CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.1.1 General Definition


Live loads are the weights of people, furniture, supplies, machines, stores, and so on, borne by the building during its use and occupancy. Live loads are distinguished from dead loads which are the weights of the building itself, the secondary members and the finishing materials. Live loads are movable and variable during the use and occupancy of the building, and sometimes cause dynamic effects. Therefore, they are easily affected by social transitions, such as the rapid advances in building services equipment and mechanization. The loads of small or movable pieces of equipment are considered as live loads, but equipment that belongs to the building and is fixed and heavy is regarded as dead load. Live loads are specified as the weight per unit area corresponding to the use of the floor. In terms of their concentration, they are estimated differently, depending on the kind of structural member. Live loads are produced by the gravity of people and equipment in the actions of people, and do not include environmental loads such as snow loads, wind loads and earthquake loads. In the design of buildings, the design live load must be calculated by considering the maximum load effect for the particular use caused by the specific disposition of people and equipment. This recommendation is based on data from recent surveys of live loads done in Japan. There are two problems with using these data for this recommendation. 1) Not all possible floor uses are surveyed. 2) Spatial scatter may be comprehended with enough data, but temporal scatter, especially that resulting from the concentration of people and furniture occurring only once in several years or even once in more than ten years, can not be determined with few or no data. For 1), it is impossible to survey all possible uses of a floor, because future human activity cannot be predicted. Therefore, design live loads for unspecified uses should be estimated from loads caused by similar uses. The classification of uses in this recommendation is based on available data for present typical uses. This recommendation applies to normal use of buildings. For special uses, the design live load should be reconsidered with reference to the estimation method of this recommendation. The disposition of furniture and people depends on the building's uses, which causes the relationship between the stochastic and the design values for the maximum load effect to vary. 2) is related to the decision on the level of the building's serviceability and safety in its structural design. As there have been few claims against live load in conventional structural design of existing buildings, it is considered that the current sustained live loads in practice could be referred to without serious danger or loss of serviceability. Therefore, in this recommendation, the basic value of live load is estimated on the basis of the sustained load data surveyed. In accordance with engineering judgment, the scenario of a rarely occurring concentration of people and furniture is considered, and safety is verified by the probabilistic model of simulation. This calculation assumes that the estimation of the

- C4-2 - Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

basic value is adequate. In the future, if enough stochastic data from temporal variations are stored, it is thought that it will be possible to reconsider the design live load directly from the probabilistic model of the maximum value during the design lifetime, as is currently done for snow, wind and earthquake loads. The design load for safety and serviceability is based on the basic value referred to above. Therefore, the basic value of live load in this recommendation may be used as the design load in allowable stress design for sustained loading. If the levels of safety and serviceability are modified, the percentile determining the basic value may be varied from 99 percent, for example, to 95 or 99.9 percent, from the stochastic value of the surveyed data. When a design load lower than the basic value is used, it should be carefully applied based on the examination of the maximum value during its design lifetime, so that safety does not become too low. When the design load in limit state design is estimated using the basic value in this recommendation, it is necessary to determine the appropriate load factor. At the present time, there may not be enough stochastic data, but designs in which serviceability in the normal state and safety during design lifetime are determined, and they specify the relationship between performance and quality which are ambiguous in conventional allowable stress design. Therefore, this recommendation is expected to be applicable to limit state design. 4.2 Estimation of Live Loads 4.2.1 Equation for live loads The basic value of live load is estimated as sustained load and calculated as a product of the basic live load intensity which is obtained statistically, a conversion factor for equivalent uniformly distributed load, a area reduction factor and a multi-story reduction factor. The basic live load intensity is the 99 percentile value on the basis of the statistic data of the average weight of people and furniture on an area of 18m2 for the particular use of a floor. Considering temporal concentration, people and furniture should be estimated separately because of their different dispositions. However, since there are not enough data, they are estimated together in this recommendation. The conversion factor for equivalent uniformly distributed load is estimated differently for members such as slabs, beams, girders, columns and foundations, because the influence of their disposition state on load effect is different. Generally, the equivalent uniformly distributed load Le is defined by :
Le = max *

# I i w (x, y) dxdy A 4 # I i dxdy A


where A is the influence area of the specific member, which is regarded as the floor area influencing the load on the member, Ii is the influence function defining the load effect on section i of the member,

