By extrapolation, through its analysis of Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade within the cultural and intellectual context of La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1887–1917, the study addresses the problematics of the architectural language of the Modern Movement.
He was inspired by the possibility of reconstructing forms of life as such, and he delighted in bringing out their individual shape, the fullness of human experience embodied in them; the odder, the more extraordinary a culture or an individual, the better pleased he was. He can hardly condemn anything that displays colour or uniqueness; Indians, Americans and Persians, Greece and Palestine, Arminius and Machiavelli, Shakespeare and Savonarola, seem to him equally fascinating. He deeply hates the forces that make for uniformity, for the assimilation, whether in life or in the books of historians, of one culture or way of life to another. He conscientiously looks for uniformities, but what fascinates him is the exception. (Isaiah Berlin, Vico and Herder, 1976.) 2 iconography of Ronchamp, Mogens Krustrup noticed that, in the centre of the external face of the ceremonial pilgrimage entrance door, are two large and mysterious letters ‘F’: ‘FF’. Again, in his book about Ronchamp, Le Corbusier repeats this ‘FF’ in a sketch (Figs 1, 2). 3 Krustrup, building on his own previous research, and on that of others, wonders what this ‘FF’ might mean and he speculates that Fusion is an alchemical concept which describes the stage at which two principles, the male (the sun) and the female (the moon) are united and the philosopher’s stone (quinta essentia) is created. The double F under the ‘window’ may signify Fusion, but also Filius, which is often the designation for the philosopher’s stone.4 Now, it is of course this very door with its ‘FF’ that greets the pilgrims to Ronchamp at the culmination of their religious voyage. Indeed, the centre-line of the enamelled door with its central ‘FF’ inscription is aligned with the pilgrims’ path, so, clearly, it is
1360–2365 DOI: 10.1080/13602360600636123

Introduction
I start with a question or rather a mystery—perhaps even a riddle? In his painstaking decortication of the
# 2006 The Journal of Architecture

56
´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted

Figure 1. Le Corbusier, outside face of enamelled door at the Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp (1951 – 1953). (Photograph: Ezra Stoller # Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS.)

Figure 2. Le Corbusier, sketch for enamelled door in Ronchamp, Textes et dessins pour Ronchamp. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS.)

significant in the plan. It is thus this door that greets the pilgrims at the very culmination of their promenade architecturale to use a more architecturally prosaic terminology (although we will perhaps understand towards the end of this investigation that ‘prosaic’ may not be exactly the right word) so central to Le Corbusier’s language of architecture (Fig. 3). So—to preview the argument of this essay—an investigation into the meaning of Le Corbusier’s concept of architectural promenade through empirical research in his home town of La Chaux-deFonds, where he lived in 1887 – 1917 (that is, for the first thirty years of his life), will lead me back to the meaning of the mysterious ‘FF’. And this meaning will provide an answer to those previous attempts at understanding Le Corbusier’s work, which, in the final analysis, fail because they stay within the boundaries of ethnocentric Modernist architectural thinking (however impressive and wide-ranging their scholarship). Thus, Richard Etlin observes that Le Corbusier, in writing about Une petite maison, ‘stresses that these modest objects, close at hand and at human scale, cross “at a right angle—the co-ordinates of the waters and the mountains.” To the rationalist mentality, Le Corbusier’s text at this point certainly presents one of the most obscure enigmas of architectural literature.’5 And Anthony Vidler remarks on the ‘contempt’ 6 shown by Le Corbusier’s statement that ‘In a complete and successful work there are hidden masses of implications, a veritable world which reveals itself to those it may concern.’ 7 Finally, H. Allen Brooks comments with surprise on the fact that Le Corbusier only purchased Auguste

57
The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1

Choisy’s Histoire de l’architecture in 1913 because ‘Auguste Choisy followed the rationalist approach espoused by Viollet-le-Duc [and therefore] this purchase would have been more appropriate in 1908 –1909. . .’ 8—in fact, a conception of Violletle-Duc as ‘rationalist’ totally ignores his deep commitment to, and involvement with, the inheritors of the French mediaeval guilds, the Compagnonnages. So, what will be discovered in the course of this empirical research are (1) the presence of freemasonic culture in the social life of La Chauxde-Fonds in the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, (2) the continuing presence of the culture of Freemasonry and of Compagnonnage in Le Corbusier’s networks after his definitive move to Paris in 1917 and (3) the presence of both of these cultures in his language of architecture. I must therefore clearly also state what will not be touched upon in this brief summary of one aspect only of the conclusions of a complex on-going research project. What will not be touched upon are the reasons ´ for the presence of this pensee maconnique/ ¸ compagnonnique—which constitutes a separate

discussion of a more methodological kind. So, without considering the reasons why CharlesEdouard Jeanneret dit Le Corbusier would have posi´ tioned himself as a social actor within this pensee maconnique/compagnonnique, what will be dis¸ cussed is its relevance to such a key concept as the promenade architecturale (the architectural promenade). I will also briefly, given the limitations of this essay, touch upon the concept of l’espace indicible (ineffable space), but rapidly so. Now, of necessity, all of this will involve the refutation of existing and accepted interpretations. To date, the main theoretical attempt at conceptualising the architectural promenade has been in terms of the picturesque.9 And so to this picturesque notion of the architectural promenade, we must first critically attend.

Figure 3. Le Corbusier, site plan of Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS.)

The picturesque architectural promenade
The analysis of the architectural promenade as picturesque is developed by Richard Etlin in his classic study, Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The romantic legacy.10 Etlin rests his case on Choisy’s Histoire de l’architecture in which he describes the Acropolis as pittoresque. Etlin argues that this was then assimilated by Le Corbusier in his own descriptions of the Acropolis in Vers une architecture, reproducing those diagrams from Choisy’s Histoire de l’architecture that set out the Acropolis to be pittoresque (Figs 4,5).11 Now, the link between Choisy and Le Corbusier is unquestionable. Auguste Choisy was seen by Le Corbusier as a critical reference point in several respects. Writing in Mise ´ ´ au point in defence of les traces regulateurs (regulating lines) which were a key element in his system of geometrical and harmonic proportions, Le Corbusier

or absorbed wholesale. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. Walter-Hanno Kruft. although accepting the unquestionable reference to Choisy by Le Corbusier. Figure 5.58 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 4. Histoire de l’architecture. Auguste Choisy. And. we still need to look much closer at the logistics of Etlin’s demonstration. according to which Choisy’s notion and theory of the picturesque were simply transmitted. in his classic survey of the history of architectural and landscape theories. diagram of the Acropolis as pittoresque.13 boldly states: ‘regulating lines—(the proof: Choisy). in his revisionist rewriting of the history of the Acropolis. a series of ‘picturesque’ scenes in which buildings and statues of different sizes and at different distances were asymmetrically balanced with respect to the central object.’ 12 But. also maintains that ‘Choisy proposes a concept of the . by now. to asssert this relationship between Choisy’s pittoresque Acropolis and/or Le Corbusier’s picturesque architectural promenade and/or the notion of the picturesque has become so established as to have become a canonical truth. to become the source of Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade. Le Corbusier. Vers une architecture: Le Corbusier’s use of Auguste Choisy’s diagram of the Acropolis as pittoresque. with the frontal view the exception and the oblique the rule. determined that the entire site had been arranged as a sequence of controlled views.) Etlin noted that Choisy.

Etlin.’ 16 The first question. This approach to le pittoresque was also noted by Kruft. Etlin is thus able to describe Choisy’s notion ‘as a sequence of controlled views. and adventures of the human spirit. when he describes Choisy’s use of the picturesque. however. very simply. 22 The second question therefore arising must be how Le Corbusier himself read Choisy’s concept of the pittoresque— which he clearly did read carefully. First. 20 where the double quotation marks furtively indicate the ambiguous nature of the English-language notion of the picturesque. Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade is directly related to Choisy’s pittoresque. but each ensemble is treated as a landscape in which there is balance between masses only. that arises is which purpose was served by the notion of the picturesque in Auguste Choisy’s Histoire de l’architecture? Choisy defined le pittoresque on the Acropolis in volumetric and compositional terms as ‘dissymmetrical compositions. a series of “picturesque” scenes’. each with its particular logic and specific rationale.’18 Presumably. Two elements have therefore so far been established. it is from passages such as this. as can be seen in his statement about the Acropolis that: . of pairs of words (one in the original language. and each therefore designed ‘to serve new ideas. with their references to landscape. There is indeed no evidence that Choisy had any interest in English eighteenth century landscape architecture. any presumed relationship between Choisy’s pittoresque and the (English eighteenth century) picturesque depends less on historical fact than on a rhetorical sleight-of-hand between pittoresque and picturesque. ignore the fact that the picturesque. thus covertly indicating that this linguistic usage is not strictly Choisy’s own.21 Jeanneret’s only real interest at this period in English designed landscapes was focused on the English Garden Cities (Fig. 15 is a visual language specific to different historical periods. that is. This slippage from pittoresque to picturesque is nothing but a case of faux amis. does not use the term ‘picturesque’. therefore.’ Choisy. puts the concept in single quotation marks. however.’ 14 Both these studies. It seems churlish to point out that Choisy was writing in French and that. Indeed.19 He wrote about le pittoresque. attitudes. quoting the well-known passage from Choisy to the effect that ‘Each architectural element taken separately is symmetrical. The many plans and engravings of gardens and landscapes that Jeanneret copied from books when working in the Cabinet des ´ ` Estampes at the Bibliotheque Nationale on his trips to Paris do not include picturesque English landscape gardens. Secondly. ponderation of the masses. Nor is there any evidence that it held any interest for Charles-Edouard Jeanneret.59 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Picturesque derived from landscape gardening. which ‘has served the turns of various parties’. that Kruft deduces that Choisy’s notion of picturesque is ‘derived from landscape gardening. 6). the other in translation) which are phonetically comparable but semantically different. he never used the term ‘picturesque’.’ 17 He defined the Greek use of asymmetrical volumes and compositions as pittoresque in the context of his personal battle against the domineering emphasis on Roman architectural symmetry by ´ the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

drawing from 1910 – 11). then as participant in Charles ´ L’Eplattenier’s Ateliers d’art reunis and finally as teacher on the Nouveau cours until 1914 when he resigned—books on le pittoresque were included ´ in the library of the Ecole d’art. what was meant by pittoresque within the culture and the sociability of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. since France and Paris were then a pivotal reference point in La Chaux-de-Fonds. that is. [. ] It is determined by the famous landscape which stretches from the Piraeus to Mount Pentelicus.25 Most of these books were published in France and were about France. ] The buildings are massed together in accordance with the incidence of their varying plans. I shall return to the historical period before Jeanneret assumed the cloak of Le Corbusier. more specifically. encompassing the thirty years between 1887 and . (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. [ .) The apparent lack of order in the plan could only deceive the unlearned. Students at ´ the Ecole d’art of La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1903. the new pseudonym and a new nationality: a virtually new public persona. eventually. before the turning point in 1917 when Jeanneret jettisoned his past—although we shall see that this generally accepted assumption is not quite correct either—and headed for a new life in Paris with.26 Figure 7. how did CharlesEdouard Jeanneret himself use the concept of le pittoresque within this cultural context?24 Le pittoresque of La Chaux-de-Fonds ´ When Jeanneret started his studies at the Ecole d’art in La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1902.60 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 6. 7). . CharlesEdouard Jeanneret. . . . La Chaux-de-Fonds. and during his entire period there—first as student progressing to the ´ Cours Superieur.) 1917? And. as listed in the library catalogues of 1885 and of 1919 (Fig. ´ (# Fonds Niestle-Perret. So.23 In order to understand how Le Corbusier read the notion of pittoresque in Auguste Choisy’s Histoire de l’architecture. drawing of English Garden Cities (Hampstead Garden Suburb.

27 In the 1886 – ´ 1887 annual school report of the Ecole d’art. in France. only proffered after demanding examinations. pittoresque et biographique de la source de ` ´ ce fleuve a son embouchure dans l’ocean 35. studied in Paris. Pittoresque was used to describe pictorial and descriptive techniques— whether in images or in texts. characteristically. French culture and the culture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts were not only of cultural significance in general. How. Pittoresque was used to describe the jardins anglo-chinois of the late eighteenth century. His fine art skills.61 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Two of Jeanneret’s most prestigious teachers had. namely the ‘modern and decisively urban. who was a very successful pompier painter and graphic designer. for rediscovering the wealth of historical monuments and sites. L’Eplattenier had been a pupil of Luc-Olivier Merson. then. the French pittoresque was—as in the diorama which left the spectator ‘shocked and amazed. ´ ` Eugene Schaltenbrand. La Loire historique.’ 30 Thus. his draughtsmanship and his in-depth study of the decorative arts made him the natural choice of the Commission of Education. in paintings or in guidebooks. In the pittoresque harbour of Le Havre.’ 32 And this brings me to the Chaux-de-fonnier reception of the French notion of pittoresque. prizes and medals in the examinations ´ en loge of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the national diploma in architecture. Both were from the Ecole des Beaux Arts. The pittoresque was a vision of the past and of the rural rooted in its opposite. which is. the immediacy of it all. In the illustrations and texts about le pittoresque ´ in the library books of the Ecole d’art of La Chaux´ de-Fonds—Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs 33. also followed the Cours Yvon and done a degree in fine art afterwards.’ 29 What Nicholas Green describes as characteristic of this vogue is the fact that it was ‘increasingly overdetermined by forms of metropolitan consumption. or in new theatrical settings such as the diorama—that were themselves associated with new techniques and technologies of image or text production. but also of directly personal significance through these two highly respected and influential teachers. which combines these two same aspects. was the French term of le pittoresque used? This has been analysed in the classic study of the subject by Nicholas Green. His own achievements will clearly match his educational standards and he will impart a productive impetus to the College. Charles L’Eplattenier. delighted by the ingenuity of such illusionistic effects’ 31— double-faced. titillated by the drama. for example. Schaltenbrand’s position and aptitudes were described as characterised by: outstanding achievements.28 ´ Thus. we see the three ages of maritime travel juxtaposed—the . Schaltenbrand had been a brilliant prize-winning pupil in the architectural Atelier Guadet and had. Voyage historique et pittor` esque du Havre a Rouen sur la Seine 34. including several distinctions. the richness and variety of local customs as revealed by a multitude of travel publications. and so on—contemporary life is featured. Much has been written about the first. very unusually. Nothing has been written about the second. As part of this arose ‘the vogue for exploring France after 1815.

10): THE TOWN HALL. sur la Seine. unlike the tradition of the English landscape garden. frontispiece. it. A written description adds that: The approach to Rouen is pittoresque and entrancing.38 In La Loire historique. There is. is a place of history and of progressive commerce. the emphasis is again on historical change. as a symbol of progress. la France du progress. of dynamic change growing from the past. pittoresque et biographique ` de la source de ce fleuve a son embouchure dans ´ l’ocean. the architectural and artistic consequences of the revolution of February. the sailing boat and the steamship—as a display of the achievements of modern commerce and of historical progress (Fig. its interior. and the narrow winding streets of mediaeval towns. including (Fig. older constructions make way for modern and attractive buildings. no suggestion of allegorical absurdities and no ironic comparisons to antiquity: Le Havre is shown.37 As for Rouen. despite successive annual improvements. like Le Havre.36 Modern life is featured without a sense of loss or of nostalgia. rowing boat. that is. Voyage historique et ` pittoresque du Havre a Rouen. the quays of this large. it is a charming city. interim seat of the provisional government and of the mayor of Paris. Voyage historique et ` pittoresque du Havre a Rouen. nor are there any typical symbolic architectural ruins (Fig. still exhibits the old timber-framed and corbelled houses with their overhanging upper floors. sur la Seine.39 It presents such qualities as the source of ‘la France glorieuse. seen from afar. arising from this process.’ 40 In the ´ Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. populous and quintessentially commercial city are being completed and embellished. No poetic texts are appended to make us aware of any historical or mythical allusions. Figure 9. thus. has returned to its function as County Hall. the valley of La Seine and the harbour of Rouen present a vision as majestic as anyone could imagine. with no references back to any lost classical worlds of the Piraeus or of Ostia. 8). and has been decorated with new statues that complete . development and progress. 1848 are listed. Yet. 9).62 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 8.

THE JARDIN DU LUXEMBOURG. And these differences between le pittoresque and the picturesque are also to be found in the structure of the visual imagery. statues and English gardens. Guide pittoresque de ´ l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. at the Bain Vigier. Unlike picturesque images that give prominence to those ‘humans who seek to understand what they contemplate’. not contemplation. a particular detail stands out significantly. There. merchants and equipment are scattered across the surface of the image as in real-life chaos without classical references.63 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 its ornate facade. . THE BOULEVARDS on the right bank.43 here the life of the harbour and of the surrounding city of Le Havre is driven by its republican and merchant citoyens and citoyennes. inscriptions. ` A Rebours: . action. de Gisors. If we now again turn to the frontispiece of the ´ Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. Hardy. A modern-looking barge. architect and M. ´ enhancing the Place du Pantheon. .41 ´ Thus. has been replaced with an elegant construction.—This abundant library is much used by the studious youth of our Ecoles.44 here. . . this same barge by this very same bridge is described by Huysmans (several of whose books Charles-Edouard Jeanneret read between 1909 and 1915 45) in his notorious novel of 1884. an establishment to be found on a pontoon moored in the middle of the Seine. Now. by salting your bath-water and Figure 10. not allegory of loss. THE BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE-GENEVIEVE. head gardener. statues. ¸ with the expert guidance of M. floats on the river Seine. the black smoke belching from the steamdriven paddleship’s black chimney stack—complete with its nineteenth century ornamental lace-like ironwork—symbolises modern progress. following a project prior to the February revolution. all of these library books at the Ecole d’art show history not as loss but as cumulative and positive progress. but of human action. Everything here is symbol of progress. is the rule. has received superb embellishments in the form of architectural decorations.42 Unlike the allegorical picturesque in which ‘the action rests with the temples. and other such devices. moored next to a bridge with traffic passing over it. . In the frontispiece illustrated in Figure 9. whose old premises were going to wrack and ruin. There is no English eighteenth century picturesque decorum in these pittoresque engravings: boats. This harbour scene is not a scene for human action. have been tarmacked . for the human has no permanent place in the design’. who benefit from the most welcome of receptions from its librarians.

The wind buffets the poplar trees by the Tuileries and must therefore also ‘bluster through the arches of the bridges’. adding sulphate of soda with hydrochlorate of magnesium and lime in the proportions recommended by the Pharmacopoeia. to be able to concentrate your attention on a single detail. And it is. bought for the occasion from one of those enormous roperies whose warehouses and cellars reek with the smell of the sea and sea-ports. the frontispiece to this Guide pittor´ esque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs indicates modernity as central to le pittoresque. by consulting a life-like photograph of the casino and zealously reading the Guide Joanne describing the beauties of the seaside resort where you would like to be. Train at La ´ Montee du Pilate. to forget yourself sufficiently to bring about the desired hallucination and so substitute the vision of a reality for the reality itself. 47 ´ In Les Etrennes Helvetiques of 1914. these overlapping notions of modernity and of pittoresque that we find. 1914). Fischbacher & Cie. Les ´ Etrennes Helvetiques. in a publication in which Jeanneret himself participated.46 Huysmans’s description matches the engraving in the ´ Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs exactly. Dijon. Indeed. this pontoon boat was one of the highlights of modernity in Paris at that time. pp. 45– 47. by breathing in the odours which the twine or the twist of rope is sure to have retained. you can produce an illusion of seabathing which will be undeniable. Editeur.64 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 11. La Chaux-de-Fonds. indeed. So.. by opening a box with a tight-fitting screw-top and taking out a ball of twine or a twist of rope. by letting yourself be lulled by the waves created in your bath by the backwash of the paddlesteamers passing close to the pontoon. ‘La Suisse Pittoresque’. Eselwand. The main thing is to know how to set about it. Thus. Librairie Generale. in Isabelle Kaiser. Felix ´ ´ Rey. . ´ Editeurs. again. by listening to the moaning of the wind as it blows under the arches of the Pont Royal and the dull rumble of the buses crossing the bridge just a few feet over your head. convincing and complete. 11). an article on ‘La Suisse Pittoresque’48 shows the latest modern transport developments to reach the top of the mountain called Le Pilate in Eselwand (Fig. An omnibus rumbles over the Pont Royal. finally. by employing these simple devices. Imprimerie Georges Dubois. ´ Almanach Illustre (Paris.

Jean-Paul Zimmermann and friends in La Chauxde-Fonds (circa 1925). How was it read? Reading Ruskin in La Chaux-de-Fonds.) 50 And this is precisely ´ how Ruskin was not read in the Ecole d’art of La Chaux-de-Fonds. on the contrary. who has hitherto also been overlooked. since Ruskin’s work is itself centred on a particular notion of the picturesque. in local bars or even at their respective homes.’ (Fig. Charles Humbert (at left. 12. Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chauxde-Fonds.) Figure 13.52 It was Humbert who helped him carry out the necessary property surveys . The Chaux-de-fonnier Ruskin of circa 1900 is not the English Ruskin. with Lady Trevelyan’s grave (1866). black hat) Madeleine Woog.’ 49 One way thus to clarify how modernity was seen as a defining feature of le pittoresque would be to analyse the reception of John Ruskin’s work by the reader in the library ´ of l’Ecole d’art of La Chaux-de-Fonds around 1900. there was a tradition of ‘concurrence between technology and landscape. It will be seen that an overlap between the notions of modernity and of pittoresque was specific to La Chaux-deFonds where the Heimatschutz movement for the protection of national identity through the development of an ancient rural alpine image was not strong. 1909.65 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 12. and since Ruskin’s work was then avidly read in La Chaux-deFonds. Ruskin Library. then. (# Fonds Charles ` Humbert. which are of picturˆ esquely rugged mountains around the chateau de ˆ Neuchatel. was Ruskin received by Jeanneret and his friends? In December. Lancaster University. in La Chaux-de-Fonds. ˆ Neuchatel: lake and cemetery. circa 1900 ˆ Ruskin’s drawings of Neuchatel. was the painter Charles Humbert (Fig. (# Ruskin Foundation. How. 13). show how a picturesque ‘attraction to decay and incompleteness becomes the foundation of his whole work.51 Humbert and Jeanneret spent frequent evenings together in discussions at parties. on his return to La Chaux-deFonds from his apprenticeship in Paris with Auguste Perret.) this overlapping of meaning between the concepts of modernity and of pittoresque now needs to be placed within the cultural and historical context of La Chaux-de-Fonds around 1900. John Ruskin. one of Jeanneret’s closest friends.

which is in the Ecole d’art.66 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 14. The door is locked. etc. where Charles Humbert. again. whose republication in 1906 is described as ‘an act of faith.55 ´ The particular edition of L’Esthetique anglaise: ´ ´ Etude sur M John Ruskin. Brassserie Restaurant Ariste Robert. This preface explains that knowledge in France about Ruskin is indebted to Joseph Milsand’s book.. 14): Imagine: it happens that I spend evenings with friends at their houses. describes the late nights which he spent in the company of this small clique consisting of Charles Humbert and other artists (Fig. was in ´ the library of the Ecole d’art. And at home they imagine that I am seeing one or even several prostitutes. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS/ ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds.53 Humbert records in his diaries that he was reading a ´ ´ book called L’Esthetique anglaise: Etude sur M John Ruskin by Joseph Milsand. used to meet. I get home after midnight. La Chaux-deFonds.54 This book. is a second edition that includes a preface about Joseph Milsand by Maurice Millious.) for the design of the Villa Favre-Jacot in 1912. Jeanneret. Tintoretto. it is also a gesture of . first published in 1860. Titian. Hodler. writing to William Ritter. doing what? Telling ourselves the same stories over and over again ´ about Cezanne. CharlesEdouard Jeanneret.

