Unrealistic Expectations, Pay Practices That Grantors Often See As Tainting The Funding Process, And Poor Planning

And Follow Through, Can Doom The Best To Failure Some of the most heated discussion in the nonprofit world centers on grant writing. Why? Because so much is riding on it. It is the rare organization that could continue to carry out its mission anywhere near as effectively if its grants dried up, and for many, such an occurrence would sound the death knell. Of the three basic sources of money for non-profits—earned income, donations from individuals, and grants—the process of getting a grant is the most puzzling. All but the smallest organizations are likely to have people on staff or use outside counsel who specialize in grant writing. The demand for skilled grant writers, coupled with the mystery that seems to surround successful grant writing, leads to some troubled areas for development professionals and non-profit organizations. Two questions are central: How do you evaluate the performance of grant writers and how do you pay them?

How Do You Evaluate The Performance Of Grant Writers?
I have seen many resumes with statements like the following, ―The grants I write are awarded funds 80% of the time.‖ A recent query to an Internet newsgroup by an executive director asked, ―My grant writer has a grant success rate of 41%. How does that compare with the standard of other organizations?‖ Grant writers touting a past high percentage of grant attainment to impress potential employers are in danger of setting themselves up for future failure. How many of us would want to go into a new work environment with the expectation that 80% of the grant applications we submit would be approved? Not me! Executive directors who see the success or failure of grant-getting as residing in the hands of the grant writer are failing to take into account something even more important than the grant application—the purpose of the funding. Poorly delineated projects, ―soft‖ budgets, and a host of other weaknesses cannot be overcome by a well crafted grant proposal. The awarding of grants has more to do with function than form, and grant writers are not usually the ones who make the policy and practice recommendations that lead to a search for funding. When it comes to measuring performance, I believe grant writers should be evaluated on the quality of their work. What I expect of a grant writer as written into a job description might read something like the following. The grant writer will: 1. Through interviews and other means, gather information that will easily allow him/her to grasp the concept of a project or program for which funding is sought as defined by the person responsible for carrying it out.

5. receive commission-based compensation. or be paid a performance bonus. 4. I recognize the difficulties that cash-strapped non-profit organizations have in providing upfront. The practice is increasing. and use that knowledge and understanding to better comprehend all projects and programs for which grants will be sought and to recommend the seeking of grants. rather the job was to make the best case possible to appropriate funding organizations. 6. It was never my grant writer’s job to get the grant. Acquire and maintain sound knowledge and understanding of the organization. Compile.‖ Whatever you want to call it. How Do You Pay A Grant Writer? Few topics generate more heated discussion in non-profit organizations than whether professional grant writers should be paid a percentage of the money raised. 2. It is quite another to tell people that the way or amount they are paid is unethical. fair compensation to consultant (or staff) grant writers for the legitimate and important work they perform. commission. the professional ethics of those seeking such contingent-pay for grant writing are brought into question. write. Often. we can simply refer to it as ―contingent-pay. . I do not think that the willingness. In many instances. Perhaps because it is a practice of giving financial rewards to grant writing professionals contingent upon the achievement of fixed money goals. or even the preference. It is one thing for grant writing professionals to discuss grant writing techniques and philosophies and to strenuously air disagreements. and edit all grant applications exhibiting strong expository writing skills and a high-level command of grammar and spelling. Keep in contact with grant-making organizations during their review of a submitted grant application in order to be able to supply additional supportive material. 1. it has become a common practice to make compensation contingent on the award of a grant. To me. Doing so left me satisfied with his or her performance. The practice is troubling the grant writing profession. 8. Research grant-making organizations and analyze them to identify likely funding sources for specific projects and programs. the grant writer was successful. there are concerns this practice raises which need to be addressed.2. Develop individual grant proposals in accordance with each grant-making organization’s preferences and follow exactly each grant-making organization’s guidelines. Nevertheless. While I see problems with giving grant writers a percentage of the funds awarded by grantors. 3. 7. Any grant writer I hired was expected to carry out the above duties well. Grant award or no grant award. Manage the process of supplying progress reports when required by a grant-making organization that has funded a project or program. to write grants on a percentage. two things are becoming more and more apparent. or bonus basis automatically indicates a lack of ethics. Review the budget of a project or program for which funding is sought and make recommendations to better present it to grant-making organizations. the answer to the question of why contingent-pay is so troublesome—and often incites highly charged emotions—seems obvious.

