22 - 23 November, 2010 Institution of Civil Engineers

Bridge Design to Eurocodes
- UK Implementation

2010 Institution of Civil Engineers Design Illustration – Bridge Abutment Design Tim Christie. Mark Glendinning. Steve Denton – Parsons Brinckerhoff . John Bennetts.22 .23 November.

Introduction • Paper illustrates preliminary design of a bridge abutment to determine base slab proportions • Purpose of this presentation is to highlight some specific issues and differences from past practice • Based on UK National Annexes and PD 6694-1 recommendations (including use of Design Approach 1) .

but simple structure illustrates Eurocode issues more clearly .Structure dimensions and notation Dimensions to be determined • Integral bridge abutment now more typical.

and STR/GEO combinations 1 and 2: – reduces calculation effort – facilitates direct comparisons .Presentation of calculations • Calculations are presented in parallel columns for SLS (characteristic).

Illustration of calculations .

undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v.settlement (SLS) (approximate method) .middle 2/3 rule – ULS iv. sliding (undrained) ii.Outline of preliminary design method (see paper for detail) Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. middle 1/3 rule – SLS iii.

sliding (undrained) ii.Outline of preliminary design method (see paper for detail) Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.middle 2/3 rule – ULS iv. middle 1/3 rule – SLS iii.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v.settlement (SLS) (approximate method) .

Actions and effects • Most significant change is requirement to do two calculations for ULS (in Design Approach 1). using: – STR/GEO Combination 1 partial factors – STR/GEO Combination 2 partial factors Permanent actions STR/GEO Combination 1 STR/GEO Combination 2 Variable actions Materials G > 1 G = 1 Q >> 1 Q > 1 M = 1 M > 1 Partial factors for bridge abutment design .

K 1.0 1.Horizontal actions Partial and model factor values Combination 1 Action Combination 2 F Active pressure Traffic surcharge Braking / accleration 1.0 - Partial and model factors used for bridge abutment design (ULS.0 1.35 0.25 - Sd.2 1.2 1.0 - F 1. STR/GEO) .15 M 1.35 M 1.95 1.K 1.0 - Sd.0 1.15 1.35 1.25 1. Persistent Design Situation.

Traffic load groups • Traffic loads are grouped into multi-component actions • No special vehicles (LM3) considered in this example Traffic group gr 1a gr 1b gr 2 Vehicle (load model) in Group Tandem system and udl (LM1) Single axle (LM2) Tandem system and udl (LM1) Representative value in Group Vehicle Characteristic Characteristic Frequent Surcharge Characteristic Characteristic Frequent Braking / acceleration Characteristic Characteristic values of multi-component traffic groups (see EN1991-2 Table NA.3) .

drained bearing resistance (ULS) v.middle 2/3 rule – ULS iv. undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi. sliding (undrained) ii.settlement (SLS) (approximate method) . middle 1/3 rule – SLS iii.Outline of preliminary design method (see paper for detail) Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i.

in this case .Bheel required to prevent sliding • Combination 2 governs heel length. Bheel.

undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. sliding (undrained) ii. middle 1/3 rule – SLS iii.Outline of preliminary design method (see paper for detail) Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i.middle 2/3 rule – ULS iv.settlement (SLS) (approximate method) .

undrained bearing resistance (ULS) vi. middle 1/3 rule – SLS iii.settlement (SLS) (approximate method) Dependent upon the resultant line of thrust of horizontal and vertical action .middle 2/3 rule – ULS iv.drained bearing resistance (ULS) v. sliding (undrained) ii.Outline of preliminary design method (see paper for detail) Determine actions and effects Determine Bheel to prevent sliding (drained) Determine minimum total B to satisfy: i.

Undrained sliding: B > H / cu.2 eheel. B i.5 eheel.d H V M ii.Minimum total base length.SLS iii. Middle 1/3rd at SLS: B > 1. Middle 2/3rd at ULS (GEO): B > 1.ULS eheel = M/V • M is moment about P .

ii. bearing resistance calculation method • Iterative calculation using EN1997-1 Annex D method varying B. B iv. starting with minimum from i..Minimum total base length.6m. • Final iteration uses B = 8.. v. and iii.25m . Bheel = 6.

Minimum total base length.. B iv. v.. vi bearing resistance and settlement verification 1 2 Notes: 1 R/A = cd Nc bc sc ic + qd Nq bq sq iq + 0.5 d B N b s i 2 Settlement verified using simple method based on mobilising a sufficiently small fraction of ground resistance .

Conclusions • Detailed design would be required to verify preliminary sizing of foundations • Simple method for preliminary design presented. illustrating application of EN1997-1 and PD 6694-1 • Combination 2 governs sizing of foundation in this case – might not always do so. but typically does .