1. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/space-exploration-benefits.

html Space Exploration Benefits Whenever you are watching your favorite program on television, you are reaping the space exploration benefits. Perplexed! To know more about the space exploration benefits and its impact on mankind, read on...

Space exploration benefits are manifold and they have contributed substantially to expand the human frontiers of science. The most important of all the benefits of space exploration is that it provided mankind with a challenge. Next, comes the knowledge that man gained out of his efforts that he made to explore the space. With the help of his spacecrafts and satellites, he realized that his theories regarding the universe are true. The first thought is basically important that creates a pavement for further accomplishments. The space exploration started when man tried to judge whether the stars that rise in the sky after the Sun sets, are accomplices of the bogyman, who comes in dark to take the naughty children away. This curiosity about the stars was realized in the space exploration benefits in the form of astronomy and navigating the oceans. While doing this the stars acted as the beacons, the torch bearer for man. Next, came the theories and the hypotheses about the planets, the sun and universe, which you could count as the benefits of space exploration. What and who makes them work? Using these wisps of thoughts to overcome the limits of the gravity of the Earth, man tried to explain, with the aid of binoculars, the existence of universe, planets, the Sun, the moonand ultimately, his own. The study of the Sun, a star, made man realize that nuclear energy can be an resource too. Thus, mankind reaped another benefit of the space exploration in the form of a new energy source, that no one has used before. Read more on pros and cons of space exploration. In 1945, Sir Arthur C. Clarke propagated the idea of satellite communication and then man found the long awaited reason to leave the Earth. The space-exploration moved out of the confines of the cranium to the drawing board which ultimately resulted in blasting of rockets and spaceships such as Apollo-13 towards the planets. Space shuttle launch realized the chance for a common man to go on a space travel. NASA and the rest of the agencies involved in space exploration launched many spacecrafts to explore our solar system.

Benefits of Space Exploration to Mankind There are critics who disagree with the expenditure on space exploration, which they claim can better be used to solve earthly problems. However, they seem to forget that this is one of the fields which tests a man's intellect. But, how does a common man draw benefits of space exploration? The advances made in field of space exploration can be well used in other fields such as medicine, agriculture etc. The following is the list of benefits of space exploration to mankind:

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Global Positioning System: The mankind depends on the sea trade for transportation of food grains, fossil fuels, metal ores etc. Global navigation system, GPS helps in timely delivery of these essential goods by providing the ships with essential navigation information. The GNS services are made available using networks of satellites which also enables satellite Internet and satellite phones. Weather Forecast and Agriculture: Gone are the days, when we used to take an umbrella with us while going out if there were black clouds in the sky. Now we can rely on theweather reports updated on an hourly basis. The accurate weather forecast is possible only because of the satellites in the space. The satellites also help us in predicting the crop yields, pest infestation and the area under cultivation. Natural Calamities: It is easy to predict natural calamities such as floods, storms, tornadoes, hurricanes and to locate wildfires and their extent with the help of satellites. Minerals and Mining: Minerals buried deep under the Earth's surface can be located using satellites. Precious fossil fuels can be found with the help of satellites. Electronics: The field of electronics and computers have also benefited from the space exploration. The astronauts have manufactured miniature electronic parts that could only be produced in the space during their experiments in the space stations and space shuttles. Asteroids: It is believed that an asteroid strike eliminated the dinosaurs on the Earth. One of the benefits of space exploration is that we know about the thousands of asteroids and we can also be vigilant about their "drifts". May be we could prevent 'dinosaurian death of mankind', if and when an asteroid is positioned to repeat history. If it happens, it would be because of the knowledge which is the direct benefit of space exploration. Energy Source: The scientists and researchers all over the world are attempting to harness the power of nuclear fusion. The process which enables the Sun to produce energy in abundance. It is believed that quantity of electricity generated using 1kg of hydrogen would be equivalent to that of 11,000 metric tons of coal. Medicine: Another field to glean the benefits of the satellite exploration is that of medicine. Metal alloys that are manufactured to be used in spacecrafts and space shuttles are also used in the health care industry. Nitinol, an alloy is used to make braces. The miniature electronic components which were developed for the space program can be used in electronic pain-control device that some patients need to use. The implantable insulin pump is based on the mechanical robot arm developed for the Mars Voyager probe.

The space exploration benefits also encompasses the field of communication which needs no explanation. The applications of knowledge and the technologies, that are the outcome of the man's efforts to explore space, are making his life easier indeed!

