TEACHER GUIDE ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION

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Short-Response Reading Questions

MultipleChoice Reading Questions. which relate in a general and simplified way to cognitive processes or levels of thinking that range from the concrete and literal to the more abstract and critical. In Assessing Levels of Comprehension. Assessing Levels of Comprehension allows students the opportunity for self-assessment. All students have to take tests.9 2.0–5. The passages progress from low to high along the following reading-level ranges: What are the four levels of comprehension in Assessing Levels of Comprehension? The four levels of comprehension in the series represent four levels of understanding. three questions at each of the four levels of comprehension. to figure out the answer. Level Four: GO BEYOND IT The answer is not directly stated or indirectly stated in the text.9 Each student book in Assessing Levels of Comprehension contains ten lessons. which include reading passages in a variety of literary genres. to the levels of thinking used to attain answer information ranging from the literal to the abstract.Short-Response .0–3.9 7. In Assessing Levels of Comprehension. Students find pieces of information that they can put together to answer the question. 2 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION .curriculumassociates. In this series. Following each reading passage are twelve questions.9 6. along with their prior knowledge. in one sentence or two sentences together in the reading passage. The reading passages in each student book reflect a variety of genres and curriculum content areas. Short-Response Reading Questions. And there probably aren’t clue words. Levels of Comprehension Level One: FIND IT The answer is clearly stated all in one place. There may be clue words. but it is hinted at (implied).Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®.FOR THE TEACHER In Assessing Levels of Comprehension.0–8. the questions are presented in shortresponse format. students get practice in answering reading questions at the following four levels of comprehension: • Level One: FIND IT • Level Two: CONNECT IT • Level Three: ADD TO IT • Level Four: GO BEYOND IT What is Assessing Levels of Comprehension? Assessing Levels of Comprehension is a diagnostic reading series that gives students practice in answering reading questions at four levels of comprehension.0–6.0–1. Inc. Students apply prior knowledge to information in the text to come up with an answer that goes beyond what is in the text.9 5. in a general way.0–2. all tests have questions with answers that range from the literal to the abstract. Book Book A Book B Book C Book D Book E Book F Book G Book H Reading Level 1. but it is not located all in one place. Each eight-level series is designed for students in grades 1–8. while it allows teachers the opportunity to identify and assess students’ level of mastery at each of the four levels of comprehension. the questions are presented in multiple-choice format.0–7. but the answer is based on or supported by information in the text. Level Two: CONNECT IT The answer is in the text. Students can find the answer clearly stated in one place in the passage text.9 4.com—800-225-0248 .9 3. Students use clues. Level Three: ADD TO IT The answer is not directly stated in the text.9 8. Assessing Levels of Comprehension helps both students and teachers meet the challenge.0–4. the levels of comprehension relate.—www.

Synthesis 6. 3 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION . remembering) 2.Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®. Integrating 7. CI CI CI. The chart that follows shows the general correlations between the levels of comprehension and the levels of cognition described by Benjamin Bloom and by Robert Marzano. Knowledge 2. Knowledge (focusing. Inc. Analyzing 5. with student and teacher information for each level. ATI ATI. GBI ATI.curriculumassociates. information gathering. ATI CI. GBI GBI Marzano (as adapted by North Carolina) 1. CI ATI ATI ATI. Application 4. Comprehension 3. Organizing 3. Analysis 5.Short-Response .How do the levels of comprehension relate to cognitive frameworks. such as Bloom’s taxonomy and Marzano’s framework? The levels of comprehension relate in a general (simplified and more accessible) way to the cognitive processes described in various cognitive frameworks. Bloom 1. Evaluating Key FI = CI = ATI = GBI = FIND IT CONNECT IT ADD TO IT GO BEYOND IT Level(s) of Comprehension FI. GBI GBI The chart on page 4 gives more information about the levels of comprehension. Generating 6. Evaluation Level(s) of Comprehension FI FI.com—800-225-0248 .—www. (Applying) 4.

