Principles

With every building machine the manufacturer submits a machine technical documenta the runner. In the business and maintenance instructions contained in this are gone into right choice, maintenance and control at corresponding machines also deep by steel wireand e.g. the professional procedures are also desrcibed at the rope change. In the end, is spare part list called the manufacturer specific or objective ordering names of the steel cables perhaps to be obtained newly detailedly and clearly.

For steel wire-cables wire

The high function value of the steel wire-cables into building machines justifies the acqu of the DIN paperback no. 59 in which the most essential norms are collected about wire-c

DIN 2078, sheet1, gives a survey of the diameters and as well as which of specific length of the steel wires normally used for steel wire-cables. The mechanical material knowing r of the steel wires are in DIN 2078, sheet 2, represented for wire-cables and the test proced continuation.

Wire is predominantly used for steel wire-cables to the equipment of building machines calling tensile strength of 180 DaN/mm ². E.g. one takes wire away from the calling ten strength 200 DaN/mm ² while for elevator ropes wire qualities with calling tensile stren results of 140 and 160 of DaN/mm ² are usual for from putting pure moving ropes for vehicle crane.

Verse rushing manners

The DIN 3051 informs about the systematics of the different rope manners in two sheets law-and left-handed braid twisting is marked by lower case letters: Right-handed "z"; handed "s".

Choice and order

At the order of steel wire-cables for building machines, in principle, the details the corresponding spare part list should be followed for the already known reasons. If the ne wire-cable is then ordered from the machine manufacturer or from the storekeepers dir then the detail of the respective spare part number suffices for the clear rope identifica generally. If one votes for another rope supplier, then this needs at least hereinafter det ° of use of the rope ° needed rope length (detail in m) ° of nominal diameter of the steel wire-cable (in mm)

° of construction or design of the steel wire-cable detail (of the corresponding DIN num ° of manner of the desired rope deposits (short sign) ° of desired wire surface (short sign) ° of required calling strength of the steel wires (in N/mm ²) ° of use conditionally required (specified) blow manner and -- direction ° standard or tension poor execution (short sign)

ROPE SELECTION Strands and Construction

Wires are the basic building blocks of wire rope. They lay around a "center" in a specifie pattern in one or more layers to form a strand. The strands lay around a core to form a w rope. The strands provide all the tensile strength of a fiber core rope and over 90% of the strength of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core.

a rope that has strands made up of a few large wires will be more abrasion resistant and less fatigue resistant than a rope of the same size made up of strands with m smaller wires. Galvanized wire. A general rule. This is often used to improve corrosion resistance of wire ropes.Characteristics like fatigue resistance and resistance to abrasion are directly affected by t design of strands. Preformed Special Rope with Plastic Material P 825 ropes can be used universally.hardly affected by vibrations Leading cranes manufactures believe in the rope P825 ! Basic Types of Wire Ropes Bright Wire. In most strands with two or more layers of wires.high resistance to reverse bending stress .completely tension-free rope structure . We use the . and wear resistance finished rope.less waer inside the rope . fatigue resistance. where a non-rotating rope i required ! . inner layers support layers in such a manner that all wires may slide and adjust freely when the rope bends. Most ropes are made with an uncoated (bright) wire that is manufactured from carbon steel. The chemistry of the steel used and the practice involved in drawing the wire are to supply the ultimate combination of tensile strength.