2 Basic live load intensity The basic live load intensity Q is estimated on the basis of surveys of several normal uses.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . goodness of fit is examined by the normalized error. and ke. the basic live load intensity should be determined considering the influence of area. because live loads are averaged over the area..1). Gumbel (Type I extreme distribution) and Gamma. Although ke is generally different for beams. based on the area of one slab. they are normalized to an area of 18m2. In calculating statistic values. This analysis is called the analysis of averaged live load intensities for square unit areas. the basic live load intensity should be re-estimated by the . 9m2 (3m X 3m).1 shows examples of averaged weights and regression curves.2. etc. areas smaller than 16m2 (4m X 4m) are not used. y). the basic equation for load estimation expresses Q0 as a representative value of the essentially ambiguous random variate X.2. the live loads divided by the area on which they act. girders and columns. so the same value is used.2. 4. These principles should be adopted in all cases. Sometimes other distributions are applied. In considering Equation (4. After the estimation of parameters. For the detailed calculation method.2. One probability distribution is selected to specify the influence of the area on the loads.2. y) is the load of people and furniture at coordinates (x.4 and kn is 1. but have not significantly influenced the result. and Q is estimated from the mean influence area for each member. The scatter of the averaged load. The basic live load intensities must be specified as the values normalized to a specific area. the relationship between the percentile values and area is expressed as a regressive equation. The Gamma distribution is selected because it generally shows good fit for various uses. To investigate the influence of the area on load intensities.4. such as 1m2 (1m X1m). The basic live load intensity is estimated as the 99 percentile value of load models. 4m2 (2m X 2m). The calculated values are regarded as the statistic values of load intensity. Therefore. In considering the actual area of the building. and the probabilistic models for respective areas should be selected as the distribution which has the smallest normalized error. However. here the difference is insignificant. the arrangement of frames and the mean surveyed area. and the averaged loads are calculated for each case. Figure 4. in this recommendation ke is defined for convenience as the ratio of the 99 percentile value of Q to Q0 where ka is given by the following section 4. Four main probability distributions are applied: Normal. becomes smaller as the assumed area becomes larger. Where the up may change. This figure shows that load intensities are influenced by the area. that is. Log-normal. ka and kn are factors given as mean values if there is a stochastic basis. and are estimated by the method of moments to derive parameters of the probability distributions. and the percentile values are calculated. the surveyed data are divided into square unit areas. see section 4. In this recommendation. For particular up not specified in this recommendation basic live load intensity is estimated from surveyed data based on the principles of this recommendation.C4-3 - and w(x.

2. considering the probability of change. In considering the effect of actual loads on a slab.167 is assumed.3 Conversion factor for equivalent uniformly distributed load The members are analyzed elastically to investigate the influence on structure in normal use based on furniture disposition obtained from the survey. The finite difference method is applied to the analysis. The boundary conditions of the girders are fixed. the use to which the building can be applied and the extra load.1) A reinforced concrete slab with four sides fixed and a poisson ratio of 0. loads are assumed to be distributed uniformly on 25cm-square areas. .2. The equivalent uniformly distributed loads are calculated by the above analysis.C4-4 .1 The influence of the area on load intensities (furniture and people) 4..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings designer. Figure 4.

Figure 4. and a beam means a member which does not support them. The equivalent uniformly distributed loads are examined in terms of fixed end moments for short directions of slabs. The influence area is defined as the floor area whose load has an influence on the assumed member. load effects on bending moments (support or mid span) and shear forces are analyzed for girders.2 Definition of influence area .CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . If there is no available information about the location of beams. The conversion factor for uniformly distributed load is the ratio of the 99 percentile value of the equivalent uniformly distributed load to the averaged load on the influence area.4. and for a girder and a column it is defined in Fig. It is calculated for each member.2.2.C4-5 - Load effects on bending moments and shear forces are analyzed for slabs (short or long direction and support or mid span). and load effects on axial forces are analyzed for columns.2. a girder means a member which supports beams. All analyses are based on the influence area. For a slab it is equal to the tributary area and to the panel area. In this analysis. It is estimated according to the probabilistic model which shows the best fit for respective stresses. fixed end moments for girders. and axial forces for columns. it is assumed for respective uses. The stochastic analysis is made of the equivalent uniformly distributed load for each case of stress and the averaged weight on each influence area.

C4-6 ..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings .

In this recommendation. it is impossible to estimate the equivalent uniformly distributed load of the standardized area of 18m2 because of the difficulty in adjusting the area for the equivalent uniformly distributed load analysis. Therefore. the basic live load intensity Q is multiplied by the conversion factor for uniformly distributed load. it is assumed that the relationship between the equivalent uniformly distributed load and its area is the same as that between the averaged live load intensities for square units and its area. or the medium value between them.6. Reduction may also be applied to a multiple-story column. and is estimated considering the effect of reduction for changing influence area indicated in section 4. considering the characteristics of the analysis of the equivalent uniformly distributed load and the averaged load intensities for square unit areas.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .3 compares the analyses of the equivalent uniformly distributed load2. The conversion factor for uniformly distributed load is estimated on the basis of Table 4. the equivalent uniformly distributed loads have large scatter.2.0. that of beams used to be the same as that of slabs or girders. In conventional design.2. The upper one indicates the 99 percentile values of the equivalent uniformly distributed load. Thus. Their gradients are regarded as the same. The conversion factor for uniformly distributed load of slabs is rounded off to 1. The broken lines in the figure connect the estimated values of the analyses for each member. so 1.5. According to the above results.C4-7 - Table 4.1.3) and the averaged live load intensities for square unit areas.2.0 to 1. Where the area is small. Figure 4.4 and 4. . The product of the basic live load intensity and the conversion factor for uniformly distributed load could be regarded as the equivalent uniformly distributed load. the designer may adopt value according to his judgment. In the equation for estimating the basic value.8 or 2.2. 1. The conversion factor for equivalent uniformly distributed load is the ratio of the 99 percentile value of the equivalent uniformly distributed load to that of the averaged weight over the influence area of each member.3. and the lower one indicates that of the averaged weight over the influence area. to the area for the analysis of the averaged live load intensities for square unit areas. That of a foundation is thought to be the same as that of a column.2 is adopted. the estimated values for each up should be used. which is not equal to 18m2. That of frames is about 1.2.1 shows the results of these calculations. The solid line shows the result of the averaged live load intensities for square unit areas.

2. In 4. The area reduction factor is defined based on the following procedure. Another reason is that the influence areas are different with slabs.2) . According to this recommendation. The function of the area reduction factor is defined as : L1 = a + b A f /A ref (4.2. log-normal.2. First. Gumbel (Extreme type I) and Gamma. Figure 4.2. The 99 percentile load. is formulated as a function of the unit area. This section presents the reduction factor for reducing the equivalent uniformly distributed load for areas greater than 18m2. ke is defined as a conversion factor for converting the nominal live load intensity to the equivalent uniformly distributed load on the basis of an area of 18m2.4 Area reduction factor As the area increases. the type of probability distribution for averaged load intensity on square units is examined for four types of probability distribution: normal.2 shows the influence area for evaluating the stress in structural members.3. which is calculated based on each selected probability distribution type. One reason is that the relationship between nominal live load intensity and equivalent uniformly distributed load are different for each member.3 The comparison of analyses between the equivalent uniformly distributed load and the averaging live load intensities for square unit areas for office 4.. beams and columns. the design live load differs depending on the kind of member.2.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 4.C4-8 . the variation of live loads becomes smaller since the live loads is averaged over the area.

88 2. Af is the influence area (m2) and Aref indicates the reference area (m2). and the other is that the load distribution over different floors can not be clearly described.2. When the multi-story reduction .3) The results of this analysis show that the Gamma distribution fits well for a probabilistic model of square unit loads for every use.96 1.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .2) are normalized by dividing Equation (4.2.2. Parameters a and b in Equation(4. Table 4.2) by the basic live load intensity.2) a 449 97 1075 1240 1750 1217 b 2331 947 2066 4195 8417 366 a 0.34 2. because the variation on every floor is averaged. However.32 1. and normalized t t parameters a .2.25 0.2.45 0. The statistical data of square units with an area of 4 X 4 (= 16)m2 or more are used for the parameter estimation. One is that the temporary concentration of human load can easily occur. the design live load can be reduced according to the number of stories supported by the column.93 Equation (4. namely L1 when Aref = 18m2.2) are estimated using the method of least squares in the relation of the 99 percentile load to the unit area.30 0.2 Parameters of reduction factor Use (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (8) dewellings hotel rooms offices ・ laboratories supermarkets computer rooms classrooms Equation (4.56 0. because data of equivalent uniformly distributed load is lacking. so the equivalent uniformly distributed load must be statistically analyzed to formulate the load reduction factor.28 4. in calculating the axial compression caused by live loads.5 Multi-story reduction factor The axial compression stress in building columns caused by live loads is the cumulative stress of the live loads on every floor that the column supports. The area reduction factor should actually be derived using statistical data of the uniformly distributed load. the reduction factor for changing the influence area is defined using statistical results of square unit loads.3) b 2. Table 4.2. The normalized formula for the reduction factor ka is presented as : t ka = a + t b A f /Aref (4. the variation of axial compression in a multi-story column caused by live loads becomes smaller than the variation of axial compression in a single story column as the number of floors supported increases.2.69 0.2. this load reduction doesn't apply where loads are produced mainly by people for two reasons. b. b of the reduction factor for every use. However. parameters a and b in Equation (4.47 0. Therefore.2 shows the value of parameters a. Thus. Next.2.C4-9 - where L1 indicates a reduced live load intensity (N/m2).