The answer is not stated directly or indirectly in the text. Information for the Teacher: Students answer questions at a literal/analytical level.) to what they have read in the text to come up with an answer that goes beyond. for example). to figure out the answer. but the answer is based on information in the passage.More About the Levels of Comprehension MORE ABOUT THE LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION Level One: FIND IT Message to the Students: The answer is clearly stated and is all in one place in the passage. unstated main ideas. Generating. GO BEYOND IT—Bloom: Synthesis. Inc. You have to use clues or other details in the passage. Integrating. (Applying). along with what you already know. ADD TO IT—Bloom: Application. CONNECT IT—Bloom: Comprehension CONNECT IT—Marzano: Knowledge. predictions. You can find the answer in one sentence or two sentences. which requires finding and organizing related pieces of information. but it is implied. which expands on what is directly stated in the text. Students must apply prior knowledge to clues in the text to figure out the answer. with clue words if appropriate.com—800-225-0248 . Comprehension FIND IT—Marzano: Knowledge Level Two: CONNECT IT Message to the Students: The answer information is there in the passage. experiential. You need to apply what you already know to what you’ve read in the passage. Then you can come up with an answer that goes beyond what is given in the passage. though. Analyzing. And there probably aren’t any clue words. what appears in the text.Short-Response . Organizing. etc. directly stated in language similar to that in the question. Evaluation GO BEYOND IT—Marzano: Generating. The answer information is in the text. Information for the Teacher: Students answer questions at a critical/creative level. Evaluating 4 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION .—www. but it isn’t directly stated.curriculumassociates. clearly stated. but the answer is based on or supported by information in the text. inferences. FIND IT—Bloom: Knowledge. Students must find the relevant pieces of information (disregarding any unrelated information) and then put the relevant pieces together to figure out the answer. You have to find pieces of information and put them together to answer the question. Integrating Level Four: GO BEYOND IT Message to the Students: You won’t find the answer information stated directly or indirectly in the passage. Information for the Teacher: Students answer questions at the most concrete/literal level. and there are usually no clue words. Students apply various types of prior knowledge (content. but it probably isn’t all in one place. The answer information is not directly stated in the text. or extends. There are hints. Information for the Teacher: Students answer questions at an inferential level (conclusions. There may be clue words to help you.Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®. Analysis. Synthesis ADD TO IT—Marzano: (Applying). Analyzing Level Three: ADD TO IT Message to the Students: The answer information is there in the passage. The answer information is all in one place in the text (in one sentence or in two consecutive sentences). But the answer information is not usually located in one place in the text. students merely need to find the answer.

but that is not always the case. depending on how the answer information is attained from the passage text. Lacey is a dog groomer. the reading strategies reflect the type of question asked. literal. Lacey is a dog groomer. and trims the fur of dogs.How does the reading passage text affect the level of comprehension elicited by a question? Here is an example of how one question may elicit three different levels of comprehension.” The reading strategies are those featured in other Curriculum Associates reading series.com—800-225-0248 . In the example above. but it is not all in one place. You will note that some of the reading strategies are listed next to more than one level of comprehension. Question: What do the words dog groomer mean in the article? It might seem that this question would have a literal. As students gain practice in answering questions at the various levels of comprehension. Answering the question elicits the ADD TO IT level of comprehension.curriculumassociates. Lacey feels that this is the best job in the world. brushes. in two consecutive sentences. The passage reads: “Mrs.” The answer is not directly stated. or can be attained from. and she loves it. the reading passage text.—www. and trims the fur of dogs. The answer is right there.Short-Response . or “what the questions ask you to do. Inc. brushes. as well as additional reading strategies. A dog groomer is someone who washes. directly stated. and she can’t imagine doing anything else. Lacey is a dog groomer.” This answer is. Level of Comprehension Level One FIND IT Level Two CONNECT IT Reading Strategies • Finding Vocabulary Meaning in Context • Recalling Details • Finding Vocabulary Meaning in Context • Finding Main Idea • Understanding Sequence • Understanding Sequence • Recognizing Cause and Effect • Comparing and Contrasting • Recognizing Cause and Effect • Comparing and Contrasting • Summarizing (Books C–H) Level Three ADD TO IT • Finding Vocabulary Meaning in Context •Distinguishing Between Fact and • Finding Main Idea Opinion (Books B–H) • Interpreting Figurative Language • Distinguishing Between Real and • Making Predictions Make-believe (Books A–C) • Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences • Identifying Author’s Purpose • Identifying Text Features • Understanding Literary Elements and Features • Recognizing Correspondences • Understanding Resources Level Four GO BEYOND IT 5 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION . The passage reads: “Mrs. She has done this work for fifteen years. This is because the level of comprehension elicited depends on how the answer information can be attained from the passage text. in fact. Almost every dog that she washes. depending on how the information appears in. or concrete. The directly stated pieces of information have to be found and put together to figure out the answer. In Assessing Levels of Comprehension. and trims seems grateful. the same question can engage three different levels of comprehension.” The answer is there. She washes. they can become more confident in working at whatever level is necessary to find the answer to a question. How do the four levels of comprehension relate to reading strategies? The chart below shows the general relationship of the four levels of comprehension to various reading strategies. The answer must be inferred by using the clues in the passage text. but it is implied. Answering the question elicits the FIND IT level of comprehension. answer. Answering the question elicits the CONNECT IT level of comprehension. Mrs. She has done this kind of work for fifteen years.Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®. A Reading Strategies Chart on page 18 of the teacher guide lists the reading strategy associated with each question. brushes. The passage reads: “Mrs.