Drawn galvanized wire is galvanized before the final drawing to finished size. This wire is then run through the galvanizin and the resultant coating of zinc increases the wire diameter to the finished size. The third meaning is a length measurement used in manufacturin inspection. The lay of a rope affects its operational characteristics. R made from this wire therefore have a nominal strength that's 10% lower than the equival size and grade of bright rope. Standards and regulations req removal when a certain number of broken wires per rope lay are found.    The direction strands lay in the rope -. wires are laid in the strand opposite the direction the strands lay in the rope. wires in regular lay run straight down the length of the rope. This is a special alloy containing approximately 18% chromium and 8% n It has high resistance to many corrosive conditions and is used extensively in yachting ropes an control cables.following two different procedures to manufacture galvanized wire:   Galvanized to finished size wire is first drawn as a bright wire to a predetermined size th smaller than the required finished wire size. When you look down a rope. Left lay is the opposite. While lang lay is more fatigue resistant and abrasion resistant. In regular lay. The first two meanings are descriptive of the wire strand positions in the rope. Galvani finished size wire has a strength 10% lower than the same size and type of bright wire. strands right lay rope go away from you to the right. Stainless steel wire. (It doesn't matter w direction you look. A galvanized wire that has higher tensile strength and fatigue resist Its primary usage is in aircraft control cables. the wires are laid the same direction in the strand as the strands lay in the rope. use is normally limited to single layer spooling and when the rope and load are restrained from rotatio Preforming . is a measurement frequently used in wire rope inspection. it is much thinner than the co on galvanized to finished size wire. and lang lay. Drawn galvanized wires are equal in strength to the size and type of bright wire and drawn galvanized rope is equal in strength to the same s and grade of bright rope.right or left. "Lay" and Rope Design "Lay" has three meanings in rope design. they appear to angle across the rope. Galvanized aircraft wire. In lang lay. In appearance. Since the galvanized coating also goes through the drawing process. Regular lay is more stable and more res to crushing than lang lay.) The relationship between the direction strands lay in the rope and the direction wires lay strands. The length along the rope that a strand makes one complete spiral around the rope core.

or n the nominal strength.for example. a rope loses strength gradually due to natura causes such as surface wear and metal fatigue. Ther precise recommendations for sheave and drum sizes to properly accommodate all sizes a types of ropes. But that means the rope's fatigue resist will decrease. The nominal strength applies to new. when you increase fatigue resistance b selecting a rope with more wires. of bending repeatedly under stress -. Nominal strength refers to calculated strength figures that have been accepted by the wire rope industry. During its useful life.          Strength. a rope passing over a sheave. ropes must ne bend over sheaves or drums with a diameter so small as to bend wires excessively. a new rope should break at a figure equal to higher than -. This process helically shapes the wires strands into the shape they will assume in the finished rope. In published mate wire rope strength is shown as "nominal" strength. Crushing is the effect of external pressure on a rope. a wire rope cannot increas fatigue resistance and abrasion resistance. unused rope. Fatigue resistance. one choice is a rope with fewer (and larger) outer wires to reduce the effects of surface wear. Today. Fatigue resistance involves metal fatigue of the wires that make up a To have high fatigue resistance.the nominal strength shown for that rope. Every rope is subject to metal fatigue from bending stress while in operation. wires must be capable "squared" ends are typical of fati breaks. larger wires because smaller wires have greater ability to bend as the rop passes over sheaves or around drums. When placed under tension on a test device. When you need wire rope with greater abrasion resistance. strands and core are prevented from mo . Choosing the Right Wire Rope All wire ropes feature design characteristic tradeoffs. preforming is virtually standard in ro manufacture. A rope should never operate at -. To overcome the effects of fatigue. You must consider all operating conditions and rope characteristics.000 Ibs. the wires. Increased fatigue resistance is achieved in a rope design by using a large number of wire general. When a rope is damaged by crushing. which damag by distorting the cross-section shape of the rope. For example.Preforming preshapes strands before the rope is closed. and non-preformed rope is made only on special order. its strands or core or all three. Crushing resistance therefore is a rope's ability to withstand or resist external forces. Crushing resistance. The superior qualities of preformed ropes result from wires and strands being "at rest" in the ro which minimizes internal stresses within the rope. and term generally used to express comparison between ropes. That's why you need to choose your wire rope like you would any other machine carefully. a rope made of many wires will have greater fatigue resistance than a same-size made of fewer. Wire rope strength is usually measured in tons of 2. and therefo rope's strength gradually diminishes as the rope is used. In most cases. the rope will have less abrasion resistance because of its grea number of smaller outer wires. It improves handling and resistanc kinking by conforming the strands to the position they take in the rope.

