FOREWORD

Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM), through the cooperation and support of various road authorities and engineering institutiorri in Muluysia, publishes a series of official documents on STANDARDS, SppctptcATIoNS, GUIDELINES, MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road engineering. The aim of such publication is to achieve quality and consistency in road and highway construction, operation and maintenance.
The cooperating bodies are:Public Works Department Malaysia (pWD) Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) Department of Irrigation & Drainage (DID) The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian Branch)
The production of such documents is carried through several stages. At the Forum on Technology and Road Management organized Uy fWOfnEAM in Novemb er 1997, Technical committee 6 Drainage was formed with the intention to review Arahan

contactors.
I

Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE To DRAINAGE DESIGN oF ROADS' Members of the committee were drawn from various government departments and agencies, and from the private sector including privltized road operators, engineering consultants and drainage products manufacturers and

Technical Committee 6 was divided into three sub-committees to review Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 and subsequently produced ,GUIDELINES FoR ROAD DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the foll,owing vorumes: Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Hydrological Analysis Hydraulic Design of Culverts Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design Surface Drainase Subsoil Drainale

;

The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops during the Fourth and Fifth Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and 2002 reipectively. The comments and suggestions received from the workshop participantr *"r. reviewed and incorporated in the finalized documents.

ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA 46-A, Jalan Bola Tampar l3/r4, Section 13, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: 603-5513 6521 Fax:5513 6523 e_mail:
ream@po=jaring.m),

TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.1

INTRODUCTION CRITER.IA.... 2.2.I Drainage Survey 2.2.2 Site Visit
GENERAL

Page

....."..2-I

2.2

....;..

... Characteristics .. 2.2.2.4Highwaterlnformation.... 2.2.2.5 Existing Structures 2.2.2.6Soiilnvestigation 2.2.3 Culvertlocation 2.2.3.1A1ignment 2.2.3.2 Vertical Profile 2.2.3.3 Structural Consideration...
2.2.2.1Topographical Features 2.2.2.2 Catchment Area 2.2.2.3 Channel Characteristics

......2.1 ....2-1 ........2-2 .....2-2
. . .. .

..2-2

.".....2-2 ......2-2 ......-.2-3 ......2-3 ....2-3 ........2-3 ....2-5 ......2-5

2.3

2.3.I

CULVERT TYPE SELECTION

2.3.2

Type Selection Site Conditions 23.2.f Low Allowab1e 2 .3 .2.2 Depth of Cover for Traffic 2.3.2.3 Settlement of

Headwater.. Loading Culverts 2.3.2.4CulvertJoints

.. .

..

.,.......2-8
."...2-8

.....2-8
........2-8
.....

..2-9 "..2-lO

......2-I0
......2-IO
...2-10

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF CULVERT . 2.4.1 Hydrological Analysis

2.4.2

Culverts Procedures . 2.4.3 Freeboard 2.4.4 Length of Culvert 2.4.5 Skew of Culvert 2.4.6 GradientofCulverts 2.4.1 Scour and Seepage Countermeasures 2.4.8 Flow Velocities .
Size of 2.4.2.1Design 2.4.2.2 Minimum Size

......2-I1 .........2-I1

.....2-lI
.... ".2-12 "...2-12 ......2-12 ...,......2-13 ..2-13 ..."2-I4

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Frgure2.2 Figure 2.3 Ftgure 2"4

Alignment of Culvert in Embankment Across Ravine. Culvert Profile
Scour and Seepage Protection

StreamRealignment....

."..2-4 ....2-6

Measures

.........2-7

.....2-I5

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LIST OF TABLES

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T^yl"?l Table 2'2

Recommended Minimum Size of Cutvert Maximum Recommended Flow Velocities (m/s) for Various Conduit Materials

2-t1
2-16

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LIST OF REFERENCES

.

2-17

APPENDIX 1 Reprint of Chapter 27 : Curverts, urban stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia

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VOLUME 2.0 - HYDR.AULIC DESIGN OF CULVER.TS

2.I

INTRODUCTION
The primary purpose of culverts is to convey water under a roadway. They may also be used to restrict flow so that a controlled amount of water is discharged

while the upstream basin of the stream channel is used for detention storage. In road embankments, which traverse across val1eys, culverts are used to convey
water from a hisher levei to a lower level. In1et, outiets and joints must be carefully designed so as noi to obstruct smooth

flow of the water. Attention must be paid in detailing of joints to ensure no leakage occurs because it can endanger the embankment integrity by way of
washout of the soil mass.

The design of culverts involves hydraulic and structural design. This volume wi.ll

only discuss the hydraulic design of culverts. The method used is generally adopted from the publication "Chapter 27 - CULVERT, Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia" published by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran
(JPS), copy of which is reproduced here as Appendix 1.

2.2 2.2.1

GENERAL CRITERIA
Drainage Survey

The design of a culvert begins with the drainage survey. Before the drainage
survey is carried out, the designer should check with JPS or the local authorities
whether past survey plans are available.

If

a drainage survey needs to be carried out,

it is

suggested that the designer

first

of all estimate the design discharge. If the estimated design discharge exceeds 30 cumec for a 50 years recurrence interval, the survey should cover a minimum of 200 metres upstream and downstream from the centre line of the proposed or
existing culvert to obtain:

a) b) c) d)

sufficient channel cross sections,
the streambed profile and existing water levels, the horizontal alignment of the existing sffeam channel,

invert levels and crown ievels of any existing culvert, and
11

e)

highest flood levels.

The site survey should be carried out to the extent sufficient for the proper
location and design of the culvert.

2.2.2

Site Visit

A

site visit by the designer is a must to determine on site information, such

as

topographic features, catchment area, channel characteristic, highwater information and existing structures should be noted, as it can be useful in the
hydraulic design.