thus they will not have funds available for you at the time. I believe grant writers should never agree to contingency pay.Rather than preach against contingent pay as unethical behavior. what have we got to lose?‖ They should ask the grant writer that question who stands to lose a great deal. I prefer to share with contingent-pay seekers (and providers) some real-life consequences of such arrangements which mainly puts the livelihood of the grant writer at risk. I’ll list several of those reasons which I have seen crop up time and time again. the grant is being requested for a specific project. and that the organizations have future financial sustainability plans in place. It is almost always a requirement by funders that every dollar to be raised for and spent on projects be accounted for on a line-item basis. It would make no difference what the commission size or even if the contingency-pay were a flat fee. They will say to the grant writer: ―We’ll send it anyway. resulting in rejected proposals. and will reject. Discerning and experienced program officers can readily see right through. You do not know in advance the foundations which are over committed to funding other organizations. make the most helpful recommendations. An ineffective and failing ―selling‖ job might be made during a presentation meeting by an organization’s officials. poorly delineated projects. Few if any foundations. and even voice strong protests and caution when called for—but project directors and executive directors will prevail should they insist that the grant request be written in spite of flaws and concerns. What if the grant was to be paid out over a number of months—even years? Would an organization be willing to pay the grant writer for the services rendered in full at the moment of grant approval? Should the grant writer be willing to accept a compensation payment schedule in sync with that of the grant award which could be spread out over several years? The grant writer should be ready to accept the fact that she or he will receive little pay for a major work. A non-profit or a grant writer that fails to take the possibility of such a caveat into consideration may be facing a rude awakening. and a host of other weaknesses which cannot be overcome by well crafted grant proposals. It is simply not fair for hard working grant writers to receive little or no pay for their efforts due to many reasons beyond their control. would be reason enough to deny the grant. have limited resources. nor possibly for some time to come. In those instances. should a much lesser amount be granted than was originally requested.900 for grant-acquisition services. For many funders. ―soft‖ and questionable budgets. a grant writer’s time and effort were wasted and she or he received no compensation for their good faith professional services:          Say an organization wants someone to write a grant proposal for a project costing $118. or governmental organizations are willing to make a grant when a portion of the money granted is to be used to pay a grantwriting fee. Grantors routinely look for assurance from the organizations that what they fund will be reasonably evaluated and measured in the longer term for effective and efficient use of their money. not to offset operating expenses nor to disguise a professional fee. .000 and that the grant writer was to be paid a 5% commission if the grant is approved. A grant writer could conduct the best possible research. Most grantors have greater vision than grant-proposal-submitting organizations. Remember. Grant-writing expenses are seen as part of an organizations operating budget. or pending—especially that there are well developed long-range. corporations. the line item in the budget showing $5.

I cannot imagine for the life of me why either would want to go that route. prospects—some even to distant. other important sources of contributions to show. 4. especially from their boards of trustees. Grant proposals. when proposals are stretched beyond practical and common sense limits. The hope for grants to be awarded to ensure payment for the grant writer’s efforts is even more uncertain. Determined who will actually solicit the funds and how they will do it. not everything should be a matter of personal opinion. 2. 2. Chances are slim to none for grant awards when there are no other visible and viable sources of support available to the organization. The three basic areas for which you are likely to be seeking grants are to: 1. 3. uncaring potential benefactors—as is often the case. even the best of them. For me. experienced grant writing consultants are in demand and they are not cheap. This will allow you to spend your consulting dollars where they are really needed — the actual grant writing. are all too often prepared and presented to potential grantors when the organizations have no. the better prepared you are. Then clearly and precisely define each project or program for which you will seek grants in terms that grant-making organizations will recognize and respond to. and they are presented to new. Provide annual operating funds. potentially uninterested. grant writers should be paid for their time and efforts by the hour or project.  strategic plans in place or being planned. Begin the definition process by first setting your grant-seeking priorities as they fit within your organization’s long-range strategic plan and mission. 3. you should already have: 1. codes of ethics are established through collective wisdom because we do need absolutes by which to work and live. A grant writer’s best efforts expended in the writing of a given proposal simply cannot be extended or expected to meet such governance and policy-making requirements and expectations. Make sure that while . Support ongoing programs and services. and most unlikely. the more likely you will be to attract the best grant writers. What Should You Do Before Engaging An Outside Grant Writer? Accomplished. whether or not the grant is received. Also. Developed the essence of your ―Case for Support. Few non-profits forced to operate in ways not fully in accord with accepted professional standards flourish and grow. I believe in the standards that have resulted from thousands of grant writing professionals working to help raise billions of dollars over decades of time. In the end. you should do as much of the preparation work as possible yourself. Defined the project or program you want to get funded. I question whether an organization unable to pay a fair fee for work done is likely to survive. When I see all the wrong that can befall an organization or a grant writer in contingent-pay schemes. Before you engage a grant writer. Therefore. or few.‖ Identified prospective grant sources for the project or program. Create new programs and services.