Matthey-Claudet from La Chauxde-Fonds. as professional. ‘traditions’ and ‘profane’. in order to clarify. simultaneously. the fundamental implications of these terms for the notion of pittoresque. thirdly. the uninitiated do not enter here. Through initiation. first. W.’60 Brooks describes another aspect of the importance of Ruskin to Jeanneret: Ruskin ‘exalted the skill of the artisan and craftsman against the impersonality of the machine. but they threw themselves passionately into the reconquest of the inevitable axis of human destiny: harmony. in the Middle Ages. human beings observed the Hermetic rules of Pythagoras. ‘brotherhood. which aspects of Ruskin was Jeanneret ‘soaked in’? What did Ruskin and mediaevalism mean to them? Did this accord with Millious’ interpretation of Milsand’s reading of Ruskin? Paul Turner has described how Jeanneret’s interest in Ruskin was essentially based on one particular aspect. the repercussions of the ensuing meaning of pittoresque for Le Corbusier’s promenade architecturale.’ on the stereotyped models of Byzantium. in 1937. but. who viewed humanity in terms of eternal and universal spiritual values. ‘secrets’. belonging to a brotherhood with its own secrets and constituting a separate world. The law of numbers was transmitted from mouth to mouth among initiates. ‘initiation’. In 1915. to understand the cultural context of . Joseph Milsand’s reading of Ruskin. Secluded in their world of inspiration. ‘secrets’. in Quand les cathedrales ´ etaient blanches. Even ´ twenty years later. the importance of this nomenclature and.63 Thus. [was] soaked in Ruskin. they could even tell a pope: procul esto. when painting. secondly. he critiqued Ruskin for being an ‘Impenetrable. ‘brotherhood’. in other words. They had deliberately turned their backs on ‘the antique. the artist lived in a sort of sanctuary. We need.’ 62 Thus L’Eplattenier was seen as belonging to this tradition of mediaeval guilds.57 It is often implied that Jeanneret absorbed Ruskin’s thought since ‘Jeanneret. mediaevalism and the “folklore du sapin”’. L’Eplattenier’s star pupil. Charles-Edouard Jeanneret and Charles Humbert—echoed these same ideas and concepts: the ideas and concepts of ‘sanctuary’. was focused on a particular aspect of Ruskin. after the exchange of secret signs.58 But the question is: if that is the case. contradictory and paradoxical apostle. the only judges they recognised were their teachers and their peers. Le Corbusier described how. being Ruskin’s anti-materialism since. the artist as individual could be poet or philosopher. which stemmed from his own occultism and hermeticism. ‘traditions’ and ‘profane’. ‘initiation’. and. ‘Ruskin spoke of spiritual values’. we need to contextualise these ideas of ‘sanctuary’. and the ´ Chaux-de-fonnier reading at the Ecole d’art of Milsand’s reading of Ruskin—including L’Eplattenier and the clique of students revolving around its two group leaders. complex. everywhere you could see the eager search for the laws of harmony. compared L’Eplattenier to ‘a mediaeval master craftsman. Now. which Milsand himself described: Until the 15th century.’ 56 Millious’ preface describes Joseph Milsand as an occult and hermetic mystic. they received the traditions of their predecessors. 59 while. according to Jeanneret. Milsand’s fascination with Ruskin.67 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 vindication. and.’ 61 This view throws light on how L’Eplattenier himself was seen.

his craft of watchface enamelling was wiped out. La Chaux-de-Fonds. 15). workshops and factories of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Karl Marx specifically described ‘La Chaux-de-Fonds. which (mythically if not historically) went back to its foundation by Daniel Jeanrichard in the 1740s. by the proprietors of the watch factories. . and then to transport the manufactured merchandise back to those comptoirs (Fig.68 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 15. whose regularly alternating periods of unemployment and overwork exhausted. Eventually. . Innovations in watch technology and production methods were developed in La Chaux-de-Fonds. in Russia.. Thus the ups and downs in the market for watches periodically wiped out entire sections of watch production. And. painting of watchmakers used by Le Corbusier in ´ Croisade. (# ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. China. the Americas.65 Watch industrialists from La Chaux-deFonds proceeded to establish comptoirs (trading posts) all over the world. in the time needed to bring new orders back to the ateliers. At the same time.) La Chaux-de-Fonds between circa 1887. La Chaux-de-Fonds was a society deeply divided between different social classes (ranging from extraordinary wealth to abject poverty). Neuchatel—was a world centre of the watch industry. La Chaux-de-Fonds. which one can consider as one unified watchmaking industry . as well as his sociability within that cultural context. Le Crepuscule ´ des Academies.’ 64 Indeed. Le Val de ˆ Ruz. the position of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the global watch market was continuously and perilously threatened because of changes in fashion. although the watch industry could be considered to have functioned as one unified industry. Symptomatically. and circa 1917. these proprietors included a ´ ´ significant part of la communaute Israelite (the Jewish community) of La Chaux-de-Fonds: the Schwob family of Tavannes Watch Co. days or weeks. Edouard Kaiser. of technological innovations and of new industrial production methods developed by foreign competitors. etcetera. as well as brought back from abroad and then developed in La Chauxde-Fonds. such as the enamelling and the engraving of gold and silver pocket watches.. very importantly. Saint-Imier. But. as is attested by the often pitiful diaries of Jeanneret’s father. depressed and prematurely aged him. circa 1900 In Das Kapital. the year of Jeanneret’s birth. maps drawn in La Chaux-de-Fonds of the location of these comptoirs indicate distances not in kilometres but in hours. surrounded by its neighbouring towns and valleys—Le Locle. the Ditesheim . the date of his departure for Paris. that is. different ethnic and religious groups (with a significant Jewish population) and different political parties and ideologies (La Chaux-de-Fonds was the birthplace of the Swiss Communist party and of the Swiss Pacifist movement).

1848 – 1914. La Chauxde-Fonds mentions it too. Clubs and societies abounded in La Chaux-de-Fonds.) Figure 17. . .69 Now. The other crucially important one ´ was La Loge L’Amitie.’67 for its survival in the treacherous and unpredictable global watch market. La Chaux-de-Fonds. the Club Alpin Suisse. 17). social.72 Claude Garino likewise. status and influence.73 In contrast.70 Jean-Marc Barrelet and Jacques Ramseyer discuss it in their extensive ´ ´ history. histories written by outsiders have completely . the Ditisheim and Didisheim families of Vulcain. this brings me to some brief historiographi´ cal reflections. etcetera (Figs 16. La Chaux-de-Fonds. For a period. the Dreyfusses of Rotary. about one hundred and fifty. the Blums of Invicta. Charles Thomann mentions it in his anecdotal L’Histoire de La Chauxde-Fonds inscrite dans ses rues. the Ditisheims of Marvin. political and cultural lines. (Postcard.69 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 16. anarchists such as Bakounin and communists such as Lenin were involved in the labour movements in La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1920. Typically. (# ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. The perception of La Loge L’Amitie as a significant factor in the sociability and the cultural life of La Chaux-de-Fonds is sketchily but implicitly acknowledged in histories of La Chaux-de-Fonds written by local historians. the Inventaire Suisse d’Architecture.000 people. in his study of the Villa Schwob. in 1881. collection of the author. 1850 – 1920. Jeanneret’s father was president of it. Yet. this deeply divided society needed.) family of Movado. circles and societies. to continue to function as ‘one unified watchmaking industry . Synagogue. was known for its social clubs. The Tavannes watch factory of the Schwob family. the Freemason lodge of La Chaux-de-Fonds. intimately familiar as they are with its past traditions.71 Jacques Gubler in his survey of the architecture of La Chaux-de-Fonds.68 Of these. Section La Chaux-de-Fonds was one of the most important in terms of membership. with a population of 35. La Chaux-de-Fonds ou le defi d’une cite hor` logere.66 La Chaux-de-Fonds was thus a society profoundly divided along ethnic. as described by Karl Marx. of which there were.

in La Chaux-deFonds between the 1880s and the 1920s? David Hays has described how. 1848. In Anglo-Saxon countries.77 And histories of Jeanneret in La Chaux-de-Fonds have so far often been written by Anglophone historians. It was at Les Vrais Freres Unis in Le Locle ´ that the idea of starting La Loge L’Amitie in La Chaux-de-Fonds arose. He was one of the leaders of the revolution. my grand-father Jeanneret Rauss nicknamed the grumbler. hence the active support for Freemasonry in ˆ and around Neuchatel from its very beginnings. it is a rarity if not an eccentricity. were ´ Freemasons from La Loge L’Amitie in La Chaux-deFonds.’ (Fig. on the one hand. national and international politics. intensely intellectual.70 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted failed to consider this facet of Chaux-de-fonnier existence. if any. who abolished the monarˆ chy and established a republic in Neuchatel.76 It is here that the national identities of historians impinge on their historiographies. ethnic and political boundaries. ˆ The first Masonic lodge in Neuchatel was the Loge Aux Trois Etoiles Flamboyantes. was himself a Freemason and supportive of the lodge Zu den Drei Weltkugeln in Berlin. philosophical. to whom this aspect of the fabric of La Chaux-deFonds would be culturally invisible. and where the cultural chasm between. on the basis of its historical role. along with Fritz Courvoisier.’ 81 Similarly.75 Nor does Mary Patricia Sekler.) 80 But.74 Nor does Paul V. what part did Freemasonry continue to play. followed with its first official Masonic meeting ` in 1774. Anglo-Saxon culture (where contemporary Freemasonry tends towards the conservative. Allen Brooks does not mention it. Le Corbusier proudly mentions his family’s ancient involvement in this revolution: ‘On 1st March. Let me return to the Freemasonic past of La Chaux-de-Fonds and its long history and involvement in regional. The historiography of Freemasonry in France is a scholarly growth industry. and in the face of the dramatically cyclical supply-and-demand reversals of the global watch markets. The 1848 revolutionaries led by Fritz Courvoisier. .78 This is where the fabric of history. critical. Turner. philosophically oriented Continental European Enlightenment culture (in which contemporary Freemasonry is freethinking. on foot. which threatened everyone’s . from La Chaux-de-Fonds to ˆ Neuchatel to capture the castle without loss of blood. the Prince of Neuchatel.79 ` The Masonic lodge at Le Locle. political and spiritual systems. politicians. in La Chaux-de-Fonds in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. on the other hand. the Freemasonic lodge was a tolerant and non-judgemental space in which industrialists. H. if not aberrant. In addition. Frederick the Great of Prussia. Jacob Perret. civil servants and technocrats could meet and learn to trust each other across intense religious. . of historians’ identities and of historiography criss-crosses and overlaps . Freemasonry offered ‘an indulgent space in which to conceive alternative social. and often irreligious) and. the unintellectual and the Establishment) impinges on historiography. At ˆ that time. in the eighteenth century in Continental Europe. established in 1743 by a mayor of La Chaux-de-Fonds. radical if not socialist. the very history of Freemasonry is part-and-parcel of the history of ˆ the area of Neuchatel. financiers. descended. which project eventually materialised in 1819. 18. Les Vrais Freres Unis.

twist-and-turn of that global watch market. economic and religious boundaries before the next inevitable. Freemasonry. Place ˆ de l’Hotel de Ville. At the same time. Statue of Fritz Courvoisier.) existence—indeed the existence of La Chaux-deFonds.71 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 18. which gave rise to fervent social consciences and charitable ideals resulting in humanitarian projects. La Chaux-de-Fonds. political. many of these watch industrialists and Freemasons came from humble backgrounds. could then spread outwards against the grain of established social. (# ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. Charles L’Eplattenier. reflection and response from which the friendship and trust. quite often with traumatic childhood experiences such as being orphaned or living through family bankruptcies. and potentially lethal. which were negotiated and forged and defended ritualistically. Representative . in such lodges as La Loge ´ ` L’Amitie in La Chaux-de-Fonds and Les Vrais Freres Unis in Le Locle. offered a space of respite.

Georges Favre-Jacot. or ‘Collection of debts in all countries without any charge even in case of failure. for several mayors of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Having been. the director of the tramway system. its art museum and its theatre. Suffice it to say here that the complexities of human relationships have been addressed in Jacques Derrida’s Poli´ tiques de l’amitie.86 . . Freemasonic symbols were explicitly used by architects on their drawings (Fig. manufactories and wholesale houses [in Budapest and Hungary]”. which included inserts from Freemasons in Belgium. but other Schwob family members did. intellectual and charitable projects in La Chaux-de-Fonds. until the eighteenth century. all political parties. an ´ affiliated member of La Loge L’Amitie in La Chauxde-Fonds. Several of Jeanneret’s major clients were members of Masonic lodges. furniture. Freemasonry was intimately overlaid not only with the political economy. Advertising and Agency Work done for the whole of Italy’. or ‘Relations with all the banks. the director of the International Bureau ´ of Freemasonic Affairs and Conseiller d’etat in Neuˆ chatel) who wrote that: Freemasonry is an association like any other. did not belong to a Freemasonic lodge.82 In addition to its intellectual and social dimensions. official city architects. and who represented the full range of ideas and of trades and professions . including its childrens’ nurseries. belonged to La Loge L’Amitie. which has a very ancient and illustrious past.83 hence the advertisements in the Bulletin of the International Bureau for Masonic ˆ Affairs at Neuchatel.72 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted of this state of affairs is the statement by Edouard Quartier-La-Tente (who was. newspaper proprietors and others. a brotherhood of builders and stonemasons. for whom Jeanneret designed the Villa ` Favre-Jacot. the Freemasonic lodge was responsible for the creation of the first public hospital. Freemasonry was responsible for major charitable and cultural institutions in La Chaux-deFonds. the most influential public administrators of La Chaux´ de-Fonds—‘les decideurs de la ville’—belonged to ´ (Fig. 84 or ‘Information whether technical or commercial [for Manufacturing and Commercial Brethren]’. in addition to affiliated members such as Quartier-La-Tente from other towns. the town engineer. services for the poor (provision and distribution of food. In terms of membership. France and America describing ‘Numerous connexions in the commercial world. 19). belonged to Les Vrais Freres Unis in Le Locle. the director of the telephone system. the ˆ ´ ´ Venerable of the Freemason Loge in Neuchatel. 20). Germany. So was the case in nearby towns. at this historical period. In Le Locle. for whom Jeanneret designed the Villa Schwob. Paul Ditisheim. who commissioned interior designs and a factory ´ project. Thus. Freemasonry also provided an international network for travellers from Le Locle and La Chauxde-Fonds when far away from home and in need of personal and professional contacts. etcetera). proprietor of the Zenith watch company. Member´ ship of La Loge L’Amitie was a sign of social and intellectual esteem. . but also with the main cultural. La Loge L’Amitie This was the case. it developed into a society whose members came from all social classes. Hungary. Italy. Anatole Schwob. around 1910.’ 85 At the same time.

His obituary describes how he was able to ‘captivate the . in the process of clarifying Le Corbusier’s notion of the promenade architecturale. since this is. La Loge ´ L’Amitie. commercial. winning numerous prizes and medals. who had studied under Julien ´ Guadet at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. briefly outlined the importance of Freemasonry in the fabric of the social. La Chaux-deFonds. (Courtesy of the Archives.) Having thus. intellectual and cultural life of La Chaux-de-Fonds. the topic being addressed in this essay? I need to return to the specific year 1902. the question arises as to how this would have affected the notion of le pittoresque. when the young fifteen-year´ old Jeanneret started to attend the Ecole d’art. in this essay. Administrative and industrial leaders of La Chaux-de-Fonds around 1900. political.73 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 19. administrative. ´ A most prestigious teacher at the Ecole d’art— and the director of the watch-engraving section ` into which Jeanneret first enrolled—was Eugene Schaltenbrand.

74 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 20. Freemasonic stamp on architectural drawings. Louis Reutter.) . (Courtesy of the Archives of La Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds.

the architectural language that he employed.75 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 ` Figure 21. (Postcard. several higher education colleges and the monumental fountain in the centre of the town. with the transformation of their old offices into the new administrative offices of La Chaux-de-Fonds.) attention of his students by the clarity of his expositions. all of whose luxuriant ornamentation . The Bureau ˆ ´ de controle des metaux ´ precieux before its transformation into ˆ Hotel Communal by ` Eugene Schaltenbrand. which regulated the quantities and qualities of precious metals (gold and silver) that were used in the production of watchcases. He was entrusted by the prestiˆ ´ ´ gious Bureau de controle des metaux precieux.’ 87 Schaltenbrand taught the classes. by his knowledge of different historical styles and of ornamental composition. Mutilation of the flamboyant roofline and impoverishment of the elevations by obliteration of their ornamental features. Monumental fountain. 21). La Chaux-de-Fonds. 23)89 Indeed. Working as architecte communal (town architect) of La Chaux-de-Fonds.88 This transformation has been described by the official Swiss architectural register of historical buildings as ‘Conversion into Town Administration 1895 – 1897. 1906. The important point for this investigation is the architecture that he designed. but he resigned his full-time directorship of the watch-engraving section in 1903 in order to devote himself wholly to architectural practice because of several major and prestigious new public and private architectural commissions in La Chaux-de-Fonds (Fig. Avenue ´ Leopold-Robert.’ (Figs 22.) Figure 22. Eugene Schaltenbrand. he designed the hospital. the Bureau de ˆ ´ controle des metaux was a flamboyant Gothicising composition. ` (# Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-deFonds. which were attended by Jeanneret. collection of the author.

with the illusions of this world in order . Robert Belli complained about the ‘the lack of harmony between the arched porch of the Chapel and the rectangular doorway at the back. they [the architects] had to take into account the desires of the artists themselves. with the participation ´ of L’Eplattenier and his students from the Ecole d’art in the provision of its abundant ornamentation in the form of sculptures.) Schaltenbrand removed in favour of a stripped neoclassical style. on the one hand. metalwork. like that of Eugene Schaltenbrand. (Courtesy Archives de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. is the moral architecture of Freemasonry: classicising. and. the elaborate Art Nouveau style of L’Eplattenier with its focus on surface decoration. 25). forcibly or willingly. on the other. stripped Freemasonic neo-classicism with its emphasis on volume and massing. (# ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. Robert Belli. Hotel Communal. unadorned. Here again. Freemason and member of ´ ´ La Loge L’Amitie as in the Crematoire of La Chauxde-Fonds. Crematorium of La Chaux-de-Fonds with ornamental additions by Charles L’Eplattenier. This system of circulation was described in a report of 1936 by the administration of the Crematorium: On entering the northern gate of the cemetery. ochre and crimson mosaics with its mortals on their way to the world beyond and parting company. mosaics. intensely symbolic in its iconography—volumetrically cubical and surmounted by a pyramidal roof—and intensely ceremonial in its system of circulation. the mourner’s gaze first follows the funeral procession that is depicted on the walls of the white crematorium in blue.) Figure 24.76 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted ` Figure 23. designed by him. murals and reliefs (Figs 24. A similarly purified classical style was that of Robert Belli. etc. It is the crematorium of La Chaux-de-Fonds that shows the antagonism between.’ 90 Robert Belli’s ` architecture. ´ Leon Perrin. Eugene ˆ Schaltenbrand.

Then. A glance towards the heavens reveals above the sculpture of the youth. La Chaux-de-Fonds: plans. The mourner has now reached the summit of the staircase and has entered. and the orphaned child huddling up to them . the mourner is made to contemplate the elevated sculpture on the fountain. As the mysterious music from the invisible harmonium soars. . Having reached the end of the path. Robert Belli. The doors close behind. the mourner proceeds towards the staircase that penetrates in under the arched porch. about to ascend the staircase. at the moment of turning towards the entrance of the edifice. sections and elevations before ornamental additions by L’Eplattenier and his students. which represents Peace receiving and protecting men and women as they bow to inevitable destiny. (Courtesy la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. with its gilt arms glittering. the two statues on either side reveal the sorrow of the parents and of the spouse in front of the funeral urn. Crematorium.77 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 25. . in the ethereal light falling from the . Now.) to gain entrance to the kingdom of eternal light. soaring towards the ideal.

Freemasonry teaches its followers that they must first and foremost improve themselves before they can consider contributing to the improvement of humanity. the wealth. the development of education) and in the ideals of cooperation and brotherhood. . .96 . will restore hope and faith . Evard—a modest thanks in memory of precious help. with its young couples and its apposite central family tableau eulogising childhood. The intellectual and philosophical culture of Freemasonry at La ´ Loge L’Amitie in La Chaux-de-Fonds in circa 1900. notions of social and political progress in the form of humanitarian and charitable activities (the creation of nursery schools. representing all ideas and trades and professions . and specific interpretation of. 93 It is here that we find the answer to our previous question. which was to . gave a copy of Ruskin’s Sesame and Lillies ´ to Andre Evard. richly incised and embossed in copper-clad ornamentation. who had worked with him on the Villa Fallet. 91 By this ceremonial circulation and by its volumetric simplicity. It was in this spirit that Jeanneret. metaphorically. in radiant pastels. They identified with the Ruskin who mentioned Freemasons in The Stones of Venice and in Val D’Arno 94 (both of which were in the library of ´ the Ecole d’art). this was an architecture typical of the local Masonic agenda (such as that of Edouard Quartier-La-Tente). having finished the Villa Fallet and departing for his first extended journey in 1907. Ruskin wrote about ‘the traditions. E. all political parties. and to whom he inscribed the book: ‘To my good study compagnon and friend. . once the urn is laid to rest in the ground. It is this Masonic cultural context of La Chaux-de-Fonds. . Based on the view that it is not possible to build a solid construction from poor materials. and the skill of the monks and freemasons’. ’ 92 And this Freemasonic architecture saw itself as having. . formed the particular reception to. facing on the opposite side is a frieze in gold and crimson representing Purification by Fire. . A. the catafalque. in line with the eighteenth-century Continental European Freemasonic tradition. In The Stones of Venice. 26). food programmes for the destitute.95 referring to operative not speculative Freemasonry. He will walk slowly from the stairs with sculpted torches on the railings to the masterpiece of stone: the monument to the dead . was profoundly imbued with. August 1907’ (Fig. May the mourner now look up at the southern elevation of the Crematorium: the great mosaic of the Triumph of Life. Jeanneret. . . work together for human progress by first seeking one’s own personal moral improvement. It was precisely in such a spirit of brotherhood that ´ Ruskin was read in the Ecole d’art of La Chaux-deFonds.78 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted quadrangular dome. and the painted mural frieze: a long panel above in blue tones. which. in the early twentieth century. the urns. the mourner will wander around the beautifully designed cemetery . . . which aspired to be a universal classically stripped architecture for ‘a society whose members came from all social classes. the mourner slowly distinguishes the walls. Ruskin. depicting Pity and Death. a moral mission. Ch. and passionately oriented towards. Later.

Andre Evard and Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (with Louis Houriet. The notions of the voyage and of the quest are central to Freemasonry as symbolic of the journey of the individual through life in search of inner self-improvement and of external improvement in society.79 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 ´ And Joseph Milsand’s L’Esthetique anglaise: ´ tude sur M John Ruskin was understood and e conceptualised within such a spirit. that this promenade architecturale was a symbolic and ritual voyage was well understood by Le Corbusier’s ` ´ principal chef d’atelier in the rue de Sevres. 98 And this now leads to the central question in this examination of Le Corbusier’s notion of the architectural promenade.) Les Trois Voyages Of the various elements involved in the Freemasonic initiation ceremony. which means those of us who deserve it’ can understand the profound meaning of space and of its promenade architecturale. which means: to those who deserve it. only ‘those of us whom it may concern. Could it be within this context that Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s concept of space. to build ourselves like one builds a house. drives away contingent presences. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS/ ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. to make oneself into an individual worthy of the name ‘human’. Then a boundless depth opens up. What exactly are Les Trois Voyages? In a Planche d’avancemet au II Grade—a Freemasonic presentation to achieve the second symbolic . wrote that: In a complete and successful work there are hidden masses of implications. can begin to be understood? Indeed. after Le Corbusier’s death. Indeed. This brings me back to the question being addressed. effaces the wall. New World of Space. left to right) working on the Villa Fallet. accomplishes the miracle of ineffable space. who. beyond his architecture. How can such Freemasonic notions possibly relate to the architectural promenade? ´ Figure 26. stone upon stone. a central one is that of Les Trois Voyages. of life as voyage and of the search and of improvement and progress as quest. Andre Wogenscky. in one of his key publications. Le Corbusier himself. was his attitude to life and the way in which he believed that our main duty is to construct ourselves.97 According to Le Corbusier. paid him homage by describing how Le Corbusier’s greatest influence on me. but with the specific difference that human edification is never finished. including the promenade architecturale. a veritable world which reveals itself to those whom it may concern.