thereby affecting its fatigue resistance. Usually. Reserve strength of a rope is that percentage of its catalog strength wh represented by the inner wires of the outer strands.or doe tend to tangle lay ropes. ropes of many wires are more bendable than same-size ropes made with few large wires.since increasing the number of outer w a strand also increases the cross-sectional area occupied by inner wires.              and adjusting normally during operation. Bendability relates to a rope's ability to bend easily in an are. a rope is called stable when it spools smoothly on and off a drum -. and the type of rope core. Small ropes are more bendable than big ones. Resistance to metal loss and deformation. It may also occur on sheaves. A ro made of simple seven-wire strands will usually be more stable than a more complicated construction with many wires per strand.w causes the metal of the wire to flow into a new shape -. Some rope constructions are by nature more bendable than others. metal composition and finish.since outsi wires of a peened rope appear to have been "hammered" along their exposed surface. Peening causes metal fatigue. This reduces streng rope. the rope and s construction. In general. Bendability. This recognizes that outer wires shou the first to be damaged or worn away. due to their construction. when a multi-part reeving system is relaxed. resistance to metal loss by abrasion (usually called "abrasion resistance") refe rope's ability to withstand metal being worn away along its exterior. caused by rope-to-rope contact during spooling of the rope on drum. The word "stability" is most often used to describe handling and working characteristics of a rope. It is not a precise term since the idea expressed is to some degr matter of opinion.realigns the grain structure of th metal. which in turn may cause wire failure. Fiber core ropes bend more easily than comparable IWRC ropes general rule. can experience different modes of we failure than standard ropes. The most common form of metal deformation is generally called "peening" . Rotation-resistant ropes. The primary f that affect this capability are the diameters of wires that make up the rope. The hammering -. the greater will be its reserve st This is true because of the geometry of a circle -. and is more nearly a "personality" trait than any other rope feature. Stability. Strand and rope construction contribute mostly to stability. Reserve strength. and metal deformation is the changing of the shape outer wires of a rope. Metal loss refers to the actual wearing away metal from the outer wires of a rope. Preformed rope is usually mo stable than nonpreformed. IWRC ropes are more crush resistant than fiber core ropes. and lang lay rope tends to be less stable than regular lay. Regular lay ropes more crush resistant than lang lay ropes. For example. 6 strand ropes have greater crush resistance tha strand ropes or 19 strand ropes. their reserve strength is based on the percentage o metallic area represented by the core strand plus the inner wires of the strands of both th . the more wires there are in each strand of rope. Therefore. Flex-X® ropes are more resistant than standard round-st ropes. In general. There is no specific measurement of rope stability. The out-of-round shape also impairs wire movement when the rope bends. Pe usually occurs on drums.

Rope lubrication Ropes should establish or manual will provide smearing substance stock reproaching a greases with one for some time and corrosion protective casing sufficing by which with o watering-places in front of this. Ropes ordered in coordinated installation lengths are undone to the ends by the manufa or suppliers with soft steel wire or special adhesive tape. including:   The manner in which you install and "break in " your new rope. and inner layers. sh and wind working drums. . have to be un before cutting in same way on both sides. Reserve strength is especially important where the consequences of rope failure are grea Rope edition The rope diameter must precisely agree with the groove measurements of all pulleys. there are several factors involved. The smearing inte are contained in the business instructions of the machine. Sprays are the rope manufacturers at the choice of the optimally suitable r greases and-and-helpful for suppliers. The rope has to be carefully cleaned by alto grease. . At building machines working in the open it is to use a cu solid and water resistant grease which may build up not hardening however on rolls and preferably. Extending Rope Service How long will your rope last? There is not a simple answer but. The operating technique and work habits of the machine operators. The interfaces must be cut off f definite length of yard good reproached for rope periods before the edition.Physical maintenan the rope throughout its service life. dust and corrosion delays and th provided with new smearing substance in short but regular intervals. rather. Is advisable to use defined "rope greases".