2. http://www.universetoday.com/37079/benefits-of-space-exploration/

Benefits of Space Exploration by TEGA JESSA on AUGUST 24, 2009

NASA partnered with Hybrid Technologies to produce batteries for EVs

One of the biggest challenges to space exploration is the public and politics. A space exploration has always been a capital intensive endeavor requiring vast resources and extensive research. Because of this Governments have been the only organizations big enough to foot the bill. Even more telling, only three nations so far have successfully sent human beings into space. When something involves the spending of government dollars it always becomes entangled in politics. This is the main point of contention surrounding programs like health care reform and in this case, space exploration. The questions that many American grumble out is “Why waste the money on space when we can use it down here?” The answer is two-fold. We actually do spend the money down here. It goes to the salaries of the countless worker and scientist that support every mission that NASA does. It also goes to pay major private companies and corporations that play important roles in major sectors of the US economy. For example one of NASA contractors for aircraft is Boeing the same company that makes commercial aircraft for the airline industry. So as you see there are already direct benefits to the economy provided by NASA missions.

The less obvious and most important benefit is spinoff technologies. The simple fact is that every new step we make in space exploration advances our knowledge of not just the Universe but the new height human innovation and technology can achieve. Some scientists have already hypothesized that if a civilization from another part of space were to make first contact with Earth their technology would be several orders of magnitude more advanced than ours because the many scientific and technological milestones they would need to achieve to make the feat even possible.

We are surrounded every day by technologies developed for space exploration. The artificial heart for example, resulted from experiments on the space shuttle and a partnership with renowned heart surgeon Dr. Michael Debakey. The hand held Jaws of Life used to save victims from car wrecks originated from the system used to separate the space shuttle from its booster rockets. Even the insulation that keeps our homes warm and energy efficient is based of the technology used to insulate the space shuttle.

These advances are found in our food, our building materials, medical procedures and the vehicles we drive. So the next time you wonder if it is a waste of time and money to explore space remember that it is actually an investment that improves the quality of our lives.

If you enjoyed this article there are others on Universe Today that you will find interesting. There is an article about how we really watched television from the moon. There is also a great article about spin offs from the Hubble Space Telescope. There are also great resources on the web. The NASA website has an online publication called Spinoff that documents the new technologies that come from NASA. There is also a document that lists some of the technologies that have come from the space shuttle.


Developing Countries Said to Need Help to Take Full Advantage As the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) continued its consideration of the peaceful uses of outer space, speakers this morning stressed that exploration of space and application of space technologies should be for the benefit of all mankind, and that the military use of outer space would undermine international peace and security. The representative of the United States said he was encouraged by the substantial progress that had been made in considering the spin-off benefits of space exploration, on strengthening the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in ensuring that space was maintained for peaceful purposes, and on showing how space activities could enrich daily life. In the course of 2004, multi-year work plans, action teams and reports by other groups had formed a flexible approach that had addressed a wide range of topics, including nuclear power sources in space and space-system-based telemedicine. The representative of the Russian Federation said military uses of outer space would undermine peaceful uses, and also the maintenance of international peace and security. There was a need to develop an international convention on space law. He said such a convention could result in the development of instruments on the delineation and definition of outer space, monitoring of space debris and protection of intellectual property. Many speakers from developing countries underlined the benefits space technologies could have on the prediction and mitigation of natural disasters and on the management of natural resources, especially of water. They noted, however, that developing countries often did not have the capacity to benefit from those technologies and needed assistance. Regional cooperation in that regard was stressed. The representative of Jamaica said that, following the devastating spate of hurricanes in her region, she had a particular interest in the implementation of an integrated, space-based natural disaster management system. The representative of Libya, a country recommended for membership of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, called for a system that would allow all countries to participate in the benefits of space-related technologies at reasonable costs -- especially countries that needed them the most. Cuba’s representative, saying that telemedicine, enhancement of space application in the field of agriculture and solar-Earth physics were some of the particularly promising areas of space activity for the good of all of humanity, warned that international cooperation in outer space could be neither privatized by developed States nor reduced to the entitlement of those nations. The representatives of Viet Nam, Ecuador, Thailand, Japan, Nigeria and Brazil (on behalf of Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)) also spoke.