Meanwhile. which will take place. The custom of being blindfolded allows for the concentration of ideas to reach its maximum and is thus most laudable. From this detail. will not experience very deeply and will consequently not feel the powerful emotions that overcome the layman able to understand and be aware of what is happening in front of him.80 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted grade of Companion after that of Apprentice— which was written on 20th March. . weighed ever more heavily on me. is of a particular kind. . 1909. . An inner struggle was set in motion in my conscience. . an important impression grew in me and as a result I found myself ever more wary. I could not accept that earnest men could amuse themselves with such games and. . despite all my willingness. [ . It is easy to see how these dominating thoughts necessarily pushed me to analyse in depth the meaning of the different stages to which I was led during my voyage through the obscurity. some people never really succeed in disengaging themselves from such first impressions. I was at first rather astonished by this behaviour. when meditation can be fertile for those who make the effort. logic and reason. [ . as soon as my conscience were to advise me to do so. . and I constantly asked myself: ‘Will you find what you are looking for. whether or not I would be forced to withdraw my application. either through written accounts or by other means. an association of men with open and lofty ideas. It was thus in this frame of mind that I climbed the steps leading to a door that a Masonic brother indicated as he invited me to enter. considering that the recipient is oblivious to everything that will happen. which is however to be found in many instances through life. my senses became ever more alert. insignificant at first sight. [ . at that moment. The idea that I had been mistaken was becoming ever more insistent and filled me with sorrow. an impression which is generally hard to dispel. it is the experience of a first impression. ] At that point a totally different feeling confronted my intellect. Hans Wille describes The Three Voyages taking place in an initiation ´ ceremony at La Loge L’Amitie. This impression overpowered me just long enough to reach the Preparation Room and we shall see how this impression changed progressively but still mingled with the expectations of the reception. 99 His handwritten account needs to be quoted at length: Those who have learnt about how these receptions take place. 1909 and presented on 26th October. and the question as to how this evening would end. ] He then blind- folded me. I was racking my brains to discover the reason for this blindfolded voyage . The evolution. I could grasp no symbolic meaning whatsoever. which will help . but let myself be led by him through underground rooms and corridors as I imagined that my mind’s eye made me witness a voyage through the basements of the lodge. . ] There is a most curious thing. dominated all my thoughts. . with whose principles your loyalty can agree?’ My firm intention to withdraw at the slightest misgiving. and consequently the manner in which the reception would take place always remained a secondary issue for me. thus new sense impressions only will make an impact on his senses. even though he knew nothing of it previously.

at the moment when one has to part with one’s prejudices. that my companion lead me into that small black room where the symbols of death emerged one by one from the darkness as the eyes became accustomed to the darkness. ] I was overcome by a feeling of peace and by the music and singing during the three voyages around the rectangular floor of the lodge. with whom exchanging opinions would be possible without prejudice or other preconceptions. the existence of which we must admit but cannot identify. It was while reflecting on these past moments. May these few lines rekindle their memories of the days when they too longed for light. reassuring me that friendship was my guide. once on paper being but a feeble copy of the original. and now I was full of hope about fulfilling my desire to meet others able to understand and share the ideas I had of humanity. one’s superstitions perhaps. in the obscurity. will seem quite dull to the reader. or so I eagerly wish. when life reveals itself directly in its totality. it seemed like a genuine moment of calm! It is a pity that we are unable to represent in writing the true feelings of our heart. but as they themselves will have experienced these unforgettable moments. when one would need friendship to be guided towards the light that one desires so fervently. It was thus no longer with that feeling of revolt that I let the blindfold be put back on. in which one had sought in vain for a friendly guide during the inner conflicts of early life. which appears in its entire enormity and when its meanness becomes visible. typical of intolerant people.100 . . and being there to indicate that despite our efforts to reach moral and intellectual perfection. despite all the effort put into it. when the soul is still fresh and sensitive to all impressions. 1909. Written at La Chauxde-Fonds. this goal will never be reached. In the midst of the slow and painful labour to achieve it. The rest of the voyage was less dire and the friendly words of the Masonic brother who accompanied me. my senses aroused and my apprehensive spirit miraculously appeased. which is not as unrewarding as might first seem. reminded me of other voyages through obscurity. I was hesitant. ] The moment before. death will seize us mercilessly when our hour has come and stop the wheels of our human machinery with the visible effects of its power.81 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 him to evaluate those initial impressions. hence this small composition. [ . but this effect will eventually be seen to be positive in that it will force the candidate to think productively and to struggle mentally to find solid reasons in order to erase from his mind the initial thought. . namely that he had been invited to a somewhat ridiculous ceremony. We have seen the unfortunate effect produced by the little detour. and when for years one advances with insecurity. which were first unconsciously and inconsequentially formed. 20th March. Hans Wille. disillusioned. At that moment one rarely finds the much needed guide and one often succumbs morally. with uncertainty. when one becomes aware of one’s weakness. . they may relive them with me. I felt no surprise at the sight of these objects. will only follow afterwards. [ . it seemed to me that it was a logical thing that had to happen. .

a description of the basic features of Les Trois Voyages. 27). . Wille also dwells on his emotions of self-conscious astonishment. in Hans Wille’s handwritten account of 1909. He thus veers between. on the other hand. on the one hand.82 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 27. if not farcical. ridiculousness and even revulsion at the ludicrous. Freemasonic image of Les Trois Voyages. Wille describes the progression from darkness to light. a sense of revelation at the profound symbolism of Les Trois Voyages. ranging from an account of their physical and symbolic features through to that of the complex and conflicting range of emotions that he experienced during them (Fig.) We thus find. (Courtesy the Archives of Le Grand Orient de France. and. from blindness to sightedness. ceremonies to which he is deliberately subjecting himself. total disbelief at the meaninglessness of it all.

the inidividual still needs help and support.’ The candidate stands between two Masons. come with us. Absolute silence.102 A description of the ritual in use in 1886 ´ ´ at La Loge La Clemente Amitie. However. Alone. described in the Book of Ritual.’ Now the candidate’s Voyage—Age mu arm is held by two Master Masons. the lodge is in absolute silence as the candidate and his two accompanying Masons walk around the lodge.104 These two accounts of key aspects of Les Trois Voyages now allow us to undertake a comparison with the logistics of the architectural promenade. Then ` starts The Third Voyage. follow me. this second account of Les Trois Voyages highlights another critical set of initiatory and experiential attributes: rhythm. some key features of Les Trois Voyages. and it begins with the words: ‘My son. The Second Voyage. ´ to become affiliated to La Loge L’Amitie in 1890. holding the hands of two Master Masons. not a sound. before looking at Le Corbusier’s own .’ The opening words are: ‘My pupil. not a single sound. he returned to La Chaux-de-Fonds. while a student ´ at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. lean on me. highlights another important aspect of Les Trois Voyages.’ and it is then explained to the candidate that ‘This voyage symbolises youth. this voyage symbolises the pupil and his teachers. Each of the three subsequent stages of Les Trois Voyages involves specific symbolic ritualised movement inside the Lodge.’ The candidate. Absolute silence. entitled ‘Troisieme ˆ r—L’Ami.’ No longer symbolic of the family. is walked around the lodge at a slightly faster space than during the First Voyage: ‘at a pace less slow than the first voyage. The Second Voyage finishes with the words: ‘The second voyage is finished. no important endeavour can be productively accomplished. when Schaltenbrand was still in Paris. The First Voyage is entitled ‘Premier Voyage— Enfance—La Famille’.’ This Third Voyage finished with the words: The third voyage is over. whose roles succeed those of the parents. This First Voyage finishes with the words: ‘The first voyage is finished. The child depends on them but has rights to be educated and looked after. Even at this stage of life.’ The Voyage is described in the following terms: ‘The walk must be at a normal and resolved pace. one of whom says to him: ‘My friend.103 Thus. You completed it like an individual who has reached the peak of his development. Schaltenbrand was initiated in La Loge La ´ ´ Clemente Amitie in Paris in 1886. is ` ˆ called ‘Deuxieme Voyage—Jeunesse—Le Maıtre.’ Again.’ It is then explained to the candidate that the small group in which he is included as Apprentice Freemason surrounded by two Master Masons symbolises the family group with the two parents and the child. described in another ` account. Jeanneret’s teacher at the Ecole d’Art.101 Having finished his studies in Paris. the three different voyages in Les Trois Voyages are clearly distinguished from each other. They hold his arm and his shoulder and lead him very slowly forwards. This voyage symbolises adulthood. speed and pace. This second account relates to Eugene ´ Schaltenbrand. The entire assembly is hushed.83 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Having presented. through Hans Wille’s account. There. in total silence. This voyage symbolises childhood. I want to address a feature.

the symbolic voyage you have just experienced is the emblem of human life. The blindfolded initiate—‘the blindfold that covers your eyes symbolises the irrationality of the individual dominated by passions and submerged in ignorance and superstition’107—is led through a labyrinth of darkness and silence: The candidate walks along lengthy corridors. ascends. solitude. the initiate is set the task of replying. The candidate remains in the depths of the earth. The sounds you heard represent the passions that stir it.84 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 28. Here. thus descending in solitude into the inner depths of their own souls—‘descend into the bowels of the earth’. which are symbolic trials of different aspects and dimensions of life. in which the candidate is faced with the traditional and ultimate symbols of self-reflection in the face of negation and death: a skull. 108 This Voyage de la Terre involves obstacles during which ‘many noises may alarm the candidate’. the initiation ceremony involves a number of promenades. prejudices and defences. to the three questions concerning the duties that are owed to the family. within this dimly lit space inside the earth. the obstacles you encountered depict the difficulties . 106 experiencing loss. a mirror. again climbs more stairs. 28). position and rank. a scythe. (Courtesy the Archives of Le Grand Orient de France. a sand-glass. of the experience of chaos and disorientation that is symbolic of the predicament of life itself and which must be surmounted though support and cooperation with others. and. Freemasonic image of Le Cabinet de ´ Reflexion. lack of stability and solidity. as well as putting in question all acquired knowledge.105 ¸ According to Bayard. therefore also all preconceptions. to humanity and to the self. I would like to consider another classic Freemasonic interpretation of the meaning of Les Trois Voyages. in which the initiates—symbolically putting aside all social status. 109 at the end of which the initiate reaches Le Cabinet ´ de Reflexion.) description of these logistics. The initiator explains to the initiate: Sir. Then starts the next voyage. in the primordial labyrinth. tears (Fig. in writing. the Voyage de l’Air ´ and the Epreuve de l’Air. emptiness and angst. the description and analysis by Jean-Pierre Bayard in his Symbolisme Maconnique Traditionnel. that is. descends. lack of gravity and equilibrium. The first of these voyages is the Voyage de la ´ Terre and the Epreuve de la Terre. painted in silver on the black walls. walks blindly through the obscurity. These involve the experience of lack of grounding. death. dimly lit.

110 The following voyage. we reach the notion of a higher order and of three-dimensional volume. giving a feeling of force and a witness of potent methods. these circuits. Then the Voyage ´ du Feu and Epreuve du Feu. which follow predetermined practices and directions. thanks above all to the support he finds in his fellows. the critical element. to the topic under investigation: the architectural promenade. . Le Corbusier described sequential spaces. [ . The rhythm and the direction of circulation in the Freemasonic Lodge are symbolic too. with the meandering line of the 2nd degree. let us remember that it is only after these wanderings. But are Le Corbusier’s own descriptions of the architectural promenade comparable and analogous to Freemasonic accounts of Les Trois Voyages? In his account of his visit to Pompeii. which is itself symbolic of the greater calm and equilibrium that results from the achievement of virtuous constancy in the face of life’s struggles following the realisations of the first two voyages. we are in the space of rites of passage and of the notion of two-dimensional surface. speeds and paces brings us back. In any case. which reveals brilliant illumination beyond: Casa del Noce. Furthermore. ] At all the grades. analyses the initiatory movement in the following terms: The straight line of the 1st degree corresponds to the notion of the initiation.85 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 the individual encounters and cannot defeat or overcome until he acquires the moral energy that allows him to struggle against misfortune. we rediscover these paces. these circuits. experienced in silence and in close proximity to fire. then.112 And this very notion of a symbolic movement involving specific rhythms. involving again specific rhythms. follows. through quiet warmth. . at Pompeii. four columns in the middle (four cylinders) shoot up towards the shade of the roof. Thus. Again the little vestibule which frees your mind from the street. is symbolic of darkness and of death. including a small space of reflection and. symbolises. Clockwise movement is symbolic of the daily movement of the sun and therefore of light and of life. that light is given to the candidates.111 Thus. the ritual must be completed within a cycle between symbolic sunrise and symbolic sunset. the Voyage de l’Eau and the ´ Epreuve de l’Eau. once again. is the sense of quest. And then you are in the Atrium. anticlockwise movement. full-circle. the respect. a larger space. and we pause at the possible symbolic meanings that we can attribute to them. With the straddle of the 3rd degree. distributes it and accentuates it. who are born into light while at the same time departing from another life. from a Freemasonic perspective. the first three degrees range from the line inscribed on the surface of the earth to the notion of the cosmos. but at the far end is the brilliance of the garden seen through the peristyle which spreads out this light with a large gesture. friendliness and charity that result from the previous voyages. This voyage—completed without obstacles and to a liquid sound—is less demanding than the previous ones. thus in opposition to the solar system. in Bayard’s Freemasonic interpretation. . Bayard. speeds and paces. generated and embodied through symbolically ritual movement.

Towards a New Architecture. 29) 113 In another key text. Towards a new architecture. [ . the pillars and the walls adjust themselves in accordance with comprehensible reasons. so insupportable to man. Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier again describes the architectural promenade. if the dispositions of their grouping expresses a clean rhythm and not an incoherent agglomeration. nor mass. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. ] Rhythm is a state of equilibrium which proceeds either from symmetries. The plan is at its basis. Without plan we have the sensation.86 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 29. If these masses are of a formal kind and have not been spoilt by unseemly variations. The eye of the spectator finds itself looking at a site composed of streets and houses. of wilfulness.) stretching widely from left to right. The plan is what determines everything. of poverty. A profound projection of harmony: this is architecture.. the multiple surfaces of walls and vaults. It receives the impact of the masses which rise up around it.) Figure 30. Without plan there can be neither grandeur of aim and expression. Le Corbusier. he analyses how The plan is the generator. (Fig. the vaults display their own surfaces. . (Fig. unity of the geometric principle. in a large interior. Pompei. The eye observes. . (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. if the relationship of mass to space is in just proportion. the eye transmits to the brain co-ordinated sensations and the mind derives from these satisfactions of a high order: this is architecture. . variety of form. making a great space. In ‘Three Reminders to Architects’. . the cupolas determine the large spaces. . of disorder. nor coherence. The whole structure rises from its base and is developed in accordance with a rule which is written on the ground in the plan: noble forms. simple or complex. It calls for the most severe discipline also. Rhythm is an equation . The plan calls for the most active imagination. . it is the decisive moment. Casa del Noce. 30) 114 . of shapelessness. or from delicate balancings. nor rhythm.

These two themes. as the reader will have by now understood. becoming Companion on 18th January. Juan Gris was initially rejected by La Loge Voltaire on 6th May. Juan Gris. To enter is to step into the fantastic world beyond the picture plane. Second is the presence of potent symbolic elements.87 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 In this account of the architectural promenade. given that Juan Gris was deeply committed to Freemasonry. objective (even transcendental) geometry and. the sense of rising up into an illuminated realm. of the presence of symbolic ‘witnesses of potent methods’—Le Corbusier highlights two particular Freemasonic features.116 Now. It must be understood that belonging to a Freemasonic lodge of either Le Grand Orient de France or La Grande Loge de France was very much part of intellectual and artistic life in Paris at the time. which provides a paradigmatic case study of these very themes within a Freemasonic framework. First. He was eventually accepted and initiated into this same Loge Voltaire on 2nd February. or the intensive lyricism of sun-lit geometries seen through layers of semi-reflecting glass. The case study of Juan Gris is therefore of critical importance to this essay. let me lay to rest the issue of Juan Gris and Freemasonry. subjective (even sensual) experience. entire books have been written about Juan Gris without a single mention of his . Juan Gris Two aspects of the work of Juan Gris therefore need to be considered: its interactive tension between geometry and experience. This sideways glance at the work of a painter may seem like a diversion away from the discussion of Jeanneret/Le Corbusier. In order to do so. the fundamental question that arises is whether this Freemasonic commitment can help to clarify the nature of his work?117 And this. is also the fundamental question which underlies this investigation into the nature of the architectural promenade.115 A way therefore has to be found to investigate and to clarify these features further. but it will lead to the notion of ‘symbolic work’ and thus eventually back to the critical centre of the argument about the architectural promenade. 1921. on the other hand. I will consider the work of Le Corbusier’s friend. 1925. These very same features are picked up by many observers such as William Curtis. which are highly relevant to the notion of le pittoresque. Furthermore. Le Corbusier referred to this particular version of the promenade architecturale as an Espace Arabe. The building imposes its own order on the senses through sheer sculptural power. Even a scrupulous inspection of photographs and drawings cannot hope to recreate the feeling of space. First is the forceful tension between. which is illustrated with images of temples—in addition to the Freemasonic iconographic elements of powerful contrasts between darkness and light. 1924 and Master on 27th February. on the one hand. and its symbolic iconography. of particular spatial sequences from small cabinet through cavernous space to space of illumination. will thus move this investigation forward into the nature of the architectural promenade. 1923. who describes the architectural promenade as: The honorific path is clearly signalled by the ramp which is the spine of the whole idea.

Only a few of the wreathes were on the deathbed. discusses Juan Gris’ Freemasonic initiation in 1923 in relation to his social position both within Parisian society and within the society of La Touraine.’122 And such. he describes how. does not attempt to relate this commitment. his art underwent several radical transformations. This opposition between geometrical form and material sensuality is central to the radical change that took place in the art of Juan Gris with Seated Harlequin of 1923. ‘[t]he sensual is declared through handling to be a function of the personal. Then Green. oil on canvas. in . Juan Gris. (1925.” This inscription puzzled many of those present. is clearly the case: the painting includes ‘formless’123 patches of pure pigment. and obviously profound experience. to his work and notes that ‘[f]urther research is needed on the relevance of Masonic symbolism to Gris’s painting. was reserved about his Freemasonic involvement to such an extent that the traditional Freemasonic funeral tribute at his burial generated surprised speculation as to its source and meaning. One large wreath bore the following inscription: “To Juan Gris. in The Painter’s Window of 1925 (Fig. which. from his companions in the struggle. 1927. reviewing the various evaluative interpretations of Juan Gris’s work between 1923 and the year of his death.) (# DACS. in the morning. Gris for the first time uses handling as signature. of the way it has pushed and kneaded and moulded the pigmented medium in more or less viscous states into smooth or slightly coarsened surfaces.’118 Christopher Green.’120 It is precisely such an analysis that must be attempted at this stage of the argument. Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler recalled how ‘He was buried on May 13.88 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 31. 100 x 81 cm. as it was not sent by his fellow artists. however. for example. observation would seem to support.119 Green. Green then calls attention to the fact that ‘[a]ll around is the evidence of the brush’s activity. Juan Gris. the rest were piled against the wall of the house and on the pavement.’121 This he does. however. 31). calls attention to the interaction between the painting of experience and the painting of conceptualisations and. as is traditional of Freemasonry. for Gris. as part of the process of resolution of this dichotomy. after 1923. The Painter’s Window.) active participation in Freemasonry at that very specific moment when.

L’Ombre de la main. pinks and reds dominate the colour range and the tonalities. 32). curiously. as we have already seen in Les Trois . an element of (what Francoise Ducros has described ¸ ´ as) ‘realisme magique’ (magical realism) entered his work in a painting such as L’Ombre de la main (1929) including. Amedee Ozenfant. thus bringing in the themes of light and darkness in an infinite cosmological space (Fig. oil on cotton-duck. member of La Loge Art et Science. 33). (1929. And it is for the years around ´ ´ 1925 that one finds archival evidence of Amedee Ozenfant’s presumed Freemasonic activities. into the composition of which appears an illuminated hand casting a shadow. including sun and moon. Amedee Ozenfant. ´ ´ Amedee Ozenfant’s development echoes in this respect the evolution in the work of Juan Gris who. fundamentally changed in comparable ways around 1927 and 1928. editor of the discontinued L’Esprit Nouveau. which hitherto had been based on conceptual constructions.125 And this feature. attempted in these years to bring notions of phenomenological experience into his work.) ´ ´ turn. on a dark background.5 cm. 1931 – 1938) was unsatisfactory and he renounced his purist aesthetic.) (# DACS.) ´ ´ Figure 33. Bathers in a Grotto (1930 – 1931.89 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 ´ ´ Figure 32. Both feature powerfully amorphous body shapes which go totally against the strictly geometrical shapes of the earlier paintings. Ozenfant’s Vie is reminiscent of Juan Gris’ Seated Harlequin (Fig. writer. 1923). 34. Around 1929.’124 Universal is the representation of planetary constellations. ´ ´ Amedee Ozenfant is listed in one contemporary Freemasonic list as ‘artist. during which he decided that his painting Vie (Fig. 35. 81 x 105 cm. eventually finishing it in 1938 after many modifications and interim stages. Universal. Bruxelles/DACS. In addition. again. 73 x 91. A second critical turning point in the ´ ´ work of Amedee Ozenfant was the year 1932. whose new organic features would be present in all his future work such as Bathers in a Grotto (Fig. the elements of moon and sun against a floating space of darkness. the year of his painting. parallels the ways in which Amedee Ozenfant’s work. according to Christopher Green. It was in late 1932 that he started to rework Vie.) ´ (# Musees royaux des beaux-arts de Belgique.

) Voyages with their simultaneous extreme geometry (the rhythm. questioning the relevance of the cultural feature being investigated. Indeed.) Figure 35. hover in space. sets out to . 73 x 92 cm. which we have seen described in Les Trois Voyages. effaces the wall. sets out to clarify how and why. a new spatiality altogether.’ 126 But. oil on canvas. A second approach. here. Juan Gris. light and darkness. Paris/DACS. Seated Harlequin. in his analysis of Freemasonic ritual. being discontinuous with the planes and the angles of their supporting surfaces such as the table upon which they are apparently placed. in this case Freemasonry. But. sight and blindness) is a central aspect of Freemasonic ritual. Vie. source of pleasure and suffering. 300 x ´ 425 cm. 127 the space of the initiatory moment. speed and pace of ritualised footsteps) and extreme phenomenological experience (sound and heat. what Green does not mention is what I consider to be a new spatial quality in the art of Juan Gris— indeed. Amedee Ozenfant. drives away contingent presences. accomplishes the miracle of ineffable space’. describes how ‘thus the body.) (# Musee national d’art moderne.90 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted ´ ´ Figure 34. based on the conviction that a particular cultural feature. Pierrick L’Hyver. another brief historiographical reflection is in order. is significant. Le Corbusier’s ‘ineffable space’ when ‘a boundless depth opens up. Research and interpretation tend to be caught between two methodological approaches. precisely that symbolic ‘witness of potent methods’. which is perhaps more architectural than painterly.) (# DACS. (1923. A first approach. between an enclosed sienna-coloured earthy room and an open celestial infinite space. oil on cotton-duck. (1931 – 1938. which need addressing before I can advance this investigation into the architectural promenade further. furthermore. which. Everything here thus floats in space. The entire composition is tilted at planes and at angles. And these floating objects hover in a particular space: a space that is itself suspended— suspended between interior enclosure and exterior infinity. The ‘formless’ patches of pure paint in The Painter’s Window float on (or in) a black space. can also be the source of the most profound thoughts.

between deduction and induction. Such a ritual process of symbolic work is furthermore suggested by Rosenthal’s description of the ‘contrast between an anecdotal world of appearance and a realm of metamorphosis’133 which he likens to a theatrical setting. on a firm ground of certainty. can be taken as neutral in this respect. for Juan Gris. that is. For Rosenthal. in a diametrically opposite way. . because they do not mention and consider Freemasonry.’ 130 All of this would seem to fit Freemasonry’s fundamental concern with the use of objects as suggestive of metaphysical meanings. because. one balanced by the next and then another. physical and perceptual experience—which would seem to correspond with the ways in which the object is used symbolically in Freemasonic ritual through the means of a process of ritual work (in a way perhaps reminiscent of the logistics of Freud’s concept of ‘Traumarbeit’?) to arrive at meanings resulting from directly experienced and observable material. by Christopher Green. hermetic relationship of pictorial elements. which. as something deeply and personally meaningful through bodily. here. as already mentioned. Rather. he valued what he termed “spiritual” qualities in art. in which ‘the curtain is pulled back for our entrance from the perceptual world to another’134—as is the case in Freemasonic ritual. he composed and thought in metaphysical terms . spatial and geometric features. There are aesthetic judgements and more factual descriptions. . Such are the studies of Juan Gris by Mark Rosenthal and. Juan Gris’ work—consisting of an ‘intensely satisfying. to avoid reading Freemasonic values into the art of Juan Gris. [in that] he expected to evoke certain sensations and meaningful suggestions simply by the lyric effect with which he described an object in combination with other objects. The first approach necessarily treats the visual data as illustrational evidence. though he hated conventional religion. on the edge of doubt.’ 129 Rosenthal quotes Gertrude Stein’s statement that. The second approach hovers between hypothesis and test. of objects as inherently symbolic. Two types of statements can be observed in Rosenthal’s study. Indeed.’ 135 Although Rosenthal does not explicitly. as one would be tempted to do. comment on the Freemasonic iconography in Juan Gris’ . Rosenthal describes Juan Gris’ work as intensely focused on the notion of transformations since his ‘pictures are at once the recording of a still-life and the transformation of such a situation into an exercise in pictorial pyrotechnics. but. Rosenthal writes that ‘Symbols were anathema for Gris. The critical problem therefore arises at the initial point of observation: what are we observing? It is in order to circumvent such observational subjectivity. until the subtlety of resonance reaches an exquisite pitch’128—is also defined by the ‘potential for secular subjects to have metaphysical meaning.’ 131 It is thus clear that any use by Gris of the object as symbol is one that does not depend on a notion of ‘symbol’ as an abstract and conventional representation of shared societal values (such as in Barthes’ example of the flag as symbol132). that direct observation of Juan Gris’ work will be replaced by the use of third-party descriptions of his work. But.91 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 explore its problematical significance. ‘still life was not a seduction it was a religion.

