Automatic plant Irrigation (AT89C2051

The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. Op-amp's are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and when more than two sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet. The microcontroller does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors, and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM.

html PC -MC communication (AT89C2051 + Tx/Rx) The advent of new high-speed technology and the growing computer capacity provided realistic opportunity for new home controls and realization of new methods of control The distant temperature data can be monitored through PC with help of the microcontroller. The presented home system can be used for different sophisticated applications. The intelligent control software. A complete solution of a communication system is presented in this project. This project describes a new economical solution of communication system. . which has been developed using high level graphical programming language (Visual Basic).

e. Also in existing system if any one of the sensors goes abnormal the user is not immediately informed about the status. control and automate our home from remote locations. In This project we use a microcontroller(89S52) which controls the electronic devices through .. Also abnormal condition of any sensor is detected immediately and message is given as an alert to the user PC. Monitoring and controlling home environment in real time is made possible through LAN. within a single network. since there is no way for the user to get the information about the status. In existing system home automation and security are separate systems working independently.REMOTE CONTROL VIA INTERNET (AT89S52 + Ethernet Adaptor)) This project entitled "Remote Control Through Internet" allows us to monitor. Monitoring system should be always in online so it is more expensive. Limited to smaller distance i. This project integrates automation and security into a single unit.

automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller . The first is that the water soaks into the soil before it can evaporate or run off. The temperature sensor(DS18S20) senses the temperature. Unlike sprinkler irrigation. The microcontroller does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors. Based on the temperature. drip irrigation systems are much more forgiving of design error. Drip irrigation (sometimes called trickle irrigation) works by applying water slowly. There sensitivity can be changed with the help of vairiable resistor. the cost of over sizing the materials is minimal. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. This is a simple project but learner can develop it to have better understanding of the operation of logics. Water is applied at the rate the soil can absorb. and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. bloop. then as result we get logic output eithor false (logic zero "0" 'ov) or true (logic one "1" or 5v) depending upon the copper sensing voltages from the conductivity in the earth due to the presense or absense of enough water in that location. Also we are using PC. there are some guidelines that if followed. Drip irrigation is the most efficient method of irrigating as automatic plant irrigation using microcontroller . Thus our project helps us in constant touch with our home environment ensuring the safety of our home APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051 how to write a c code for a automatic sprinkler system? The Project (APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051)presented here is for learning and it is a hobby project. will make for a much better drip system.(drip irrigation using cpld ) The automatic plant irrigation system waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The high efficiency of drip irrigation results from two primary factors.This post is about the automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller. The voltage from the copper plats are feed to comarator operational amplifier LM324 to compare with know voltage. Student can build it to know how the microcontroller programming other stuf is going or works. bleep. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. which is used for monitoring purpose. While drip automatic plant irrigation system systems are simple and pretty forgiving of errors in design and installation.the relay driver(ULN2003). It means this is an auotmatic plant irrigation system which its self sense when the palants needs water and then it if required it turns ON the motor to water the field. The Microcontroller was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and when more than two sensors sense the dry condition (but i have changed the logic to all four sensor for better results) then the microcontroller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet. and so a prescriptive design method works very well for almost everyone. the microcontroller produces the desired output. Op-amps are configured here as a comparator. directly to the soil. reducing run-off and evaporation. bleep. bloop.

using recycled materials you can make your own drip irrigation system for free. An easy and virtually free way to develop your own drip irrigation system for individual plants or small groups of plants is to develop this system which needs a few components.One of the best ways to provide a steady water supply to your plants without your constant attention is the gradual watering system or drip irrigation. Not only do self-watering systems save plants from thirst while you’re on vacation. they can also save money by delivering just the right amount of water directly to a plant’s roots. Commercial watering spikes can be purchased from you local garden centre however. With overhead hose watering.automatic plant irrigation . much water runs off or is lost to evaporation. Through this method a device is employed that slowly delivers water into the soil directly around the roots. Busy or laid back gardeners and houseplant owners can benefit from installing devices that water plants automatically over a period of days or weeks.

dry = 0. sbit motor = P1^6. wet = 1.circuit is shown in post. sbit prob2 = P3^1. P3 = 255. motor = 1. void delayy(int). sbit prob4 = P3^3. # include < reg51 . motor = 0. while (1) { if(prob1 & prob2 & prob3 & prob4) { delayy(10000). motor = 0. h > //reg51 sbit prob1 = P3^0. delayy(10000). delayy(10000). } else { delayy(10000). main(){ P1 = 255. Why not install an automatic garden watering system today and save both time and money as well as keeping your garden looking green and healthy. or a fully automated system. then we have the products to allow you to manage the watering of your garden effectively and quickly. sbit wet = P1^0. motorled = 0. delayy(10000). delayy(10000). sbit motorled = P1^4. . sbit prob3 = P3^2. Whether your just looking for a simple system to water a few pots when your away on holiday. sbit dry = P1^2. motorled = 0.

