Rule 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS ======================================= Sec.

1: Title of the rules These rules shall be known and cited as the ruled of court. Sec.2: In what courts applicable These rules shall apply in all courts, except as otherwise provided by the Supreme Court Sec.3: Cases governed These rules shall govern the procedures to be observed in all actions, civil or criminal, and special proceedings. Civil action is one by which a party sues another for the enforcement or protection of a right, or prevention or redress of a wrong. A civil action may either be ordinary or special. Both are governed by the rules on ordinary civil action, subject to the specific rules prescribed in special civil action. Criminal action is one by which the State prosecutes another for an act of omission punishable by law. Special proceeding is a remedy by which a party seeks to establish a status, a right or a particular fact. Sec. 4: In what cases not applicable The rules shall not apply to election cases, land registration, cadastral , naturalization and insolvency proceedings, and other cases not herein provided for, except by analogy or in a suppletory character and whenever practicable and convenient. Sec. 5: Commence of action A civil action is commenced by the filing of the original complaint in court.

Rule 2: CAUSE OF ACTION ========================================= Sec. 1: Ordinary Civil Actions, basis of Every ordinary civil action must be based on a cause of action. Sec. 2. Cause of action, defined. A cause of action is an act or omission by which a party violates a right of another. Sec.3. One suit for a single cause of action A party may not institute more than one suit for a single cause of action Sec. 4. Splitting a single cause of action; effect of If two or more suits are instituted on the basis of a same cause of action, the filing of one or a judgment upon the merits in any one, is available as a ground for the dismissal of the others. Sec. 5. Joinder of causes of action A party may in one pleading assert, in the alternative or otherwise, as many causes of action as he may have against an opposing party, subject to the ff. conditions: a. b. c. The party joining the causes of action shall comply with the rules of the joinder of parties; The joinder shall not include special civil actions or actions governed by special rules; Where the causes of action are between the same parties but pertain to different venues or jurisdiction, the joinder may be allowed in the RTC, provided one of the causes of action falls w/in the jurisdiction of the said court and the venue lies therein; and Where the claims in all the causes of action are principally for the recovery of money, the aggregate amount claimed shall be the test of jurisdiction.

d. If an additional defendant is impleaded in the later pleading, the civil action is commenced, with regard to him, on the date of the filing of such later pleading, irrespective of whether the motion for its admission is, if necessary, is denied by the court. Sec. 6: Construction These rules shall be liberally construed to promote their objective of securing a just, speedy and inexpensive disposition of every action and proceeding. ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Sec. 6.Misjoinder of causes of action Misjoinder of causes of action is not aground for the dismissal of an action. A misjoined cause of action may, on motion of a party or on initiative of court, be severed and proceeded with separately.

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