But by no means have we exhausted the topic of grant writers and grant writing. Be certain that you have reasonably determined in advance the scope. particularly if they operate in your geographic and ―services‖ areas will know such information. doing your own research will let you better direct the grant writer’s efforts. Plus the information and expertise stays in your organization. and ―case‖ value to the community of the project or program you wish to have funded before you engage a grant writer. What are yours? I welcome your comments and suggestions. 2. The public library. how you use them. the Foundation Center. Why would you want a grant writer with whom you have a temporary relationship to represent you to grant makers? Why let the outside grant writer build a personal relationship you or your trustees could be nurturing? Besides. we’ve covered a lot of material here. It is not hard to do and will establish a process and routine you can follow in future grant. 3. Those who run your organization already have this knowledge. when you meet with grant makers you will be better able to respond to questions if you have developed the case. It makes no sense to pay someone on the outside to do this. he or she will have to learn your organization’s capabilities and community’s needs in the specific areas. Those are my views on the subject of grant writers. Go through other non-profit organizations’ annual reports to look for funders. Also. If you ask the grant writer to do this. Grant making organizations and what they are likely to expect of you. and how you pay them within the context of: 1. Identifying the sources most likely to make a grant to an organization such as yours for the purpose you have defined is crucial to the process of grant application. Neither I nor anyone else has all the answers on this subject. and others in your community are excellent sources of this information. Everything from paying and evaluating grant writers to using consultants. Okay.you’re doing this you also plan for life after the grant. your trustees.seeking opportunities. You and others within your organization are the best people to present your case. Your organization’s mission. My goal here is to encourage you to look at grant writers. Addenda . Your organization’s fund-raising agenda. Check your state Attorney General’s office to see if it publishes a list of foundations. foundations want to meet the people who operate and are committed to an organization — not an outsider on a temporary hire. How will you support the project or program in the future if it is to last longer than the timeframe covered by the grant? It’s a question every grant making organization will want answered. Never ask a grant writer to be the actual solicitor of funds. While most experienced grant writers. Prepare well before you engage a grant writing consultant and you will save money while putting your organization in a better position to attain the grants for which you apply. Then be sure to contact as many foundations and other grant making organizations as possible to get their grant seekers’ guidelines and grant awarding calendar. intent.