Then. the most severe deterioration occurs at a point too far from the en too long to allow the worn section to be cut off. For standard ropes. When broken wires are found. Another type of stretch.such as drag ropes on draglines or closing lines in clamshell buckets.the movement of this worn section can prolong rope life. Proper handling of the rope from the reel or coil to your equipment will hel avoid this situation. In such cases. results from recoverable deformation of the metal itse more information. When severe abrasion or numerous fatigue breaks occur near one end or at a concentrated area -. Finally. and always do so at the same drum. When changing ends. you should cut off at least five or six feet. In the ca clips or clamps. you shou off sections of rope. Install your rope correctly. If you observe wear developing in a localized area. Another important step on smooth faced drums is to spool with wraps tigh close together on the first layer. Where there is an equalizing sheave. "elastic" stretch. When you install a new operating rope. Rope life will be increased if you shift this po cutting off a short length at the end of one of the drums. you should cut off the entire length covered by them. In the case of a socket. When first put into service. Wire breaks from vibration fatigue occur at end terminations. the remaining rope on the drum with tension approximating 1% to 2% of the rope's nominal str Break in your new rope properly. such as that found in many overhead cranes. new ropes normally elongate while stra go through a process of seating with one another and with the rope core. Please specify when placing your order. Cut off ends to move wear points. so short lengths cut off there with reattachment of the socket may prolong the rope's life. ropes may be facto prestretched. This may require an original length slightly longer th you normally use. you may turn the rope end for en bring a less worn section into the area where conditions are most damaging. please refer to the WRCA Wire Rope Technical Data Handbook. This practice is beneficial for incline rope and draglines. be careful to avoid kinking or otherwise damaging the r . The change must be made well before the wear reache removal criteria. for example -. you should first ru a brief period of time with no load. T he primary concern when installing a new rope is to not trap an in the rope system. this stretch will be about 1/4 1% of the rope's length. Reversing ends. "Constructional" stretch. We've outlined several recommended practices you may use to extend your rope's useful life. This layer forms the foundation for succeeding layers. This is called "constructional" stretch because it is inherent in the construction of the rope. and the amount of elongation may vary from one rope to another. run it under controlled loads and spee enable the wires and strands in the rope to adjust to themselves. Frequently. Physical maintenance of the system in which your rope operates. When constructional stretch needs to be minimized. Be sure to make this cutoff before sign wear occurs at the equalizing sheave. it may beneficial to cut off short lengths of rope. for best results. fatigue is loc at rope tangency points to the equalizing sheave.

may move and adjust as the rope moves and bends. You can normally apply lubricant by using one of three methods: drip it on rope.Lubrication . spray it on or brush it o all cases. We lubricate our wire rope during manufacture so that the strands -. In addition. so good practice to clean these ropes before you lubricate them. For unusual conditions. Nor should yo apply used "engine oil" because it contains materials that can damage the rope. there are pressure lubricators available commercially. A proper lubricant must reduce friction. But no wi can be lubricated sufficiently during manufacture to last its entire life. Your rope's service life will be directly proportional to the effectiveness of the m you use and the amount of lubricant that reaches the rope's working parts. Controls /Inspection . We recommend you apply it at the top of the bend because that's where the rope's strands are sprea bending and more easily penetrated. Never apply heavy grease to the rope because it can trap excessive grit. The surface of some ropes may become covered with dirt. The lubricant you apply should be light-bodied enough to penetrate to the rope's core. rock dust or other material during th operation. That's why it's importan lubricate periodically throughout the life of the rope. you should apply it at a place where the rope is bending such as around a sheave. This can prevent field-applied lubricants from properly penetrating into the rope. It s also be pliable and not crack or separate when cold yet not drip when warm. you can specify special lubricants that we can apply at the factory. protect against corrosion and adhere to every wire.as well as th individual wires in the strands -. which can damage the rope.

With sp attention then have to be taken into account primarily those rope zones. All wire ropes should be thoroughly inspected at regular intervals. Inspections should be carried out by a person who has learned through special training or pract experience what to look for and who knows how to judge the importance of any abnormal cond they may discover. Applicable industry standards such as ASME for overhead and gantry cranes or federal regulations such as OSHA refer to specific inspection criteria for varied applications. That's why periodic inspections are critical. are drummed on or mountings or fastenings are in which. . Additional controls are required if was subject to the machines of unusual lo after longer no working was taken in operation again.Because of of the high safety technical meaning already described at the beginning fun safe ropes ropes moving must be checked in as short as possible time intervals. the more thoroughly and frequently it should be inspected. Rope control is among others also an importan within the well-informed and (machine specifically specified) expert exams to buildin machines. The necking down of the w the point of failure to form the cup and cone indicates failure has occurred while the wire retain ductility. has been used up dismantled on an building site or is occurred after a damage or accident for the first time again. Be s maintain records of each inspection. about rolls wh move. The longer it has been in se or the more severe the service. The res have to be held tight in the control book. It's typically recognized by the "cup and cone" appearance at the point of failure. It makes possible the discovery and correction of faults in equipment or operation that c cause costly accelerated rope wear. It is the inspector's responsibility to obtain and follow the proper inspection criteria for each application inspected. Inspection All wire ropes will wear out eventually and gradually lose work capability throughout their ser life. It can indicate if you're using the most suitable type of rope. What to Look For Here's what happens when a wire breaks under tensile load exceeding its strength. Regular inspection of wire rope and equipment should be performed for three good reasons:    It reveals the rope's condition and indicates the need for replacement.