. ] It is natural that a ceremony. of which he cannot have a personal experience.138 These. importance and significance of these forms when. . are they able to be suggestive. acute angles (the form of the compass) and right angles (the form of the set-square136) and professional artist’s tools as symbols of work—he does describe the presence. . and only then. . [ . To suggest is to awaken. that my companion lead me into that small black room where the symbols of death emerged one by one from the darkness as the eyes became accustomed to the darkness. the concept of the architectural promenade.139 These symbols are thus used to evoke meanings— explicitly and self-consciously. ] I had the presentiment that I was going to symbolically relive all the fundamental phases of the initial and lofty philosophical idea. which appears in its entire enormity and when its meanness becomes visible. this particular notion of symbolic work needs to be investigated because of its relevance to. . when one becomes aware of one’s weakness. . he notes that ‘Lipchitz said that Gris revered the triangle. Bayard writes that the symbol has ‘different possibilities of meaning depending on the degree of knowledge of the interpreter . Hans Wille described symbols in use: The idea that I had been mistaken was becoming ever more insistent and filled me with sorrow.] I saw no obstables to removing my shoes as well as all objects made of metal. ] It was while reflecting on these past moments. [ . as he would not have been to understand the discreetly disguised symbols whose meanings only a somewhat serious thought process could reveal to him. at that moment. having understood the symbolic meaning of these preparations before the accompanying Masonic brother had even had time to explain them to me. and it was thus that I was led to the temple entrance. as above. through their analogical correspondences. . to the effect that I was still determined to become a Freemason. Symbolic work and voyage ´ In his account of an initiation at La Loge L’Amitie in 1909. These meanings are acknowledged as open-ended.’ 140 The Freemasonic symbol explicitly and openly retains—and in this very feature is seen to reside its instrumental value—its simultaneous . I could not accept that earnest men could amuse themselves with such games and. for example. the concept of le pittoresque and. [ . despite all my willingness. could be seen as the experience of the transformation of the object back and forth between physical presence and symbolic representation through the process of ritual work. such as the way in which objects are sometimes reduced to signs while at other times they are virtually real.92 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted work—black-and-white chessboards (symbol of the checkered pattern of good and evil in life). first. I answered with unfounded audacity to the question that was asked of me. Then. . ambivalent. . . [. ambiguous. while at other times objects are fully merged into space. or the way in which two-dimensional objects are sometimes opposed to three-dimensional space. would seem ridiculous to a profane. I could grasp no symbolic meaning whatsoever.’137 Rosenthal also describes the peculiarly contradictory aspects of Juan Gris’ work. secondly. Now. and that he would not enter a lodge.

but. . water. since ‘appreciation of the transience of things. . Precisely in a spirit of opposition to this notion of representation as essentially false. is one of the strongest impulses in allegory. Thus the symbol has different possibilities of meaning depending on the degree of knowledge of the interpreter . [ . as a means towards reenchantment. this goes fundamentally against the entire entrenched tenet of that Western Platonic tradition—sometimes referred to by that shorthand term. ] The symbol encompasses both the past and the future in gestation. Now. Unlike irony.146 As with our previous detour via Juan Gris to clarify the conceptual notion of ‘symbolic work’. This silent language. Unlike irony. . as we have already ` seen in the accounts by Hans Wille and Eugene Schaltenbrand. logos—according to which representation is in essence inauthentic and must therefore be overcome. which is ‘capable of engendering duration as the illusion of a continuity that it knows to be illusionary’. This play with illusion is unlike that of allegory. allows one to penetrate the essence of things and to rediscover the stages on the initiatory journey. a second detour (which may appear at first somewhat digressive) via de Giorgi Bertola will be in order to allow the further clarification of the concept itself of ‘work’. Bayard writes that: The symbol allows the awakening of ideas. Such a classic and foundational travel diary is that of the Viaggio sul Reno e nei suoi contorni by Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola of 1795. is not meant to overcome its representative role or to deny its fictional status. to render the fictional status even more visible. however. and can be traced back to such cultural phenomena as the Grand Tour. on the contrary. thereby eventually bringing us back again to a critical aspect of the architectural promenade.144 this symbolism does not attempt to create illusory duration but simply states such aporia visibly and explicitly. it is one form of awareness on one of the paths of our existence. and the concern to rescue them for eternity.142 Real sound. And. Its usefulness is seen as consisting of this dual nature.’143 Nor is this self-conscious play with illusion allied to irony. . fire and wind are used. indeed. Bertola organises the accounts and descriptions in specific ways and according to . which could also be overlaid by Freemasonic character and associations. The illusion is presented as allusion. outcome both of the historical and of the universal. In his diary. that is. which it does not try to overcome and make invisible. the symbol here states difference and distance precisely in order to advocate its overcoming through work.141 To this valuable illusive nature of the symbol is attached a further quality: the authenticity of the materiality of the symbol.93 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 representational and fictional status. the representation presents its own representational nature. This concrete reality of the symbol. not only is ‘work’ the Freemasonic term specifically used—‘le travail du ritual maconnique’—but this notion of ‘work’ ¸ is associated with historical aspects of eighteenth-century Freemasonic culture. which states the ‘continued impossibility of reconciling the world of fiction with the actual world’ 145 as a continual state of disenchantment.

work that leads to a better state of affairs. who came here because this countryside with its rural life was beautiful. maintained intact. ]. which depart significantly from the original travel notes in which he recorded his travels. after having led me to the centre of a labyrinth of dense hedges and of a forest of chestnut trees. whose Bucolics and Georgics (The Art of Husbandry) describe Roman agricultural occupations and labour. Le pittoresque both incorporated and embraced—as was observed but not yet explicable at the outset of this essay—the . Le Corbusier writes that: The inhabitants. Bertola himself describes his intention to give a better order to his diary in its published form. fishermen and other labourers. Referring to Virgil.148 With these notions of labour and of the labyrinth— Freemasonic symbols of the tortuous route on the road to truth and its inherent difficulties—Bertola is describing not just the real landscape. but he is recreating an initiatory voyage. We encounter once again the theme noted previously of sensuality and geometry. whose work is presented as the foundation of the pleasures of rural life. nor an allegory of a world in a state of loss. Two features of Bertola’s landscapes stand out.’ 151 And it is through this landscape that the architectural promenade proceeds on the basis of le pittoresque. . . which had taken place in 1787 (that is. And this therefore brings us back to a critical point in our exploration of the architectural promenade via the notion of ‘work’ that is inherent in the pittoresque. landscape is a place of initiatory work and of ritualistic labour in the search for greater perfection.) Specific instances of this type of work are described. Neither a symbol of an ideal pastoral paradise without need for work. a ‘lyrically efficient one. First. from their hanging gardens. it is a world working towards the achievement of an ideal. The travel diary thus takes its dynamic in the very notion of the initiatory voyage.94 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted specific modes. the landscape is immensely varied in its configurations. (Incidentally.147 and the notion of the labyrinth: My preferred road is that. Work and pleasure are not opposed since there is pleasure in work. or through the four sides of the long windows. as if I were seeing them through the lenses of a magic lantern.149 Thus. This countryside is specifically agricultural. which. Special to this account is the significance given to work.150 It is thus a landscape ‘with its rural life’ in which work takes place. I stop to contemplate from afar the work of the fishermen. which are also a source of pleasure in that their inhabitants experience this formal and sensual variety and multiplicity. The landscapes are thus populated by farmers. will contemplate it. It would seem very much in this spirit that Le Corbusier describes the rural landscape which surrounds the Villa Savoye and its architectural promenade. brings me to a small meadow surrounded by olive trees [ . work in the form of hard labour figures in them—work that is exhausting and exemplary. a full eight years before their transcriptions). Bertola’s landscapes are not simply pastoral landscapes populated by idyllic shepherds and shepherdesses. Their home life will be set in a Virgilian dream. such as the notion of ‘the agreeable surprise which arises when the pleasurable is reached through the terrible’.

Le Corbusier’s Poem of the Right Angle (Figs 37. the architectural promenade is an initiatory voyage of symbolic work.) apparently opposed notions of the constant beauty of the historical past and the beauties of modernist change through the notion of work as progress. and fire and water—saturate space. photograph. ‘La route d’eau’ and ‘La route d’air’ in Sur Les Quatre Routes (Fig 36). along which emblematic elements—darkness and light. About this right-angle. which is the Freemasonic symbol of droiture (righteousness). ‘La route de fer’. air and earth.) Figure 37. G. Indeed. the circuitous journey of this essay brings us back to our initial question about the architectural promenade. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. Le Poeme de l’Angle Droit. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. finally.153 These too are the very symbolic themes ` of Le Poeme de l’Angle Droit. 38) proclaims that: It is the answer and the guide the fact . itself located over those two key Freemasonic symbols of the right-angle and the compass. Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut.3.95 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 36. # the author. which finishes on the image of a hand drawing a right-angle. Le ` Corbusier. architecture and landscape. Le Corbusier. Ronchamp: the sound of church-bells next to the architectural promenade. Encompassing interior and exterior space. such elements were explored by Le Corbusier in ‘La route de terre’.152 And so.

. esoteric. . (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. . . used in an operation which is abstract. skilled in the play of geometry. that Le Poeme de l’Angle Droit was ‘not only the foundation of my being but also the very foundation of my architecture ` and of my art. Pythagorean. It is again this concern and belief in the symbolism of the compass and the right angle that we find in the closing pages of Le Modulor: The curse of architecture are the compasses . to determine. able to execute. indifferent to measures and dimensions. an imprisoning circle or a projection towards infinity. hallmark of balance and stability.. The compasses of the geometrician. perceptible surfaces between four walls. and so forth. [ . The Villa Favre-Jacot. like that of CharlesEdouard Jeanneret’s own architecture at the Villa . # the author. [ . .’ 155 Le Poeme de l’Angle Droit now brings me back again to the Freemasonic ` architecture of Robert Belli and of Eugene Schaltenbrand. . without life. ] But there are also other compasses. I call it spirit under the sign of the set-square . long-standing family ` friend.154 And Le Corbusier explained in a letter to his intimate. without bones or flesh.) an answer a choice [. . those of ˆ Pierre du Craon. opening the door to the boundless and perilous joys of symbols and metaphysics. photograph. sometimes the temptation to escape. A dangerous tool. I would classify the results in this way: The spirit of geometry produces tangible shapes. of the Beaux Arts. sometimes bringing a solution.. at will. to conjure up between their points. The Journal of La Grande Loge Suisse Alpina: Freemasonic symbols of the right-angle and the acute angle. the right angle. . CharlesEdouard Jeanneret. Chaux-de-fonnier.] It is the answer and the guide the fact my answer my choice. ] The compasses (not those on the fiftyfranc note!) explain all that is limitless. . which. making no distinction between a metre and a hundred metres and a kilometre. expressions of architectural realities: upright walls. depending on the nature of the spirit that guides the hand. . Marcel Levaillant.96 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 38. Figure 39. without blood.

the Villa Schwob. To whom then might this ‘FF’ have been addressed? Would anyone of any significance have understood this clandestine language? Would this have been meaningful to anyone of any importance? Would. with which we started our journey. could this provide us with an answer to the mystery. the ‘FF’. 44. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS/Fonds Le Corbusier.’156 And so. # the author. ¸ which. photograph. Villa Jeanneret-Perret and Villa Schwob (Figs 39. too. on the enamelled doors that greet the pilgrims to the chapel of Ronchamp at the end both of their voyage and of the architectural promenade. of course. for example.) Favre-Jacot. unadorned. photograph. # the author. and which Le Corbusier repeated in his explanatory sketchbook about Ronchamp? Because the ritual Freemasonic form ` of address is precisely ‘Mes Freres Franc-macons’. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. ` Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds. CharlesEdouard Jeanneret. recalls the moral architecture of Freemasonry: classicising. is an architecture with a moral mission to ‘work together for human progress by first seeking one’s own personal moral improvement . or the riddle. in Freemasonic language. 45).) Figure 42. It. .) Figure 41. the case for Le Corbusier’s Modernism after 1917 . (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS.97 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 40. that is. intensely symbolic in its iconography—volumetrically cubical and surmounted by symbolic elements on the roof— and intensely ritualistic in its circulatory system. . Villa Savoye: the start to the architectural promenade in the entrance hall with symbolic objects of purification. (Figs 42. Le Corbusier. as is. is written as ‘FF’. to the puzzle of the iconography of the double ‘F’. the patron who was instrumental in obtaining the Ronchamp commission for Le . . the Villa Jeanneret-Perret. . 43. But this raises another question. 40. by its peculiar volumetric simplicity. 41). CharlesEdouard Jeanneret.

Couturier. when ‘some presumed Jewish-FreemasonicBolshevik conspiracy [was] a favourite mantra of ´ the French Right’. Le Corbusier. spoke out against this in his letters to right-wing members of his family.) Corbusier. have understood the significance of this ‘FF’? This patron was the Dominican priest. Le Corbusier. who was then in Canada.157 the Vichy regime of Marshal ´ Petain actively and successfully sought out Jews. Villa Savoye: the architectural promenade with figure from the film L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui. ‘Jews and Freemasons have provided us with exem` plars—a frank contribution. for example. Socialists and Communists for deportation to Nazi concentration camps. as well as eventually the commission for La Tourette.’ 159 Pere Marie-Alain Couturier would thus have fully understood the . ` Pere Marie-Alain Couturier. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. Villa Savoye: the culmination of the architectural promenade with the window unto the sky. photograph.98 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 43. Villa Savoye: the combination of geometry and sensual experience in the bathroom. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. Freemasons.) Figure 45. photograph. # the author. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS.) Figure 44. # the author. During World War Two. Le Corbusier. in which he reacted ‘vehemently to the dissolution of the Masonic loges’158 and wrote.

But then I think it was also the Bauhaus at its richest. however. But this is another story that takes me well beyond the scope of this essay and beyond the discussion of the architectural promenade. 11th July. Juan Gris’ doctor. wrote that Itten ‘represents the Bauhaus at its darkest.164 The name of Amedee Ozenfant also appears in the Masonic archives. on the one hand. as it seemed to me. rather. In fact . ´ ‘La pensee maconnique/compagnonnique’ ¸ Joseph Rykwert. after several apparent digressions. in order finally.99 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 emotional reference of the ‘FF’ on the enamelled pilgrimage door of Ronchamp as a mark of that ‘essential dualism in French national identity’ 160 between. who felt that I was trying to denigrate the holy house. (# Fondation Le Corbusier/DACS. on the other hand. 1948. sometimes even avant-garde. socialist republicanism (Fig. and one of ´ the three founders of L’Esprit Nouveau. archconservative Catholicism— against which Trouin and Le Corbusier had also had to struggle at the unrealised project for La Sainte-Baume. And so on . Rene Allendy. Dinner of ` Pere Couturier. Freemason.162 This.) essay. just as the mediaeval bishops had no idea about the symbols of the builders of cathedrals”’ 161—with its reaction against modern art and architecture. has unintentionally brought me to an entirely different part of the story: the story that developed after Charles-Edouard Jeanneret’s departure from La Chaux-de-Fonds. or. and. in a lecture on Johannes Itten. Juan Gris’ Masonic application was sup´ ported by Paul Dermee. to move towards a conclusion. and Freemason and sponsor of Juan Gris to La Loge Voltaire. These associations are intricate and multiple. forwardlooking.163 Rene Allendy was also the author of La Symbolique des ´ ´ nombres of 1921. Le Corbusier and Yvonne Gallis at rue Nungesseret-Coli. ‘Corbu whispered to me “They have no idea what we are planning. namely that: This. 46). .’ 165 I place this essay under the protective aegis of Rykwert’s quotation. according to Trouin. where. and the story of the Freemasonic links of many of his Parisian friends and associates. unexceptionable contribution to the history of the Bauhaus provoked the ¨ fury of a number of Bauhausler. . was a friend of Le Corbusier—inscribed copies of his books are in Le Corbusier’s library—as well as a ´ regular contributor to L’Esprit Nouveau. and which must therefore remain beyond the scope of this Figure 46. of what he added subsequently to the published version of his lecture.

on the other hand. As soon as he erects an architectural form in space.-Hood”. This was well understood by Le Corbusier’s faithful chef ´ d’atelier. 47). Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s Parisian networks included members of the institutional inheritors of the mediaeval guilds. Concepts such as la promenade architecturale remain today part of our architectural heritage— and therefore need our careful consideration. explain how: Little by little. Le Corbusier has sketched diagrams of geometrical figures throughout. mediaeval masons and their guilds (socalled operative masons) and. Freemasons (so-called speculative masons). in the Loges.171 Here. that of Le Corbusier.166 My topic here has been another holy one. .170 which Jean Gimpel has inscribed to him. of non-operative masons. ˆ In his copy of Jean Gimpel’s Les Batisseurs de ´ Cathedrales of 1958. after his definitive departure for Paris in 1917. All his realised buildings. Le Corbusier’s Le Modulor was written in dialogue with ClaudiusPetit. But what really characterises his work is that not a single figure is devoid of meaning. The right angle is not just a form of geometry. He read it very carefully. ] You not only instruct . One ´ of his most prestigious commissions. Eugene Claudius-Petit.’ 172 Claudius-Petit. . he extensively underlined entire sentences on two specific pages: those two specific pages. 1952 at La ´ Soiree du Compagnonnage du Devoir at the Palais de Chaillot. And. Le Corbusier is making a note of the historical/mythical relationships between. describing the history and traditions of Freemasonry (Fig. which. Le Corbusier himself recalls how the Modulor was devised while crossing the Atlantic in the company of Claudius-Petit aboard the ‘cargo ship “Vernon S. and he explained that ‘Compagnonnage is still alive. post-war Minister of Reconstruction and Urbanism. the proportion of manual workers diminished in favour of cultured members. addressed the guilds at a dinner on 29th January. and the awareness on the part of some of its masters of the deeper issues touched—had been rather to underline its importance beyond ´ the cliches of the hand-books. on the one hand. indeed. . in addition. Architect of the Century 167 and of the Swiss cultural context that was then specific to La Chaux-de-Fonds. he charges it with significant meaning. . One can consider that the history of the builders of English cathedrals finished with the formation of the Grand Lodge in London in 1717. all his unrealised projects are witnesses to this fact.100 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted my intention—in showing its diversity and richness. the Unite d’habitation in Marseilles.168 And this topic of potential meanings brings me to an inscription by Le Corbusier—what Charles Saunders Peirce would have called ‘a trace’169—from which derive two crucial features of such architectural concepts as the architectural promenade (which is here under revision) and ineffable space (which is here but cursorily mentioned). It is then that speculative freemasonry really developed . came from a Compag` non. the Compagnonnages. [ . And. He spoke of the historical importance of Compagnonnage. Andre Wogenscky in his reflections on the possible meaning of Le Corbusier’s work: The right angle is the foundation of his architectural thought. but a symbol.

because. of which an inscribed copy for Le Corbusier is in his personal library.101 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 47. I bought it in order to learn.174 Indeed. Les ˆ Batisseurs de ´ Cathedrales.) good manual workers. (# Fondation Le Corbusier. pp. in this book. 1908. Antoine Moles. La Sainte-Baume is a focal point of the initiatory voyage through France of the Compagnons. accomplished individuals. annotations in Jean Gimpel. you educate human beings. Perret. who are. Moles reproduces an illustration from Viollet-le-Duc—the very book in which the young Jeanneret had written ‘I bought this work August 1. Le Corbusier. a master carpenter who knew Le Corbusier. dedicated to La Sainte Baume a chapter of his Histoire des charpentiers. . 180 – 181. Le Tour de France. in addition. with the money from my first payment from Messrs.’173 Another powerful individual in Le Corbusier’s networks who was close to the Compagnonnages was Raoul Dautry. And then there is Le Corbusier’s passionate involvement in the unrealised project for La Sainte-Baume though his close friendship with Edouard Trouin.

Now. eighteen are accepted. built and unbuilt projects in Le ` Corbusier’s Œuvre Complete. . We are asked. ] By then. the Tour de France. Upon our corroboration. A few moments later. Viollet-leDuc. white curtains are hung to hide from our eyes what only the Compagnons are allowed to see. this spiritual dimension—which allows being and doing according to an ‘other’ way—is first of all lived as part of everyday experience within the community of the Compagnons du Devoir. as described in the account by one Compagnon. and a spiritual dimension to their sociability: For the Compagnonnage. We have no idea where we are going. . Around the room. Abel Boyer: Each one of us is summoned in turn. surrounded by an awsome silence. we are wandering through the foggy streets of this December night. This human dimension is necessarily to be ‘constructed’ and lived in the course of their voyage on the highways and byways around France. but also later in their professional and domestic lives. we await anxiously the verdicts. as well as in their duties and responsibilities within civic society. we will never know. Dictionnaire ´ raisonne de l’architecture francaise ¸ ` du XIe au XVIe siecle: Compagnon with his ritual symbols. if we wish to be received Compagnons. the Compagnons travel from one cayenne (the local quarters of the guilds) to another. during this period. but is also lived as part of the personal quest along which each individual is led during their initiation. knowing. it must be at least midnight. but major. I will then be able to create’ 175—that features a Compagnon with the ritual symbols of his Compagnonnage (Fig.102 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 48. we are led into a room crowded with Compagnons. As can be briefly glimpsed from this small number of selected. a young Compagnon descends with the list of the selected. of twenty-four.176 Thus the notions and the realities of a ritual and initiatory voyage are central to Compagnonnage too. Facing us. This voyage is a key element in how the Compagnonnages bring a spiritual vision to their skills and organisation. Compagnonnage appears to be of critical significance. Will we die? Will we be . during their ritual voyage around France. we are told to deposit the products of our work. At last. which are accepted on a white cloth. We felt as if we were sinking into the earth: it is the symbol of death. Where we have been led. and other places. [ . I am on the list. 48). three Compagnons preside at a table covered in white.

. on the one hand. However. . ¸ initiation. etcetera). but it will now import to honour this name.177 Another account describes how: It was Friday evening. seduced us. which was of great significance to Le Corbusier and to his family. ` flocked to la Mere (the Motherhouse). and reminding him that there is still time to withdraw in view of the imminent moment at which he is to undergo major trials and be exposed to great dangers. when. . At last. scanning with elation the verses of la Gloire in such a way that window-shutters half-opened as we passed. the rising sun finds us at the foot of a baptistery and my sponsors have agreed to the name that I chose a long time ago. [they] will lead him by the hand around la Chambre (the Room) while on his knees! Then he will arise and the compagnons will perform the trials following the traditional customs. the right angle. the criss-crossing and overlapping freemasonic/guild networks of Le Corbusier in Paris. because it nuances the empirical discoveries that have been described here. . In so doing. Then. the Compagnons led us back to the Motherhouse. the storm has lulled. all the while keeping silent under threat of the usual fines. and to the Compagnonnages in France. [ . it would be necessary eventually to be recognised as such in one of the five chief cayennes (lodges). And this can best be done through a consideration of the significance of a particular form of associative thinking to be found in Rabelais. . the hide on my scalp reminded me that not playing straight with Compagnons is not a good idea. . Vices have assailed us. we have been purified. the ´ ways in which a pensee maconnique/compagnonni¸ ` que permeates Le Corbusier’s Œuvre Complete in Paris after 1917 must necessarily be brushed aside in this essay. Bad luck to those who yield. No longer were we Candidates. One last point must be made about these relationships between. on the other hand. which needs to be briefly analysed before finally concluding. then the ˆ Roleur (leader) will guide the newly accepted candidate to another room without light and while still blindfolded . they also share fundamental iconographic symbolism (the compass. And to achieve accomplishment. All candidates from the province who wanted to undergo their professional tests and solicit the title of Compagnon. to Freemasonry in La Chaux-deFonds. . [ . over two weeks. the Freemasonic culture of Jeanneret’s networks in La Chaux-deFonds and. from deep inside the woods.103 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 born again? Yes. we felt like new beings. inquiring of the candidate if he has fully reflected on what he was about to undergo.178 ´ Thus. And the clocks have struck midnight. courage is needed. . if we are worthy. . But they share another important feature: a particular form of associative thinking. which has specifically set as its focus the period 1887 –1917 in La Chaux-de-Fonds. For the experience of rebirth. ] . tempted us. symbolic work. We have seen how Compagnons and Francmacons share fundamental concepts (voyage. . which impacts on the final conclusion of this essay. the initiation maconnique and the reception ¸ compagnonnique mirror each other. ] And. we were Accepted Compagnons though not yet Accomplished Compagnons. etcetera). .

Bowen argues that Rabelais preferred the values of ‘paradox. in Paris. In this respect. tire-larigot. argument. . La pensee maconnique/compagnonnique operates differently ¸ in its associative logic and its progressive dynamics. matamore. rodomont. an old lady given to religion of a sensible kind—it was the second half of the 19th century—. chided her nephews with words like these (L-C’s parents did ´ ´ much the same): ‘Beau tenebreux. On page 55. Le Corbusier recalled childhood memories of his family: Revealing details: the elder sister of L-C’s father. and ambiguity’185 to those values of the following century—symmetry. Josephin ´ Peladan. Humbert travelled to Paris in the hope of finding a publisher for his illustrated edition of Rabelais. Rabelais was associ´ ated with la pensee maconnique/compagnonnique. close friend of William Ritter. Barbara C. numbered H32.’ Some were from Cervantes. together with the deep reasons which had brought these peasant-craftsmen into contact with the masterpieces of earlier centuries.181 Le Corbusier himself read Rabelais at important moments in his life. enigma. Humbert included numerous symbols—the acute angle. 1954. They were lost and forgotten. In 1925. Le Corbusier wrote ‘Pilotis’. soulas et liesse . both in La Chaux-de-Fonds and in Paris. contradiction and divergence.’. etcetera—in his illustrations for Gargantua ´ by Rabelais (Fig. And. to Rabelais’ sentence ‘Le blanc doncques signifie joye.104 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted From this particular form of associative thinking will ´ evolve the notion of ‘pensee maconnique/ ¸ compagnonnique’.’. others from Rabelais . and had disappeared for good in the following generation. cocquasse (casserole). the right angle. turlupin. godelureau. fanfaron. maritorne.179 Rabelais played an ever-present and playful role in the family life of the young Charles-Edouard Jeanneret. Jeanneret’s long-standing and intimate confidant. . While. Le Corbusier noted ‘Blanc signification’. overlooking that the Middle Ages made use of drawing more than language boldly and resolutely to express its inner thoughts. Le Corbusier started a new sketchbook in April. and that many creations of the Renaissance belong to the fine arts and the decorative arts. me ` fier-a-bras. gringalet. fanfreluche. the pendulum. 49).180 Rabelais also played an important part in the life of his closest friends in La Chaux-de-Fonds.182 And it would seem that Le Corbusier identified with elements in Rabelais. where Rabelais ´ ´ writes ‘Qui a fonde pillotize . Rabelais uses ‘complexity. Towards the end of his life. .183 On page 718. order and balance—in order to disconcert the reader. Such words were no more than traces. antithesis. . sacripant. malandrin. during which he visited Le Corbusier on 28th and 29th January.184 ´ This brings me to the point in question. Architecture and heraldry are necessary in order to understand Rabelais. artaban. . ´ dor. judging from his annotations in his 1951 edition of Rabelais. made the explicit link between Rabelais and the Compagnonnages in his book about the mediaeval guilds: The literati swear and judge by the printed word only. in which he copied parts of Book Five of Rabelais’ Gargantua et Pangagruel. resulting in a state of questioning and of reflection.’ 186 Bakhtine also describes the structure of Rabelais’ language in the following terms: . When working on the design for Ronchamp. . ¸ In La Chaux-de-Fonds.

