UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA
ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE485)













No. Title Allocated Marks (°) Marks
1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims 5
4 Theory 5
5 Apparatus 5
6 Methodology/Procedure 10
7 Results 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 5
11 Recommendations 5
12 ReIerence / Appendix 5
TOTAL MARKS 100
Remarks:

Checked by : Rechecked by:


--------------------------- ---------------------------

Date : Date :

NAME : NUUR ALIF AIKAL B. CHE HAT
STUDENT NO. : 2010403024
GROUP : 3A
EXPERIMENT : REFRIGERANT UNIT
DATE PERFORMED : 19

OCTOBER 2011
SEMESTER : 3
PROGRAMME / CODE : EH221
SUBMIT TO : MISS HABSAH BINTI ALAWI
[Z`WZ`_
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 4
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................. 6
THEORY .................................................................................................................................... 7
APPARATUS ............................................................................................................................. 8
PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................................... 8
RESULT ..................................................................................................................................... 9
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................... 19
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 20
RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................................... 21
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 21

ABSTRAT

A reIrigeration apparatus was used to evaluate the perIormance oI a reIrigeration cycle. There
are Iour parts in this experiment. Experiment 1 is mainly about determining power input, heat
output and coeIIicient oI perIormance oI a vapor compression heat pump system. From the
calculation made, the value oI heat output Irom the experiment is 229.9 W, the power input
which is taking Irom the reading is 179 W, and the coeIIicient oI perIormance oI heat pump is
1.28. The coeIIicient oI perIormance oI heat pump is calculated Irom the Iormula
C
H
heat rejected at the higher temperature
COP
compressor net work
"

.
Second part oI the experiment is to produce the perIormance oI heat pump over a range oI source
and delivery temperatures. The graphs oI COP
H
, power, and heat output vs temperature was
plotted. All the graphs shows similar pattern. The third experiments are to plot vapor
compression cycle on p-h diagram and compare with the ideal cycle and to perIorm energy
balances Ior the condenser and compressor. The graph oI p-h was plotted by Iinding the value oI
h Ior the whole cycle. The last part oI the experiment is to determine the compression ratio and
volumetric eIIiciency. The value oI compression ratio and volumetric eIIiciency are 0.35 and
0.62 respectively. In real liIe, ideal cycle cannot be achieved because oI so many Iactors that can
aIIect the system.

TRUDUTU

The SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165) has been designed to provide students
with a practical and quantitative demonstration oI a vapour compression cycle, and is suitable
Ior all course levels (intermediate and undergraduate). ReIrigerators and heat pump both apply
the vapour compression cycle, although the applications oI these machines diIIer, the
components are essentially the same.

The Mechanical Heat Pump is capable oI demonstrating the heat pump applications where a
large Ireely available energy source, such as the atmosphere is to be upgraded Ior water
heating. The unit will be particular interest to those studying Mechanical Engineering, Energy
Conservation, Thermodynamics, Building Services, Chemical Engineering, Plant and Process
Engineering, ReIrigeration and Air Conditioning.

ReIrigerators and heat pumps are devices that absorb heat at a low temperature and reject
heat at a higher temperature. Both reIrigerators and heat pumps operate in the same way using a
reversed heat engine cycle, but are labeled separately according to their purpose. Devices that are
used to maintain a temperature below ambient are known as reIrigerators (or air conditioners)
while devices that are used to supply heat at a higher temperature than ambient are known as heat
pumps. Some devices, in particular those used Ior space cooling, may be used as both a heat pump
and a reIrigerator.

The vapor compression cycle is the most commonly used reIrigeration/heat pump cycle and
involves the same Iour processes as a heat engine cycle but in the reverse order (i.e. evaporation
compression condensation expansion/throttling). Figure 1 gives a schematic representation oI
the Iour essential mechanical components in this cycle; Iigure 2 shows the ideal cycle on a
pressure-enthalpy diagram.


Heat out


3 2

Condenser

Throttle Work in
Valve
Evaporator Compressor


4 1

Heat in

Figure 1: Vapor Compression Cycle components
Figure 2: Ideal cycle on pressure enthalpy diagram.

In ideal vapor compression cycle the reIrigerant vapour is compressed isentropically to a higher
temperature and pressure (12). The compressed vapour is then condensed isobarically which
results in heat rejection to the surroundings (23). The next step is the adiabatic throttling oI the
3
2
4
1
Superheating

Subcooling
Critical Point
Liquid
Pressure
Enthalpy
reIrigerant to the low temperature and pressure (34). The Iinal step is where the reIrigerant is
evaporated isobarically at low temperature and pressure, which results in the absorption oI heat
Irom its surroundings (41). In an actual cycle states 1 and 3 should not lie on the saturation line
as there is subcooling (helpIul to obtain state 3 in the diagram) and superheating (necessary to
avoid droplets (two phase region!) in the compressor).