The project makes the irrigation automated. ULN2003. idelay++).This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. Three pushbuttons are provided to set the limits of humidity for switching the individual solenoid valves controlling the water flow to the field. then increment } Abstract In the field of agriculture. At the present era. third world countries can afford this simple and low cost solution for irrigation and obtain good yield on Crops. if i is less than np. use of proper method of irrigation is important and it is well known that irrigation by drip is very economical and efficient. which is different for different crops. dry = 1. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project a low cost product. { int idelay. This process sometimes consumes . the farmers have been using irrigation technique in India through the manual control in which the farmers irrigate the land at the regular intervals. The heart of the project is the Intel 89c51microcontroller. The main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. Four relays are provided for controlling four solenoid valves. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. i < npdelay. In a country like India. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. One relay is used to shut-off the main motor which is used to pump the water to the field. Also.UART controller that will be used in this project. Five relays are controlled by the microcontroller through the high current driver IC.motorled = 1. The humidity and temperature levels are transmitted at regular time interval to the PC through the RS232 serial port for data logging and analysis. still we are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable. In the modern drip irrigation systems. which controls the flow of water to four different parts of the field. where the economy is mainly based on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic. which displays the humidity level and ambient temperature. Introduction The continuous increasing demand of the food requires the rapid improvement in food production technology. The aim is to use the readily available material to construct low cost sensors. for (idelay = 0. The humidity sensors are constructed using aluminum sheets and housed in easily available materials. the most significant advantage is that water is supplied near the root zone of the plants drip by drip due to which a large quantity of water is saved. A 16×2 LCD is connected to the microcontroller. which can be bought even by a poor farmer. } } } void delayy(npdelay) int npdelay. In the conventional drip irrigation system. wet = 0.

pipes. Types of irrigation:     Surface irrigation Localized irrigation Drip Irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Drip irrigation also known as trickle irrigation or microirrigation is an irrigation method which minimizes the use of water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants. In addition. So we will first see some of the basic platform of drip irrigation system. farmers using automation equipment are able to reduce runoff from over watering saturated soils. either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone. Definition of Irrigation Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. regardless of the availability of labor to turn valves on and off. Automating farm or nursery irrigation allows farmers to apply the right amount of water at the right time. lighter weight fruit follows slight water deficiency. but also to protect plants against frost. In crop production it is mainly used in dry areas and in periods of rainfall shortfalls. avoid irrigating at the wrong time of day. The entire automation work can be divided in two sections. Slowed growth rate. through a network of valves. These valves may be easily automated by using controllers and solenoids. The flood type methods consume large amount of water and the area between crop rows remains dry and receives moisture only from incidental rainfall. removal of human error in adjusting available soil moisture levels and to maximize their net profits. Drip irrigation method is . Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and OFF. and emitters Concept of Modern Irrigation System: – The conventional irrigation methods like overhead sprinklers. The entire soil surface is saturated and often stays wet long after irrigation is completed. This problem can be perfectly rectified if we use automatic micro controller based drip irrigation system in which the irrigation will take place only when there will be intense requirement of water. Water deficiency can be detrimental to plants before visible wilting occurs. On the contrary the drip or trickle irrigation is a type of modern irrigation technique that slowly applies small amounts of water to part of plant root zone. which will improve crop performance by ensuring adequate water and nutrients when needed. first is to study the basic components of irrigation system thoroughly and then to design and implement the control circuitry.more water or sometimes the water reaches late due to which the crops get dried. tubing. Automatic Drip Irrigation is a valuable tool for accurate soil moisture control in highly specialized greenhouse vegetable production and it is a simple. precise method for irrigation. It also helps in time saving. flood type feeding systems usually wet the lower leaves and stem of the plants. Such condition promotes infections by leaf mold fungi.