La-Chauxde-Fonds: inside front cover. (Humbert catalogue ´ from the Musee des Beaux-Arts. in the collection ` of the Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-deFonds. Charles Humbert.105 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 49. illustration for Gargantua by Rabelais.) .

one small and curious. it would thus seem that ‘symbolic work’. multiplicity and multivalency. . On the ground floor of 20. indeed takes on other levels of ´ meaning. farcical coronations and dethronements . with the awareness of the joyous relativity of truth and of authority. rue Jacob in 1917. replacing the usual terms for colours by words from slang. and not one of narrative and pictoriality. is very precisely wrong in his classic article ‘A Picturesque Stroll around Clara-Clara’ where he writes that ‘Le Corbusier. rue Jacob lived Natalie Clifford Barney who held lavish parties for up to one hundred people and then. as in ‘an upside-down world’. . . . is now elevated to the status of one of the highest imperatives. but a structural principle that specifically allows. jaws become red. the dynamics of which were described to me by a contemporary member ´ of La Loge L’Amitie as ‘for example. again takes up the idea of the picturesque. where he lived until he moved in 1934 to the flat in rue Nungesser-et-Coli that he himself designed. other influences and ¨ imports. . can nest within its overall structure as substructures. These are indissociable aspects of the voyage as described in Les Trois Voyages. and standard images by their symbolic content. 193 Yve-Alain Bois. as his vocabulary shows. and tries to imagine what a picturesque architecture might be. [. such as Camillo Sitte or Rodolphe Topfer. One plays on words as in Rabelais.’188 As stated previously. last concluding detail links directly back to La Loge ´ L’Amitie in La Chaux-de-Fonds.’ 194 Indeed. In Paris. Carnivalesque language is predominantly marked by the novel logic of things that are ‘reversed’. (The logic of such a hermeneutic system is neither one of copying nor of modernist originality but ´ more akin to the Beaux-Arts notion of emulation. it is a question of a modern picturesque [of movement].106 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted This is why all forms and symbols of carnivalesque language are imbued with the lyricism of alternation and renewal. profanations. of continuous permutations between above and beneath ([the symbolism of] ‘the wheel’). ‘contradictory’. of the most diverse parodies and disguises.189 And in Le ` Cinquieme Livre. but irresistible. Le Corbusier read Rabelais at important moments in ` his life. . But with him.190 Rabelais specifically refers to a different architectural tradition—the tradition of Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphilii.192 including for such fundamental architectural concepts as la promenade architecturale. with Le Corbusier it is precisely both a question of movement and of narrative and pictoriality.195) Now. as with Serra.’191 Endings and beginnings To conclude. for example. the most abject of all prohibitions. between front and back. ´ A pensee maconnique/compagnonnique is not ¸ excluding. therefore. finally. well beyond ‘the cliches of the handbooks’. Thus.] etc.187 We are thus within an entirely different logic of language and of association. denigrations. Jeanneret moved into a flat at 20. Thus. . of which Liane Lefaivre writes that ‘Libido. A ´ pensee maconnique/compagnonnique is not an ¸ excluding category. but exclusive through its very inclusiveness. It was expressly Rabelais’ Le Cinquieme Livre that Le Corbusier quoted in My Work. indeed encourages. through the associative ‘carnival´ esque’ multivalency of its pensee maconnique/ ¸ compagnonnique.

Bernard Berenson. Gertrude Stein. did spend time at his windows. Jeanneret could not have been unaware of all this. editors.196 Natalie Barney did not just entertain on a wild and lavish scale. Paul Valery. developed her famous literary salon every Friday evening. in the evening. Bernard Grasset. happening in the courtyard of his block of flats. Jeanneret wrote that he particularly enjoyed the association between 20. those blackbirds in spring. booksellers. Anatole France. in which he described how: A young Italian woman with a prima donna voice in the dormer-window of the building next to mine pours over Adrienne’s gardens the outburst of a solitary soul. rue Jacob. beneath his windows (Fig. Just like that. rue Jacob and Adrienne Lecouvreur. her absolutely desperate song mixed in joyous relief with the sounds of nature. as is attested by a letter to William Ritter. publishers. critics and intellectuals such as Jean ´ Cocteau. ´ Remy de Gourmont. of thunder and the spatter of rain on leaves. attended by writers. 1909 onwards to the 1960s. filling the sky with their calls. those larks in summer. Max Jacob. . like those nightingales. Natalie Clifford Barney and theatrical performance in the gardens of 20. He.197 About his address. the most distinctive feature of the property she [Natalie Clifford Barney] rented is a small Doric temple tucked away in a corner of the garden. she arranged events such as extraordinary theatrical performances. On a day of violent storms. etcetera. Now. Colette. Isadora Duncan. 50).) from October.107 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 50. indeed. Andre Gide. ´ Rilke. (# La ` ´ Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques Doucet.

. 20. . (# Fondation Le Corbusier/Fonds William Ritter. in the garden is the little temple built for her by Maurice de Saxe. Archives ´ litteraires suisses.108 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted Figure 51. who was the idol of eighteenth century Paris and the love of some of its greatest men. probably poisoned by a jealous rival. indeed. . what a stroke of luck! You can see how I am trumpeting it! (Figs 51. ` Bibliotheque nationale Suisse. letter to William Ritter. a memory of . . . 53. CharlesEdouard Jeanneret.) 199 Was the move. 26th January. . . Berne. upon his arrival in Paris.) There are all sorts of legends about this temple. 52. 1917: drawing of the entrance courtyard at 20. 198 And. What a coincidence. Jeanneret wrote that his flat was . . [. rue Jacob (private address).. rue Jacob. in the gardens of which was a small presumed Masonic ` eighteenth century temple with the inscription A ´ L’Amitie written large on its pediment. chiefly centering on the great actress Adrienne Lecouvreur. in what was the residence of Adrienne Lecouvreur. in other words. and who died young under mysterious circumstances. into a flat.] The inscription on its pediment dedi` ´ cates the temple A L’Amitie . in a letter to his friend William Ritter.

when entering the entrance hall of Le Corbusier’s flat at 24. The ` Œuvre Complete would suggest that it was more than mere memory and sentimental reminder: more than a trace of the past. Le Temple A ´ L’Amitie (lithograph). rue Jacob. Natalie Barney in front of the ` ´ temple A L’Amitie in the gardens of 20. ´ Figure 53.’200 Perhaps it is not surprising that. rue de la Loge. rue Nungesser-et-Coli. it was an index to the future. according to Le Corbusier . that ‘It is here that the visitor’s “initiation ceremony” begins. Andre ` Rouveyre. Jacques Sbriglio suggests. Indeed. an icon of his concept of modernist architectural space and a symbol of its Freemasonic reserves. the view from his own father’s workshop at 6. and a sentimental reminder of La Loge ´ L’Amitie and his past life in La Chaux-de-Fonds? ` The Œuvre Complete would suggest not.109 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 Figure 52.

The Necessity of Artifice (London. 54. 1954 [1923]). I have had a very helpful correspondence with JeanPierre Bayard. New World of Space (New York. 44 –49. Editions Girsberger. their collection of Swiss and French books has been invaluable to me. Isaiah Berlin. 44. p. Etlin. I would also like to thank the librarians at the United Grand Lodge of England who have also been incredibly helpful. Reynal & Hitchcock. 1948). The Institute of Contemporary Art. 1994). Jonathan Gine and Francois ¸ Rognon. (No one seems to have been so close and yet so far from potentially understanding Le Corbusier as Vidler when one compares. I would like to thank H. including Michel Ditisheim. Two Studies in the History of Ideas (London. I am grateful to my colleagues at The Bartlett for both critically questioning me and sustaining me on those days when a researcher wonders where to locate the margins between fact and fiction. ‘Ineffable Space’. I take the expression ‘beyond the cliches of the handbooks’ from Joseph Rykwert. The MIT Press. 7 –9. 6. Sylvie Beguelin and Catherine Cortesy. rue Jacob to 24. Irene Mainguy. 121. is part of the constructive process of research: this endeavour could not have been achieved without their invaluable and impressive prior work. ‘The Dark Side of the Bauhaus’. the librarians in my favourite reading room at the British Library have also been very helpful. Nor would it have been possible without the help of Michel Cugnet. Maurice Favre has been of invaluable assistance and I thank him and Madame Favre for their kindness. as has Rebecca Patterson at the Ruskin Reading Room at Lancaster University. np.201 Acknowledgements This research would not have been possible without the immense help of the librarians in La Chaux-de´ ´ Fonds. pp. Pierre Zurcher. Pierre ` ´ Mollier. The Hogarth Press. Presses de la Coopi. Architecture. At UCL. Une petite maison (Zurich. in Le Corbusier. 4. p. Richard A. 2000). Mogens Krustrup. 3. and of Arnaud Dercelles at the Fondation Le Corbusier in Paris. I am grateful to Marion Sadoux for her help with translations. Academy Editions. as indeed is the case for Richard Etlin. Vico and Herder. Madame Verne at the Librairie du Compagnonnage in Paris has also been extremely helpful. 29. 5. 1982). and Anxiety in Modern Culture (Cambridge. Boston. Porte Email: Emaljeporten. As always. I would like to thank many others for their help. 72. pp. I would like to thank Paul Kenny and Judi Loach who have discussed the text with me. 7. 154. p. p. ’the missing sketchbooks from the period before 1934 “had disappeared” during his move from 20. rue Nungesser-et-Coli’. p.. Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The romantic legacy (Manchester and New York. Le Corbusier. on the one hand. in Joseph Rykwert. and also with Laurent Bastard at the ´ Musee du Compagnonnage in Tours. Manchester University Press. for which I thank them. See also Le Corbusier. Textes et dessins pour Ronchamp (Geneva. Mass. his meticulous research on eighteenth . Allen Brooks for his encouragement.110 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted himself. the final mistakes being entirely my own. Arkitektens Forlag. 2. Le Corbusier. any critique of his research. 8. 1981). p. The Enamel Door: Le Corbusier Palais de ´ l’Assemblee de Chandigarh (Copenhagen. Warped Space: Art. 1991). 1976). Anthony Vidler. p. Notes and references ´ 1. La Porte ´ Emaillee.

p. Mass. century Freemasonic routes [see beneath] and.111 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 8. Kenneth C. p 106. One such is Anthony Vidler’s interpretation of Le Corbusier’s use of Choisy’s notion of pittoresque as ‘the final conjunction of architectural and filmic modernism. Hall & Co. 1998). 109 (June. 352. cit. 10. 31. namely that Le Corbusier’s ineffable space is not the paranoid/ warped space that Vidler associates it with and therefore not Kandinsky’s notion of ‘a terrifying abyss’ (Daniel Naegele. Lindsay and Peter Vargo (Boston. pp. 14. Editions Cres. 409. A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Aura: Le Corbusier and the Architecture of Photography’. op.’ Anthony Vidler. see Judi Loach. parties dissymetriques. without substantial empirical evidence and presented in a somewhat throw-away manner. 185 –216. Towards a new architecture (London. Allen Brooks. 15. p 105. 1946 [Vers une architecture. Studies in the History of Landscape Architecture (Cambridge. 547. 369–370. John Dixon Hunt. . It would seem from Le Corbusier’s Une petite maison (1923). 1997)... Editeur. the rhythmic dance of Le Corbusier’s spectator (modelled no doubt on the movements of Jacques Dalcroze) anticipating the movement of Eisenstein’s shots and montages. In this respect. For a further discussion of Jeanneret’s use of Choisy. No. cit. op. p.) Richard A. pp. ‘Reminiscences’. The MIT Press. See Auguste Choisy. and Anxiety in Modern Culture.. 18. 419. 1982 [1913]). 19. mais chaque groupe est traite comme un paysage ` ` ou les masses seules se ponderent’. ´ ´ ‘. p. p. p. 1899). Harvard Design Magazine No. K. Other interpretations exist. quoted in Walter-Hanno Kruft. 17.. . cit. 13. Histoire de l’architecture. Le Corbusier. Daniel Naegele argues the exact opposite. Histoire de l’architecture (Paris. p. on the other hand. p. Field and F. eds. Autumn. his dismissive comment on Le Corbusier’s secrecy as ‘contempt’ in Warped Space: Art. Special Edition on Science and the Visual. op. The Architectural ´ ` Press. Le Corbusier’s Formative Years: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Chicago and London.. 1923]). the University of Chicago Press. .) ` ´ ‘Chaque motif d’architecture pris a part est symmetri´ que. 288. that limitless space of the ‘terrifying abyss’ kind is not at all what Le Corbusier was interested in.. being its retrospective application to a landscape of rock contour-levels on the Acropolis in the fifth century BC. (Translations are mine unless otherwise credited. British Journal for the History of Science. . in Wassily Kandinsky. J. Richard A. pp. Architecture. 11. cit. see Wassily Kandinsky. Volume One (1901–1921).eds. Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The romantic legacy (1994). 12. note 145 (Kruft’s translation). James. V. J. Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The romantic legacy. cit. Auguste Choisy. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press. 145. op. p. Etlin. Walter-Hanno Kruft. 16. ‘Le Corbusier and the creative use of Mathematics’. Gardens and the Picturesque. ´ ´ ‘..121.. 6. 1992). Kruft also fails to note that Choisy’s example would concern a totally ahistorical case of the application of the eighteenth-century concept of British landscape architecture. . A. Complete Writings on Art. 1997). 99. ibid. p.. ponderation des masses’. L. Etlin. cit. op. A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present (London/London and New York. op. Vol. Yale University Press. G. les traces regulateurs—(la preuve: Choisy)’ (Le ` Corbusier. but brief. 9. Paris. Image. ´ Edouard Rouveyre.. H. The Final Testament of Pere Corbu [translation of Mise au point] (New Haven and Yale. 54. 1 –6). 1994). cit. ‘Object. op. Ibid. undeveloped. 1998.

(1904). ` L’Art des jardins (Paris.. op. pp. 99. Le Corbusier. Jeanneret was an instrumental reader. 1739). BTSR. 23. 1919). revolving around notions of Heimatschutz. ‘Talking and Understanding’. Etlin. pp. In this respect. 1900). 1885). La theorie et la pratique du jardinage. Catalogue de la Bibliotheque de La Chaux-de-Fonds (La Chaux-de-Fonds. No. I do not assume. Uttering. cit. Muttering: Collecting. pp. where Gottfried Semper was professor of architecture. Les ` ` Jardins en France des origines a la fin du XVIIIe siecle ´ (Paris. Imprimerie du National Suisse. Bibliotheque de l’enseignement des beaux-arts. SSRC Publications (1975). Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The romantic legacy. File B2-20. as some historians do. And issues of Swiss identity and nationalism. being in Suisse Romande. in C. op. which crisscross and overlap. Poilly. The emphasis is firmly on the French garden. 30. Nationalisme et Internationalisme dans l’Architecture ´ Moderne de la Suisse (Lausanne. Dezallier d’Argenville’s La theorie et la pratique du jardinage. At this point in time. Imprimerie du National ` Suisse. Hotel de Sully. 1772). See J. see ´ ˆ Claude Malecot. Monuments eriges en ` France a la gloire de Louis XV. For a discussion of Melley. 110 – 118. focusing on tasks to be performed. Recueil des plus belles vues des maison royales de France (Paris. In this respect. the argument of this essay implies that the very notion of pittoresque operative in La Chaux-de-Fonds was different from other parts of Switzerland. J. that is. The situation was slightly more complex since the new Polytechnikum in Zurich. represented for example by the article ‘Moderne style et traditions locales’ by Charles ´ ´ Melley. 16. p. 72 – 75).112 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 20.-J. D.. No. 30 –46.A. role in La Chaux-de-Fonds. also played a significant. ed. Dezallier d’Argen´ ville. Pierre Patte. were involved too. Longuet. ´ ´ Jusson. Vol. Henri Stein. p. See Catalogue de la Bibliotheque de La Chaux-deFonds (La Chaux-de-Fonds. For a discussion of this. ‘School versus pop culture? A case study of adolescent adaptation’. For Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s drawings. ou l’on ` ´ ´ traite a fond des beaux jardins appeles communement ´ les jardins de plaisance. 1660). are all and entirely in the French language. architect and teacher at the Ecole d’ingenieurs in Lausanne: Charles Melley. In any ¨ case. cit. See Georges Riat. using and reporting talk for social and educational research. see Jacques Gubler. 13 –23. that each period has a single cultural context. ‘Les Jardins’. A. the libraries in La Chaux-de-Fonds. he was working on urban issues. ` Henri Stein’s Les jardins en France de l’origine a la fin ´ ` ´ du XVIIIe siecle. see Fondation Le Corbusier. Each period has many cultural contexts. pp. 1988). Editions L’Age . in Hotel de Sully. Adelman. Jeanneret’s meticulous and extended research in the ` Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliotheque Nationale ` ` and in the Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve into the history and theory of gardens and of landscape architecture—through Georges Riat’s L’Art des jardins. Birksted. Gabriel Perelle. Richard A. 52. but less visible. 21. 2. Research in Education. Towards a New Architecture. ‘“Modern style” et traditions locales’. 24. et de proprete (La Haye. Birksted. c. 22. and which the individual human actors therefore manipulate and activate according to the situations involved. not a single drawing of any garden or landscape associated with the notion of the picturesque. c.. 26. et suivis d’un choix ´ ´ des principaux projets qui ont ete proposes pour ´ placer la statue du roi dans les differents quartiers de Paris (Paris. ` 25. Gabriel Perelle’s engravings—shows not a single drawing of an English landscape garden. Pierre Patte’s Monuments ´ ´ ` eriges en France a la gloire de Louis XV. Le ˆ ´ ` ´ Corbusier: le passe a reaction poetique (Paris. 1913). Chez Lacombe.

Rapport du Comite sur l’Exercise de 1886–1887 29. M. Aubert et Cie. ´ Ch.. Manchester University Press. 1851). Art Nouveau and the vernacular Swiss pittoresque. Melley’s notion of pittoresque was backwards oriented. Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. Imprimerie du National Suisse. presente encore les vieilles maison en bois. 5. vue de loin. Melley blamed Beaux-Arts traditions for the impoverishment of modernism because. 27. 109. therefore operating with a different notion of the value of international cosmopolitan industrialisation. les rues etroites et tortueuses ˆ des villes du moyen-age. titre qui n’est delivre ` ´ ` en France qu’a la suite d’examens severes. G. Le Brument. 34. By contrast. Matisse was later to join the Cours Yvon. Il sera certainement a la hauteur de son ` ´ enseignement et saura donner a l’Ecole une impulsion ´ ´ ´ ` feconde’:Ecole municipale d’arts appliques a l’indus´ trie. de l’Academie aux Quat’z’arts. ´ Editeur. without being able to replace it with anything else. 95. Melley blamed Art Nouveau for being foreign and therefore alien to Swiss values and traditions. Editeur. Cependant.. plusieurs distinctions. 105. The spectacle of NATURE: Landscape and bourgeois culture in nineteenth-century France (Manchester. 31. Ecole Nationale ´ Superieure des Beaux-Arts. Ibid. 35. nd. its internationalism and its cosmopolitanism. cit. p. which was incompatible with industrial building products and procedures. pp. only rural. S. (La Chaux-de-Fonds. J. Green also studies the context of travel guides and their emphasis on the pittoresque. Nicholas Green. historical and vernacular pittoresque was suitable. 1844). avec 72 vignettes sur bois dans le texte. Melley saw three architectures in ´ Switzerland: the tradition of the Ecole des BeauxArts. modernism simply deleted classical ornamentation. 1887).. Voyage historique et pittoresque du ` Havre a Rouen sur la Seine avec une carte des rives de la Seine et six gravures (Rouen. son talent de dessinateur. ´ Ch. J. op. les quais de ´ ´ cette grande et populeuse cite eminemment march- . after 1850). working within this tradition. A. S. for Melley. 38. For a description of the drawing classes of the Cours Yvon and of the architectural classes of Julien ´ Guadet at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 36. Chez Lecesne. l’interieur. See also in the Archives Nationales. . malgre ´ ´ les ameliorations successives qu’elle eprouve annuel´ lement. 37. Ibid. l’ont ´ ´ designe tout naturellement au choix de la Commission ´ ` d’education. entierement revue ´ ´ et completee (Paris. In this respect. 1990). and again he points out their metropolitan and commercial nature (see chapter ‘Guides to Fontainebleau’. p. the files AJ 52 879 about the Cours Yvon. Touchard-Lafosse. c’est ´ ´ une ville charmante. Jules Renouard et Cie. p. J. Morlent. V. D. ´ ´ Anthologie historique et litteraire (Paris.113 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 d’Homme. 96. 33. 30. Voyage historique et pittoresque du ` Havre a Rouen sur la Seine. Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. ‘. Thus. 32. La Chaux-de-Fonds was a town characterised by its industrialisation. ` 28. ‘L’aspect de Rouen est pittoresque et ravissant. M. 167 –181). Les cartes du parcours des chemins de fer et ´ un plan de Paris et ses environs orne de 18 vignettes ` et taille-douce. Ses apti´ tudes artistiques. ` ´ ´ ´ a etages surplombes. l’etude ´ approfondie qu’il a faite des styles decoratifs. 1975). Ibid. Les Beaux-Arts. cit. 2001). La Loire historique.. Nouvelle edition. ´ prix et medailles dans les concours en loge et le ˆ ´ ´ ´ diplome d’architecte de l’etat. des succes remarquables. see Annie ´ Jacques. pittoresque et ` biographique de la source de ce fleuve a son embou´ ´ chure dans l’ocean (Tours. p.. Morlent. op. V. J. D. . p.

en tirant d’une ´ ˆ boıte. du sulfate de soude. a deux pas. ` sur un bateau. p. est redevenu ˆ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ l’hotel de la Prefecture. cit. cit. op. D. sure. Jeanneret. 117. p. Gardens and the Picturesque: Studies in the History of Landscape Architecture. and Joris-Karl Huysmans. de savoir s’abstraire suffisamment pour amener ˆ l’hallucination et pouvoir substituer le reve de la ´ ´ ` ´ ´ ˆ realite a la realite meme’: Joris-Karl Huysmans. Against Nature [A Rebours. sont macadamises . Le tout est de savoir s’y prendre. de l’hydro´ chlorate de magnesie et de chaux.. 42. Sainte Lydwinet de Schiedam (Paris. 45 –47. sejour passager du Gouvernement provisoire et du maire de Paris. jardinier en chef. de savoir concentrer son esprit sur un seul point. architecte. La Chaux-de-Fonds. 126. en pleine Seine. ´ ´ Les Etrennes Helvetiques. ‘La Maison Suisse’. sur le pont Royal. p. ` LA BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE-GENEVIEVE. 1914). pp.. de Gisors. dont l’ancien ´ ´ ´ local tombait en ruine. op. LE JARDIN ¸ DU LUXEMBOURG a recu de splendides embellisse¸ ´ ments en decorations architecturales. Isabelle Kaiser. Plon. Almanach Illustre (Paris. cit.. le remous des ´ bateaux-mouches rasant le ponton des bains. et de M. 33 –39. accord de la technique et du paysage’: Jacques Gubler. L’Age d’Homme. Two books are in Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s library— ´ Joris-Karl Huysmans. imperieuse. qui decore la place du ´ ` ` ´ Pantheon. including the Heimatschutz . Felix Rey. .’ Ibid. et a ete decore de nouvelles ` statues qui completent sa riche facade. 1975). a ete remplace par un con´ ´ ´ struction elegante. Hardy. LES BOULEVARDS de la ´ ` rive droite..—Cette riche Bibliotheques est tres fre´ ´ quentee par la jeunesse laborieuse de nos Ecoles. 225 –226. Ibid. For a discussion of the general Swiss context. 117. La Loire historique. l’illusion de la mer est ´ ´ ˆ indeniable. A Rebours (Paris.114 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 39. La. 1 of ‘Introduction’. Touchard-Lafosse.-E. des ce moment. Plon. 48. 1915): this is signed Ch. en se laissant enfin bercer par les ` vagues que souleve. ’ (Ch.au bain Vigier. 41. ˆ ´ ‘L’HOTEL DE VILLE. 1884] (London.. ` 46. ‘. ‘. . ‘La Suisse Pittoresque’. ` ande s’achevent et s’embellissent. Paris 1909 and has annotations. Ibid. . p. La Cathedrale (Paris. S. qui y recoit. 43. en consultant une exacte photographie du casino et en lisant ardemment ´ ´ ` le guide Joanne decrivant les beautes de la plage ou ˆ l’on veut etre. Dijon. Fasquelle Editeurs. de la part de MM les conservateurs. p. pp. Jeanneret. le bassin de la Seine et le port de Rouen offrent un des aspects les plus majestueux qu’on puisse imaginer. ´ Guide pittoresque de l’etranger dans Paris et ses environs. ´ Penguin Books. pp. les anciennes ` ´ constructions font place a des edifices modernes ` ˆ de bon gout. ¸ l’accueil le plus hospitalier. selon un projet anterieur a la revolution ´ ´ de Fevrier. Ibid. situe. audessus de vous. pp. une pelote de ficelle ou un tout petit morceau de ˆ ´ ` cable qu’on est alle expres chercher dans l’une de ces grandes corderies dont les vastes magasins et les ´ sous-sols soufflent des odeurs de maree et de port. See Charles-Edouard Jeanneret. aussi. 40. en ecou´ tant enfin les plaintes du vent engouffre sous les arches ` et le bruit sourd des omnibus roulant. Editeurs. op. XXI –XXII). J. ´ Fischbacher & Cie. 47. .-E. en faisant saler ˆ l’eau de sa baignoire et en y melant. Nationalisme et Internationalisme dans l’Architecture Moderne de la Suisse (Lausanne. 49. Editeur. 1974 [1883]). en aspirant ces parfums que doit conserver encore ˆ cette ficelle ou ce bout de cable.. Librairie ´ ´ Generale. Huysmans. statues et jardins anglais.. 160. 2001).. G. See John Dixon Hunt.: see p. 1908): this is signed Ch. soigneusement fermee par un pas de vis. suivant la formule du Codex. . V. dans la: baignoire. 51. 45. Imprimerie Georges Dubois. sous l’habile direction de M. . ibid. 44. p. 22.