4 n Table 4.2.5) k n = 0. (4. The value of kn becomes smaller with increasing δi. The reliability index.2. based on survey results for office buildings8).2. removing the square by the relation (a + b) ] 1/ 2( a + b ) .2.2.4 in determining the reduction factor.3 shows the mean values.7 Relationship between unit area and coefficient of variation by unit analysis The correlation coefficient ρ of live loads between two different floors is determined to be 0. t (n . Although the tributary area of a column greatly varies with its position and the building's use. but for me multiple story columns the mean values converge to 540 N/m2 and the standard deviations become smaller with increasing the number of floors supported. Substituting these values into Equation (4.78). and rounding the coefficients.C4-10 . standard deviations and coefficients of variation of equivalent uniformly distributed loads of columns obtained by survey results for office buildings8).4) (4. is 2.5). Both the mean values and standard deviations vary considerably for single story columns at every floor.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings factor kn is used.1) + 1 1 + bd i n n + bv n n kn = = n (n i + bv i ) 1 + bd i (4.6 + 0.2. the influence area of a single story column is used as the influence area to calculate the reduction factor kn.33 for a 99% limit value based on the second moment method. .2. The variation of equivalent uniformly distributed load for a single column varies according to the size of the tributary area of the column.119. δi is assumed to be 0. denoted by β.4). Figure 4.. the multi-story reduction factor kn is derived as shown in Equation. considering the actual dimensions of the tributary area of the column based on the statistical results of square unit loads for office buildings shown in Figure 4.

26 0.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .30 0.14 Temporary concentration of furniture often occurs with relocation or change of occupancy.3 Statistics of equivalent uniformly distributed load for columns Equivalent uniformly distributed load for multiple storey columns Coefficient of variation 0.28 Number of floors supported 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mean value (N/m ) 412 526 502 484 432 462 480 527 549 550 527 2 Equivalent uniformly distributed load for single storey columns Mean Floors value (N/m ) 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 412 642 451 430 227 606 592 858 721 557 305 2 Standard deviation (N/m ) 151 217 210 195 68 181 247 346 190 203 86 2 Standard deviation (N/m ) 151 148 124 132 109 105 105 86 74 77 74 2 Coefficient of variation 0. and the thin solid lines show the expected live load intensity where the number of simultaneous occurrences of concentrated load changes from 2 to 6.14 0.36 0. The live load reduction factor for multiple story columns has been investigated9).27 0. Though there is a difference in the expected live load intensity for every number of floors supported.37 0. .C4-11 - Table 4.25 0.22 0.2.37 0. The thick solid line in Figure 4. Temporary concentration of live loads produces excessive axial compression in columns.30 0. The 99 percentile loads based on the survey data (indicated by O in the figure) are calculated considering the effect of the difference of probability distributions. considering the live load concentration at plural stories.28 0.8 indicates the design live load intensity. pex indicates the occurrence probability of k concentrated loads.47 0.45 0.16 0.14 0.42 0.25 0. it is shown that the multi-story reduction factor in this recommendation is on a safe side and reasonable.2.40 0.34 0. In the figure.23 0.

Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 4. As the loading area is made smaller. In structural design.5) Figure 4. i. the effect of distribution unevenness on the stress becomes greater. .2.C4-12 . there is a limit to the actual concentration of furniture and the smallness of the loading area.3 Live Loads Considering Concentration. The effect on the square slab (l X l) is estimated as an example.2 are based on the surveyed data for normal use. so that the probability of greater unevenness of distribution is small. It is assumed that the square loading area moves on the slab. The fixed end moments are calculated.3.e. it is important to determine the design load in view of the particular use. The data on the uneven distribution of loads are explained as follows. As concentration or uneven distribution of loads may occur during normal use.1 shows the results. Deflections or Cracks The analyses described in section 4.8 Load intensity and occurrence probability of concentrated live loads 4. the ratio of distribution unevenness is made greater. as the loading area gets smaller.. It is assumed that live loads are distributed uniformly on the slab. It is logical that. they should be taken into account in the estimation. the effect on member stress is examined. However.4) The effect of unevenly distributed loads on members is examined by the simulation analysis assuming the dynamic model.

the stochastic values of the density of people. which is the number of people divided by the area on which they are located. Therefore. Especially where loads mainly consist of personnel.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . If the total number of people in a event of N times is obtained.3. This assumption only applies to the events in which almost the same number of people are gathered each time.1 The effect of the uneven distribution of load on the fixed end moment of slabs Where loads are distributed almost uniformly in normal use. the analysis of the equivalent uniformly distributed load gives nearly the same result as the averaged load intensities. The number of people in one event is regarded as one sample. that number divided by N is regarded as one. Figure 4. In this recommendation.C4-13 - Figure 4. are estimated from data of a survey of building users. . the conversion factor for uniformly distributed load needs to be determined so that the effect on each member is apparent. it is estimated in consideration of the stochastic data of personnel loads based on the number of people on a floor in normal use and in consideration of uneven load distribution.2 shows the result.3.

e. Long-span floor slabs have often been adopted recently in office buildings and stores.3 The state of loading during the design lifetime of office buildings 4. the effects of movements of people and objects must be considered when it is necessary to evaluate the serviceability performance of buildings in relation to vibrations. During one occupancy. etc. in an office building. transient loads may occur. the occupancy may change several times during the design lifetime. have been analyzed.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 4.3. the variation of live loads may be shown as in Fig. the design lifetime maximum live load can be estimated.2 The result of the analysis of personnel loads During the design lifetime of buildings. If the live load is determined synthetically based on this frequency.3.4 Dynamic Effects of Live Loads With regard to the dynamic effects of live loads. . live loads vary with time. live loads for a building in normal use.. and the live loads vary each time.6). such as habitability for occupants.C4-14 . counter-vibration measures for precision equipment. For example.3. sustained live loads. 4. It is also desirable to consider the influence of ambient environment and the source As human (or sources) of vibrations located on other floor slabs inside the buildings.7) Figure 4. As explained above.3. Over the design lifetime. i.

machinery and equipment. occur as a continuous movement. seats in stadiums or halls where a large number of people gather are often structurally supported by cantilever beams. 4. the incidence is in the range of 80~95% for Walking loads other than the peak p1 show a double-peak pattern.20) In such cases. extraordinarily large dynamic loads may be applied. . problems caused by slab vibrations due to human movements. it is also desirable to consider the dynamic effects during the design development stage. 17. as plants/equipment such as manufacturing or testing machines sensitive to the effects of vibrations may be installed in facilities having ultra-precision environments including semiconductor fabrication plants or research laboratories. it is often necessary to control slab responses to the dynamic effects of humans. phenomenon. the degree of amplitude of vibrations imperceptible to humans is so important that highly precise techniques must be applied to Table 4. in running. and vehicular traffic are presented on the basis of currently available research results.1 Dynamic Effects of Human Movements ・Outline Slab vibrations due to various human movements cause problems in diverse ways. operations of plants/equipment. though. machinery and equipment in order to provide satisfactory habitability suitable for specific uses of the buildings. for example. On the other hand.C4-15 - traffic and plants/equipment may cause vibrations in long-span floor slabs. Moreover.19. both movements walking and 70~85% for running.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .1 describes examples of the load-time curve for walking and running with a slab. assume dynamic loads and predict slab responses. On the other hand.4. The peak p1 shown in the figure is attributable to the impact created when one’s heel makes initial contact The peak p1 does not always appear.18. so running loads show a single-peak pattern. the dynamic effects of such live loads as those caused by human movements. resulting in a resonance Having said this.4. The first peak is due to one’s heel making contact with the slab and the second due to one’s foot leaving the slab in preparation for the next step. the structural design of these buildings is developed in consideration of the dynamic effects of their occupants. When a large audience jumps in the air all at once in a rock concert. ・Characteristics of Dynamic Loads Due to Human Movements Figure 4. Hereinafter.4.1 shows typical vibration-forcing activities and points of evaluation for them in consideration of actual .