A wire rope that has been subjected to repeated bending over sheaves under normal loads. It's recognized by the square end perpendicular to th wire.these breaks are square and usually in the crown strands. While this is normal in a rope's operation. Here you see a single strand removed from a wire rope subjected to "strand nicking.This is a wire with a distinct fatigue break. too. the nicking can be accentuated by high loads. Thi results in fatigue breaks in individual wires -." There may be crown breaks." This condition is a result of adjacent strands rubbing against one another. This b similar to wire failures in the field caused by fatigue. small sheaves . This break was produced by a torsion machine that's used to measure the ductility. An example of fatigue failure of a wire rope subjected to heavy loads over small sheaves. The in the valleys of the strands are caused by "strand nicking.

It's caused by pulling down a loop in a line during handling. A kinked wire rope is shown here. y a close-up of the concentration of wear. you'll see two types of here: tensile "cup and cone" breaks and sheat breaks that appear to have b . rope should be pulled off the sheave during inspection and bent to check f broken wires. This is localized wear over an equalized sheave. These strands and wires will not be returned to their original posi The rope should be replaced immediately. This is a wire rope with a high strand -. It recurs every sixth strand in a 6 strand rope. regu scheduled cutoff practice can help eliminate this type of problem. causing fatigue type failures. Here's a wire rope that has jumped a sheave. At top. Note the distortion of the strands and individual This rope must be replaced.a condition in which one or strands are worn before adjoining strands. and that's why you need to inspect this portion of an operating rope regularly. When you study the wires. The ultimate result will be individual wire break the valleys of the strands. These w have been subjected to continued peening. kinks or dog-legs. Typical Evidence of Wear and Abuse A "birdcage" is caused by sudden release of tension and the resulting re of rope. The danger here is that it's invisible during th rope's operation. This is caused by improper socketing or seizing. The rope "curled"as it went the edge of the sheave. installation or operation. A predetermined.loss of core support. A typical failure of a rotary drill line with a poor cutoff practice.

Broken wire removal criteria cited in many standards and specifications. Valley wire breaks -. Removal Criteria A major portion of any wire rope inspection is the detection of broken wires. The business instructions or the spare part list of the respective machine informs about the nu of the load-bearing wires in the outer braids. ° of wire breakages: The rope concentrated shows wire breakage nests or. replace the rope. On l rope sections the removal of the rope outside diameter has to be measured by structure changes diameter removal exceeds 15% of the nominal size. apply to wire ropes operating on steel sheaves and drums. Time of change At all rope controls one should take into account and take therefore among others hereina criterions: ° of corrosion and Abrasion:>>> >>> The corrosion condition of the rope external surfaces m checked because ropes are with diameters reduced by corrosion opposite the nominal size aro more as 10% to machines which are used or were in provably very aggressive air zones. the rope must be put down.cut on an angle. Drum crushing is caused by small drums.are treated differently than those that occur on the outer surface of the rope. It is meaningful to pursue the development of wire breakages ov machine use duration at definite rope checkpoints to close on the possible complete life time rope and let corresponding orders of Vorlaufen from this. it be put down immediately so. For wire ropes operating on sheaves and drums made wi . high loads and multiple winding conditions. even braid breaks. One knows himself but the corresponding detail pull out 3051 to 3072 of the DIN paperback 59 and the there contained DINs. The number and t broken wires are an indication of the rope's general condition and a benchmark for its replacem Frequent inspections and written records help determine the rate at which wires are breaking.where the wire fractures between strands or a broken wire protrudes betw strands -. When th more than one valley break. then the rope has to be put down. If the outside diameter of the rope is reduced by inside wear opposite the nominal diameter aro least 10%.