And non-profits want to know where they might find such accomplished professional grant writers. but the flat fee for time expended would probably closely factor out to the hourly rate I cited. And especially do not arrange payment upon award of the grant in the first place. This is true as well with board members of organizations who are at those meetings. United Way. and other places where there might be opportunities to speak on grant writing topics. It’s the best possible. and let them know that you are available. as I strongly encourage in my article. want to know what amount of fee is fair and reasonable.From time to time. do not enter into a contract which would have a grant writer paid a commission. Get your resume’ up to date and ready. grant writers could charge by the project once they assess the full range and scope of the job. General Grant Writing Pay Rates Fees charged by grant writers will range far and wide. Business Volunteerism organization. However. of the following ways:    Send letters to development officers of non-profits in the geographic area of your choice (United Way. or general in nature. ―Let me have your business card. and could make good use of your interim freelance services. Not to mention the many additional non-profits with no such full-time staff position which are generally in need of the services of a freelance grant writing professional. etc. hospitals. or you want to increase your client base. I’ve seen some fees in the area of $100 per hour and more. As well. To stand up in front of a group comprised of individuals from non-profits. I believe that the $60 to $70 per-hour range is usual. seeking to engage a grant writer on a temporary or project basis. or all.‖ opportunity during the ―Attitude Adjustment‖ half-hour prior to the usual lunch program. and deliver a talk on the process of grant writing. It is one of the best ways to get to know individuals who work for non-profits and to have them know that you are in the consulting business should they have a grant writing need some time or another. Naturally. Maybe the local Library. it is fair and reasonable. . You might just make contact at the right time when an organization is in the middle of a full-time grant writer search. and with the right person. experienced and capable grant writers charge about $60 per hour. That is. Offer your free lecture services. would welcome such a talk as part of their production of seminars and community programs specific to non-profits. But from what I have seen. is one of the best ways for them to see and hear you in action. Here are my personal observations on both those inquiries. See your nearest AFP Chapter from their geographic search page. ―Network!‖ Make inquires at the AFP chapter. Be a member of the Association of Fundraising Professionals. consultant grant writers and organizations. or University. you might be able to secure freelance grant writing opportunities in some. neither party should in any way arrange compensation to be paid on a ―contingent-pay‖ basis. the hourly rate and the resultant total fee will be significantly impacted by the relative efficiency of each grant writer. How to Find Grant Writing Jobs When you are ready to start your own grant writing consulting career. bonus. or otherwise attend the local chapter’s regular open lunch/program meetings. universities. and then I have seen some very low fees—well under $50.). or percentage of a grant award— or from any other available funds.

and ask that they consider your services when the need arises as they serve on the boards of other community organizations. Offer an article. when you worked as a development professional. in your community: i.– –grant writing professionals comes up. on grant writing to some of the non-profits at work in your area for publication in their newsletters. and capable. or otherwise make known to them your credentials and availability to provide grant writing services.e. somewhere. or perhaps an individual professional’s business is growing and she or he would welcome a partner/colleague such as you.com Professional Associations   American Association of Grant Professionals The American Grant Writers Association How to Find Grant Writers . Perhaps a firm needs you as a new grant writing consultant to add to its team. these stewards of foundation and corporate money many times want to be in position to name grant writing consultants for the benefit of those organizations to contact as a resource for their fund-raising needs. Look for any opportunity to have something you have written be published somehow.     ―Speak!‖ Identify fund-raising consulting firms or individual fund-raising consultants at work in your area. etc. or you’ll need to do your own phone book research..) Do all you can to have your name readily recalled and mentioned—and better yet. What worked best over time. was the good old WOM (Word Of Mouth. recommended—when the subject of available. Chamber of Commerce. As they talk to grant seekers and grant getters. or articles. relative to time and expense expended for relatively scant return. mailed. Additional Job Opportunity Resources Job listing sites     Internet Nonprofit Center Chronicle of Philanthropy Careers NonprofitOyster Jobs. we are especially blessed when those grant givers actually recommend us by name. Many of the board members whom you served. and get their addresses if you can. experienced. or otherwise knew. most likely are members of other boards of trustees for other organizations. ―Expand The Market Potential!‖ Write an article of the type which might be of interest to your local newspaper’s writer on things philanthropic. While it’s good to be mentioned in that way. ―Referrals!‖ Visit program officers and corporate contributions managers. ―Endorsements!‖ I’ve advertised. Remind them of your good association during your development professional time with them. and accounted for almost all of my engagements with clients. Do some research ―through the grapevine‖ to know of the best ones. collect the names of the board members with whom were were associated. Rotary. and otherwise distributed my consulting services brochure‖Network!‖all with limited success. ―Publish!‖ From your experience as a development professional.