2 shows the relationships between one’s stride/height. Habitability of etc. and T0 approx. facilities with precision (during equipment installed movements or still-standing) Synchronized by many persons. etc. the upper limit of speed/ height is approx. speed/height is approximately 0. the time for each load to reach its peak. L2/W and T2. etc. When running at the speed/height of about 1. . when running around the office. 0. habitability of residence. 0.1 Slab Vibrations Caused by Human Movements One step A Few steps by one person by several persons Walking Basics Habitability of residence (those other than exciters).4.9/s. productivity pedestrian and operability of decks. L1/W distribution centers around 0.1) and walking speed/height19).5. T1 and T2.5s. L1/W and L2/W (where W refers to the exciter’s weight). pace approx.6s. stride/height approx. T0. T1. etc.C4-16 .012s. 2. (exciters themselves) Habitability of officers. and its upper limit is about 1. and speed/height respectively. and 0. (those other than exciters) Habitability of staircase (those othe than exciters and exciters themselves) Semi-synchronized a few Random by steps by several persons many persons.4 and 0.0.012s. distributions center around 0. 0. L1/W distribution centers around 1. (see Figure 4..35s.2. When walking at the normal speed/height. stride/height is approx. T1.4.3s. 0. 0.5/s. During normal walking.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Table 4. foot-to-surface contact time. structural safety of the said building Jumping Basics. In this case. etc. 0.5/s.4.525. Ease to landing of use of ahtletic facilities Semi-synchronized by several persons: Movement by 2-3 persons standing side by side nad unconciously synchronizing their strides and walking pace synchronizing their strides and walking pace Random by many persons: Movement by various persons taking various positions and moving in various directions at various speeds Synchronized by many persons: Movement taken by many persons all at once to music. and its upper limit is about 2.15s.3 shows the relationships between the magnitudes of the peak p1 and p2. distributions center around 0. L2/W and T2. continuous Habitability of officers. Figure 4.1s. respectively. offices. exciters). 19. 0. On the other hand. This means that the duration of time that both feet are in contact with the surface is approx. continuous Running Basics Stepping up/down Basics Aerobics Basics Vertical footing or "tatenori" Basics Habitability of neighboring rooms (those other than exciters) Habitability of the said building and neighboring buildings (those other than exciters). pace approx. walking pace.4.11s. and T0 approx.0.5.7~0. 1. 1. Figure 4.20) .4. (those other than shopping malls.

C4-17 - Figure 4.20) Figure 4.4.4. T1.4. T2 and Speed/Height19 20) .19.1 Examples of Load Time Curve for Walking and Running17. T0 and Speed/Height19) ・ Figure 4. Pace.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .2 Relationships between Stride/Height.18.3 Relationships between L1/W. L2/W.

(see the acceleration time curve).4 summarizes the information presented above by showing typical examples of loads generated by walking and running..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 4. etc. p3. etc.4.5 Example of the Load Time Curve and Slab Vibration for Walking17.18) .4 Typical Example of Load Time Curve for Walking and Running Figure 4. ・Characteristics of Slab Vibrations Due to Human Movements Figure 4.4.4.C4-18 . together with the load time curve.4.18).5 shows examples of slab vibrations due to one-step walking by one person (the deformation time curve and the acceleration time curve) 17. Figure 4. Slab vibrations due to walking generally show complex and complicated characteristics of damped vibrations at a natural frequency of a slab excited by the peak p1.) (see the deformation time curve). and vibrations proportional to a double-peak patterned load (peak p2.