1965). see Jean Autret. Neuchatel and then Italy until his death so that perhaps too many complex cultural layers are superimposed. Bibliotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds). as can be ´ seen by Rene Chapallaz’s immediate purchase of several Ruskin books after his first meeting with ´ L’Eplattenier (see Rene Chapallaz Private Letters. his importance and role were played down by Jeanneret. The MIT Press. However. movement. p. Gubler himself writes that ‘l’accord de la technique ´ et du paysage. Ruskin. prostitution was rife. See H. These often daily meetings and discussions are documented in Charles Humbert’s Diaries (Private Collection. the Tree. after Jeanneret’s return from his apprenticeships with Auguste Perret in Paris (1908–1909) and with Peter Behrens in Berlin (1910–1911). and they criticise L’Eplattenier’s simplistic aesthetics and art practices. Et on s’imagine chez moi que je me putinise. 1977). and relates it to Max Bill and his work with the Swiss Tourist Board. To prove that sweeping and speculative statement with reference to La Chaux-de-Fonds. Allen Brooks.. 53. and the Open Hand’. First. ` ` chez eux. The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier (Cambridge. 51. Tintoret. op. This coincides with the inauguration of L’Eplattenier’s .. In this respect. op. la maison etant close. a quoi faire: a nous raconter toujours les ˆ ´ memes histoires: Cezanne. 1997). Paul V. and therefore does not fit in either with ‘touristogenic’ historicity. Diaries (Private collection in La Chaux-de-Fonds).115 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 50. cit. And my research supports the fact of L’Eplattenier’s reverent reading of Ruskin. However. 225– 226). Humbert’s archives are still largely in private hands. The accepted historical interpretation is that the reception of John Ruskin must be seen as mediated by Charles L’Eplattenier. Leopold Robert (1794–1835). Hodler. 55. cit. an industrial town. one could look at the work of ´ the romantic Chaux-de-fonnier painter. La Chaux-de-Fonds was a place of extreme wealth and extreme poverty and. the ‘pine tree style’. this trend existed well before that period. in Russell Walden. pupil of David. For a study of Ruskin’s reception in France. Secondly. with its population of destitute and/or seasonal labourers. pp. for example. 23rd December. 197. Humbert’s work is not as ‘historiogenic’ as L’Eplattenier’s because it does not fit in easily with simple historical periodisations such as. Librairie Droz. being a particularly influential person in Jeanneret’s life. 54. ‘Le Corbusier. se ´ trouve ainsi renoue’ (pp. Allen Brooks. quoted in H... Charles Humbert has hitherto been overlooked for several reasons. 353 –354. Thirdly. 52. ´ ` Fonds Rene Chapallaz. La Chaux-de-Fonds) and have been tabulated by the owner of the diaries to show their frequency. My research indicates that in La Chaux-de-Fonds. see ibid. 42–95. 1913. Le Corbusier’s Formative Years: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Chicago and London. They have fights with L’Eplattenier. as was always the case with the most important people. La formation ´ de Le Corbusier: Idealisme et Mouvement Moderne (Paris. Charles Humbert. John Dixon Hunt. Humbert and others begin to distance themselves from L’Eplattenier. Chicago University Press. Macula. Mary Patricia May Sekler. pp. ˆ Robert lived in Paris. Mass. que je vois des ou une garce. there follows the period when he. Gubler places the public perception of the overlap of modernity with alpine scenery in the 1930s. ‘Figurez-vous: il m’arrive d’aller le soir avec des amis. Titien. le style sapin. Ruskin and the French before Marcel Proust (Geneva. 1987). Art Nouveau.’ Letter from Charles-Edouard Jeanneret to William Ritter. who read Ruskin reverently. Je ´ ´ rentre passe minuit. ed. Turner. consacre par les traditions romantiques ´ ou preromantiques du sublime ou du pittoresque.

disagreements had developed between L’Eplattenier and his students. p. who notes.un de ces maıtres d’œuvres du Moyen Age‘: W. . 20e annee (Autumn. et en peignant il ne reconnaissait pour juges que ses ´ ˆ maıtres et ses pairs. ` ˆ ˆ ‘Jusqu’au XVe siecle. John Ruskin (Lausanne. op. is listed in subsequent and contemporary academic bibliographies as being the first major study of Ruskin in French.O. contradictoire. 18. No 78. he noted ‘Mr L’Eplattenier m’insulte et me reproche ma conduite ´ envers Mme Perrochet (Ch-E. 59.O. . A recent conference publication is Matthias Waschek. on the day after that.. The Scarecrow Press. Hall & Co. op. 1925). ‘. Frankfurter. c’est de spiritualite que parla Ruskin’: Charles´ Edouard Jeanneret. complexe. Deputy Curator of the Ruskin Library at Lancaster University. p. 58. 1986). John Ruskin: A Bibliography.. 1er Avril. . A Complete Bibliography of the Writings in Prose and Verse of John Ruskin LL. 60. cit. p. 2003). no. Relire Ruskin: Cycle de conferences organise au ´ ´ Musee du Louvre. Allen Brooks. 1900. T. diary of 3rd July.. Milsand’s book of 1864 57. he noted that ‘Le patron prend ´ une attitude meprisante envers Mlle Woog et moi. 1864 [reprinted for Dawsons of Pall Mall London. 2 volumes]. 134. Librairie Nouvelle. 61. . il appartenait a une con´ ` frerie qui avait ses secrets et formait un monde a part. L’Esthetique anglaise: ´ ´ Etude sur M. Matthey-Claudet quoted in Jacques Gubler. Ruskin himself read it and enjoyed it . Phaidon. which received a critical. Le Corbusier. Ecole ´ Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts et Le Louvre. . sometimes negative. p. quoted in Maurice Favre. 26th. ˆ ‘. Vincent Freal. 311). 134). Thomas J. ˆ ‘Apotre touffu. 62. . ´ ed. 18. Book No. les profanes ´ n’entrent pas’: Joseph Milsand. originally of 1864. mais comme artiste. for these detailed clarifications and references. il vivait ` dans une sorte de sanctuaire. G.D with a list of more important Ruskiniana (London. une œuvre de piete. no. ´ ´ 56. Beetz. H. paradoxal’ ibid. Nouvelle revue neu´ ˆ chateloise. Hommage a la Republique Neuˆ chateloise.. ´ Humbert noted in his diary of 3rd July. Joseph Antoine ´ ´ Milsand. ‘Les ´ Voix et leur epoque 1919–1920’. and a valuable one. ´ ‘. p. in the collection of the Bib´ ` liotheque de l’Ecole d’art de La Chaux-de-Fonds (Book No. Curtis. V. La . il ˆ ` disait. 1912 ‘Cause ´ ` ` avec le patron sur les dissentiments des eleves a son ´ egard. William J. Already from 1909. p. 1912. Joseph Antoine Milsand’s study of Ruskin. 1900–1974 (Metuchen. Ideas and Forms (London. il recevait par initiation les traditions de ses devanciers. 1893. p. Preface. printed for subscribers only. . is the one that Proust read (see Marcel Proust. New Jersey. 18. cit.’ See also Jean Autret. response. See also Kirk H. 69. events come to a head as he noted that ‘Le patron nous apprend sa demission’: Charles Humbert.. Wise. 1906 [2nd edition]). meme a un pape: procul esto. 1912. 283). ‘Introduction’. 1976). that ‘This is the first full-length study of Ruskin in French. R. c’est aussi un acte de justice’: Maurice Millious.’ Then. cit. E. occasionally damning. who were critical of his insistent emphasis on repetitive pine-tree motifs. 32.K. Jeanneret me defend). T. p. John Ruskin. op. March– April 2001 (Paris. L’Esthetique anglaise: Etude sur M. in his John Ruskin: a Reference Guide.’ The following day. Ruskin and the French before Marcel Proust.116 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted ˆ public sculpture of 1910 in the Place de l’Hotel de Ville ` ´ in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Gazette des Beaux-Arts. l’artiste pouvait etre lui-meme un ` poete ou un philosophe. 1988).’ On 26th September. L’Art decoratif d’aujourdhui ´ (Paris. 27th and 28th September. . 2003).) I thank Rebecca Patterson. III –IV ´ ` (Bibliotheque de l’Ecole d’art de La Chaux-de-Fonds. Enferme avec son inspiration. A Selective Guide to Significant and Representative Works about him (Boston. 283). An example of such listing is George Allen Cate.

p. 6. 1590–1710 (Cambridge. . Ruskin. Inventaire Suisse d’Architecture. 67. Das Kapital (1867. Jacques Gubler. which is incorrect. 1991). Note 32). David Stevenson. 69. cit. ‘Carmontelle’s Design for the Jardin de Monceau’. 1990). Editions d’En Haut. T. Curiously. Das Kapital (1867). Pauline. L’Histoire de La Chaux-de-Fonds ˆ inscrite dans ses rues (Neuchatel. Margaret C. Batsford. David Hays. op.117 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 63. Gian Mario Cazzaniga notes that the absence of Freemasonry studies is surprising. See Jean-Marc Barrelet and Jacques Ramseyer. cit. Curl. 1850–1920. Notice historique sur la communaute ´ israelite de La Chaux-de-Fonds. note 32. Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s father inherited the flat. pp. This quotation is often repeated. 1947/1948). 77. cit. Musee Neuchatelois. 1988). Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s grandfather lived directly next to this Masonic lodge. Centenaire 1833 – 1933 (La Chaux-de-Fonds. De la Villa Turque a ´ ´ L’Esprit nouveau (La Chaux-de-Fonds. cit. cit. the Tree. The Ideology of the English landscape garden 1720 – 1750 (Warwick University. La Chaux-de-Fonds. Premier horloˆ ger des Montagnes neuchateloises et personage de ´ ´ ˆ legende’. 447–462. . ´ See Jules Wolff. 1995). But Garino makes a fundamental mistake. 42 –95. Jacques Gubler. just as no one would . pp. eine einzige Uhrenmanufaktur’: Karl Marx. See Maurice Favre. Jacob. which became his atelier until the final move to the Villa Jeanneret-Perret. cit. 72. Book 4. Turner. ´ 75. 2002). . op. When the Cathedrals Were White: A Journey to the Country of Timid People (London. Patrizia Granziera.. 1848–1914. op. 68. which will be developed in my forthcoming monograph. p. 141. The Art and Architecture of Freemasonry: An Introductory Study (London. 214. . La Chaux-de-Fonds. 64.’: Karl Marx. 76. See Claude Garino. Eighteenth-Century Studies.. Allen Brooks. 1850–1920. op. ‘Le Corbusier. quoted in Jacques Gubler. das man als eine einzige Uhrenmanufaktur betrachten kann . Vol. suggesting that two Freemason lodges existed in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Routledge. 1848 –1914 (La ´ Chaux-de-Fonds. La ´ ´ ` Chaux-de-Fonds ou le defi d’une cite horlogere. 74. Mary Patricia May Sekler. 1933). 71. ‘. 1982–84). and the Open Hand’. 65. 70. op. 32. B. op. op. H. Inventaire Suisse d’architecture ´ ´ 1850–1920 (Berne. La formation de Le Corbusier: Idealisme et Mouvement Moderne. See also Jean-Marc Barrelet and Jacques Ramseyer. Paul V. Number 2 (1992). cit. 1848–1914.cit. Cambridge University Press. PhD thesis. Oxford University Press. Paragraph 3. 1850 –1920. No. 4 (1999). 66. Chaux-de-Fonds. Le Corbusier. Idea Editions. p. Some scholarly exceptions are James S. editions du Griffon. op. and. La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1965). As he states. especially for the eighteenth century. no one would study the Middle Ages without taking into account Christianity (and in particular Catholicism). The Origins of Freemasony: Scotland’s Century. 78. Also Jeanneret/ Le Corbusier’s aunt. This is a ridiculously brief overview of the literature. Living the Enlightenment: freemasonry and politics in eighteenth-century Europe (New York. Inventaire Suisse d’Architecture. upon his death. Inventaire Suisse d’Architecture. 45 –56. op. ‘La Chaux-de-Fonds. La ´ ´ ` Chaux-de-Fonds ou le defi d’une cite horlogere. And Jeanneret/Le Corbusier himself spent time there in the evenings with friends. 12. see. as one example. La Chaux-de-Fonds ´ ´ ` ou le defi d’une cite horlogere. See Jean-Marc Barrelet and Jacques Ramseyer. Societe d’Histoire de l’Art en Suisse. Charles Thomann. lived in the building next to the Masonic lodge. ‘Daniel Jeanrichard. cit. pp. Le Corbusier. ` 73. 1996). p.

de ` ˆ ˆ La Chaux-de-Fonds a Neuchatel. ayant derriere elle une tres vieille histoire et un ´ ` ´ ´ fort glorieux passe. constitue un probleme surpre´ ˆ nant et curieux qui etonnera peut-etre les historiens ´ futures’: Gian Mario Cazzaniga. ¸ pp. cit.captiver ses eleves par ses exposes clairs. Montesquieu and Helvetius in France. Vol. ‘Carmontelle’s Design for the Jardin de Monceau’. Editions du Chevron. 86. 89. a tous les ` ´ ` partis. . inside back cover. David Hays.. a tous les metiers . p. ´ ´ Jacques Derrida. no page number). Gallile. Number 37. 1892). Langages Sacres pour une Semiologie de la Franc-Maconnerie (Pisa. Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconn¸ ´ ´ erie (Paris. 1970).. 24. see ´ ´ also Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire.. et en particulier de ` ` celles sur le XVIIIe siecle. inside back cover. pp. 85. 2000). prendre le chateau ´ sans verser une goutte de sang. une confrerie de constructeurs et de tailleurs 83. 1912. which do not even mention Freemasonry. .118 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 79. ´ Mardi. ˆ Mutilation de tout l’appareil faıtier et apprauvissement ´ de l’image par epuration’: Jacques Gubler. 1994). op.. 1913. 92 –93. . No2. ´ ´ Signes. mon grand-pere Jeanneret Rauss dit ` le bougon est descendu avec Fritz Courvoisier. 318 –320. XI. 87. 10. See Bulletin of the International Bureau for Masonic ˆ Affairs at Neuchatel for 1913. In fact. jusqu’au XVIIIe ` ´ siecle. Number 35. XXXII Annee. pp. par ses connaissances des styles et de la composition decora´ ` tive ‘(L’Impartial. 939. ´ ´ de pierres. 82. ‘Frederic II Hohenzollern’. Imprimerie Georges Dubois. 1894. Rousseau. p. C’etait l’un des chefs de la revolution’: Le Corbusier in Jean Petit. October –December. etcetera. 11. p. op. ibid. 4eme Supplement au Catalogue des ´ membres de L’Union des Loges Suisses 1892.. 80. In support of this. p. p. 1995). study the twentieth century without taking into account the rise of communism and socialism. cit. 84. 81.Catalogue des Membres de L’Union des ´ Loges Suisses pour l’annee 1891 (Bern. 30 Avril. hence the surprising situation that ‘L’absence de la Franc´ maconnerie dans le panorama des etudes sur la ¸ ´ culture europeenne moderne. ‘La franc-maconnerie est une association comme une ¸ ` ` autre. 1991). XI. elle est devenue une societe d’hommes ` ` appartenant a toutes les classes du people. edition de 1891 (Bern. This entry refers to the . Buchdruckerei Michel & Buchler. Vol. 1902). 452. one could adduce many examples such as entire biographies and recent studies of Winkelmann. op. 1850 –1920. 1913. ed. cit. ‘Preface’. La Chaux-deFonds. this part of the obituary is a quotation from Le National Suisse.’: Edouard Quartier-La-Tente.. ¨ ´ ` ´ ‘. Deux siecles et demi de Francˆ maconnerie en Suisse et dans le Pays de Neuchatel ¸ (La Chaux-de-Fonds. 207. No. a toutes les idees. Franklin in America. ` See Michel Cugnet. 447 –462. ` ‘Le 1er Mars 1848. L’Histoire de La Chaux-de-Fonds inscrite dans ses rues. Ibid. ¸ Cazzaniga notes the Freemasonic associations of a few individuals such as Haydn and Mozart and ´ Beethoven. to indicate the importance of Freemasonry in its ‘fonction d’organisation culturellle’. ˆ ‘Transformation en Hotel communal 1895–1897. No4. ´ in Eric Saunier. Politiques de l’amitie (Paris. Ramsay and Pope in England. p. Librairie Generale Francaise. Inventaire Suisse d’Architecture. 88. . Edizioni Ets. 11. April –June. Symboles. 1890) and Grande Loge Suisse ` ´ Alpina. For an account of the changes of address and of the ˆ ´ activities of the Bureau de controle des metaux ´ precieux. Necrologie d’Eugene Schaltenbrand. a pied. Apres avoir ete. La Franc-Maconnerie ¸ ˆ ´ suisse et neuchateloise: souvenirs et actualites (La Chaux-de-Fonds. Haller’sche Buchdruckerei. Le Corbusier ˆ lui-meme (Geneva. see Charles Thomann. See Alpina Schweizerische Grossloge Mitgleider-Verzeichnis des Schweizerishen Logenbundesauf das Jahr 1891.

119
The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1

ˆ ´ Dictionnaire Geographique de la Suisse (Neuchatel, 1902–1910). ´ 90. ‘. . . le manque d’harmonie existant entre l’entree ´ cintree de la Chapelle et l’huis rectangulaire de la ˆ porte de fond. Ici encore, ils [les architectes] ont du ´ ´ tenir compte des desirs emis par les artistes euxˆ memes’ (Robert Belli, letter in Feuille d’Avis, 11th March, 1910; quoted in Jean-Daniel Jeanneret, ‘Le ´ Crematoire de La Chaux-de-Fonds: Une œuvre d’art totale’, unpublished manuscript, 2004, p. 8). ` 91. ‘Quand il passe la porte nord du cimetiere de La Chauxde-Fonds, l’homme en deuil suit d’abord des yeux, sur ´ ` ´ le mur du blanc crematoire, le cortege, figure en mosaıque bleue, ocre et pourpre, des mortels en ¨ ` ´ ´ marche vers l’au-dela, se separant, de gre ou de force, des illusions de la vie pour gagner le royaume ´ ` ` ´ ´ ´ de l’eternelle lumiere. Parvenu a l’extremite de l’allee, ´ ´ au moment de tourner vers l’entree de l’edifice, il contemplera la haute sculpture de la fontaine: la Paix qui ` ´ accueille et protege l’homme et la femme inclines ´ devant l’ineluctable destin. Maintenant, il marche ´ ` ˆ ´ vers l’escaler qui penetre sous le porche voute. Un ´ ´ ` regard vers le ciel lui fait decouvrir l’ephebe aux bras ´ ´ ´ ´ leves, d’or etincelant, qu’un elan porte vers l’ideal. Au moment de gravir les marches, les deux statues ´ ´ ´ des piedestaux lui reveleront les lamentations de ´ ´ l’aıeul et de l’epouse sur l’urne funeraire, et l’enfant ¨ orphelin qui contre eux se blottit . . . Il est au haut de ´ l’escalier, il est entre, les portes se referment. Tandis ´ ` que s’elevent les sons prenants de l’harmonium invis´ ` ˆ ible, dans l’etrange lumiere ruisselant de la voute quad` rangulaire lui apparaissent peu a peu les murs, les ˆ urnes, le catafalque, tout de cuivre revetus, aux orne´ ´ ments ciseles ou repousses, et la frise peinte: long ´ panneau bleu de la Pitie et de la Mort, au-dessus de ´ lui; en face, la replique or et pourpre de la Purification par le feu. [. . .] Plus tard, l’urne mise en terre, il par` ´ courra ce cimetiere si bien dessine . . . Il ira d’un pas

92.

93.

94.

95. 96.

` ´ lent du petit escalier aux rampes a torches sculptees ` ´ jusqu’a cette grande pierre de resistance: le monument ` aux morts . . . Qu’il leve maintenant les yeux sur la ´ facade sud du Crematoire: la grande mosaıque du ¸ ¨ Triomphe de la vie, toute blondeur et chatoiement, avec ses jeunes couples et l’heureux tableau familial du centre, qui exalte l’enfant, lui rendront l’espoir et ´ ´ ˆ ´ la confiance. . .’: La Societe Neuchateloise de Crema´ ´ ´ tion et du Crematoire S.A, Rapport de la Societe Neu´ ` ˆ ´ chateloise de Cremation et du Crematoire S.A. a La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1934–1936, pp. 31 –32 (in the Bib` liotheque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds). ´ ´ ` ‘. . . une societe d’hommes appartenant a toutes les ` ` ´ classes du people, a tous les partis, a toutes les idees, ` a tous les metiers. . .‘: Edouard Quartier-La-Tente, La ˆ Franc-Maconnerie suisse et neuchateloise: souvenirs ¸ ´ et actualites, op. cit,, p. 10. ` ´ ‘. . . travailler ensemble a l’amelioration de ´ l’humanite en commencant par rechercher leur ¸ propre perfectionnement moral. Partant du point de vue qu’il n’est pas possible de construire avec ´ ´ de mauvais materiaux un edifice solide, la Franc` Maconnerie enseigne a ses adeptes qu’ils doivent ¸ ´ ˆ avant tout s’ameliorer eux memes, avant de vouloir ` ´ ´ contribuer a l’amelioration de l’humanite’: AlfredLouis Jacot, ‘Le Symbolisme Maconnique’, in Bureau ¸ ` ˆ International de Relations Maconniques a Neuchatel, ¸ ` ´ Deux Siecles de Franc-Maconnerie, Volume de Jubile, ¸ 24 Juin 1717–24 Juin 1917 (Berne, Imprimerie Buchler & Cie, 1917), pp. 107 –111. ¨ ´ See Ecole d’art de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Catalogue de la ` Bibliotheque, 1919 (La Chaux-de-Fonds, Imprimerie ´ Cooperative, 1919), entry numbers 27 and 28. John Ruskin, The Stones of Venice, Volume 2, Chapter IV, St. Mark’s, page 121. ´ ‘A mon bon compagnon d’etudes et ami Monsieur A. Evard—modeste merci d’un fameux coup de ˆ main. Ch. E. Jeanneret, Aout 1907.’

