MANAGEMENT: PLANNING, DIRECTING ORGANIZING AND CONTROLLING (References: Construction Methods and Management by S. W. Nunnally, Chapter 16 pp 451-478) CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Introduction Modern complexities in construction projects have made it imperative that owners, planners and contractors avail themselves of a system that allows for the efficient management of these projects. A project is unique. Large projects sometimes have thousands of items that have to be executed and managed in such a manner as to enable the synergistic completion of the project. To achieve the owner’s objective in terms of project duration and budget the project must planned, scheduled, monitored and controlled to ensure the timely, cost efficient and quality delivery of the project. Project activities consume resources such as, time, money materials, equipment and people. If we were to allow the several activities to follow one after each other like ants on the march our projects would never come to an end. Planning allows us to identify activities that could be conducted simultaneously and thereby reduce project duration. To begin the scheduling process, each activity of the logic diagram is then be time-loaded, the forward pass done on the diagram to determine project duration and compliance with the objectives, and the backward pass done to determine the critical path and floats. From the scheduled logic diagram, the bar chart schedule is then be plotted to indicate graphically, the start and end times (durations) of each activity. Note that the bar chart (Gantt Chart), in isolation, is of no use and must be a product of a logic analysis to enable the efficient management of the project. PLANNING, DIRECTING, ORGANIZING AND CONTROLLING THE PROJECT What is Project Management? Project Management is defined as managing and directing time, material, equipment, human resources (personnel/labor) and costs to complete a project in an orderly, efficient and economical manner in order to meet project objectives with respect to schedule and budget and deliver a quality product. Project management is knowing where you are in a project and managing changes when problems arise to achieve successful project goals. Project Management has 9 major categories, viz.: 1. Managing Project Scope (Includes aims, goals and objectives of the sponsor). 2. Managing Time (includes planning, scheduling and controlling the project to achieve time objectives). 3. Managing Costs. (Financial control of the project. Includes accumulating, organizing and analyzing data and reporting the cost information). 4. Managing Communication. (Keeps inflowing flowing among all members of the team). 5. Managing Human Resources (includes directing and administering the people working on the project). 1

5. equipment and services). Analyze performance. Managing Project Integration (includes project coordination among all project functionaries). 3. Put activities in order of sequence c. Today. CPM is used widely for project scheduling to communicate project details to the several layers of the organization. maintenance. Managing Contract/Procurement (includes selecting. using computers. These 5 phases include: 1. negotiating and awarding orders and administering procurement of materials. 7. Diagram the activity sequence in network format d. which are compressed into the 3 elements discussed above. The intent at that time was to reduce project costs by finding the “optimum tradeoff of time (project duration) and total project cost. 4. 8. Managing Quality Control (include ensuring the fulfillment of the quality established as a measure of performance for thee project). a project has 5 phases. and construction projects. 2. 9.6. This list includes all of the encompassing elements of the body of Project Management. Determine activity durations 2 . Preparation of the logical project-planning diagram. Scheduling: When does a specific task have to start? What is its duration and end time? Control: Tracking/monitoring time and cost. CPM was quickly recognized by professionals in government and industry and its use as a cost saving tool commenced. Define work tasks or activities b. The Critical Path Method applies the following network project modeling process or sequence of steps: a. Managing Risk (includes dealing with a level of uncertainty about the project based knowledge and experience). These elements are addressed below with a brief description of the three important elements of a successful project: Planning: What is to be accomplished? List of activities and required resources. Make the necessary interventions to preserve the integrity of the schedule and the budget. Important to supporting the three elements are: • • • Allocation of Labor/Personnel: Allocation of Capital Resources Use of Computer Applications to Aid Project Management: The Five General Elements of Project Management Per the Project Management Institute’s (PMI’s) Project Management Body of Knowledge. Initiation Planning Execution Monitoring and Control (Included in the rest) Closeout INTRODUCTION TO THE CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) The Critical Path Method (CPM) (essentially a construction tool) was developed between 1957 to 1958 by DuPont and Rand as a network planning method to improve planning and scheduling methods to reduce project duration on plant overhaul.