With practice.Short-Response . In a literature review. Biancarosa (2005) states “Giving students access to and experience with a wide variety of texts is another essential element of effective reading instruction for older students. p. the better fluency and comprehension they will develop. Multiple Choice and Short Response “A broad.com—800-225-0248 .curriculumassociates. 26) Metacognition Example: SB.” “Students tended to perform better on NAEP comprehension questions when they had experienced instruction on metacognitive skills. monitoring. with thinking and reasoning to follow later as an optional activity that may or may not take place. Student Self-assessments Cooperative Learning Opportunities Example: TG. students need exposure to multiple genres because they comprehend genres in different ways. “Research and common sense … confirm that interacting with other people about what we are learning deepens the understanding of everyone involved” (Marzano. 2005). judgment. thinking must be applied to all learning and to all learners” (Zohar & Dori. 1998). Inc. “Differentiating instruction is doing what’s fair and developmentally appropriate for students. planning.—www. general finding from the research base is that nearly all of the thinking skills programs and practices investigated were found to make a positive difference in the achievement levels of participating students” (Cotton. students become comfortable with the question formats that are connected with high-stakes testing.. There is a tendency for them to interpret only what the words say. 2004). no single text nor any single task can be appropriate for all children in a classroom…” (Allington. 2004). According to Shelton (2006). “Many children who can understand what they read at a literal level. “Poor reading ability often involves a lack of proficiency in the higher-order literacy processes of comprehension. 1990). Multiple Literary Genres Example: Biography (Level C SB. not what they mean” (Fisher.” (Wenglinsky. Transferable Comprehension Skills Example: SB. Multiple-Choice and Short-Response Questions 1–12 Supon (2004) cites that researchers have determined that “Students of all levels of academic achievement and intellectual abilities can be affected by test anxiety” (Supon. “Successful teachers offer all three formats (whole class. “Good readers use metacognition to self-monitor their reading. Thus. 2000). small groups or pairing. 10 16 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION . Metacognition enables good readers to identify what they understand and what confuses them” (Robb. Test-Taking Practice Example: SB. Differentiated Instruction Example: SB (Passages and reading strategies in Multiple Choice mirror passages and reading strategies in Short Response) “Because children differ. 2003). p. Instead. Short Response. This is significant because “cognitive test anxiety exerts a significant stable and negative impact on academic performance measures” (Cassady & Johnson. and active mental construction. 1991). and individual) over the course of a week or a unit of study” (Wormeli.Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®. 1991). 2005). …It’s whatever works to advance the student. Supon and other researchers suggest that one method of alleviating test anxiety is to provide practice with test-question formats. Multiple Choice.WHAT ARE THE RESEARCH-BASED STRATEGIES AND FEATURES IN ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION? This Series Uses… Research Says… Higher-Order Thinking Example: SB. It’s highly effective teaching” (Wormeli. can no longer guide the educational practice.. the traditional view that the basics can be taught as routine skills. p. 2005). The more practice they have. Multiple-Choice and Short-Response Questions 4–12 “Learning inherently involves components of inference. 2002). 16 and Level C SB. and evaluation” (Wittrock. Students who read more kinds of texts have demonstrated higher reading achievement. find it difficult to understand a writer’s underlying meaning and intentions.