The Committee will meet again tomorrow, Thursday 14 October, at 10 a.m. to begin its consideration of “Effects of atomic radiation”. Background The Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) this morning continued its consideration of the peaceful uses of outer space. (For background information, see Press Release GA/SPD/289 of 11 October.) Statements KENNETH HODGKINS (United States) paid tribute to the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space over the past four decades. In the course of 2004, multi-year work plans, action teams and reports by other groups had formed a flexible approach that had proven to be an effective means of implementing the UNISPACE III conference recommendations and addressing a wide range of topics, including nuclear power sources in space and space-system-based telemedicine. He expressed satisfaction that coordination in solar-terrestrial physics would be considered again at the 2005 conference, since the effect of solar activities and space weather phenomena on daily life and the environment were becoming more apparent. Regarding space debris, he said that the fastest way to limit its growth was to implement the guidelines for orbital debris mitigation. Among legal issues, he was pleased that the relevant Subcommittee would continue to consider the Space Assets Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment formulated by the United Nations International Institute for the Unification of Private Law. This would facilitate the provision of commercial financing for space activities. Work by that Subcommittee on the registration of space objects was also important. Overall, he was especially encouraged by the substantial progress that had been made in considering the spin-off benefits of space exploration, on strengthening the role of the outer space committee in ensuring that space was maintained for peaceful purposes, and showing how space activities could enrich daily life. RODNEY LOPEZ (Cuba) said that remote sensing and other space technologies had become indispensable in many areas of life. The last meeting of the outer space committee in Viennahighlighted, in particular, the importance of facilitating the access of developing countries to satellite image information at a reasonable cost and the use of the Internet for the mitigation of natural disasters. For those purposes and others, the space committee should be strengthened. Space was the common domain of humanity, he said, and should be used only for peaceful endeavours toward the betterment of all. Attention should be paid to minimizing the consequences of space debris and the collision of space objects, especially those with nuclear power sources. It was also crucial to prevent an arms race in outer space. For that purpose, new legal mechanisms should be developed. Telemedicine, near-Earth objects, enhancement of agriculture and solar-Earth physics were some of the particularly promising areas of space activity for the good of all of humanity. The costs of small satellites for communications and monitoring should be reduced so that developing countries could better make use of their benefits. International cooperation in outer space could be neither privatized by developed States nor reduced to their entitlement. If the maximum use of such technologies were to be made, the space committee and the United Nations had big challenges ahead. To that end, he reiterated Cuba’s full willingness to cooperate in everything within its reach.

STEPAN KUZMENKOV (Russian Federation) said he supported development of multilateral dialogue on the use and research of outer space, and also the activities of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. In that Committee, he said, the most useful discussions were held and consensus achieved, and he noted the fact that the existing international legal instruments on the subject were developed in that body. He said military uses of outer space would undermine peaceful uses and the maintenance of international peace and security. There was a need to develop an international convention on space law. Such a convention could result in development of instruments on the delineation and definition of outer space, monitoring of space debris and protection of intellectual property. He said the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space had done important work to implement the decisions of the UNISPACE III conference and the Vienna Declaration. He noted, however, that work on many priority areas was far from completed and should be continued. He said he greatly appreciated the work done by the Committee on the issues of the use of nuclear energy in space and space debris. The space debris mitigation guidelines and principles were very useful, but the task of preventing space pollution required solutions of a broad range of problems. Regarding the use of nuclear energy in space, he said it would be helpful to use the experience of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its experts. He said remote sensing of the Earth should be strengthened in order to assist in the task of monitoring the environment and predicting and mitigating natural disasters. International cooperation in that area might result in the creation of a global system to detect natural disasters using space technologies. NGUYEN VAN BAO (Viet Nam) said that, since outer space was the common heritage of mankind, it must be used solely for peaceful purposes. Many achievements had been made in the exploration of outer space and space technologies, but a large number of developing countries had no access to advanced technologies and did not benefit from them. He therefore stressed the need to assist developing countries in reducing the existing gap between poor and rich in matters of outer space. He said that using outer space for military purposes posed a grave threat to the peaceful use of outer space. Such activities also had a negative impact on the process of international arms control and disarmament. It was necessary to negotiate a legally binding international instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space and to prohibit the deployment of weapons in outer space. He supported the recommendation that Libya and Thailand should become members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. IBRAHIM DABBASHI (Libya) praised the work of Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subcommittees during their 47th session. He said that great benefits were possible for all countries through space technologies. In Libya, in particular, such technologies could help develop vast underused resources. The Libyan centre for space monitoring addressed desertification, mapping and other areas in coordination with other countries, and the country was working to join in international space-related efforts. A system should be developed, he said, that would allow all countries to participate in the benefits of space-related technologies at reasonable costs -- especially countries that needed them the most. In addition, a legally-binding international instrument was needed to regulate outer space and to prevent the militarization of outer space, which would have grave consequences for humanity.