calculated from a set of user provided values. which the student must observe when developing the Programming Planning Diagram or Logic Diagram. The advantage of the CPM is that it shows relationships between project activities. It is the first step in the process. Any delay in a critical activity will increase the completion time of the project by the value of that critical activity’s delay time. Therefore. The Critical path on the network diagram is that path of activities that generates the longest duration for the project within the network. This is the most time consuming phase of the project and the time spent in this effort is never wasted. and a variance (measure of dispersion or variation) for each activity. The mathematical algorithms used in the forward pass and backward pass result in the minimum completion time for the project. There is no way to determine from the bar graph whether the person preparing the graph was aware of the relationships. We will discuss this phase in some detail as it is important to developing a proper schedule for the project. All activities along this Critical path are called Critical Activities. sequenced. activity durations assigned and the schedule is calculated. The steps in bullets a through c above define the planning phase of the CPM process. The difference between the systems is that CPM uses a fixed time estimates for activity duration. better known as the critical activities. This plan is put together from a harvesting of the thoughts and experiences of the staff and establishes a workable plan for the execution of the project. Planning is considered to be the most important phase of the project. The end product of the Planning Phase is the production of the Logic Diagram. which activities are listed in bullets d and e of the five steps. The sum of the activity durations along the critical Path indicates the minimum time within which the project could be completed. The student should note that the planning phase relies wholly on the human thought process to develop the activity list and logic for the project. which shows graphically. During the same time CPM was developed Booze. The Logic Diagram.e. The participants in the planning phase can almost invariably be certain that they have a complete knowledge of what the project entails. All activities that are not on the critical path are called non-critical activities or float activities. when completed. while the PERT procedure assumes that time estimates for activity durations are independent random variables.S. Both systems use the network diagram to show the relationships among the activities in a project. as well as the start and finish times of each activity. The simple mathematical analysis in CPM is performed using the predecessor-successor sequencing of activities and their durations. Polaris missile system development. which sets the stage for either a successful project or a disaster. Calculate the schedule and adjust to meet constraints Here activities are defined. Why Do We Plan In Project Management/Construction Management? We plan so that we can make logical decisions on a course(s) of action from a set of possible alternative courses of action. PERT utilizes an average or mean time. nor does it show the impact of a delay or change of one activity on an entire project. all of the activities of the project laid out in a logical. Another failure of the bar graph is that it does not show those activities which actually control project duration. They are: 3 . diagrammed. No computer program can assist you in this effort. Hamilton and Allen developed the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) for planning and controlling U. contrary to the bar graph schedule. The computer uses the Plan to prepare the Project Schedule and assists in Project Control. The Planning Process has 5 stages. sequential order. You must rely on the staff members who have the knowledge derived from similar projects to prepare the Plan. will provide a graphical definition of the scope of the project.

3. • The work breakdown structure (WBS). does not mean that it is the best way. 2. Having established the objectives of the project the planning team then commences the development of the Plan. 4 . d. reinforcement on time? • What would be the impacts to the schedule of long lead items.1. Establish the timing durations of the respective activities. Designated responsible personnel or departments for delivery of the objectives. the government agencies involved and their requirements and the suppliers. Establish the objectives. By trying to break away from established “paradigms” or models or false constraints. When all thoughts are gathered they are discussed by the team and screened for the selection of the best alternative to be pursued. The Planning Process commences with the definition of the goals and objectives of the project. Say the question is to find the best method of pouring concrete into elevated columns on a specific project. Here defines the activities necessary to execute the project and establishes the relationships between and among these activities. Let us now discuss these steps. the nature of the work. Just because the company always did it this way. the participants in a “brainstorming” session would each state the first method or solution that comes to mind. 2. Develop the Plan. Communication is required among the team in order to gather data from many persons and places. The Project manager should note that good planning requires creativity and releasing oneself from traditional company practices. Construct the Project Planning Diagram. escalators etc that will require special fabrication at a manufacturing agency that has an existing backlog of work? • What are the activity relationships that can be determined from information from the management team. a visit to the site. plans and specs. accounting department. In the development of the Plan: • The list of activities necessary to be carried out to successfully complete the job must be drawn up. 4. equipment department. E. is prepared. categorizing the activities under the respective disciplines/departments. e.g. the masonry work on time? • Are enough skilled lathers available to complete the installation of the steel. c. Identify costs and labor/personnel associated with each activity. Expected results. the sub-contractors. 1. See examples of a Work Breakdown Structures below. For example question like: • When and from what source will the right crane be available? • Are enough skilled masons available to complete e. such as elevators. the banker. 5. f. Budget.g. planners can incorporate new methods and approaches into the plan and schedule. Milestone objectives for significant events within the project’s timeframe. The goals and objectives would include: a. One way in which the Project manager could incorporate these new methods is by convening a “brainstorming” session where all members of the team are locked in a room to think out the solutions to problems. This is an excellent aid to organizing the work and its activities. Project end date. no matter how way out the thought seems. the owner. Project start date b. These are identified early in the project-planning phase and should be identified when setting the objectives.