This can result in a reduction of fertilizer and fertilizer costs. Drip irrigation saves water because only the plant’s root zone receives moisture. A wetted profile developed in the plant’s root zone is as shown in Figure (1). Federations may continue during the irrigation process because rows between plants remain dry. . often daily to maintain favorable soil moisture condition and prevent moisture stress in the plant with proper use of water resources. Drip irrigation requires about half of the water needed by sprinkler or surface irrigation. Operating cost is usually reduced. When compared with overhead sprinkler systems. Plants can be supplied with more precise amounts of water. drip irrigation leads to less soil and wind erosion. Drip irrigation is popular because it can increase yields and decrease both water requirements and labor.invented by Israelis in 1970s. Disease and insect damage is reduced because plant foliage stays dry. Lower operating pressures and flow rates result in reduced energy costs. Its shape depends on soil characteristics. Fertilizers can be applied through this type of system. A typical Drip irrigation assembly is shown in figure (2) below. Drip irrigation can be applied under a wide range of field conditions. Little water is lost to deep percolation if the proper amount is applied. Water is supplied frequently. A higher degree of water control is attainable.

City and well water are easy to filter for drip irrigation systems. On sandy soil. Normal household pressure is 40-50 pounds. Time how long it takes to fill the bucket and use that number to calculate how much water is available per hour. a) Flow: -You can measure the output of your water supply with a one or five gallon bucket and a stopwatch. With a clay soil water tends to spread horizontally. Pond. Pressure changes by one pound for every 2. Gallons per minute x 60=number of gallons per hour. Pressure-compensating emitters are designed to work in areas with large changes in elevation. d) Soil Type and Root Structure: – The soil type will dictate how a regular drip of water on one spot will spread. Deep-rooted plants can handle a wider spacing of emitters. short cycles repeated frequently work best.Design of Micro controller Based Drip Irrigation System: – The key elements that should be considered while designing a mechanical model: -. while shallow rooted plants are most efficiently watered slowly (low gap emitters) with emitters spaced close together. ditch and some well water have special filtering needs.3 foot change in elevation. Emitters can be spaced further apart with clay type soil. . . e) Elevation: . applying water with higher gap emitters lets the water spread out horizontally better than a low gap emitter. c) Water Supply & Quality: .Variations in elevation can cause a change in water pressure within the system. Sandy soil requires closer emitter spacing as water percolates vertically at a fast rate and slower horizontally. giving a wide distribution pattern. A loamy type soil will produce a more even percolation dispersion of water. The quality and source of water will dictate the type of filter necessary for your system. b) Pressure (The force pushing the flow): – Most products operate best between 20 and 40 pounds of pressure. On clay soil or on a hillside.

In sandy soils. Micro controller Unit (The brain of the system). orchards that get watered weekly need a different circuit than a garden that gets watered daily.Plants with different water needs may require their own watering circuits. . Relay driver. erosion and wasted water. etc. Plants that are drought tolerant will need to be watered differently than plants requiring a lot of water. Signal conditioning circuit. temperature sensors. g) Watering Needs: .f) Timing: . Digital to analog converter. LCD Module. Timers help prevent the too-dry/toowet cycles that stress plants and retard their growth. They also allow for watering at optimum times such as early morning or late evening. For example. The unit is expressed in Figure – (3) below. slow watering using low output emitters is recommended. The components of micro controller based drip irrigation system are as follows: I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) Pump Water Filter Flow Meter Control Valve Chemical Injection Unit Drip lines with Emitters Moisture and Temperature Sensors. The micro controller unit is now explained in detail: The automated control system consists of moisture sensors. short cycles repeated frequently work best to prevent runoff. solenoid control valves. On clay soil or hillsides.Watering in a regular scheduled cycle is essential.

The entire field is first divided in to small sections such that each section should contain one moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. which control the valves. SENSOR .Figure: Controller Unit The important parameters to be measured for automation of irrigation system are soil moisture and temperature. Once the soil has reached desired moisture level the sensors send a signal to the micro controller to turn off the relays. RTD like PT100 can be used as a temperature sensor while Densitometer can be used as the moisture sensor to detect moisture contents of soil. These sensors are buried in the ground at required depth.

pesticides. It can be obtained with the help of PWM output of microcontroller unit. and nutrients with water.The signal send by the sensor is boosted unto the required Figure – (4) Application to field level by corresponding amplifier stages. While applying the automation on large fields more than one such microcontroller units can be interfaced to the Centralized Computer the microcontroller unit has in-built timer in it. through the serial port present on microcontroller unit. In case of sensor failure the timer turns off the valves after a threshold level of time. Varying speed of pump motor can control pressure of water. Then the amplified signal is fed to A/D converters of desired resolution to obtain digital form of sensed input for microcontroller use. A flow meter is attached for analysis of total water consumed. The solenoid valves are controlled by microcontroller though relays. A Chemical injection unit is used to mix required amount of fertilizers. which may prevent the further disaster. ADVANTAGES . Sensor A 16X1 line LCD module can be used in the system to monitor current readings of all the sensors and the current status of respective valves. The required readings can be transferred to the Centralized Computer for further analytical studies. The microcontroller unit may warn the pump failure or insufficient amount of water input with the help of flow meter. whenever required. which operates parallel to sensor system.