please contact the sheave. lead or brass mallet (but never a steel hammer) to tap the rope in place. it isn't necessary to provide additio load other than the weight of the rope being pulled across the ground. (If done improperly. This helps r any twist in the rope. Attach rope's end to drum. be sure the rope strands are free to adjust.) Wind rope onto drum slowly and carefully. Pull the rope over the point sheave and attach the end to the drum Before making any end attachment.) Then lay the rope on the ground in direct line with the boom. Guidelines for Installation and Maintenance When you're installing wire rope. Pull the rope off the shipping reel or unroll it from a shipping coil as shown. use a rubber. (In other words. . you may kink the rope. I be.material other than steel. It's essential on smooth-faced drums that the first layer is spooled wit wraps tight and close together since the first layer forms the foundation for succeeding layers. there's a primary concern: getting the rope on the equipment without trapping any twist that may have been induced during handling or installation. Here is the preferred technique for installing rope onto a crane: Unload properly and relieve any twists. drum or equipment manufacturer or a quali person for proper broken wire removal criteria. which will result in perma damage to the rope. Spool first layer tightly. At this point. sure the end of the rope is not welded together.

For ropes in multi-part systems: Peeve the traveling block and boomtip sheaves so the rope spacing is maximized and the traveling (hook) block hangs straight and level to help assure blo stability. which can seriously damage the The tensioning load should range from 1 to 2% of the rope's nominal strength. (If not. Avoid deadending the rope at the traveling block if possible. With the rope slack. It's very important to apply a tensioning load to ropes during the rope breaking-in process. the lower layers may be loose enough that th upper layers become wedged into the lower layers under load.Spool multiple layers with sufficient tension. pull enough rope out to allow it to hang in a loop (r . Check rope for twist.

attach a lig load at the hook and raise it a few inches off the ground. Th cycle the load between the full "up" and "down" positions several times. Breaking in your new wire rope. If this isn't possible. While unspooling. With the boom fully raised -. Stand back and watch drum winding and rope travel for any potential problems. we recommend at least three always remain on the drum. Follow steps to remove twist from the rope to make the most of r service. you should mount the ree shaft through flange holes and on jack stands.If the rope hangs without twisting together. After making the lifts with a light load. alternate methods must be u assure proper tensioning of the rope on the drum. you should run these loads with reeving that lets you place the loads on the block with rope off the drum except the last three wraps. do not allow the reel to "free-wheel. If you can't lay the new rope out on the ground before rigging -." Brake the reel by applying pressure to a flang Never apply braking pressure to the rope on the reel -. the rope has twist in it.an need to pull it directly from the reel further steps are necessary.5 states that two wraps must remain on the drum when the hook is in the extreme low position. Always leave three wraps on drum.or pass the rope between blocks of wood other material. there is no twist in the rope. Although ANSI/ASME 830. If the rope twists toget (left). procedure will train the rope and help assure smooth operation during its useful life.and fully extended if you're using a hydraulic boom -. w allows the rope's component parts to adjust themselves to your operating conditions. increase the load and cycle it up and down a few times. Allow to stand for several minutes. Rigging in tight quarters. First. . After installation. you should properly break in your rope. Ideally. making sure you spool as illustrated.

Your rope receives internal lubricant at the factory. exposing the wires and strands to provide a better opening to the core. Never apply he grease to the rope because it can trap excessive grit and dust. To relieve twist that may be trapped in a rope spooled directly off a reel to the raise the boom to its highest position while letting out the rope until the rope almost touches th ground. Nor should you apply used "engine oil" because it contains materials that can damage your rope. Let the rope hang free without added load while standing clear. Contain enough adhesive and film strength to stick to wires in the rope and the spaces ar the wires. When twist is fully rel proceed with rigging the crane. or even pour lube onto your rope as it passes a certain point. Bu lubricant should have these traits:   Penetrate to the rope core. such over a sheave. The best way is to apply at a place where the rope bends. causing hidden damage. The other is called autom lubrication that drips or sprays lube onto your rope as it passes over a sheave at preselected inte What lubricant should you use? There are two lubricants you should not use. rock dust or other materials that can prevent field-appli lubricants from properly penetrating into the ropes. Remove excess dirt. But the biggest part of maintenance involves regular lubrication to reduce friction between the rope's components as well as the fric between rope and sheaves or drums. You can also swab or paint lube into your moving by hand. Lubricate ropes often for long life. but it's not enough to last the rope's entire l to constant bending over sheaves and drums. the first place to check is obvious signs of abuse from other parts of the rope system. Clean ropes first. which can externally damage the or be forced inside. The kind and amount of lubricant will vary according to the type and use of your wire rope. To properly maintain your rope.Relieving twist. The need to keep your ropes properly lubricated c emphasized enough. Lubricate using one of two methods: One is called manual lubrication such as spray or drip systems that apply lubricant when you want. .