with no branches and with only one thing happening at a time.• The job is delineated by determining the relationships between/among the activities. The Project Manager should note that good planning requires flexibility. problem solving and communications that define the plan. It is the natural tendency for first-time schedulers to build a long chain of activities following one after the other. • Determine which activities could run concurrently. and then put on paper. 3. without hindering each other’s progress. In the construction of the Project Planning Diagram. the sequence of the activities in the precedence chart is shown graphically on the planning diagram. The most efficient way to shorten a project’s duration is to have as many activities as possible run concurrently. Instead of having single crews working consecutively on the project’s activities. • Determine which jobs must start before others (precedence chart) and those that follow each other. take place in this fertile environment that defines the project in terms of the Plan and succeeding schedule. On reaching this 5 . Planning entails defining the activities necessary to construct the project and establishing the relationships between the activities. The entire project is first constructed in the minds of the scheduling team. building methods. though not interfering with each other’s progress. The interrelationship between/among activities. there could be five or other number of crews working concurrently on the site.

they must be allocated to the nodes as detailed in the diagram below. 6 . The figure below depicts a plot of a logic diagram and shows the rule for numbering the nodes.point demonstrates that the planning phase has reached initial completion where a graphic display could be shown of the project activities and their interrelationships. Note: The node numbers are not the same activity numbers on the Precedence Chart.

Initial scheduling is done by placing the scheduled start and finish times of each activity. This is the measure of leeway in starting and completing an activity. the respective team members. before using computer applications to compute the schedule form the time-loaded logic diagram. This is the difference between how much time is available to perform an activity and how much time is required. Here. Manual calculations include adding and subtraction functions with some level of accuracy. Scheduling As we previously discussed. and which in fact. days. Manual scheduling involves an initial analysis of the project. It permits an activity to start later than its early start and not impact the project. any necessary changes in the time-loaded planning diagram could be made to meet these objectives. weeks. 5. Total Float. The complete schedule includes the following: • Time schedule • Resource schedule (Personnel/Labor) • Cost schedule However. This allows early review of the project duration and a check on whether the project objectives will be met. directly on the projectplanning diagram. It is a measure of time units (hours. each with zero float and which chain has the longest duration. equipment) associated with each activity on the diagram. In this step. ELEMENTS OF THE INITIAL SCHEDULING EFFORT The Earliest Start Time. prior to devoting time and effort to input the computer data. This is the earliest possible time that an activity can start according to relationships assigned. years) that an activity (or chain of activities) can be delayed without impacting the project end date. This step identifies the activity cost and resources (labor/personnel. 7 . This consists of a continuous chain of critical activities from the start to the finish of a project. determine the duration of each activity. This is the initial calculating element. This allows for manual timing adjustments before the time wasting efforts to effect these changes in the computer inputs. The Critical Path.4. project planning addresses what work has to be done and project scheduling. we will deal with the timing schedule in this lecture Manual Scheduling It is essential that the student learn to schedule manually first. Float. addresses when the work is to be done. The amount of “slack time” or time difference between the calculated duration of the activity chain and the critical path is called the float. based on their experiences on previous projects. Float can be classified either as total float or free float. determines the project duration.

8 . The initial estimate is based on how much time the activity requires. During the scheduling phase. Prepare a bar chart time schedule from the time-loaded plan. Predecessor Activity is one that must be completed before a new activity can commence. The three estimating phases of a project are: 1. Obtain concurrence from all concerned and responsible parties for validation of the schedule. 3. 2. Determine the available time to complete each project activity. Ongoing estimate changes of selected project activities during the conduct of the project to maintain its planned schedule. every activity is then revisited and adjustments made to the individual activities to make their durations more realistic. Determine the float time of noncritical activities.Free Float. When the project-planning diagram is essentially complete. 8. when the initial estimates require revisions because they do not meet the project objectives. When the project is totaled and if the initially estimated end date falls outside of the project objective. Also referred to as an “activity float” because unlike total float. 7. Compare the required time and the available time for each activity to determine the total float. Periodic review of the project schedule will indicate project activities that are behind. 4. 2. Successor Activity is one that cannot start until a given preceding activity is completed. Determine the critical path activities (activities with zero float). free float is the property of an activity and not the network path that the activity is part of. If project objectives are exceeded adjust the plan and the timing estimates. Note again the following activity relationships: Concurrent Activities are logically independent of one another and can be performed at the same time. Free float is the amount of time the start of an activity may be delayed without delaying the start of a successor activity. Compute the duration of the project via the critical much time each activity requires and when each activity will start and end. Staff that is familiar and experienced with this type of activity makes this call. as changes need to be continually made throughout the duration of the project. 6. Determine the required time (time estimate to complete each activity). 5. This may require revisiting the project schedule to adjust the duration of critical activities. 3. After the project-planning diagram (logic diagram) is completed the scheduling process commences as follows: 1. TIMING ESTIMATES Estimating the durations of activities in a project is not a one-time effort but the start of a dynamic process. Staff desiring to be safe oftentimes overstates the activity duration. If the situation is serious. THE SCHEDULING PROCEDURE The prime concern in scheduling is timing .