May be concealed to maintain the beauty of the landscape. 2. D. D. St. 1990. This is very useful to all climatic conditions any it is economic friendly 3. This is safest and no manpower is required. ASAE Publication 04-90.6.Feedback Control for Surface Irrigation Management in: Visions of the Future.Are relatively simple to design and install 2. 3. as only the immediate plant areas are wet . and to reduce vandalism and liability when installed in public areas.H. 9. 8. 533-537. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. less than half of the water needed for a sprinkler system. pp. for example. Joseph.D. F. 7. This makes increase in productivity and reduces water consumption 4. Permit other yard and garden work to continue when irrigation is taking place.J. 2. Mansion. Reduce the chance of plant disease by keeping foliage dry. Reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching. The present proposal is a model to modernize the agriculture industries at a mass scale with optimum expenditure. This is only applicable for large size farms Equipment is costlier Require frequent maintenance for efficient operation Have limited life after installation due to the deterioration of the plastic components in a hot. 1990. arid climate when exposed to ultraviolet light CONCLUSION The Microcontroller based drip irrigation system proves to be a real time feedback control system which monitors and controls all the activities of drip irrigation system efficiently.J.. REFERENCES 1. Human. pp. water to improve production and ultimately profit. In: Visions of the Future. 255-260. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Michigan. one can save manpower. Michigan. Garrote. DISADVANTAGES 1. St. Joseph. . A. and S. Here we are micro controllers so there is error free 5. Clemens.1 . Require smaller water sources. Fang Meier. Automated Irrigation Systems Using Plant and Soil Sensors. Using this system.. 4. ASAE Publication 04-90.


Rs 200 etc). So that the smart card cannot be reused by others. The memory card is available at various ranges (ie. Every consumer can buy a memory card (is nothing but an EEPROM IC) with a password stored inside it using a MC program. When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected kit. Rs 100.In our project we have given the name for memory card as smart card. Rs 50.he / she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energy meter with tariff .Then the card reader will read the stored information and delete the information from the EEPROM IC(smart card) using the MC program. Suppose if a consumer buy a card for Rs.Prepaid Energy Meter (AT89S52) A scheme of Electricity billing system called "PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH TARIFF INDICATOR" can facilitate in improved cash flow management in energy utilities and can reduces problem associated with billing consumer living in isolated area and reduces deployment of manpower for taking meter readings.50/.

Dial 2*0400# . Here's the procedure to create the cards. If it fails then the RED led will give a long blink For making a Recharge card for Rs 400 1.50 1. the relay will automatically shutdown the whole system. If the programming done sucessfully then the Green led will long Blink finally. When the amount is over.Higher digit of the unit price . 5. You can also find the Card programmer circuit and program from the download. Insert the card into the Programmer 2. So that you can easily create your own cards. For making a unit price card for Rs 2. How to program a new card.lower digot of the unit paise 3. According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced. Insert the card into the Programmer 2.Higher digit of the unit paise . Dial 1*0250# The format is 1 for unit price * for start process .indicator kit will be activated.lower digot of the unit price . The red led will blink for every key press 4. In our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced.

3. 5. If the programming done sucessfully then the Green led will long Blink finally. If it fails then the RED led will give a long blink For the photos of this project please click here . The red led will blink for every key press 4.

This is get achieved by the DTMF technology. It has two sections one for editing the text and to transmit the edited text and the other section consist for receiving the text message. It involves several steps. They are  DTMF decoding/Encoding process  Ring sensing  ON/OFF hook detection  Displaying the message in LCD . The system works on the DTMF technology.SMS through Telephone (AT89S8252) The main objective of this system is to transmit message or text through ordinary Land Line Telephone from one end (source) to another end (designation). (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency).

Thus Microcontroller controls the whole system.The above process is get achieved by the microcontroller AT89S8252. .

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