The time history waveform consisting of the components of the forcing frequency and its harmonics of continuous movements is generally expressed by the following equation using the Fourier series. it is difficult to properly evaluate the dynamic effects of human movements from the viewpoint of habitability without establishing a load model that enables us to examine vibrations with two different frequency components.C4-19 - An assessment on human sensitivity toward slab vibrations due to walking is influenced both by damped vibrations at the natural frequency of the slab and by vibrations proportional to the doublepeak patterned load 21. Therefore.6 Example of Time History Waveform for Walking .4. W.24) .4.1s each) in the typical load time curve shown in Figure 4.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . Figure 4. F (t) = W )1 + n=1 k !a n sin (2rnft + z n )3 Where: F(t) : W    t f n k : : : : : time history waveform of load exciter’s weight time ratio of amplitude of n harmonic components to exciter’s weight forcing frequency phase gap between n harmonic components and first harmonic components harmonic number upper limit of target n harmonic an : zn : Figure 4.6 shows a typical time history waveform for walking. ・ Dynamic Load Model (a) Time History Waveform The time history waveform set on the basis of the load time curve for human movements serves as the most basic dynamic load model.23. The waveform shown in the figure is developed by setting the walker’s weight. (b) Fourier Series The vibration-forcing power caused by continuous human movements generally involves many components of a forcing frequency and its harmonics. as 600N and superposing sections supported by both legs (

078 0.2 0. In this connection.0 1. etc.4 1. since this dynamic load model does not involve components of the load equivalent to the peak p1.012s in accordance with the typical example of walking loads shown in Figure 4. a 1 for each person still tends to be smaller due to the effects of phase differences among individual movements.086 0. separately studied. according to its natural frequency.15 about 0.2 1.5 3. it is necessary to separately examine damped vibrations at the natural frequency of the slab excited by the peak p1.5 3.. In other words.5 0. Any dynamic load model based on an impact with the above-mentioned impulse of about 3N. of actual loads.6 0. this load model does not involve components of the double-peak pattered load. corresponds to the aforementioned 3kg and 5cm.6 2.25 0. and the momentum of the response to be calculated can be regarded as the maximum amplitude in the early stage of damped vibrations at a natural frequency of a slab excited by the peak p1.0 3.25 0.C4-20 .8 0. 25) indicates that an impulsive force created by one person walking is “almost equal to the impact On the other hand.9 0. a 1 is approx.05 (c) Impulsive Load Design Recommendations for Composite Constructions of the Architectural Institute of Japan generated by a 3kg object freefalling from a height of 5cm”.s of the impulse (the half-sine wave with a maximum load of 118N and an action time of 0.4.1 0.69 0. a n for various movements derived from several data.33 0.2 0.5 3. “tatenori” or other movements. etc.0 2.05 0. This model may also be used for a slab whose natural frequency is not low to predict vibrations due to aerobics.1 0.0 3.04s). when the impulse is calculated by transforming the load time curve up to the peak p1 into the 1/4 sine wave with a maximum load of 300N (0. Table 4..0 1. All Standards for Structural Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures (1998 edition) of the Architectural Institute of Japan 26) indicates that the effective impulsive force due to walking is about 3N.025 0.5 2.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Table 4.5 X the average weight 600N) and an action time of 0. The dynamic load model using the Fourier series is basically used for a slab with a relatively low natural frequency in order to calculate and evaluate the amplitude of resonance that is induced between a forcing frequency or its harmonics and its natural frequency by subtly changing the forcing frequency. etc. 1/2~1/3 the gap between the maximum and minimum values In the case of movements by many persons.2 shows ranges of nf. However.0 α 1 α 2 α 3 α 4 0.2 0.44 0.2 0.31 0.s is applicable to the peak p1.1 0.0 2.7 1.5 0.5 4.057 0.4.07 1. αn for Walking and Running f (Hz) One person walking One person running One person jumping to landing Dancing by many persons Jumping and dancing by many persons Aerobics by many persons Concert by many persons Jumping to landing by many persons 1.4 0.4.3 2.2 Example of f .087 0.0 1. f.38 0.0 1. as for walking and running.4.15 0. As for movements by one person.75 1. and vibrations proportional to the double-peak pattered load must be This impulse almost . etc.5 1.3 2.