Calculating the Earliest Start Time We discussed before. Or. On the other hand if critical activities are completed ahead of schedule.) • If only one arrow leads into a node. It is the sum of the earliest start time (6) (should be to left of node) for Design interior items that starts at node 4. the earliest start time is the earliest possible time an activity can begin without interfering with the completion of any of the preceding activities. Procure interior items starts at Node 8. the project duration can be evaluated. the basis for calculating the scheduled timing. MANUAL TIMING CALCULATIONS Estimated time estimates. The scheduled time of the beginning node is set at 0 weeks. with earliest start time 8.thereby impacting several of the critical activities. need to be placed under each activity on the CPM project-planning diagram before beginning the schedule calculations. future critical activities that may have extended durations could be rescheduled to make good the extra time made available by the early completions. 1). The schedule for each project activity will initially consist of its earliest start and latest finish times and total float value. Use the following guides when calculating the earliest start times for the project activities: Commence calculating earliest start times with the beginning node of the project-planning diagram (Figure 3. earliest start time for activities starting at that node is determined by adding the earliest start time of the preceding activity to the duration of the same preceding activity. plus its duration (2) • If more than one arrow leads into a node. it may be necessary to revisit the plan and make the adjustments there. Once the earliest start computations are complete. (Note that this number is placed in the box node in the PDM method). this unit of time will not be shown in our calculations but noted in the legend of the diagram. the earliest start time calculation will be dictated as shown in the drawing below. below. the Project Manager who is in control may attempt to look good and leave the schedule as it is and forecast an early completion of the project. 9 . (Since all of the scheduled times are in weeks.

10 . the path through Install mechanical and electrical equipment. and becomes the earliest start time of Construct phase II building. all of the earliest start times for activities in the Christopher Design/Build Project are calculated and added in Figure 3.1. Using this approach. totals 23 at Node 7. This total duration on the time-loaded logic diagram would indicate to the planner whether he met the time objective of the project. the larger of the two paths.1 indicates that the sum of the activity durations along the critical path is 29 weeks which is the earliest start of the node signifying the end of the project (11). CALCULATING PROJECT DURATION Review of the Figure 3.• The largest sum total is the earliest start time for the node. In this example. This plan and schedule showed that a viable plan was prepared and that the 29 weeks duration desired by the owner was met (10/2/95 to 4/23/1996).

11 – (Construct Phase II Building) has a duration of 6 weeks. with its project duration of 29 weeks. The activity 7.7) is 23 weeks. See the figure below and Figure 3. Let us look at Figure 3. 11 . The latest finish time for activities coming into node 7 (3.7 and 6. Note that if more than one arrow originates at a particular node the latest finish time is calculated through each arrow and the smallest result recorded as the latest finish time. The project duration is the latest finish time (as well as the earliest start time) of the end node of the project.Calculating the latest Finish Time The latest finish time is the latest time an activity can be completed without delaying the end of the project. The calculation of the latest finish times involves working from the end node back through each node to the first node in the project.1. The Project manager should note the following in determining the latest finish times for a project: • • • The project duration must first be established by calculating the early start times.2.

then timing adjustments may have to extend to additional items in the project plan. Were the latest finish time for activities coming into node 4 set at eight weeks. there would not be enough time remaining to complete activity 4. so we can continue without any changes or adjustments.The latest finish time for the activities that lead into node 4 is six weeks.2 notes the latest finish times of the project activities. Figure 3. Float: . This could require a review of the optional start and finish times for all of the project items. the smaller of the two results. 5 by its required latest finish time of 10 weeks.Optional Start and Finish Times The float feature is one of the most important facets in project management. Available time Required time = Latest time . The plan and schedule thus far indicate that timing objectives can be met. If timing objectives were not met.Earliest time = Time estimate for completing the activity 12 . If the project duration is still in jeopardy. we would initially examine the critical items to determine if possible adjustments would resolve the timing problem. which is the difference between the time available for performing a job and the time required to do it. These activities have total float. Its importance in project scheduling is that it identifies the activities that have optional starting and finishing dates.

