# CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS - C4-1

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CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.1.1 General Definition

- C4-2 - Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

Le = max *
i

# I i w (x, y) dxdy A 4 # I i dxdy A

(4.2.1)

where A is the influence area of the specific member, which is regarded as the floor area influencing the load on the member, Ii is the influence function defining the load effect on section i of the member,

2. considering the probability of change. In considering the effect of actual loads on a slab.167 is assumed.3 Conversion factor for equivalent uniformly distributed load The members are analyzed elastically to investigate the influence on structure in normal use based on furniture disposition obtained from the survey. The finite difference method is applied to the analysis. The boundary conditions of the girders are fixed. the use to which the building can be applied and the extra load.1) A reinforced concrete slab with four sides fixed and a poisson ratio of 0. loads are assumed to be distributed uniformly on 25cm-square areas. .2. The equivalent uniformly distributed loads are calculated by the above analysis.C4-4 .1 The influence of the area on load intensities (furniture and people) 4..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings designer. Figure 4.

C4-6 ..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings .

4 n Table 4.2.5) k n = 0. (4. The value of kn becomes smaller with increasing δi. The reliability index.2. based on survey results for office buildings8).2. removing the square by the relation (a + b) ] 1/ 2( a + b ) .2.2.4 in determining the reduction factor.3 shows the mean values.7 Relationship between unit area and coefficient of variation by unit analysis The correlation coefficient ρ of live loads between two different floors is determined to be 0. t (n . Although the tributary area of a column greatly varies with its position and the building's use. but for me multiple story columns the mean values converge to 540 N/m2 and the standard deviations become smaller with increasing the number of floors supported. Substituting these values into Equation (4.78). and rounding the coefficients.C4-10 . standard deviations and coefficients of variation of equivalent uniformly distributed loads of columns obtained by survey results for office buildings8).4) (4. is 2.5). Both the mean values and standard deviations vary considerably for single story columns at every floor.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings factor kn is used.1) + 1 1 + bd i n n + bv n n kn = = n (n i + bv i ) 1 + bd i (4.6 + 0.2. the influence area of a single story column is used as the influence area to calculate the reduction factor kn.33 for a 99% limit value based on the second moment method. .2. The variation of equivalent uniformly distributed load for a single column varies according to the size of the tributary area of the column.119. δi is assumed to be 0. denoted by β.4). Figure 4.. the multi-story reduction factor kn is derived as shown in Equation. considering the actual dimensions of the tributary area of the column based on the statistical results of square unit loads for office buildings shown in Figure 4.

the stochastic values of the density of people. which is the number of people divided by the area on which they are located. Therefore. Especially where loads mainly consist of personnel.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . If the total number of people in a event of N times is obtained.3. This assumption only applies to the events in which almost the same number of people are gathered each time.1 The effect of the uneven distribution of load on the fixed end moment of slabs Where loads are distributed almost uniformly in normal use. the analysis of the equivalent uniformly distributed load gives nearly the same result as the averaged load intensities. The number of people in one event is regarded as one sample. that number divided by N is regarded as one. Figure 4. In this recommendation.C4-13 - Figure 4. are estimated from data of a survey of building users. . the conversion factor for uniformly distributed load needs to be determined so that the effect on each member is apparent. it is estimated in consideration of the stochastic data of personnel loads based on the number of people on a floor in normal use and in consideration of uneven load distribution.2 shows the result.3.

machinery and equipment. occur as a continuous movement. seats in stadiums or halls where a large number of people gather are often structurally supported by cantilever beams. 4. the incidence is in the range of 80~95% for Walking loads other than the peak p1 show a double-peak pattern.20) In such cases. extraordinarily large dynamic loads may be applied. . problems caused by slab vibrations due to human movements. it is also desirable to consider the dynamic effects during the design development stage. 17. as plants/equipment such as manufacturing or testing machines sensitive to the effects of vibrations may be installed in facilities having ultra-precision environments including semiconductor fabrication plants or research laboratories. it is often necessary to control slab responses to the dynamic effects of humans. phenomenon. the degree of amplitude of vibrations imperceptible to humans is so important that highly precise techniques must be applied to Table 4. in running. and vehicular traffic are presented on the basis of currently available research results.1 Dynamic Effects of Human Movements ・Outline Slab vibrations due to various human movements cause problems in diverse ways. operations of plants/equipment. though. machinery and equipment in order to provide satisfactory habitability suitable for specific uses of the buildings. for example. On the other hand.C4-15 - traffic and plants/equipment may cause vibrations in long-span floor slabs. Moreover.19. both movements walking and 70~85% for running.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .1 describes examples of the load-time curve for walking and running with a slab. assume dynamic loads and predict slab responses. On the other hand.4. The peak p1 shown in the figure is attributable to the impact created when one’s heel makes initial contact The peak p1 does not always appear.18. so running loads show a single-peak pattern. the dynamic effects of such live loads as those caused by human movements. resulting in a resonance Having said this.4. The first peak is due to one’s heel making contact with the slab and the second due to one’s foot leaving the slab in preparation for the next step. the structural design of these buildings is developed in consideration of the dynamic effects of their occupants. When a large audience jumps in the air all at once in a rock concert. ・Characteristics of Dynamic Loads Due to Human Movements Figure 4. Hereinafter.4.1 shows typical vibration-forcing activities and points of evaluation for them in consideration of actual .