The usual measure oI perIormance oI a reIrigerator or heat pump is the Coefficient of Performance
COP which Ior a reIrigerator COP
R
is deIined as:


E
R
heat absorbed at the lower temperature
COP
compressor net work
"

(1a)
For a heat pump COP
H
:


C
H
heat rejected at the higher temperature
COP
compressor net work
"

(1b)
where E, C, R, H stand Ior Evaporator, Compressor, ReIrigeration, and Heat pump respectively.







UB)ETES

Experiment 1: to determine the power output, heat output and coeIIicient oI perIormance oI a
vapor compression heat pump system.

Experiment 2: to produce perIormance oI heat pump over a range oI source and delivery
temperatures.

Experiment 3: a) to plot vapor compression cycle on p-h diagram and compare with the ideal
cycle.
b) to perIormed energy balances Ior the condenser and compressor.

Experiment 4: to determine the compression ratio and volumetric eIIiciency.


THEURY


A heat pump is a machine or device that transIers heat Irom one location at a lower temperature
to another location at a higher temperature using mechanical work or a high-temperature heat
source. The diIIerent between a heat pump and a normal air conditioner is heat pump can be used
to provide heating or cooling whereas air conditioner is only Ior cooling. Although heat pump is
use to heating but it still work using the same basic reIrigeration cycle. The basic idea oI all
pumps is that the heat is absorbed using a medium, which releases the heat at a required
temperature which is higher aIter a physical or chemical transIormation.
Generally, there are three types oI heat pump system:
1. Closed cycle vapor compression heat pump (electric and engine driven)
2. Heat transIormer (a type oI absorption heat pump)
3. Mechanical vapor recompression heat pump operating at about at 200°C
The coeIIicient oI perIormance, (COP) oI a heat pump cycle is an expression oI the cycle
eIIiciency and is stated as the ratio oI the heat removed in the heated space to the heat energy
equivalent oI the energy supplied to the compressor.
COPH Heat produced inside the room / Power consumed by the compressor
Thus, the theoretical simple cycle, it may write as:
COPH
hcutìng o] ]cct
hcut o] comp¡cssìon


(h
2
-h
3
)
(h
2
-h
1
)

The cooling water and reIrigerant Ilow rate display is in percentage (°). The Iormula to convert
cooling water and reIrigerant Ilow rate to LPM are:
1. Cooling water Ilow rate (LPM)
cooIìng wutc¡ ]Iow ¡utc (%)
100%
× 5 LPM

2. ReIrigerant Ilow rate (LPM)
¡c]¡ìgc¡unt ]Iow ¡utc (%)
100%
× 1.26 LPM

APPARATUS

1) SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165)
2) Stop watch.

PRUEDURES

General start-up

1) All the unit and instruments were checked so that in good condition.
2) Both water source and drain are connected then water supplies were opened and the
cooling water Ilowrate were set at 1.0 LPM.
3) The drain hose at the condensate collector was connected.
4) Main power was switched on Iollows by switch at control panel.
5) ReIrigerant compressor was switched on.


Experiment 1

1) General start-up procedures were perIormed.
2) The cooling water Ilowrate was set to 40°.
3) All the necessary data were recorded aIter the system running Ior 15 minutes.

Experiment 2

1) General start-up procedures were perIormed.
2) The cooling water Ilowrate was set to 70°.
3) All the necessary data were recorded aIter the system running Ior 15 minutes.
4) The experiments were repeated by reducing the cooling water Ilowrate so that the water
outlet temperature, TT6, increases by about 3
o
C.
5) Similar steps were repeated until the compressor delivery pressure reaches around 2.6
bars.

Experiment 3

1) General start-up procedures were perIormed.
2) The cooling water Ilowrate was set to 40°.
3) All the necessary data were recorded aIter the system running Ior 15 minutes.

Experiment 4

1) The experiment is similar to experiment 3, thereIore the procedures were repeated.

RESULT

Experiment 1: determination of power input, heat output and coefficient of performance.

Cooling water Ilow rate, FT 1 ° 40.1
Cooling water inlet temperature, TT 5 °C 26.4
Cooling water outlet temperature, TT 6 °C 29.7
Compressor power input W 179

For reading 1,
Cooling water Ilow rate, LPM
cooIìng wutc¡ ]Iow ¡utc (%)
100%
x 5 LPM

40.1 x 5
100


2.005 LPM

Calculation:

Heat output
1.0 L
mìn
×
1 L
kg
×
1 mìn
60 s
×
4180 ]
kg.K
× (Ŷ9.Ż - Ŷź.Ÿ)

229.9 W

COP
H

Hcut 0utput
Powc¡ Input



229.9 w
179 w


1.28











Experiment 2: production of heat pump performance curve over a range of source and
delivery temperatures.