ATI. FI. Voc 3. Cor Lesson 10 1. FI. GBI. C/I 9. FI. Voc 7. FI. FI. FI. ATI. M/I 5. FI. CI. C/I 8. CI. GBI. FI. GBI. FI. C/I 8. CI. FI. Voc 4. Det 3. CI. A/P Lesson 6 1. Voc 6. Det 2. Det 4. C/I 9. ATI. Lit 11. GBI. C/I 10. CI. A/P 12. GBI. C/E 7. Sum 6. FI. ATI. GBI. Det 2. M/P 10. FI. T/F 12. Voc 7. Sum 6. ATI. C/E 6. Lit 12. Voc 4. M/P 9. Seq 6. FI.com—800-225-0248 . ATI. C/I 10. Lit 12. FI. CI. ATI. GBI. GBI. CI. CI. Voc 8. CI. Cor 12. ATI. GBI. Det 2. Lit Lesson 8 1. Lit 12.Book H—CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®. GBI. C/E 6. ATI. FI. FI. M/I 10. Det 4. FI. ATI. ATI. ATI. CI. ATI. GBI. M/P 10. Det 3. GBI. ATI. Lit Lesson 2 1. CI. GBI. CI. CI. M/I 5. GBI. Det 2. M/I 5. Voc 2.curriculumassociates. M/I 7. GBI. A/P 11. GBI. ATI. C/I 10. CI. ATI. CI. FI. Voc 8. CI. CI. C/E 5. CI. ATI. CI. Det 3. M/I 8. C/I 9. F/L 8. Det 4. Voc 7. GBI. C/I 9. FI. Det 3. GBI. C/I 8. Seq 5. FI. Voc 3. FI. Sum 7. Res Reading Strategies: Det Recalling Details Voc Finding Vocabulary Meaning in Context C/C Comparing and Contrasting 18 ASSESSING LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION . FI. ATI. Cor Lesson 4 1. ATI. A/P Lesson 3 1. C/I 10. FI. F/O 10. Det 3. A/P 11. Det 2. C/C 6. GBI. GBI.READING STRATEGIES CHART. CI. ATI. A/P 12. Cor 11. Seq 7. Voc 9. T/F 12.Short-Response . ATI. Det 4. FI. C/I 9. GBI. GBI. T/F 12. CI. Det 3. Cor 11. M/P 8. F/L 10. CI. C/C 6. ATI. FI. GBI. BOOK H Lesson 1 1. Sum 6. Seq 7. FI. CI. ATI. Res 11. Det 3. FI. C/E 5. A/P 11. GBI. Cor Chart Key Levels of Comprehension: FI = FIND IT CI = CONNECT IT ATI = ADD TO IT GBI = GO BEYOND IT Understanding Sequence Recognizing Cause and Effect Finding Main Idea Summarizing Interpreting Figurative Language Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion M/P Making Predictions C/I Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences Seq C/E M/I Sum F/L F/O R/M Distinguishing Between Real and Make-believe A/P Identifying Author’s Purpose T/F Identifying Text Features Res Understanding Resources Lit Recognizing Literary Elements and Features Cor Making Correspondences Lesson 9 1. GBI. Lit 11. C/E 6. FI. GBI. M/P 8. CI. Lit Lesson 7 1. Det 2. F/O 10. ATI. C/E 5. FI. Det 4. Seq 5. Cor Lesson 5 1. ATI. ATI. Inc. Det 3. CI. C/C 7. ATI. GBI. Cor 12. A/P 11. GBI. Det 4. C/I 8. ATI. Sum 5. C/E 4. C/I 9. CI. Det 2. F/O 9. ATI. CI. C/E 5. Det 2. CI. GBI. FI. Seq 7. Det 2. Voc 4. GBI. Lit 11. CI. CI. C/I 9. ATI.—www.