120
´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted

97. Le Corbusier, ‘Ineffable Space’, in Le Corbusier, New World of Space (New York, Reynal & Hitchcock; Boston, The Institute of Contemporary Art, 1948), pp. 7 –9; p. 8. 98. ‘. . . la plus grande influence de Le Corbusier sur moi ` fut, au-dela de l’architecture, son attitude envers la ` ˆ vie et la maniere dont il pensait que notre tache ˆ ˆ principale est de nous construire nous-meme, se batir ˆ ˆ ` soi-meme comme on batit une maison, pierre a ´ pierre, faire de soi quelqu’un qui merite le beau nom ´ ´ d’homme, avec la seule difference que l’edifice ´ humain n’est jamais fini’: Andre Wogenscky, Interview, ´ quoted in Nicoletta Trasi, ‘La formation d’Andre Wogenscky et sa conception de metier d’architecte’, ´ in Paolo Misino and Nicoletta Trasi, Andre Wogenscky: Raisons profondes de la forme (Paris, Editions Le Moniteur, 2000), pp. 41 –83; p. 45. Alternatively, it is of course possible that this is less a description of Le Corbusier than it is of Wogenscky’s own interpretation of Le Corbusier. Wogenscky and his wife, the sculptress Martha Pan, had associations Compagnonniques via La Fondation Pierre de Coubertin through its associations with Jean Bernard (1908–1994), Compagnon and founder of the Fondation de Coubertin. If so, this reinforces the point that Jeanneret/Le Corbusier’s closest networks revolved around this culture of Compagnonnage. 99. Variations of these initiation rituals can be found in a number of publications such as Pierre Mollier, ed., Recueil des Trois Premiers Grades de la Maconnerie: ¸ ˆ Apprenti, Compagnon, Maıtre au Rite Francais, 1788 ¸ ´ (Paris, Editions A l’Orient, 2001); Jules Boucher, La ´ Symbolique maconnique (Paris, Editions Dervy, 1988 ¸ [1948]); Jean-Pierre Bayard, Symbolisme Maconnique ¸ ´ Traditionnel (Paris, Editions Maconniques de France ¸ [EDIMAF], 1982). ´ 100. ‘Ceux qui ayant appris soit par des ecrits ou de toute ` ´ autre maniere quelconque comment ces receptions

se pratiquent, ne doivent pas ressentir des impressions bien profondes et ne peuvent ainsi jouir ´ de ces fortes emotions qui assaillent un profane sachant penser et se rendre compte de ce qui se ´ deroule devant ses yeux, sans en avoir eu connais` sance auparavant. [. . .] A ce moment-la un sentiment ` ´ bien autre mettait mon cerveau a l’epreuve, et je me posais constamment la question: “Trouveras-tu ce ` que tu cherches, c’est-a-dire une association ´ ´ ´ d’hommes aux idees larges et elevees, avec les prin´ cipes desquels ta loyaute puisse se mettre d’accord?” La ferme intention surtout de me retirer ` a la moindre chose contre laquelle ma conscience ´ m’avertirait, absorbait toutes mes pensees, et la ` ´ maniere dont ma reception se ferait fut toujours ´ pour moi donc affaire secondaire. Il est aise de voir ´ ´ ´ que ces pensees predominantes devaient forcement ` avoir pour effet de me faire analyser a fond la ´ ` signification des differentes stations ou me conduisait ´ ` ´ le voyage dans les tenebres, pendant lequel la mediˆ tation peut etre pour celui qui veut s’en donner la ´ peine essentiellement feconde. La coutume d’avoir ´ ` les yeux bandes, permet a la concentration des ´ pensees d’atteindre son maximum et est par ce fait ` ´ tres louable. Ce fut donc dans cet ordre d’idees, qu ` je gravis les marches, conduisant a la porte qu’un fr ` D100 m’indiqua, en m’invitant a entrer. [ . . . ] Il me ˆ ´ ´ banda les yeux. Je fus plutot etonne au premier abord, de cette facon d’agir et me laissai conduire ¸ ` par lui a travers des souterrains, des corridors comme il me semblait mon imagination me faisait ` entrevoir un voyage a travers les caves de la loge. Pendant ce temps, je me creusais en vain l’esprit, ˆ pour connaıtre le motif de cette promenade aux ´ ` yeux bandes . . . [ . . . ] Il est une chose tres curieuse, mais que nous retrouvons dans bien des moments ` de la vie; c’est la premiere impression, et cette ´ ´ ` impression est en general difficile a dissiper; il y a

121
The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1

ˆ ´ meme des personnes qui ne peuvent s’en defaire ` ´ ` ` completement. De ce detail insignifiant a premiere ´ vue, se developpa en moi une impression importante ´ et le resultat fut que je me mis sur le qui vive; que mes sens se tendirent de plus en plus et que la question, ´ ` comment cette soiree finirait, c’est-a-dire serai-je ´ force de retirer ma candidature ou non, pris toujours plus de corps. Un combat commenca a se livrer en ¸ ` ´ ´ ´ ´ mon for interieur. Cette idee, que je m’etais trompe s’affermit toujours davantage et me remplit de tristesse. Je ne pouvais admettre que des hommes ´ ` serieux puissent s’amuser a de pareilles choses et ´ ´ malgre toute ma bonne volonte, il me fut impossible ` ` a ce moment-la de saisir une signification symbolique quelconque. Cette impression ne dura dans toute sa ´ force que juste le temps necessaire pour arriver ´ dans la chambre de preparation, et nous allons assis` ter a la modification progressive de cette impression ˆ ´ ` ´ ´ ´ ´ melee encore a l’idee anticipee de la reception. L’evol` ution qui va se produire sera d’un genre tout a fait ´ ´ ´ particulier, etant donne que le recipiendaire ignore absolument tout ce qui va se passer; ce ne seront donc que des impressions nouvelles qui toucheront ses sens; la logique et la raisonnement ne viendront qu’en second rang, avec l’aide desquels, il pourra ` les comparer a son impression primordiale, laquelle ´ ´ inconsciemment s’est formee par l’inconsequence ´ ´ dont il a ete question plus haut. Nous avions vu ˆ ´ l’effet facheux produit par le petit detour, mais cet ` effet sera bon en ce sens qu’il forcera le candidat a ´ produire lui aussi une somme de travail fecond, parce qu’il s’efforcera de trouver des motifs solides, ´ qui effaceront de sa pensee ce qui d’abord lui aura ˆ ´ ` ´ ´ ˆ paru etre convie a une ceremonie plutot ridicule. [.] L’instant d’avant je me trouvais dans l’incertitude, ´ ˆ ´ ´ j’etais moi-meme desillusionne, et maintenant plein ˆ d’espoir; que je trouverais quand meme ce que je ´ desire, que cette soif de pouvoir rencontrer des

hommes pouvant comprendre et s’associer aux ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ idees que je m’etais faites de l’humanite en general, ´ et avec lesquels des echanges d’opinions peuvent avoir lieu, sans que le parti pris ou autres analogies, ´ ´ propres aux personnes etroites d’idees, jouent un ˆ ´ role d’intolerance. Ce ne fut plus avec ce sentiment ´ de revolte, que je me laissai remettre le bandeau. La ´ continuation du voyage me fut moins penible, et les paroles amicales du FD qui m’accompagnait, me ´ donnant l’assurance que l’amitie me guidait, me ` ´ ` firent repenser a d’autres voyages dans les tenebres, ´ pendant lesquels on cherchait en vain l’amitie pour ´ nous conduire, au travers de ces combats interieurs ˆ ` ` ou tout etre pensant au printemps de la vie, a ´ ` ˆ ˆ l’epoque ou l’ame est encore fraıche et sensible a ` ´ ` ` toute impression, ou a vie entiere se revele a lui ´ ` dans toute sa nudite; au moment ou il doit se ´ ´ ´ ˆ ` defaire de prejuges, de superstitions peut-etre et ou ´ devant des annees il marche dans l’incertitude, dans ´ ` ` le doute, dans les tenebres, ou il aurait besoin de ´ ` l’amitie pour le guider vers la lumiere qu’il demande ` ` a grands cris; a ce moment il trouve rarement le guide qu’il lui faudrait et bien souvent succombe ` dans le naufrage moral. C’est en pensant a ces ´ ` ` moments passes, ou l’on commence a se rendre compte de sa propre faiblesse, quand elle se montre ` a vous dans toute sa grandeur et que sa petitesse ˆ ` apparaıt a nos yeux, que mon compagnon me fit ` entrer dans le cabinet noir ou les symboles de la ` ` mort surgirent peu a peu, les yeux commencant a ¸ ´ ´ percer l’obscurite regnant dans cette chambre. ´ ` Aucun etonnement ne se produit en moi a la vue ´ de ces objets, il me sembla que c’etait une chose toute logique qui devait se produire, pour bien nous ´ montrer que malgre tous nos efforts pour vouloir arriver au perfectionnement moral et intellectuel, ce but ne sera jamais atteint et qu’au milieu de ce ´ travail lent et souvent penible, mais non si ingrat

‘Le troisieme voyage est termine. Lausanne. like those traversed by the legendary initiates. La Clemente Amitie. in The Writing of the Walls: Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment . in the years before the Revolution of 1789. Fait a Chaux-de-Fonds. ¸ ` Deuxieme partie comprenant toutes les loges ` ` sauf celles de Geneve (Geneve. rue Servandoni. Number 590). . malgre ´ ´ ´ toute la bonne volonte qui y a ete mise bien fade ´ aux lecteurs mais comme ils auront passes euxˆ memes par ces moments qui ne s’effacent pas. il ne pourrait mener a bien aucune entreprise importante. . dont nous devons admettre l’existence. 33 and 35. ingenieur.’ (From the Book ´ ´ of Rituals in use in 1886 at La Clemente Amitie. Collection Bibliotheque du Grand ´ ´ Orient de France/La Loge La Clemente Amitie. Schaltenbrand is also listed as ‘Schaltenbrand. ´ 1890 addressed to La Loge L’Amitie confirms that ` Eugene Schaltenbrand has left their lodge in Paris.000 noms de ¸ Francs-Macon de Paris et de la banlieue (Paris. Catalogue des Francs-Macons Suisses 1910– 1911. A letter from La Clemente Amitie dated 5th June. . chez l’auteur. 1886)’ in the anti-Freemasonic publication (in the collection of Le ´ Grand Orient de France): Hermelin Editeur. Her¸ ´ ´ ´ melin Editeur. being the Freemasonic lodge of such prominent personalities as Jules Ferry and ´ ´ Emile Littre. These routes. ´ ´ 1912): ‘Hans Wille. ´ 20. les ´ ` sens un peu excites et la tension d’esprit s’apaiserent comme par enchantement et ce fut un vrai moment de repos pour moi! Il est malheureux que nous ne ´ puissions rendre par ecrit les sentiments tels qu’ils se trouvent dans notre cœur. Ce voyage symbolise ˆ l’age mur.’ ¸ ` ´ 103. [.] Un sentiment de tranquillite m’envahit et l’ouie de la musique et du chant ´ pendant les trois voyages autour du carre long.’: Anthony Vidler. Hans Wille is also listed as a Freemason in the anti-Freemasonic publication of William Vogt. lesquels une fois sur le papier ne sont plus qu’une faible reproduction de ´ ˆ l’original. that of the jardin-anglais . Box entitled ‘Correspondence avec Loges francaises. Isole. See File 111.) 104. architecte. was one of the most prestigiously intellectual. PlD d’avancement au II Gr. 26 octobre 1909. mais que nous ne ´ ´ pouvons definir. were no longer confined to the space of the lodge building itself. the humanities and the sciences. l’homme a encore ´ ` besoin d’aide et d’appui. Meme dans cette periode de la vie. it should be explained. (Pl. Box Planche d’apprentis. ‘The spatial order of the early lodges was gradually transformed by an increasing emphasis on the initiatory route. Vidler describes how. but extended into the landscape . politically active and independently minded Freemasonic loges in Paris at the end of the nineteenth century. about La Loge ´ ´ Clemente Amitie. aussi ce petit travail paraıtra-t-il. 1896). le 20 mars 1909. . ‘The Architecture of the Lodges’. Vous l’avez fait avec l’allure d’un homme ` ˆ parvenu a la plenitude de son development. ´ ´ 102. Comparable Freemasonic ritual movement has been described for French eighteenth-century architecture by Anthony Vidler. Hans Wille’ (Archives de La Loge ´ L’Amitie. ´ See La Loge L’Amitie. Archives. which was the Loge to which ` Eugene Schaltenbrand belonged in 1886. ClO Amitie. . 31. thus closely associated with the politics of the Third Republic and with the world of the arts. Le ToutParis Maconnique contenant 10. . la mort ` nous saisira impitoyablement a notre heure venue ˆ et arretera les rouages de notre machine humaine par une force dont nous constatons les effets. ` pp. ne 1881. Grand Orient de France.’ 101. Hans Wille. il les ˆ revivront peut-etre avec moi ce que je souhaite ardemment. II 1908. et puissent ces quelques lignes raviver ´ ` leurs souvenirs de cette epoque ou eux aussi ` ` avaient soif de lumiere.122 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted ˆ qu’il pourrait nous paraıtre an premier lieu.

The Architectural Press. pp. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (AQC). . 63–77. 228 and 269. Symbolisme Maconnique Tradi¸ ´ tionnel. ‘An Initiation Ceremony in a Modern Russian Lodge’. il march en ´ ` aveugle dans les tenebres. ` Dictionnaire des Francs-Macons (Paris. .] A tous les grades nous retrouvons ces marches. 1987). Oppositions. 113. ‘The Architecture of Lodges: Ritual Form and Associational Life in the Late Enlightenment’. 250. 189– 192. K. N0 3 (1994). ‘Juan Gris: du ` ˆ Bateau-Lavoir a la rue Cadet’. 1946 [1923]). ¸ Ibid. p. . ibid. beaucoup de bruits peuvent inquieter le postulant . ´ ´ avec la ligne brisee du 2e degre nous avons un rite de ˆ ` passage et la notion de la surface. 47 –50. p. ´ ` ‘La ligne droite du 1er degre correspond a l’initiation. 187. il monte. 75 –97.. 116. C.. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (AQC).. 108. Nouvelle Serie. ‘Le postulant . 112. ‘Monsieur. pp. 229 –235. ‘A Russian Initiation Ceremony’. pp. pp. as is attested by an administrative letter to Le Grand Orient de France on 18th May. Katkoff and C. Les trois premier degres vont ainsi de la ´ ` ligne droite decrite sur la surface de la terra a la notion du cosmos. Butterworth Architecture. mais on meurt a une autre vie’. ` descent. . Jean-Pierre Bayard. ´ les obstacles que vous avez rencontres peignent les ´ ´ difficultes que l’homme eprouve et qu’il ne peut vaincre ou surmonter qu’autant qu’il acquiert cette ´ energie morale qui lui permet de lutter contre la mauˆ ` vaise fortune. ibid. before later being accepted (Pascal Bajou. .. cit. 251. (London. The Architectural Press. 115. ces circumambulations accom´ plies selon un ordre et un sens definis et nous nous ˆ arretons sur le sens symbolique que nous pouvons ` donner a cette orientation. pp. 106. Towards a New Architecture (London. 1921. pp. Le bruit que vous avez entendu figure les passions qui l’agitent. grace surtout a l’aide qu’il trouve en ses semblables’. le voyage symbolique que vous venez de ` faire est l’embleme de la vie humaine. Chamberlain. 109. pp. 249– 250. p. Number 5. dans le labyrinthe tellurique . La Chaıne ´ d’Union. . pp.123 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 105. 111.’. 96. il est encore dans le sein de la terre. Tome 1: Les loges bleues (Paris. J. 110. Yet another account of Les Trois Voyages is in Michel ´ ´ Romanet-Chancrin. Le Corbusier. ‘Les Trois Voyages de la ceremoˆ nie d’initiation au Grade d’Apprenti’. William J. Pascal Bajou describes how Juan Gris applied to La Loge Voltaire but was rejected. and N. 83 – 102. [.Revue d’etudes symboliques et maconniques ¸ du Grand Orient de France. 1982). pp. monte a nouveau des escaliers. . Another account (easily available and well known) is that to be found in Tolstoy’s War and Peace. On naıt a la ` ` lumiere.. See Michel Gaudart de Soulages and Hubert Lamant. ‘Le bandeau qui couvre vos yeux est le symbole de l’aveuglement dans lequel se trouve l’homme ´ ´ domine par ses passions et plonge dans l’ignorance et la superstition’. 69 and 72 and . Lattes. . Grace a l’enjambe´ ´ ´ ment du 3e degre. ¸ 1995). ´ Revue d’etudes symboliques et maconniques de ¸ ´ ´ Grand Orient de France. p. p. ibid. Batham. Volume 88 (1975).. Mais retenons que ce ` n’est qu’apres ces marches. For a discussion of this. Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms. 99. ´ ‘. . 37 –45. Towards a New Architecture (London. Editions Maconniques de France. traverse de longs couloirs. . Le Corbusier. Curtis. R. c’est l’elevation et la notion de ´ volume. 235. p. N. 250. 114. ibid. 189–190. ces parcours que la ` ´ ˆ ` lumiere est donnee aux candidats. Volume 87 (1974). Numero 20 [Printemps 2002]. ibid. 107. op. see D.’. La Chaıne d’Union.. pp. See also Anthony Vidler. 181–184. pp. 1931).

quoted in Mark Rosenthal. in Le Corbusier. See also Emmanuel Breon. ‘Myth Today’. Mark Rosenthal. . p. Thames and Hudson. And others have noted the theme of death in Juan Gris’ work—another Freemasonic preoccupation. p. Landscape. Krauss. ´ (Paris. p. membre de la L[‘Art ´ et Science’ ‘: Editions Anti-Maconniques. Vintage Books. 130. ´ ‘... p. Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. T. Mark Rosenthal.8 cm. 128. 119. artiste peintre. Juan Gris.124 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 117. and Architecture in Eighteenth-century Britain (Stanford.. . p. 9. 106. pp.. Christopher Green. Picasso (London. Juan Gris’ Freemasonic pass´ port and other documents are reproduced in Jose ´ A. Gertrude Stein. Nos. Roland Barthes. 123. I take the term from Yve-Alain Bois and Rosalind E. 1948). note 125.. See. 1992). Zone Books. For a study demonstrating that Juan Gris never used the Golden Section. 8. op. Mark Rosenthal. 131. Juan Gris: His Life and Work (London. Ibid.. already present in the eighteenth century. 134. op. 121. See Ethlyne Seligman and Germain Seligman. [a]insi le corps qui est l’eveilleur du plaisir et de la ˆ ´ douleur peut-il etre autant celui de la pensee la plus profonde’: Pierrick L’Hyver.. Juan Gris. 1990). Camfield. Juan Gris (London. cit. 128–134. a la Presse. 2003). 7 –9. cit. . 129. pp. for example. Stanford University Press. Juan Gris. p. Whitechapel Art Gallery. 13. Volume VII. 1984). there is no space here to enter into a discussion of the relative roles of metaphor and metonymy. Batsford. cit. The Education of the Eye: Painting. p. 124. 137.1993). 2000).6 x 64. Juan Gris a Boulogne (Paris. La Franc¸ ´ ´ Maconnerie Demasquee: Listes de F[ M[ apparte¸ ` nant au Parlement. Ibid. but without mentioning Hogarth’s Free- 126. Ibid. For a study of Juan Gris’ methodical use of the Golden Section. au Barreau et Les Diri´ geants de la Secte (Paris. 144. 106 –7. Number One. (March 1965). note 106. 122. Still Life with Poem. 133. Pasadena). Le Corbusier. reedacteur en chef du feu L’Esprit Nouveau. p. pp. about which there is total disagreement. son milieu et “le nombre d’or”’. Editorial Castalia. None of this touches upon the actual ways in which Gris used geometry. 34. ‘Juan Gris and the Golden Section’. ‘Of . Norton Simon Foundation. De Bolla writes that ‘Hogarth’s intervention represents the most ambitious counterargument to the academic view concerning the need for “book learning” in the appreciation of the visual arts. 10. Ibid. Juan Gris. 34. p. in Mythologies (London. p. p. p. 118. 135. The Art Bulletin. op. Editions Anti-Maconniques. ‘Juan Gris. op. Interestingly. 107. Antonio Machado y Juan Gris. 25. Ibid. Editions maconniques de France. 9. op. p. 120. see William A. 34. Revue des Arts Canadiens (RACAR). New World of Space. is elegantly described by Peter de Bolla in his analysis of the art of Hogarth. Abbeville Press. 1915 (80.. p. 9.62. 12. ‘Ineffable Space’. . mason associations.. Herscher. 109 –159. Car ici tout est symbole . 1997). 2 – 3 (1980). 136. . ´ ‘. this notion of a focus on experience. Formless: A User’s Guide (New York. ¸ n d).. 33– 36. . His Analysis is certainly the first work of phenomenology in English applied to the visual sphere written by a practising artist: its ambition is nothing less than a complete phenomenology of the eye’: Peter de Bolla. p. 132. Mark Rosenthal. ´ ` 73). 1969). Garcıa-Diego. pp. B. Volume XLVII.homme de lettres. Dos artistas masones (Madrid. Ibid. 137. ¸ Regretfully. cit. 125. 1992). p. There is further documentation about Ozenfant. Juan Gris (New York. 127. see Roger Fischler and Elian Fischler. cit. to be discussed in my forthcoming monograph. p.

‘. Walter Benjamin. ´ ´ ´ 139. p. p. I must also add that. . . dans sa ` correspondance analogique. 1977). . Art Quarterly. 143. Verso. Je repondit en toute temerite ` ´ ´ a la question qui me fut posee. 218.. ‘Cette idee.. Je ne pouvais ´ admettre que des hommes serieux puissent ` ´ s’amuser a de pareilles choses et malgre toute ma ´ ` ` bonne volonte. Sug´ ´ gerer: mettre sur le chemin de l’eveil’ (Jean-Pierre Bayard. The Origin of German Tragic Drama (London and New York.] J’eus le pressentiment que j’allais repasser symboliquement par toutes les ` phases fondamentales de la premiere et grande ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ pensee philosophique. . 138. ou ` l’on commence a se rendre compte de sa propre fai` blesse.] C’est en pensant a ces moments passes. in Jan Birksted. ` n’ayant pu se rendre compte du sens discretement ´ voile des symboles. [. 26 octobre 1909. regretfully in this short essay. il est une prise de conscience sur un des chemins de notre existence.125 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 the Proximity of Death and its Stylistic Activations— Roger de la Fresnaye and Juan Gris’. 226. . [. Bayard. which follows the eighteenth-century (although since then altered) Schroeder ritual. 142. que j’etais toujours ´ ´ ` decide a devenir FD MD. 223. 147– 155. In this respect. 1983). . [. que je m’etais trompe s’affermit toujours davantage et me remplit de tristesse. ¸ cit. . ibid. que mon compagnon me fit entrer dans le cabinet ` ` noir ou les symboles de la mort surgirent peu a peu. 145. op. cit.] Il est naturel qu’ou un profane ne pouvait se faire des opinions personnelles. p. Number 2 (Spring. Number 590). il me fut impossible a ce moment-la de saisir une signification symbolique quelconque. 1949). Routledge. here metonomy is explicity and visibly used to sustain the irreality of metaphor (see my discussion in Jan Birksted. Il a ainsi diverses possibilites ´ ´ de definitions suivant le degre de connaissance de ` celui qui l’interprete’. 29 –31). ` ´ ´ les yeux commencant a percer l’obscurite regnant ¸ dans cette chambre. Whereas in Proust metonomy operates implicity and secretly as a device for sustaining metaphor as reality. quand elle se montre a vous dans toute sa ˆ ` grandeur et que sa petitesse apparaıt a nos yeux. volume 12. Symbolisme Maconnique Traditionnel. Ibid. . See Mark Rosenthal. 29. permet de percer l’essence des choses. Alors il suggere. the specificity of the relationship of the real materiality of the symbol to the fictional nature of its representation can be compared and contrasted to the relationship of metonymy and metaphor as deployed by Marcel Proust. ´ ´ which La Clemente Amitie does not.] Le symbole possede a la fois le passe et ´ l’avenir en gestation. ˆ de retrouver des jalons qui controlent la voie initia` ` ´ tique. Juan Gris. . ‘Academic Envoi’. 2004).] Je ne vis pas de ´ ´ ` difficultes a me dechausser et me dessaisir de tout ´ metal. op. toute ´ ´ ˆ cette ceremonie dans son ensemble ne peut lui paraıtre que ridicule.. ´ ´ 141. . qu’un travail mental assez ´ ˆ serieux seul en fera connaıtre la signification’ (See ´ Archives de La Loge L’Amitie. PlD d’avancement au II Gr. et qu’il n’entrera pas dans la loge. Blindness & Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism (London and New York. . there is no time to discuss the specificity of the ritual at La Loge L’Amitie. . Ce langage muet. ayant compris le sens symbolique de cette ´ ˆ preparation avant meme que l’explication m’en fut ´ donnee par le frD qui m’accompagnait et c’est de ` ` cette maniere que je fus conduit a la porte du ` temple. reflet de la tradition et de l’ordre cosmique. pp. 144. [. Hans Wille. diverses possibilites de definitions suivant le degre ` de connaissance de celui qui l’interprete . ` ´ ` [. pp. . Ashgate Publishing. . Paul de Man. ‘Le symbole permet d’eveiller une idee. . Modernism and the Mediterranean: The Maeght Foundation (London. ´ ´ ´ 140. p. Box Planche d’apprentis.

in C. Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie ¸ ´ ´ (Paris. 1954).op. 3. reproduced in Jean Jenger. The MIT Press. 376. Librairie Generale Francaise. Precisions sur un etat present de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme (Paris. ed. Mass. Le Corbusier. Sur Les Quatre Routes (Paris. mi lascia sopra un praticello coronato di ulivi [. pas seulement au fond de mon caractere mais ˆ ˆ aussi au fond meme de mon œuvre batie et peinte’: Le Corbusier.. Robert Schwartzwald. 45 –68. Signes. 45 –68. Diari del viaggio in Svizzera e in Germania (1787). 1991). and the Refutation of Anti-Semitism in Vichy France’ (published electronically). Symboles. Precisions on the Present State of architecture and City Planning (Cambridge.P. Esq. p. pp. see Francesca Fedi.. ¸ 357–358. 2 –27. Birkhauser. which has been described as a critical turning point in the history of travel diaries as a literary genre. Sir William Hamilton. Hence the significance of the historical source of the travel diary in Freemasonic culture. ‘. . Editions ¨ Denoel. 2000). Le Corbusier.]: io mi fermo a contemplar dall’alto le fatiche de’ pescatori. in Eric ´ Saunier. quoted in Francesca Fedi. Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola. pp. Le Corbusier. 55.. in L. ¸ 157. cit. . Olschki. . 1773). ´ ´ ‘Preface’. . Mass. ‘The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa’ [1946].. Diari del viaggio in Svizzera e in Germania (1787).. ‘La strada mia favorita e quella che dopo avermi guidato per mezzo al piacevole laberinto di folte sepi. cit. Ehrilich. ` ´ 156. 1982. . Strahan and T. 376 –377. cit. Operette in verso e prosa. 2002). Rowe. 107–111. 1970 [1939]). pp. cit. Introduction et notes ¨ par Jean Jenger (Basel. O. Another key example. 147. op. letter to Marcel Levaillant. 154. p. etcetera. 45 –68. For a study of by Michele and Antonio Stau (and a bibliography about) this travel diary. Le Corbusier ´ Choix de Lettres: Selection. in Gian Mario Cazzaniga. p. cit. in which Brydone describes the Freemasonic loges and encounters during the Grand Tour of Lord Fullarton. pp. 1976). pp. of Somerly in Suffolk (London. pp. is Patrick Brydone’s A Tour Through Sicily and Malta in a Series of Letters to William Beckford. But this is another whole chapter. e una salva di castagni. Colin Rowe. . op. 1930). This raises another critical aspect of the notion of ‘work’ in Masonic thinking. Berlin. con un’appendice di documenti inediti o rari (Florence. ´ ´ ´ 150. himself a Freemason: see Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire. edited ` ´´ble).. ‘Grand Tour’. . 151. 1954. . 149. 139. The MIT Press. as well as of other typologies such as the German Bildungsroman. 136–138. Faber and Faber Limited. ‘. p. p. . ‘. quoted in Francesca Fedi. Boston. ` 155.. a quel modo a un dipresso che le vedrei pel vetro di una lanterna magica’: Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola.126 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 146. Langages Sacres pour ´ une Semiologie de la Franc-Maconnerie. ed.. which cannot be enlarged upon in this brief article . which relates to the ‘work’ being done by the Freemason on him/ herself to improve. The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge. A. whom he was accompanying when they set sail with the British Ambassador. ‘Le paysage. image maconnique du ¸ monde moral chez Bertola’. op. Le Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale Universally applicable to Architecture and Mechanics (London. ` 148. op. . travailler ensemble a l’amelioration de ´ l’humanite en commencant par rechercher leur ¸ propre perfectionnement moral’: Alfred-Louis Jacot. 55. Cadell. ¸ pp. 21st April. pp. ‘Le Symbolisme Maconnique’.. pp. quella grata sorpresa che ne crea l’ameno conseguito per le vie del terribile’: Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola. 152. Letter V. . ´ 153. ‘Father Marie-Alain Couturier.. 222 –225.