Brief description of organization’s current programs or activities. include a cover letter with your application that introduces your organization and proposal and makes the link between your proposal and the mission of the grantmaker to whom you are applying. What is your organization’s role relative to these organizations? . Your organization’s relationship with other organizations working with similar missions. PURPOSE OF GRANT III. etc. C. EVALUATION – Attachments & Proposal Check-list – I. Contact the nearest chapter of the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP) in your area to search for a grant writer.   Contact development offices of a few of the largest non-profit organizations near you (United Way.). by their employers. such organizations cannot justify a full-time grant writer. Brief summary of organization mission and goals. there are many such leads to be found there. or special project. including any service statistics and strengths or accomplishments. if any. excluding attachments. Also. and do hire on a part-time. hospital. and are allowed. D. Most grantmakers prefer up to five pages. I. When you contact those non-profits in your area and you find no staff grant writer employed. but be sure to ask each individual funder if they have page limitations or any additional requirements. ORGANIZATION INFORMATION II. B. to ―moonlight‖ by producing proposals for other. Brief summary of organization history including the date your organization was established. for your organization. thus being in a good position to make helpful referrals for your search. organizations. ask to speak to the Development officer and inquire about any grant writers he or she might have hired on a consulting basis. Usually. Highlight new or different activities. Many times. Many times. non-directlycompeting. ORGANIZATION INFORMATION A. university. Use this AFP Web page to find the exact geographic location to your area: Grant Writers’ Tool Kit    Common Grant Application Form Tips For Proposal Writing Be Ready For Questions A Program Officer Might Ask Common Grant Application Form (Courtesy: Minnesota Center For Nonprofits) Use the following outline as a guide to your proposal narrative. basis. such professionals are eager to. and ask to (personally and confidentially) talk to their grant writers.

Who will carry out those activities. 5. Overall goal(s) of the organization for the funding period. challenges. part-time paid staff. Long-term strategies (if applicable) for sustaining this effort. Objectives or ways in which you will meet the goal(s). g. 2. b. III. being as clear as you can about the impact you expect to have. d. PURPOSE OF GRANT (General operating proposals: Complete Section A below and move to Part III – Evaluation) (All other proposals: Complete Section B below and move to Part III – Evaluation) A. F. Activities a. Number of board members.E. f. challenges. II. 7. b. Activities and who will carry out these activities. 3. full time paid staff. Specific activities for which you are seeking funding. General Operating Proposals 1. Time frame in which this will take place. Time frame in which this will take place. 6. Describe your criteria for success. EVALUATION A. issue or need and the community that your proposal addresses. The opportunity. All Other Proposal Types 1. Situation a. Additional information required by each individual funder. Long-term funding strategies. e. c. How the proposed activities will benefit the community in which they will occur. How that focus was determined and who was involved in that decision. Additional information regarding general operating proposals required by each individual funder. issues or need currently facing your organization. Overall goal(s) regarding the situation described above. and volunteers. The opportunity. 4. 2. B.making process. Objectives or ways in which you will meet the goal(s). What do you want to happen as a result of your activities? .

Some funders require your most recent Form 990 tax return. List of board members and their affiliations. indicating which sources are committed or pending 2. 3. preferably audited. This information should include a balance sheet. constituents. Project budget. Organization budget for current year. ___ Financial statements. A copy of your current IRS determination letter (or your fiscal agent’s) indicating taxexempt 501(c)(3) status. list names and involvement. a statement of activities (or statement of income and expenses) and functional expenses. showing actual expenses. ___ Project budget (if not general operating grant). consultants)? D. community. ___ Proposal narrative. Statement of activities (income and expenses). audited if available. List names of corporations and foundations from which you are requesting funds. including:    Balance sheet. How will you measure these changes? C. with dollar amounts. including income and expenses (if not a general operating proposal). Who will be involved in evaluating this work (staff. . ___ List of additional funders. 4. Be sure to check each funder’s guidelines and use discretion when sending additional attachments. 5. Finances—Most recent financial statement from most recently completed fiscal year.B. board. Brief description of key staff. showing actual expenses. If applying to a corporate funder only: if an employee of this corporation is involved with your organization. Proposal Check-List ___Cover letter. including qualifications relevant to the specific request. Statement of functional expenses. including income and expenses. What will you do with your evaluation results? Attachments Generally the following attachments are required: 1. ___ Organization budget. ___ List of board members and their affiliations. Additional funders. ___ Cover sheet.