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3
Cooling water Ilow rate, FT 1 ° 70.8 19.0 20.7
Cooling water inlet temperature, TT
5
°C 26.4 26.3 26.4
Cooling water outlet temperature,
TT 6
°C 28.4 31.6 32.9
Compressor power input W 175 185 185
Heat output W 139.3 369.2 452.8
COP
H
0.80 2.00 2.45


From the value calculated, graphs can be constructed,

1rlal

1
(
0
C)

CCÞ
hp

Þower
(W)
C
h

(W)
1 26.4 0.80 175 139.3
2
26.3 2.00 185 369.2
3 26.4 2.45 185 452.8











0
0Ŧ3
1
1Ŧ3
2
2Ŧ3
28 28Ŧ3 29 29Ŧ3 30 30Ŧ3 31 31Ŧ3 32 32Ŧ3 33 33Ŧ3
C
C
Þ
coo||ng water out|et temperature (deg C)
performance of heat pump aga|nst coo||ng
water out|et temperature
0
0Ŧ3
1
1Ŧ3
2
2Ŧ3
26Ŧ28 26Ŧ3 26Ŧ32 26Ŧ34 26Ŧ36 26Ŧ38 26Ŧ4 26Ŧ42
C
C
Þ
coo||ng water |n|et temperature (deg C)
performance of heat pump aga|nst coo||ng
water |n|et temperature
Experiment 3: production of vapor compression cycle on p-h diagram and balance study.

ReIrigerant Ilow rate, FT2 ° 47.1
ReIrigerant pressure (low), P1 Bar (abs) 2.5
ReIrigerant pressure (high), P2 Bar (abs) 7.4
ReIrigerant temperature, TT1 C 20.8
ReIrigerant temperature, TT2 C 72.9
ReIrigerant temperature, TT3 C 28.6
ReIrigerant temperature, TT4 C 17.7
Cooling water Ilow rate, FT1 ° 40.8
Cooling water inlet temperature,
TT5
C 26.5
Cooling water outlet temperature ,
TT6
C 30.3
Compressor power input W 179

The reIrigeration cycle is constructed Irom the data in the table













Figure 1: Example reIrigeration cycle

1 atm 101.325 kPa 1.01325 bar

ReIrigerant pressure (low), P1,

Ŷ.ŹTS^ ×
1 atm
1.01325 bar
×
101.325 kPa
1 atm


250kPa

ReIrigerant pressure (high), P2,

7.4 TS^ ×
1 atm
1.01325 bar
×
101.325 kPa
1 atm


740 kPa

Calculation at 1 and 2,
Find h
1
and h
2
using interpolation Irom saturated R-134a pressure table

P (kPa) h (kJ/kg)
240 202.62
250 201.85
280 199.54

P (kPa) h (kJ/kg)
700 176.21
740 174.43
750 173.98




Calculation 3 and 4,
Find h
3
and h
4
using interpolation Irom saturated R-134atemperature table


T (°C) h (kJ/kg)
28 90.69
28.6 91.63
30 93.58

T (°C) h (kJ/kg)
16 73.73
17.7 76.00
18 76.52

From the value that calculated, p-h diagram can be constructed,

h (k!/kg)
Þressure
(kÞa)
201Ŧ83 250
174Ŧ43 740
91Ŧ63
740
76Ŧ00 250
201Ŧ83 250




p-h diagram of ideal cycle




0
100
200
300
400
300
600
700
800
0 30 100 130 200 230
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
k
Þ
a
)
h(kI]kg)
ÞŴh d|agram of kŴ134a
Experiment 4: estimation of the effect of compressor pressure ratio on volumetric
efficiency


ReIrigerant Ilow rate , FT2 ° 47.2
ReIrigerant pressure (low) , P1 Bar (abs) 2.6
ReIrigerant pressure (high) , P2 Bar (abs) 7.4
ReIrigerant temperature ,TT1 C 22.4


Compressor pressure ratio
tIon prcrc oI rcIrIgcrant
dIargc prcrc oI rcIrIgcrant



2.6 bar
7.4 bu¡s


÷0.35


Volumetric eIIiciency
ctuuI ¡oIumct¡ìc ]Iow ¡utc
1hco¡ctìcuI ¡oIumc o] comp¡csso¡