which can cause crushing damage and reduced rope strength and service life.) For multiple-layer spooling. spooling problems can result.plus may lead to rope crushing and ab on the drum. the unlaid rope travels over the point sheave and accumulates between the drum and point sheave.   Be free of acids and alkalis. Use of a swivel. i should be between 1/2º and 23 Fleet angles larger than these can cause spooling problem the rope to rub against the flanges of the sheave -. this angle should be between 1/2º and 1 1/2º. there's a primary objective: spool the rope onto equipment tightly without trapping any twist in the rope on the drum. check the following list to identify the possible cause. Drum flanges. Grooved drums.          Drum alignment. unbala and decreased rope service. A swivel end termination will let the rope lay lengthen when loaded. wraps in upper layers will pull down between wraps already o drum. Groove spacing must be adequate to prevent the rope from crowding o adjacent wraps as the rope spools across the drum. Fleet angles smaller than these may cause the rope to pile up at the flanges Point sheave. Wire rope should wind onto the smooth-faced drum as shown. it's essential to get the first layers of rope tight with each wrap snu against the preceding wrap. Before spooling. Drum Spooling: What to Do When you're installing a new rope onto a crane. check w . Resist corrosion. deforme spread outward. When you encounter spooling problems. Since the first layer provides the "grooving" for upper layers. For details on these accessories. This leads to block rotation. Improper installation. If not. Fleet angle. which can allow wraps of the next layer to pull down between wraps of the previous layer. These conditions can cause spooling problems at the change of-layer po additional layers are spooled. If spooling problems persist after you've considered the ab conditions. erratic spooling. Many drums are mounted on the frame so that adjustment can be made in alignm Drum winding. (See installation guidelines for de Riser strips and kick plates. When a rope has been installed in such a way that twist has been introduced into the rope. For smooth-faced drums. Flanges should be perpendicular to the drum face and not worn. When more than one sheave is in use at the boomtip. make sure the lead l presents the optimum fleet angle to the drum. of these are incorrect. A rope spools onto a drum. For grooved drums. the result can include open (or loose) spooling. Make su wrap the rope left or right and over or under as recommended. (See installation guidelin details. causing abrasion and crushing. Stay put without being easily washed away. groove spacing must not excessive. In addition. wrap be placed tightly together. try using riser strips and kick plates. One of the most important factors in proper winding of rope on drums. make sure the drum is level and at right angles to th boom. random spooling or stack rope against drum flanges.

Where a rope has been torch cut. If sheave grooves are too small or are worn deeper and narrower by an o rope. It's usually caused by "milking" of the rope -. Any of these conditions can restrict strand movement and cause tw build up in the rope. The causes are man swivels. If grooves are too wide. Look for any sheave misalignment. Th result is harmful to your rope's service life because loading is not shared equally by these stran Unbalance often shows up in the middle of a rope system where you don't expect it. Use a groove gauge to inspect sheave and drum groov proper contour. . which can cause an unbalance in the rope.your crane manufacturer or call WRCA for technical service. There are several practices you can implement to minimize rope unbalance problems. improper-sized or worn sheave grooves or sheave misalignme name a few. stan higher than remaining strands with no apparent cause or evidence of external physical force. It usually involves two or more outer strands of rope rising out of position. the ropes tend to flatten ou become oval-shaped. Remove welded ends of ropes. make sure the strands free to adjust before the rope is clamped or seated in an end termination. small diameter sheaves. A swivel end termination will lengthen the lay in the r when loaded. These in     Eliminate swivels at dead ends. Standard 6-strand regular lay ropes are generally more resistant to unbalance than other ropes.in other words. a lay change in the rope. they're too tight for new ropes. Misalignment of sheaves in multi-part reevings an improperly aligned idler sheaves can also contribute to unbalance problems. Assure proper groove contours. Rope Unbalance Also called "wavy rope" unbalance is an indication or result of abnormal movement of strands operating rope.

