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# 22 - 23 November, 2010 Institution of Civil Engineers

## Bridge Design to Eurocodes

- UK Implementation

## Design Illustration Bridge Abutment Design

Tim Christie, Mark Glendinning, John Bennetts, Steve Denton Parsons Brinckerhoff

Introduction
Paper illustrates preliminary design of a bridge abutment to determine base slab proportions Purpose of this presentation is to highlight some specific issues and differences from past practice Based on UK National Annexes and PD 6694-1 recommendations (including use of Design Approach 1)

## Structure dimensions and notation

Dimensions to be determined

Integral bridge abutment now more typical, but simple structure illustrates Eurocode issues more clearly

Presentation of calculations
Calculations are presented in parallel columns for SLS (characteristic), and STR/GEO combinations 1 and 2: reduces calculation effort facilitates direct comparisons

Illustration of calculations

## Outline of preliminary design method

(see paper for detail)
Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule SLS iii.middle 2/3 rule ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.settlement (SLS) (approximate method)

## Outline of preliminary design method

(see paper for detail)
Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule SLS iii.middle 2/3 rule ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.settlement (SLS) (approximate method)

## Actions and effects

Most significant change is requirement to do two calculations for ULS (in Design Approach 1), using:
STR/GEO Combination 1 partial factors STR/GEO Combination 2 partial factors
Permanent actions STR/GEO Combination 1 STR/GEO Combination 2 Variable actions Materials

G > 1 G = 1

Q >> 1 Q > 1

M = 1 M > 1

## Horizontal actions Partial and model factor values

Combination 1 Action

Combination 2

F
Active pressure Traffic surcharge Braking / accleration 1.35 0.95 1.35 1.35

M
1.0 1.0 -

Sd;K
1.2 1.0 -

F
1.0 1.0 1.15 1.15

M
1.25 1.25 -

Sd;K
1.2 1.0 -

## Partial and model factors used for bridge abutment design

(ULS, Persistent Design Situation, STR/GEO)

Traffic loads are grouped into multi-component actions No special vehicles (LM3) considered in this example
Traffic group gr 1a gr 1b gr 2 Vehicle (load model) in Group Tandem system and udl (LM1) Single axle (LM2) Tandem system and udl (LM1) Representative value in Group Vehicle Characteristic Characteristic Frequent Surcharge Characteristic Characteristic Frequent Braking / acceleration Characteristic

## Characteristic values of multi-component traffic groups

(see EN1991-2 Table NA.3)

## Outline of preliminary design method

(see paper for detail)
Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule SLS iii.middle 2/3 rule ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.settlement (SLS) (approximate method)

## Outline of preliminary design method

(see paper for detail)
Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule SLS iii.middle 2/3 rule ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.settlement (SLS) (approximate method)

## Outline of preliminary design method

(see paper for detail)
Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule SLS iii.middle 2/3 rule ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.settlement (SLS) (approximate method)

Dependent upon the resultant line of thrust of horizontal and vertical action

i.

H V M

ii.

## Minimum total base length, B

iv., v. bearing resistance calculation method Iterative calculation using EN1997-1 Annex D method varying B, starting with minimum from i., ii. and iii. Final iteration uses B = 8.6m, Bheel = 6.25m

## Minimum total base length, B

iv., v., vi bearing resistance and settlement verification

Notes: 1 R/A = cd Nc bc sc ic + qd Nq bq sq iq + 0.5 d B N b s i 2 Settlement verified using simple method based on mobilising a sufficiently small fraction of ground resistance

Conclusions
Detailed design would be required to verify preliminary sizing of foundations Simple method for preliminary design presented, illustrating application of EN1997-1 and PD 6694-1 Combination 2 governs sizing of foundation in this case might not always do so, but typically does