4 below. These have no room for delays.Figure 3. To determine the total float subtract the required time (time estimate) from the available time.3 above shows another method for showing the total float. Note that the total float of an activity is the difference between its earliest start and the latest finish dates and the duration. Float activities have optional start and finish dates. Time available for activity 4. Float activities. See 3. however do not have these restrictions and are not impacted by minor slippages in the activities. PREPARING THE SCHEDULE CHART In this the time loaded logic diagram the earliest start and latest finish are stated as well as the latest start and the earliest finish are listed to give the planner all of the available scheduling options. 6 (Fabricate mechanical equipment) is the difference between the latest finis time and the earliest start time. Total float is very important in the scheduling and controlling the project. Particular attention is paid to activities with zero float (critical items) when there is a slippage in the schedule. The following formulas calculate the optional start and finish dates: Latest start = earliest start + total float 13 .

Tabulated schedule dates can be converted into calendar dates using a calendar showing the months and years of the project. which is also the start date of Design structural steel (time: 2 weeks). and so on for the remainder of the float Figure 3. REVIEW OF THE PRACTICE PROBLEM IN CLASS. SETTING UP THE CALENDAR SCHEDULE The tabulated schedule in Figure 3. Start at zero weeks with the start date of the project (in the case of the Christopher Project this is 10/2/95).Earliest finish = latest finish . See Figure 3.5 (attached) shows the table of these total float calculations for the Christopher design/Build Project.6. for which activity the earliest finish date is 10/16/95. 14 .5 can be converted into a calendar schedule for better presentation and the ability to better monitor the project.

• Place Trusses. Install Siding and Place Topsoil/Grade can follow Erect Walls. You will then determine the late starts for each activity. Note that Landscape is your last activity.CE 54100 AOA and AON LAB HOMEWORK #3 Saturday. • Exterior Trim Carpentry can follow Install Overhead Door • Place Shingles. via the backward pass. but resources are scarce and you want to optimize the use of your available resources (time. and they are as follows: • Clear Site follows Start and Remove Topsoil follows Clear Site • Form Slab and Prefab Wood Walls can start after Remove Topsoil. Finish Electrical. Having plotted the time-loaded logic diagram for this project. • Place Rebar/Embeds follows Form Slab and Pour Slab follows Place Rebar/Embeds. having first established the project duration. Complete the Precedence Chart and plot the CPM Logic Diagram (AOA approach) to show the respective activities. • Install Overhead Door and Rough Electrical can follow Install Siding. Exterior Trim Carpentry and Place Topsoil/Grade will precede Landscape. using double arrows along that path. which will in turn precede Install Finish Carpentry and Finish Electrical. • Place Roof Sheathing follows Place Trusses. You and your team have developed an activity list and you wish to produce a time-loaded logic diagram using the CPM approach. 2011 You are the Facility Manager for an establishment and you propose to construct a shed. You will then prepare the Total Float Chart and finally using the data from the total float chart and the scheduled logic diagram. Install Finish Carpentry. Your specialist staff has made recommendations for your use in sequencing the project. September 17. • Erect Walls can follow Pour slab and Prefab Wood Walls. and their durations. • Place Shingles follows Place Roof Sheathing • Rough Electrical will precede Place Interior Paneling. determine the early starts for each activity. budget personnel material and equipment) in this effort. plot the critical path. 15 . via the forward pass and obtain the project duration from the early start data.

proceed to execute the forward pass. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Activity Name Clear Site Remove Topsoil Form Slab Place Rebar/Embeds Pour Slab Prefab Wood Walls Erect Wood Walls Install Siding Place Trusses Place Roof Sheathing Place Interior Paneling Exterior Trim Carpentry Install Overhead Door Rough Electrical Finish Electrical Place Shingles Install Finish Carpentry Place Topsoil/Grade Landscape BUILDING A SHED Duration Precedes (Days) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Follows Remarks When you have completed the AOA plot. Having plotted the AON logic diagram. Is there a difference? 16 . You will then complete your scheduling activity by subtracting the EF from the LF to obtain the respective Total Floats. Compare the results with your AOA solution. and having determined the duration execute the backward pass. inserting the information into the nodes as you proceed.Activity No. this time using the AON approach with square nodes. you now plot eh logic diagram again. inserting the information into the nodes as you proceed.