Block Rotation Also called cabling. See rope installation guidelines for details. wires and strands try to straighten out. grade or manufacturer -. But the good news is this.regardless of type. It can happen with little warning. Twisted hoist lines ca bring a construction project to a sudden halt. Another source of torque is change in the rope lay length. . it's important to mi any torque in your rope. resulting in downtime. Thus. then several strands are laid together in a spiral to form the rope. caused by the way wire ropes are made.will develop torq when loaded. thus creating torque. Torque is normal and natural. Standard 6-strand regular lay ropes are less susceptible to unbalance than other ropes. block rotation occurs when multi-part reeving twists together at a certain h entangling the parts of rope between the traveling block and boomtip. malting it virtually impossible to lift or lower a suspended load. When loaded. Remove any twist in rope. This is normally caused by "milking" or rotation at the end of the Torque in a rope affects the tendency of the traveling block to rotate. There are at least seven different operating practices you can use to minimize block rotation on crane. The key is understanding torque.   Consider a 6-strand rope construction. Wires are first laid toget a spiral to form strands. Every wire rope -. You can minimize block rotation through proper installation and han as well as take corrective measures if it occurs on your crane. classification.

Use the shortest fall length possible. Four independent variables are used in pairs to locate a reference point on the graph that indica stability of the lift being made. unbalancing and decreased rope service. Use a different rope construction. Attach a tagline to restrain the load block and keep the load from rotating. Check sheave alignment and groove size. L = Length of fall measured from the centerline of the point sheave to the centerline of the trav block sheave as shown in the diagram. use the outer (farthe apart) sheaves -. or the distance from the pick p the point sheaves.. Remove the swivel from the rope termination and follow steps to remove twist from the rope to optimize rope service. An even number of parts is more stable. Avoid odd-part reeving. a rotation-resistant rope is your best choice due to its reduced tor produced under load. This unlaying becomes trapped and will not come out of the rope when the load is removed. the unlaid rope travels over the sheave as the load is lifted an introduces unlaying to the section of the rope beyond the sheave. The trapped unlayin causes twist in the rope. Use taglines on lifts. is critical. the chances for block rotation are reduced). While there is no "right" or "wrong" wire rope to us prevent block rotation. D/d = (D) Average pitch diameter of point ..       Change the rigging geometry.traveling block and boom. A swivel in an end termination wi permit lay lengthening in the rope when loaded. Avoid using a swivel that allows the rope to rotate. While the lay only lengthens between th swivel and the first sheave. The ratios used include: L/S = Length of fall (ft. S = Average diagonal spacing of the rope at the boom point and the traveling block sheaves as in the diagram. Improper sheave alignment or groove size c "milk" the lay in a rope and cause torque.longer fall lengths are less stable and more likely to lead to rotation. The length of fall. However. there may be a reduction in capacity with the same riggi configuration due to different nominal strengths and the higher design factor required w using rotation-resistant ropes. This includes the following operating practices: Use larg diameter traveling block sheaves to increase the rope spacing (as the diameter of the trav block sheave increases. which leads to block rotation.) + Spacing of the rope (ft.). and dead-end the rope at the boomtip to incr the spread between the wire rope parts. erratic spooling.

S = 2/3 of 2-part For 4-part reeving. S = 4/5 of 4-part For 6-part reeving. then the lift will probably be stable without block rotation. S = diagonal distance of rope parts For 5-part reeving. If the reference point below the band. S = diagonal distance of rope parts For 7-part reeving. S = average pitch diameter of point and block sheave For 3-part reeving. block rotation is un .For 2-part reeving. If the point lies within the band. S = 6/7 of six-part system When the reference point on the graph lies above the appropriate band. block rotation will probably occur.

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