What Should the Letter Include?  The amount of the request How much money do you need? The total project budget What is the total cost of doing the project? The total organizational budget What is the annual cost of running your entire organization? Other project funders. if any Who else is supporting the project? The project objectives and the time frame What do you want to accomplish and how long will it take? Methods to be employed What approach will be used to accomplish the objectives? Organizational background What experience does your organizational have?        Tips for Writing Letters of Inquiry (or anything else)    Proofread carefully. A letter of inquiry is just what its name implies — a letter asking if the foundation is interested in receiving a full proposal in order to consider the project for funding. Spelling and grammatical mistakes will not make a good first impression.___ Brief description of key staff. Don’t overstate your case or make unsubstantiated claims. Use simple. ___ Additional information required by each individual funder. Avoid jargon. straightforward English. Sending a brief letter (try to keep it under two pages or less) can save both you and the foundation valuable time. Writing Letters of Inquiry It’s a good idea (and sometimes it’s required) to send a letter of inquiry to a foundation before submitting a full proposal. . ___ IRS determination letter. ___ Confirmation letter of fiscal agent (if required).

Fill in the blanks on an application form. Write short paragraphs of four to six lines. Project initiator – manager should draft with guidelines provided by the grants writer.‖ Never miss deadlines. go back to your budget. Use simple words.‖ Use emotional words. and jargon. Tips For Proposal Writing Courtesy: Akron (Ohio. Before you write. If you have trouble getting started. Stress opportunities over needs. determine your project’s features and emphasize throughout your proposal. For increased credibility. rather than the passive.                        . let a beneficiary or expert state your need through a quote. Ask about their experience with funders’ proposal preferences regarding: o Length o Complexity o Budget detail o Statistical support o Personal contact before submission Don’t write by committee. if possible. Suggest in your title results. Describe the emotions and the well-being of your beneficiaries. Use graphs and charts wherever possible. Use contractions for ease of reading. Avoid acronyms. Use strong verbs. Strive for strong 1st-sentences for each paragraph. Include a table of contents if the proposal exceeds ten pages. Be positive. Ask at least one other person to read the letter before you drop it in the mailbox. rather than a plan. Choose a project title of ten or fewer words.‖ (Don’t have the good work you do be a ―well-kept‖ secret). Accentuate the positive. and why the project should be funded at this time. Use the active. (hint): Eliminate forms of ―to be. Final proposal should be written by the grants writer. literary references. Write ―n/a‖ (not applicable) where necessary. Assure that there will surely be ―life after (their) grant. Emphasize beneficiaries’ benefits. voice. including progress and follow-up reports. USA) Community Foundation   The shorter. Write in the third person – easier to ―brag. the better Talk to others about proposals to a funder.  Include a brochure if you have one but don’t attach every publication ever created by your organization. Use a few clear statistics – rather than a number of ineffective ones. Always include a plan for funding the project after the grant ends. Money has a way of helping to refine methods and objectives. Write the summary last. Prepare the budget first – then make sure your proposal supports each item in the budget. Avoid ―iffy‖ and ―hopeful‖ statements.

and for what? What is the purpose of your organization? How old is the organization? What is the average age and income of those whom you serve? What service(s) do you provide? How many beneficiaries of your programs and services did you serve last year? How much does it cost per-beneficiary to provide your service(s)? What makes you unique? Who is you chief executive officer? What are his or her qualifications? Who is chairman—president of your Board of Trustees? Who are the members of your Board of Trustees? What kind of ―track record‖ does your organization have? What is the general financial condition of your organization? o Operating budget? o Any deficit? How much? o Long-term obligations? o Principal areas of expenditures? How is your income generated and what is its percentage of you total annual expense?  1. Earned Income: Fees for your service(s) ____ % 2. Contributions: Individuals ____ % Foundations ____ % Corporations ____ % Government ____ % United Way ____ % Net from benefit events ____ % Other: ________________________� _________ %     For what will grant funds be specifically used? What difference will it make? What will you do if we give you half? What will you do if we give you nothing? .Be Ready For Questions A Program Officer Might Ask Courtesy: Akron (Ohio) Community Foundation              Who are you? What do you want? How much.

when? Why do you think we should make this grant? .  Will you be back again? If so.

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