Libya, he said, had always participated in the activities of the space committee as an observer. It was pleased at the recommendation that it should be a member and pledged its commitment to the committee’s goals and activities. JANICE MILLER (Jamaica) said that space-related technologies offered vast potential benefits for States, especially those countries, which did not have current ambitions to embark on their own space programmes. The outer space committee was an important multilateral forum in that regard. She praised the work of the Committee during its 47th session, in exploring ways to utilize the benefits of space science and technology. She noted the important work of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, in particular the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The priority areas identified by that programme illustrated the practical and diverse ways in which space science and technology could be of significant assistance to mankind, and could address some of the key economic and social concerns of developing countries. Given the great potential of the Programme, she expressed hope that the donor community would respond positively to its call for additional contributions. Following the devastating spate of hurricanes in its region, she said Jamaica had a particular interest in the work of the space committee on the implementation of an integrated, space-based natural disaster management system. She welcomed any additional information on how such technologies could be made available to, and used effectively by, countries in the Caribbean region. As a non-member of the space committee, she also expressed interest in activities, such as conferences, training courses and workshops, which could involve Jamaica in such areas as natural resource management, environmental monitoring, tele-health and tele-education through space technologies. LUIS GALLEGOS CHIRIBOGA (Ecuador) said his country was an active member of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The results of outer space research should be for the better quality of life for the people on the planet, especially those people from developing countries that were faced with poverty and natural disasters. He called for new implementations of space technologies that would promote health and education and strengthen the process of decision-making in the sphere of natural resources, in particular water resources. He said space research and technology should lead to sustained growth and to mitigation and prediction of natural disasters and should be used for peaceful purposes only. In that regard he highlighted the importance the Americas gave outer space in its correct peaceful and ethical utilization. The Committee should consider measures to promote regional and international cooperation. There was a desire among Latin American and Caribbean countries to make the Space Conference of the Americas into a recurrent event, within the framework of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, thereby contributing to combating poverty, environmental degradation and mitigating natural disasters. The priorities of the United Nations Programme of Applications of Space Technologies should also be for benefit of developing countries. However, the Programme depended on voluntary contributions of the international community, and he urged that there be sufficient financial means. The Committee had underlined the importance of capacity building for developing countries. His country was willing to strengthen international cooperation on a basis of equality and mutual benefit and supported establishing an international coordinating body for space activities in the area of natural disaster management. KHUNYING LAXANACHANTORN LAOHAPHAN (Thailand) said that, as an aspiring member of the space committee, her country supported the call for active participation of Member States in its work, since space science and technologies helped improve the lives of people throughout the

world. Thailand had been active in the promotion of the peaceful uses of outer space at the bilateral, regional and international levels. Cooperation on space issues at the international level, she said, should be further steered towards assisting developing countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals. She outlined some of the benefits of space activities in education, telemedicine, water use and disaster mitigation. Given those benefits, she said, the work of the space committee should be publicized more widely, along with the United Nations observation of Space Week. Space activities, after all, had only become more important now that the success and sustainability of a country hinged largely on its ability to train scientists and engineers, and to apply sound, clean and cost-efficient technologies for security and economic prosperity. TAKEOMI YAMAMOTO (Japan) presented his country’s space-related activities over the past year. He said that alongside such successes as the launching of an integrated space system last October, which verified the performance of commercial parts and technologies in severe space environments, Japan had suffered some disappointments. For example, the operation of an advanced Earth observing satellite had had to be abandoned, and Mars explorer NOZOMI had failed in its orbiting path in December. Japan was investigating the cause of the incidents and remained hopeful for future projects, however. Since its establishment at the end of last year, Japan’s Aerospace Exploration Agency had been playing a central role in the country’s space activities. Japan intended to promote a strategy for space development through the development of satellites for Earth observation; advanced telecommunication and broadcasting; the transfer of some operations to the private sector; the development of space science; and the promotion of the use of international space station programme. Japan was also promoting international cooperation in a variety of fields. For instance, the second Earth Observation Summit held in Japan last April, adopted a framework for a ten-year implementation plan, which would provide for the construction of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. The actual implementation plan was to be adopted in Belgium next February. He expressed his deep appreciation for the finalization of the report on the review of the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III during last June’s session of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. He said that, having served as Chair of the action team on the item related to capacity building through the development of human and budgetary resources, he also highly appreciated the efforts of all action teams in compiling their reports. Countries should look beyond national borders to bring the benefits not only to the citizens of States engaged in space activities, but to all mankind. JOSEPH O. AKINYEDE (Nigeria) said that on 27 September 2003, his country had launched its first satellite. It was a clear demonstration of how a developing country could acquire and use accessible, inexpensive and dynamic remote sensing in agriculture, management of the environment and other areas. The satellite was partly a fulfilment of Nigeria’s contribution to a constellation of satellites, Disaster Monitoring Constellation. Following the launch of NigeriaSat-1, his country had taken immediate steps to implement its obligations under the legal regime governing space related activities. The National Space Research and Development Agency had received approval to launch a communication satellite, intended to provide bandwidth to address the telephony, broadcasting and broadband needs of the country. Building and launching of a second Earth observation satellite in 2007 had also been approved.