when a train runs above the ground or underground in close proximity to the building. the impulsive force generated in it causes vibrations. the impulse 4. Since it is possible to reduce the effects of the vibration-forcing power generated by the abovementioned machinery and equipment on buildings through appropriate counter-measures to vibrations. In the case of a machine such as a forge or a caster in which a heavy object falls onto it or collides with it. vibrations. In general. Also. though the force can be offset to some extent due to the phase relationship among different cranks. disturbances due to vibrations such as indoor floor slab vibrations may happen.3 Dynamic Effects of Vehicular Traffic When a car runs through an indoor parking space or along a road in front of a building. it is possible to express the time history waveform of the impulsive force with a half-sine wave pulse or a rectangular pulse by assuming the impulse as a case of freefall or collision.3 shows a summary of the types of plants/equipment that are potential vibration sources in ordinary buildings and the characteristics of those vibrations. it is important to fully understand the characteristics of the vibration sources and reflect them in the design30).4. it is important to understand its mechanism and predict the occurrence of possible In practice.29N. causing vibrations. the unbalance inertial force and the unbalance inertial moment remain in any case.0 X the average weight 600N).s. The following shows an outline of dynamic loads created by machinery and equipment 27.s. vibration-inducing mechanisms of individual machinery and equipment. plants/equipment for industrial installations. production machines. As for a multi-cylinder engine.2 Dynamic Effects of Operations of Machinery and Equipment There is a wide variety of machinery and equipment that can be vibration sources including airconditioners for ordinary buildings. For reference. vibrations caused by the running train propagate through the building structure and radiate as sound in certain areas inside the Therefore. resulting in a vibration- . vibration-inducing mechanisms can be largely classified into rotary motions. in designing fundamentals of an internalcombustion engine. Though it is difficult to accurately measure the magnitude of the actual impulsive force. with a complicated eliminate unbalanced components caused by rotary motions. the vibration-forcing power is estimated from information available from manufacturers by understanding machine. inducing force. Table 4. With the maximum load taken as 600N (1.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .29).4. motions and impulsive motions. etc. 4. it can be difficult to eliminate unbalanced components completely.C4-21 - it is 2.28.4. reciprocating Rotary machines such as electric fans and motors are designed to But in reality. is 4. and it is difficult to estimate dynamic loads caused by them in a unified way.58N.

5) Komori.. Hisagi. pp. : Live Load Reduction of Multiple-story Column for Office Buildings Part 2. Vol. Ono. K. : Study on Live Load of Office Buildings using Measured Data.. developed to calculate the additional static load of the car based on this ratio. Hisagi. : The Effects of Partial Load on the Fixed End Slab being Unevenly Distributed. 163-164 (in Japanese). Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AIJ.. 8) Idota. : A Study on Evaluation of Live Load. 1992.. . pp. H. in the range of 1. 9) Idota. Kanda.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings building. floor conditions. 5. 129-136 (in Japanese). . pp. Proc. . A. Yamamura.. : Effect of Floor Hardness on Human Sensation. S. Hayashi. H. Y. M. pp. pp. : A Study on the Effect of Extraordinary Live Load on Evaluation value. pp. its dynamic effects on the floor slab differ. H. Aoki. : Live Load Survey for Buildings Part 4. S. ICOSSAR. 10) Uchida. 215-216 (in Japanese)... : Theory of Plates. T. 1984.. Aoki. et a1. et a1. When a car runs inside a building. M. 1991. 1960 (in Japanese). 745-746 (in Japanese). 7) Kanda. 1992. et a1. Proceeding of the 7th Architectural Research Meetings (CHUGOKU and KYUSHU) Architectural Institute of Japan. H. 4) Ishikawa. a simplified way to assess the dynamic effects of a running car is In designing a floor slab. depending on the type of car itself. K. J.. H. 3) Kinoshita. 1976.C4-22 .2~1.. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AIJ..andOno. 1992. Instead. Therefore. pp.T. a formula has been In most cases. K.38B.. 1987. and Hayakawa.3 is used. 1023-1024 (in Japanese).. Maruzen. Extraordinary Live Load Model in Retail Premises. 1968. 225-226 (in Japanese). 2) Ishikawa.31-38 (in Japanex with English abstract). Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. Journal of Structural Engineering. : A Probabilistic Model for Live Load Extremes in Office Buildings. M. T. 12) Kunihiro. T. 217-218 (in Japanese). A. Y. and the type of framework of the slab. Uno. J. : Live Load Survey for Buildings Part 3. J. References 1) Tsuboi. This is a problem with solid borne sound. it is extremely difficult to accurately assess the dynamic effects of a running car and to reflect them in the design. pp. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AIJ. 853-854 (in Japanese). ICOSSAR. 6) Kanda. 1977.4. 1985. : Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Loads for Office Buildings. 1989. Kinoshita.. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AIJ. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AU. a ratio to regard the dynamic effects as the ratio of the dynamic deflection of the floor slab due to the running car to the static deflection due to the car’s own weight. The Simple Design of the Fixed End Slab that is Supposed Partial Load. pp. Proc. 11) Yamaoka. its running speed.

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