Une ´ ´ Police Politique de Vichy: Le Service des Societes ` Secretes (Paris. pp. Novembre. Fevrier. 1942. . Numero 6. 11. pp. Father Marie-Alain Couturier. Numero 7. Paris. 141– 142. Decembre. the Statue of Liberty was the symbol of the global Jewish-Freemasonic-BolshevikCapitalist plot. Mai. 1942. ` ` Robert Vallery-Radot and Jean Marques-Riviere. Robert Schwartzwald.P. R. Janvier. ‘The Dark Side of the Bauhaus’. from which he resigned on 20th October. Rene Allendy was initiated into La Loge L’Etoile Polaire (19th February. Janvier. 1944. 161. cit. Numero 5. ´ ´ 1941. 1982). O. 1996). as Bartholdi too was a Freemason. Textures and Meaning: Thirty Years of Judaic Studies at the University of Massachussets Amherst. pp. Rue Hubert-Colombier. Imprimerie Speciale ¸ ` des Documents Maconniques. 148 –149. op. M. 165. 2000). This letter in fact concerns Couturier. 1956 (FLC P5-2-37). 21. 1941. 1941.P. J. Les ´ Documents Maconniques (Vichy. Aout. cit. pp. 1914. 1943. pp. 1943. 1941 –1944): Numero 1. see Robert Coombs. ´ ´ ˆ 1942. 1943. ´ ´ ˆ Numero 11. Numero 2.. pp. ´ 1942 and 1943). Numero 4. Novembre. See the articles on this in Bernard Fa. so presumably the photograph was taken by him. 24. Numero 7. Numero 9. ‘Corbu me disait en douce ‘Ils ne se doutent pas de ce ´ ˆ que nous allons faire. Lampeter [Wales]. 74. pp. Mars. Robert Schwartzwald. Juin. Numero 11. Numero 12. 1984). cit. 140 –156. Numero 3. 44 –49. Joseph Rykwert. ´ 1944. Numero 12. 2004). 1981) and Lucien Sabah. (University of Massachusetss Amherst. ´ ´ ´ Numero 3. Andre Wogenscky writes that he was asked by Le Corbusier to attend this dinner. eds. Mars. 1942. op. ´ ´ 1943. p. 160. Numero 10. Juin.pp. 1943. Mai. He contributed articles and book reviews to L’Esprit Nouveau (often several in one issue). p. in Joseph Rykwert. For a list of his contributions to L’Esprit Nouveau. ‘Father Marie-Alain Couturier.‘: letter from Trouin to Picasso. Mystical Themes in Le Corbusier’s Architecture in the Chapel Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp: the Ronchamp Riddle (Lewiston [New York]. The Necessity of Artifice (London. ´ ´ ´ Decembre. Numero 4. Numero 8. 200. 1942. ´ 164. p. 158. Aout. 63 –77. 1943. ´ ´ Numero 9. Numero 5. 1944. Fevrier. Siege de l’Adminis¸ ´ tration. 35. ´ ´ 1942. 1943. Young. 143. Octobre.. Klincksieck. Fevrier. ‘Juan Gris: du Bateau` Lavoir a la rue Cadet’. Numero 10.. Bolozky.. 25 and 28. J. 1942. 159. ´ ´ Avril. 1942. Plon. Queenston [Ontario]. 1942. Avril. Numero 8. 1920 in order to join Le Droit Humain). Septembre. Numero 8. Rothestein. and the Refutation of Anti-Semitism in Vichy France’. See Pascal Bajou. O. . 1942 (the numbering restarts in October. 1943. The Edwin Mellen Press. Numero ´ ´ ´ 5. Septembre. Juillet. Mai. Juin. and the Refutation of Anti-Semitism in Vichy France. But this paranoia was even more bizarrely twisted since the Documents Maconniques issued by Vichy set out to demonstrate ¸ that the United States of America was also part of the Jewish-Bolshevik-Freemasonic plot since President Roosevelt was a Freemason. note 6. 1944. 148–149. Numero 4. 140 –156. Numero 6.. Numero 9. 140 –156. Numero 1. pas plus que les eveques du ˆ ˆ Moyen-Age ne se doutaient des symboles des batis´ seurs de cathedrales’. ´ 162. Numero 2. 23rd February. La verite blessee (Paris. 1944.Vichy et les Franc-Macons: La ¸ ´ ´ ´ ` liquidation des societes secretes 1940–1944 (Editions ` Jean-Claude Lattes. Schwarts. Bertkovitz. ´ ´ Mars. ´ ´ ´ 1943. Avril. 163. . 49. Novem´ ´ bre. 1944. then numbers 20. Decembre. op. Numero 3. ´ ´ 1943. Musee des ´ ´ ` ´ Societes Secretes. Octobre. Numero 7. Numero 1. 1943. Numero 2. ‘Ce que nous avons recu des francs-macons et des juifs: ¸ ¸ des exemples—un apport direct’: see Marie-Alain ´ ´ ´ Couturier. Octobre. p. and that. Juillet. 23. numbers 13 and 14. 1942. 1942. Academy Editions. ´ ´ ´ Janvier. Numero 6. See also Dominique Rossignol.127 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 S.

’. 171. ‘le Compagnonnage est toujours vivant. 34.) ` 171. tous ses projets en temoig´ nent. 1949). became affiliated to the Genevan lodge Prudence et ´ Fidelite. ˆ ´ 170. il la charge de valeur signifiante. des draps blancs sont tendus dissimulant ` a nos yeux. ‘L’angle droit est la base de sa pensee architecturale. op. mais symbole. On nous demande. Leur bureau est tendu de blanc. ` Introductory statement to Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier. En face de nous. trois hommes president. p.’: Andre Wogenscky. (Fondation Le Corbusier. ibid. 1955). inscription in his copy of Viollet-le-Duc’s ´ Dictionnaire raisonne de l’architecture francaise de ¸ ` XIe au XVIe siecle. Le Corbusier. La Sainte-Baume: Le Pelerinage des Compagnons du Devoir (Paris. ´ 168. J 149. l’Histoire des charpentiers (Paris. 1955).. ‘On nous appelle chacun a son tour. puis plus tard dans son engagement professionnel. 176. Le Poeme ´ de l’Angle Droit (Paris. Architect of the Century (London. 169. p. chacun doit la “construire” et la vivre au cours de son voyage sur les routes de France et d’ailleurs. Peirce. dans les Loges. tout ce que les Compagnons seuls ´ doivent voir. si nous desir- .128 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted 166.p. Allen Brooks. et qui en plus sont des hommes cap` ables’: Eugene Claudius-Petit. . . 1. L’angle droit n’est pas seule´ ´ ´ ment geometrie. Cette dimension humaine. Editions de l’architecture d’aujourd’hui. Curiously. 130 (March. p. ´ au sein de la communaute des Compagnons du Devoir.. . 4. p. [. having developed a method of teaching called Les cahiers rythmiques that were so admired by Itten that he eventually wanted to translate them into German. 1958). n p.] Vous ne formez pas seulement des bons ouvriers. ` 177. Organe des Compagnons du Tour de France. then taught at the ´ Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva from 1901 to 1920. ´ Editions du Seuil. quoted in H. Le Corbusier. ´ 172. Autour de cette salle. which this research has discovered. pendant un certain temps. On peut considerer que l’histoire ˆ ´ ` des batisseurs des cathedrales anglaises s’acheve ` avec la formation de la Grande Loge a Londres en ´ 1717.ˆ ´ Toute son oeuvre batie. 167. Antoine Moles. 44 –49. what Rykwert did not know. where he.. ¨ 175. Modulor 2 (Boulogne. Fondation Le Corbusier/Editions Connivences. de non ´ operative masons. 1997). la proportion des ouvriers ´ ´ a diminue en faveur des hommes cultives. after having been initiated at the ´ ´ Freemasonic La Loge L’Egalite in Fleurier in 1888. Hayward Gallery Exhibition Catalogue. vous formez des hommes. dans son engagement dans ´ ´ la cite des hommes’: Rene Lambert (dit Provencal la ¸ ´ ´ ´ Fidelite). 174. ‘Speech on 29 ´ January 1952 at La Soiree du Compagnonnage du Devoir at the Palais de Chaillot’. The Arts Council of Great Britain. Des qu’il dresse dans l’espace une forme architecturale. 173. [Justus Buchler ed. Les Batisseurs de Cathedrales (Paris. Gund. Librairie du Compagnonnage. Compagnonnage. ‘Pour le Compagnonnage. c’est qu’aucune ` forme n’est pour lui vide de sens. Dover. 1952). 1987). cette dimension ˆ spirituelle—celle qui permet d’etre et de faire d’une ` ´ “autre” maniere—est d’abord vecue au quotidien. 1989). La franc-maconnerie speculative prend alors ¸ vraiment son essor . Mais ce qui le caracterise.]. See Charles S. mais aussi dans ce chemin de vie que ´ ` ´ chacun est amene a decouvrir au cours de son initiation. No. 44. pp. on nous introduit ´ dans une salle bondee de Compagnons. was that Johannes Itten specifically chose to study in ` Geneva under the professorship of Eugene Gilliard (1861–1921) who. familial. Ibid. Philosophical Writings (New York. Jean Gimpel. . cit. ´ au milieu d’un silence impressionnant. p. 181. ‘Peu a peu.

les compagnons. 45 –48. nous attendons anxieusement le palmares. ´ ` s’emploieront pour faire les epreuves de la maniere ´ accoutumee. Quelques instants apres. Les Editions ouvrieres. Et ´ ˆ l’horloge a sonne minuit. In addition. the dynamic coexistence of several diverse and interactive meanings that in turn generate new meanings. . Chez la Mere affluaient tous ´ les aspirants de la cambrousse qui desiraient subir leurs ´ epreuves professionnelles. mobile. il y dix-huit recus. . nous etions Compagnons ˆ recus mais non Compagnons finis. Sur notre affirmative. . Cornell University Press. in social anthropology. Ou allons nous. The Rites of Labor: Brotherhoods of Compagnonnage in Old and New Regime France (Ithaca and London. Je ¸ ` suis en queue. Compagnon Marechal Ferrant du Devoir. which seems to imply stability and/or singularity. il ¸ ˆ fallait aller se faire reconnaıtre tels. 1957). Enfin un jeune Compagnon descend. la liste des ´ elus en mains: sur vingt-quatre. . ´ 179. The classic example is that of irony. or the responses of the listeners. ils nous ont ´ ´ ` ` tentes. nous n’en saurons jamais ´ rien. humour and wit are. [ils] le prendront par la main et lui font faire le tour de la à Chambre tou` ` jours a genoux! Puis se relevera et. l’orage s’est tu. le soleil matinal nous retro` uve au pied d’un baptistere et les parrains ont ´ ´ ` accede a ce que je porte le nom que j’ai choisi depuis bien longtemps. ˆ nous nous sentımes des hommes nouveaux. ´ ` Ou sommes-nous alles. . 1966). Imprimerie du Compagnonnage.’: Emile Coornaert. . the texts of rituals fail to tell us if the initiates trembled with fear. Il nous a semble nous enfoncer dans la terre: c’est le symbole de la mort. vu que le ´ ` moment s’approche ou il va subir de grandes epreuves ˆ ´ ` et etre expose a de grands dangers . . du fond des bois. p.129 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 ˆ ons etre recus Compagnons. [. Enfin nous voici ´ purifies. . 379. quand. nous n’en savons rien. Puis questionnant l’aspirant s’il a fait ´ toutes ses reflexions sur ce qu’il va entreprendre et ` qu’il est encore a temps de se retirer. il faut du courage. 1994). Les vices nous ont assaillis. Les Compagnonnages en France du ´ ` ` Moyen Age a nos jours (Paris. [ . ´ ` 178. alors le Roleur conduira le nouveau recu dans une autre chambre ¸ ` ´ sans lumiere toujours les yeux bandes . nous voici ´ deambulent par les rue brumeuses de ce soir de ´ ` decembre. le cuir chevelu ´ m’a rappele pendant une quinzaine qu’il ne fait pas bon biaiser avec les Compagnons. Nous ´ ´ n’etions plus des Aspirants. But mental states are fluid. . qui sont recues sur une serviette ¸ ` blanche. mais il faut lui faire honneur. . seduits. pp. les ` Compagnons nous reconduisirent chez la Mere. Pour renaıtre. . the inflections of the actors. [. irony. . scandant ` allegrement les strophes de la Gloire qui faisaient s’entrouvrir des persiennes au passage. on ¸ ´ nous dit ensuite de deposer les preuves de notre savoir-faire. . Malheur a qui cede. Le Tour de France d’un Compagnon du Devoir (Paris. Allons-nous mourir? ˆ Renaıtrons-nous? si nous en sommes dignes. . shifting and pluridimensional.] Et. ] . laughed at ritual trappings they thought foolish. dans une de nos ´ cinq grandes cayennes’: Abel Boyer. briguer le titre de Compagnon. The notion of a pensee maconnique/compagnonni¸ que raises a critical problem since the term implies the existence and the observability of a mental orientation. Did they drink in every word or yawn with boredom? With rare exceptions. used as indicators of engagements with social .] Il est certainement bien pres de ` minuit. dit Perigord ´ Cœur Loyal. ‘C’etait un vendredi soir. p. or were impressed by the spectacle’: Cynthia Maria Truant. toujours en gardent le silence sous ˆ peine des amendes ordinaires. 81. Et pour etre finis. Truant notes that ‘even a direct transcription of a ritual or an origin narrative cannot recapture the moment of the act.

172 –179. 20e annee (Autumn. 1 –27. ´ pensee maconnique/compagnonnique can be con¸ strued in this study in cultural history as a theory. J 162. p.. in Creighton Gilbert. ` ´ La Cle de Rabelais (Paris. Chicago. This again mirrors Colin Rowe’s passionate exposition of Le Corbusier’s use of Palladio’s ideal mathematics. Renaissance Art (New York. 19. 1905). Sansot et Cie. ‘Les Voix et ´ ˆ leur epoque 1919– 1920’. Harper & Row. 162. ‘au contraire’. 186. 1960). 187.p. Creation is Patient Search (New York. mental states are thus also meaningful of the goal-orientations of social actors. 1971). 53.. 185. University of Illinois Press. ed.. 26. Praeger. Wittkower argued for their importance as a hermeneutic belief system while Argan argued for their use as heuristic design inspiration. 29th. Francois Rabelais.) ´ 184. pp. rabaissements. de la face et du derriere. 1972). L’Œuvre de . [that] it can only impose enormous strain upon both its consumer and producer’: Colin Rowe. ` par la logique originale des choses ‘a l’envers’. The important point to be made is therefore that the notion of ´ pensee maconnique/compagnonnique refers to a ¸ system of cultural beliefs in action. Il faut savoir l’architecture et ´ surtout l’heraldique pour comprendre Rabelais’: ´ ´ Josephin Peladan. returning to our case ´ study and the notion of pensee maconnique/com¸ pagnonnique. W. the question that arises is its status. So. The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. to which the answer is that there is no way of knowing whether it is a transcendental belief. The Age of Bluff: Paradox & Ambiguity in Rabelais & Montaigne (Urbana. pp. See Rudolf Wittkower. if protracted. in Colin Rowe.’: Mikhail Bakhtine. 1925. quoted in Maurice Favre. In this respect. sans peur ni risque. 2003). Frederick A. Le Secret des Corporations. London. (Fondation Le Corbusier. Alternatively. subsequently described by Rowe himself in an ironic ‘Addendum’ of 1973 as ‘so dependent on close analysis. pp. A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry. ‘trembling with fear’. et que beaucoup d’œuvres de la Renaissance s’expliquent par les ´ arts et les metiers. W. Ibid. Le Corbusier. ‘Le Corbusier.130 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted actions and networks. op. . This is discussed in Flora Samuel. Nouvelle revue neuchate´ loise. 325–338. 180. p. This mirrors the classic and irresolvable debate between Rudolf Wittkower and Giulio Argan about Palladio’s use of harmonic proportions. Volume 17. Bibliotheque Internationale ´ d’Edition E. 1951). p. 94. oubliant que le Moyen Age se servit du ` dessin plus que du langage pour exprimer sa secrete ´ pensee. as but only an explanatory theory of cultural beliefs in action. p. de la ´ ´ ´ conscience de la joyeuse relativite des verites et ´ ´ autorites au pouvoir. ‘C’est pourquoi toutes les formes et tous les sym´ ´ boles de la langue carnavalesque sont impregnes du lyrisme de l’alternance et du renouveau. Bowen. par les formes les plus diverses de parodies et travestissements. couronne´ ˆ ments et detronements bouffons . notamment. a design strategy or a social tactic. des permutations constantes du haut et ` du bas (‘la roue’). Giulio Argan. 181. comme ‘un ` monde a l’envers. Collection ¸ ´ La Pleiade. 5 – 6. No 78. profanations. Word & Image. ‘The Importance of Sammicheli in the Formation of Palladio’. . Number 4 (October–December 2001). the acts of ‘drinking in every word’. that is. ` 183. Charles Humbert. pp. Rabelais and the Oracle of the Holy Bottle. 1973). Norton & Co. 182. Barbara C. ‘The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa’... ‘yawning with boredom’. Elle est marquee. Œuvres Completes (Paris. ‘Le litterateur ne jure et ne juge que par la chose ´ imprimee. 30th and 31st January. cit. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism (New York. ‘laughing at foolishness’ or ‘being impressed’ are in themselves meaningful. diary of 28th.

p. 1994). . mais baille veut dire aussi bailler).) Le Corbusier. tel de ces rossignols. 1984). sinople ` devient si noble. with an Egyptian statue in their midst. cit. du tonnerre et ´ ´ des feuilles eclaboussees de pluie.H. 1917 (Fondation Le Corbusier. so as to make 193. October. p. 191. ´ ‘. for the argument of this essay. On joue sur les mots a la facon de Rabelais. ‘La Maison ´ Radieuse’. 1997). dans l’ancien hotel d’Adrienne Lecouvreur. 190. Liane Lefaivre. ´ Emulation: making artists for revolutionary France (New Haven and London. 199. 57. Cezanne and the End of Impressionism: a Study of the Theory. 1960). My Work (London. Architectural Press. La Loi du ´ meandre. is not or is partly by Rabelais. 29 (1984). que gueule devient rouge. I thank Judi Loach for pointing out another instance of this. Le Corbusier aways wanted to relate domestic environments to temples. The Life and Loves of Natalie Barney (London. which. Vol. ´ d’une voix de prima donna. Francois Rabelais et la culture populaire au Moyen ¸ ˆ Age et sous la Renaissance (Paris. 196. May. Mass. letter to William Ritter. ‘The Dark Side of the Bauhaus’. The Academy and French Painting in the Nineteenth Century (London. There is no need to enter into the debate about ` whether the posthumous Cinquieme Livre is. 198. 1977). p. etc. for example. de ces merles qui au printemps de ces alou´ ´ ettes qui en ete remplissent de leur cri l’espace’: Le Corbusier. R-3-19-145/193.. 153). Avant-gardiste (Paris. ´ ‘. them read as the columns of an ancient Egyptian temple. par exemple. op. Chicago University Press. etcetera. Gallimard. lance sur les jardins d’Adrienne. en remplacant les termes usites ¸ pour les couleurs par ceux du langage vulgaire et les figures par ce quelles symbolisent. ´ She kept the salon until 1969. p. a photograph ´ of the pilotis in a model of the (as yet unbuilt) Unite. The Amazon of Letters. ˆ ‘Une jeune Italienne dans la lucarne du batiment continu au mien. la mer. 192. George Wickes. The MIT Press. Un jour d’orage fou. pp. 1970). ¸ 2004. pp. 1966). . 2001). 44. par exemple. 104. 19. ´ when. ‘A Picturesque Stroll around ClaraClara’. azur (bleu) devient baille (jeu de mots avec la grande baille. . and Critical Evaluation of Modern Art (Chicago. Franncesco ´ Rapazzini. C’est ainsi. 1971). dans le jardin se trouve le petit temple . but there are other areas of Le Corbusier’s architectural language which cannot be considered in a short essay. Thomas Crow. W. p. 195. Technique. Editions Bernard Grasset. 44 – 49. ´ Phaidon. autrement dit.’ (Personal communication. . 19. 250. p.. Richard Shiff. pp.131 The Journal of Architecture Volume 11 Number 1 188. Leon Battista Alberti’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphilii: Re-Cognizing the Architectural Body in the Early Italian Renaissance (Cambridge. un ´ ˆ soir. au bruit de la nature.’ It thus specifically allows the assimilation of many other such concepts. 68 – 73—the illustrations included ‘on its opening page. Souvenirs du Monde de 1890 a 1940 ´ (Paris. 197. is irrelevant. 189. 194. Yale University Press. 1st July. Elisabeth de Gramont. son chant absolument eperdu se melait en joie ´ de delivrance. such as the concepts of ‘ineffable space’ and the notion of ‘temple’. Yve-Alain Bois. as fitting into the overall structure. in Homme et architecture. See Elisabeth de ` Gramont. C’est tout. This essay considers the architectural promenade. tout un emoi de petite ˆ ´ ame esseulee. Fayard. Numero ´ special 11/12/13/14 (1947). 32 –62. Allen. Joseph Rykwert. 20 rue Jacob (adresse pour le courrier prive). in the first monograph about the Unite in Marseilles—see Danielle Janin. See Albert Boime..

Jacques Sbriglio.132 ´ ‘Beyond the cliches of the hand-books’: Le Corbusier’s architectural promenade Jan Kenneth Birksted que lui construisit Maurice de Saxe. p. Immeuble 24 N. and Le ¨ Corbusier’s flat (Boston. in Le Corbusier. 14. . 1981). R-319-113). 26th January. . xi. 200. letter to William Ritter.Une chance. ‘Introduction’. p. Birkhauser Verlag. Thames & Hudson. une veine! Vous voyez bien que je le trompette!’: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret. Le Corbusier Sketchbooks (London. . et appartement/ Le Corbusier: Apartment Block 24 N.C. Maurice Besset. pp.C. xi –xiii. 201. 1996). 1917 (Fondation Le Corbusier.