He said projects had been initiated regarding monitoring of air pollution and solar radiation, study of Sahara aerosols and their effects on regional climate, food production and health, and a study of stability of LaserJets. The African Regional centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Nigeria had begun the study of the energy exchange between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere in a tropical climate. International cooperation was strategic to Nigeria’s rapid implementation of its space policy and programmes. In that connection, his country had become a member of the International Astronomical Union. SIDNEY ROMEIRO (Brazil), on behalf of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), expressed satisfaction over the work of the Committee of the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space during its 47thsession and said that advances in space technology underlined the urgent need for progress in related legal and ethical fields. Outer space should be seen as the common heritage of humanity that must be used in peaceful ways for the benefit of all. However, there was an important sector of humanity that had no idea of the new technologies and was not benefiting from them. He said the countries of MERCOSUR had actively supported the outer space committee and seen its work as important for the entire international community. Among the important recommendations of UNISPACE III, he pointed to international agreements related to the application of science and technology in outer space, activities related to water management, universal access to communication space services, actions for sustainable development and new sources of financing for beneficial programmes. He said the activities of the scientific and technical subcommittee were a priority for developing countries, especially in the areas of capacity building and concrete utilization of space technologies. Given the recent devastation of hurricanes, disaster management was a particular priority. Others included resource management, remote education and telemedicine, research in basic space sciences, satellite positioning systems, and the use of small satellite technology. Discussing legal matters, he highlighted the need for progress and consolidation of space law, and said there also needed to be progress toward mechanisms for regional cooperation in space activities. In that regard, he outlined plans for regional conferences that would have as their goal the sharing of space technology by developed and developing countries alike.

4. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/hqlibrary/pathfinders/spinoff.htm

Benefits of Space Exploration Revised: Nov. 2010 One of the familiar complaints that NASA receives when its budget comes up for approval is that "...the money really ought to be spent down here instead of up there". Leaving aside the fact that NASA's civil servants and contractors all live here on Earth, and thus the money is spent here, NASA's fifty years of research and development have resulted in a wide range of inventions and processes, ranging from the complexity of image processing through the simplicity of fire-resistant kid's pyjamas. One facet of NASA's research, aviation safety, is a continuing legacy from NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics. It is so important to the public that it has a NASA HQ library webpage to itself. If you are a NASA HQ employee, please consider subscribing to our news alert on aviation safety to get the latest news. This webpage will help you get a general overview of what NASA's inventions and developments have done to make our lives easier. If you would like to know the paths NASA's inventions take from lab benches to store shelves, please visit our webpage on the Diffusion of Innovations. If you would like to see how NASA's research and development efforts aid America's economy in dollars and cents, please visit our webpage on Measuring Return on Investment for Government Programs and Agencies. If you are interested in seeing how private industry is going forward in space, please visit our webpage on Space Commercialization and Space Tourism. If you are a NASA HQ employee, please consider subscribing to our news alert on commercialization and technology transfer to get the latest news. All items are available at the Headquarters Library, except as noted. NASA Headquarters employees and contractors: Call x0168 or email Library@hq.nasa.gov for information on borrowing or in-library use of any of these items. Members of the public: Contact your local library for the availability of these items. NASA Headquarters employees can request additional materials or research on this topic. The Library welcomes your comments or suggestions about this webpage.