ReIrigerant Ilow rate, LPM
¡c]¡ìgc¡unt ]Iow ¡utc (%)
100%
x 1.26 LPM


0.472 × 1.26 LPM

0.595 LPM

Change LPM to the kg/s
Mass Ilow rate 0.595 LPM x
1000 cm
3
1 L
x
1m
3
(100cm)
3
x
1 mìn
60 s
x 4.25
kg
m
3

4.215 x 10
-5

kg
s

Density oI reIrigerant 134a 4.25
kg
m
3





Actual volume Ilow rate
muss ]Iow¡utc
dcnsìt¡ o] ¡c]¡ìgc¡unt 134u

4.215 x 10
-5

kg
s
x
m
3
4.25 kg

9.918 x 10
-6

m
3
s


Volumetric eIIiciency
9.9ŵ8 x ŵŴ-ź
1.61 x 10
-S


0.62





DSUSSU

All the experiment need to perIorm start-up procedure Iirst beIore doing the Iollowing
experiments. The start-up procedure was to make sure that the entire component is in proper
condition to avoid any mistakes. The hoses need to be connected to both at sources and drain.
Experiment 1 is conducted to determine the power output, heat output and coeIIicient oI
perIormance oI a vapor compression heat pump system. To take the necessary data, the system
was running Ior 15 minutes and let the Ilowrate oI cooling water be about 40°.in this
experiment; we had made it 40.1° because it is diIIicult to set Ior the exact value. For the power
output, we get the reading was 179 W, heat output is 229.9 W and coeIIicient oI perIormance is
1.28. We can determine the value oI coeIIicient oI perIormance by applying Iormula COP
H

Hcut 0utput
Powc¡ Input
and the power input is just by reading it at the control panel oI the apparatus. The
coeIIicient oI perIormance was a small value so iI we want to improve the coeIIicient oI
perIormance, we need to decrease temperature diIIerence. %e Coefficient of Performance
(amount of eat moved per unit of input work required) decreases wit increasing temperature
difference.
1


Experiment 2 is about producing the perIormance oI heat pump over a range oI source and
delivery temperatures. This time, we adjust the cooling Ilowrate to about 70° let it run Ior 15
minutes again. Then, we repeated the same procedure by reducing water Ilow rate so that water
outlet temperature increases by about 3
o
C then all the necessary data were collected. These
procedures were made to plot graphs oI perIormance oI heat pump against cooling water outlet
and inlet. The graph shows the perIormance oI heat pump decreases with increasing temperature
even it increase Ior a value, then it decrease back. ThereIore, the statement above was right that
the coeIIicient oI perIormance decreases with increasing temperature diIIerence.





1
PeaL pump
hLLpť//enŦwlklpedlaŦorg/wlkl/PeaL_pump
Experiment 3 is to construct p-h diagram Ior the cycle and compare it to the ideal cycle. There
are diIIerences between this cycle and the ideal one because oI many Iactors that aIIect it.
Frictional pressure drop in the system, slight thermodynamic irreversibility during the
compression oI the reIrigerant vapor, or non-ideal gas behavior are most common Iactor that
aIIect the system. Conclusion Ior this experiment is there are no ideal cycle can be achieve in
real liIe because even the most perIect cycle can have slight diIIerence.

In experiment 4, we want to determine the compression ratio and volumetric eIIiciency. From the
calculation, we Iound that the compression ratio is 0.35 and the volumetric eIIiciency is 0.62.
'olumetric efficiencies of at least 0.8 are desirable and are acievable.
2

Even the value is slight diIIerence Irom the desirable value, it can be considered.

ULUSU

The conclusion that can be made Irom this experiment is that this cycle is not an ideal cycle. We
do not achieve the desirable value Ior volumetric eIIiciency, the p-h diagram that have been
made Irom the experiment and calculation is diIIerent Irom the ideal cycle and the value oI
coeIIicient oI perIormance is small that are 0.8, 2.0 and 2.4 as in experiment 2. ThereIore, to
improve the coeIIicient oI perIormance, we need to decrease the temperature diIIerence.


2
ueslgn of a refrlgeraLlon cycle Ŵ claymoreŦenglneerŦgvsuŦedu
REUMMEDATUS

1. Make sure the machine is in the good condition beIore start the experiment.
2. Make sure the data is stabilizing beIore taking the reading as it can aIIect the result.
3. Make sure that the both water source and drain are connected beIore start the experiment.
4. Make sure the amount oI water supply is enough Ior entire experiment.
5. Make sure the water Ilowrate is set on 1.0 LPM.

REFEREES

1. Date oI access:02 November 2011
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat¸pump

2. Date oI access:30 October 2011
http://www.scribd.com/doc/37740504/Lab-1-ReIrigeration-Cycle

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