2 shows the relationships between one’s stride/height. Habitability of etc. and T0 approx. facilities with precision (during equipment installed movements or still-standing) Synchronized by many persons. etc. the upper limit of speed/ height is approx. speed/height is approximately 0. the time for each load to reach its peak. L2/W and T2. etc. When running at the speed/height of about 1. . when running around the office. 0. habitability of residence. 0.1 Slab Vibrations Caused by Human Movements One step A Few steps by one person by several persons Walking Basics Habitability of residence (those other than exciters).4.9/s. productivity pedestrian and operability of decks. L1/W distribution centers around 0.1) and walking speed/height19).5. T1 and T2.5s. L1/W and L2/W (where W refers to the exciter’s weight). pace approx.6s. stride/height approx. T0. T1. etc.C4-16 .012s. 2. (exciters themselves) Habitability of officers. and its upper limit is about 1. and speed/height respectively. and 0. (those other than exciters) Habitability of staircase (those othe than exciters and exciters themselves) Semi-synchronized a few Random by steps by several persons many persons.4 and 0.0.012s. distributions center around 0. 0. L1/W distribution centers around 1. (see Figure 4..35s.2. When walking at the normal speed/height. stride/height is approx. T1.4.3s. 0. 0.5/s. During normal walking.Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Table 4. foot-to-surface contact time. structural safety of the said building Jumping Basics. In this case. etc. 0.5/s.4.525. Ease to landing of use of ahtletic facilities Semi-synchronized by several persons: Movement by 2-3 persons standing side by side nad unconciously synchronizing their strides and walking pace synchronizing their strides and walking pace Random by many persons: Movement by various persons taking various positions and moving in various directions at various speeds Synchronized by many persons: Movement taken by many persons all at once to music. and its upper limit is about 2.15s.3 shows the relationships between the magnitudes of the peak p1 and p2. distributions center around 0. L2/W and T2. continuous Habitability of officers. Figure 4.1s. respectively. offices. exciters). 19. 0. On the other hand. This means that the duration of time that both feet are in contact with the surface is approx. continuous Running Basics Stepping up/down Basics Aerobics Basics Vertical footing or "tatenori" Basics Habitability of neighboring rooms (those other than exciters) Habitability of the said building and neighboring buildings (those other than exciters). pace approx. walking pace.4.11s. and T0 approx.0.5.7~0. 1. 1. Figure 4.20) .4. (those other than shopping malls.

C4-17 - Figure 4.20) Figure 4.4.4. T1.4. T2 and Speed/Height19 20) .19.1 Examples of Load Time Curve for Walking and Running17. T0 and Speed/Height19) ・ Figure 4. Pace.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS .2 Relationships between Stride/Height.18.3 Relationships between L1/W. L2/W.

(see the acceleration time curve).4 summarizes the information presented above by showing typical examples of loads generated by walking and running..Commentary on Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 4. etc. p3. etc.4.5 Example of the Load Time Curve and Slab Vibration for Walking17.18) .4 Typical Example of Load Time Curve for Walking and Running Figure 4. ・Characteristics of Slab Vibrations Due to Human Movements Figure 4.4.4.C4-18 . together with the load time curve.4.18).5 shows examples of slab vibrations due to one-step walking by one person (the deformation time curve and the acceleration time curve) 17. Figure 4. Slab vibrations due to walking generally show complex and complicated characteristics of damped vibrations at a natural frequency of a slab excited by the peak p1.) (see the deformation time curve). and vibrations proportional to a double-peak patterned load (peak p2.

The time history waveform consisting of the components of the forcing frequency and its harmonics of continuous movements is generally expressed by the following equation using the Fourier series. it is difficult to properly evaluate the dynamic effects of human movements from the viewpoint of habitability without establishing a load model that enables us to examine vibrations with two different frequency components.C4-19 - An assessment on human sensitivity toward slab vibrations due to walking is influenced both by damped vibrations at the natural frequency of the slab and by vibrations proportional to the doublepeak patterned load 21. Therefore.6 Example of Time History Waveform for Walking .4. W.24) .4.1s each) in the typical load time curve shown in Figure 4.CHAPTER 4 LIVE LOADS . Figure 4. F (t) = W )1 + n=1 k !a n sin (2rnft + z n )3 Where: F(t) : W    t f n k : : : : : time history waveform of load exciter’s weight time ratio of amplitude of n harmonic components to exciter’s weight forcing frequency phase gap between n harmonic components and first harmonic components harmonic number upper limit of target n harmonic an : zn : Figure 4.6 shows a typical time history waveform for walking. ・ Dynamic Load Model (a) Time History Waveform The time history waveform set on the basis of the load time curve for human movements serves as the most basic dynamic load model.23. The waveform shown in the figure is developed by setting the walker’s weight. (b) Fourier Series The vibration-forcing power caused by continuous human movements generally involves many components of a forcing frequency and its harmonics. as 600N and superposing sections supported by both legs (0.22.4.4.