5. http://thehill.com/special-reports/technology-july-2009/50201-numerous-benefits-of-spaceexploration

Numerous benefits of space exploration
By Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Texas) - 07/14/09 11:37 AM ET

Forty years ago the world watched in wonder as American astronauts blazed through Earth’s atmosphere into outer space and landed on the moon, the first time in history that humans set foot on another celestial body. But today, with the economy floundering and the national debt soaring into the stratosphere, some may suggest that we simply cannot afford to sustain human space exploration. I would argue just the opposite. Anyone who follows NASA knows that President Obama recently launched an independent review of planned U.S. human spaceflight activities. The blue ribbon panel, headed by Norman Augustine, retired chairman and chief executive officer of Lockheed Martin, and my friend, is expected to release its findings in August. I am confident that Norm will not sugarcoat the panel’s findings, and I am also optimistic that the panel will promote an ambitious goal for manned space exploration. America’s space and technological preeminence in the world hangs in the balance.

Throughout its 40-year history, our space program has set goals that required innovation and technology yet to be developed, and the results have been astonishing. Miniaturized integrated circuits, satellite technology, GPS navigation systems, bone-density measurements, miniaturized heart pumps and other technologies derived from NASA research and development have saved and improved our lives. New spin-offs include water filtration systems that turn wastewater into drinkable water, wireless light switches, remediation solutions for sites contaminated by chemicals, the development of Liquidmetal and sensors on reconnaissance robots used in Afghanistan and Iraq to deal with improvised explosive devices. The list goes on and on. The National Research Council recently released a report advocating that NASA align its civil space program with national needs. While I understand the temptation to focus on finding solutions to present problems, we need to remember that much of the R&D conducted by NASA has resulted in unintended yet beneficial breakthroughs. Space exploration drives innovation by reaching into the unknown and overcoming complex problems. This sort of problem-solving inherently pushes the limits of technology. Space exploration fundamentally necessitates basic research. If we try to task NASA with too narrow a mission for R&D, we lose the possibility of new discoveries and breakthroughs to adapt technologies in new and creative ways that could have unanticipated applications. Rather than micromanage the type of research we want from our space program, I would prefer a clear goal for U.S. space exploration. NASA must have a challenging, inspirational goal that is ambitious and sufficiently funded. President Bush gave NASA the direction it needed with his Vision for Space Exploration, which included a plan to complete the International Space Station (ISS), retire the Space Shuttle, and develop a new launch system capable of traveling outside low Earth orbit, with a goal of returning to the moon by 2020 as a stepping stone to more difficult destinations such as Mars. This was a goal that Congress endorsed in the NASA Authorization Act of both 2005 and 2008, which were subsequently signed into law. Our space program has accomplished many great feats in the last halfcentury and it is only prudent to implement and fund a vision that builds on that progress. America and our global partners have nearly completed the ISS, which is possibly the most elaborate engineering endeavor of all time. Unfortunately, with an impending five-year gap in U.S. spaceflight capability following retirement of the Space Shuttle, we will have to rely on Russia and our international partners to ferry crew and cargo to and from the ISS. This is a setback for our space program but one that can be overcome with a renewed commitment to space exploration. I strongly believe that we must close the gap in U.S. access to space and it is my hope that the Augustine panel comes to a similar conclusion. NASA has made great progress in developing the Orion vehicle and

the Ares launch systems. Constellation is already in the development phase, so to abandon this plan now would be a massive waste of time, money and resources. The one-half of one percent of the national budget devoted to NASA may be the best investment we make, providing for long-term, high-dividend research, and technology breakthroughs. Economic growth is driven by technological innovation, and space exploration fuels this innovation. It takes courage, desire, and vision to explore the unknown. And it takes national leadership at all levels. We must not default on our vision for space or permit other nations to take away our position of leadership at the forefront of exploration and research. That leadership translates into economic opportunities, national security, secure manufacturing jobs, and an increased standard of living for all Americans. This week we are celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing. When history is written, America will be recognized for one of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, and one of the most thought-provoking human triumphs of all time. This audacious feat, witnessed by billions of people around the world, captured the imagination of all Americans and led to unprecedented increases in science and engineering enrollments at our colleges and universities. The example is clear. NASA is one of our best success stories and deserves our enthusiastic support. Now is not the time to reduce our goals or expectations. Now is the time to set the bar higher.