2.2.2.1 Topographical
-t

Features

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Features such as residential and commercial buildings, croplands, roadways, the lay of the ground and utilities can influence the location of the culvert as it determines the direction and velocity of the location should be obtained.

flow.

Therefore their elevation and

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2.2.2.2

Catchment Area Characteristics

The designer should take note of features such as lakes, land usage, type and density of vegetation and any man-made changes or development such as dams,
because these factors could alter run-off.

i

Future landuse plans of the catchment should be obtained, if available, to study the effects of future landuse changes on run-off and where necessary these effects should be taken into consideration in the culvert desisn.

I

2.2.2.3

Channel Characteristics

Physical characteristics of the existing stream channel such as, type of soil or rock in the streambed, the bank condition and amount of drift, and debris should also be noted as these factors could affect the durability of the culvert material used and the sizing of the culvert.

2.2.2.4 Highwater Information
Highwater information which may be obtained from observation of the high water mark, local residents or Jps can be used to check results of flood estimating

)_)

procedures, establish highway grade 1ines, to locate hydraulic controls, and to
check backwater effects arisine from the construction of the new culvert.

2.2.2.5 Existine Structures
Considerable importance should be placed on the hydraulic performance of existing structures, some distance upstream or downstream from the proposed culvert site, which can be helpful in the design.
Useful data of existins structures includes:

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

date of construction,

performance during past floods,
scour indicated near the structures,

highwater elevation with datum and dates of occurrence, and structurai conditions of the structure.

2.2.2.6 Soil Investisation
Sub-soil investigation should be carried out to the extent required for the design

of the culvert and soil characteristics should be obtained for design of settlement
and protection against soil erosion.

2.2.3

Culvert Location

Culvert location refers to the horizontai alignment and vertical profile with respect to both roadway and stream. A proper location is important because, it affects hydraulics, the adequacy of the opening, maintenance of the culvert and
possible washout of the roadway.

2.2.3.I

Alignment

The first consideration of culvert location is to place it in the natural channel to give the stream a direct entrance and a direct exit. Where this is not possible, a direct inlet and outlet can be obtained by means of channel diversion, a skewed
culvert alignment or both. Realignment of the natural channel should be designed

properly so as to avoid erosion on the concave side of the channel and siltation on the inner side of the bend. Where following the original channei would result in a
very long and skewed road crossing, a cheaper and practical option is to construct
a stream realignment, see Figure 2.1 for

illustration.

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Sharp bends in existing stream and new stream diversion, where channel erosion

is likely, should be avoided in the location of culvert.. Where this is unavoidable then the sharp bends should be iined to minimise the adverse effects of erosion.
The second consideration of culvert iocation is to exercise reasonable precautions to prevent the stream from changing its course near the end of the culvert. The use

of

sumps paving or gabions

will help protect the banks from eroding and

changing the channel course.

In hilly and mountainous areas washout of embankment fill materials in ravines is a cornmon occurrence dr,rring construction. To help protect the environment and minimise embankment material washout, leading to consequential siltation of

a culvert in a ravine shoulC be aligned. such that the upstream end catches the stream flow directly. The culvert barrel should be
downstreain reaches, aligned such that its foundation is laid on original ground as much as possible' The outlet end requires a cascading concrete channel or suitable energy

dissipating structure or chute to convey the flow safely to natural downstream water course beyond the toe of the embankment. The culvert and its end
connections could be constructed prior to earth

filling operation of the ravine to

reduce erosion of the embankment, see Figure 2.2 for iilustration.

2.2.3.2 Vertical Profile
Most culvert locations approximate the natural streambed. Modified culvert slopes other than that of the natural stream are sometimes used to improve hydraulic performance of the culvert, shorten the culvert or reduce structural
requirements, see Figure 2.3.

The inlet and outlet levels of a culvert should be the same as that of the existing channel and the profile of the existing channel should not be modified wherever

possible. This could be achieved by the provision of drop sumps spillways and flow transition sections. Any abrupt change in grades between the culvert and the
existing channel should be avoided to prevent sedimentation and scouring.

2.2.3.3 Structural Consideration
The culvert should be structuraliy adequate to carry all the imposed vertical and lateral loads and soil pressures. Laying of culverts should be in accordance to
design requirements, site conditions and manufacturer'S specifications. 2-5

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(b)

CHANGE FROM CHANNEL GRADE MAY CAUSE SEDIMENTATION OR EROSION

PAVING OR OTHER OPEN SPILLWAY

(c)

CULVERT PLACED BILOW PROPIR GRADE
WATERWAY

IS

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NOTE:

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PROPER CUL\€RT GRADE IS ESSENThL FOR THE PROPER FUNTIONING OF THE SIRUCTURE

rN FiALF CUl

H LF FrtL (d), (f) rHE CUL\GRT SHOULD BE LAlo ON UNIFORM BEDoINC XATERIAL FOR THE WHOLE LENGTH, TO UINIMIZE DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT

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DIFFERENThL S€TTLEMENT SHOULD

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CONSIOERED IN THE DESIGN OF THE CULVERT STRUCTURE

FIGURE

2.3

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CULVTRT PROFILt

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2.3.1

CULVERT TYPE SELECTION
Type Selection
Types of culverts commonly used in this country are as follows:
a)

precast reinforced concrete pipes (refer M.S. gg1: part 1, part

3:1991),
b) c) d)

2 and.part

M.s. 1293 : part 1 reinforced concrete cast-in-situ box (refer M.s. 11g5:1gg5), and culvert of other material approved by relevant authorities.

precast reinforced concrete box culverts (refer

:

r99z),

culvert type selection includes the choice of materiai, shape, cross section and the number of culvert barrels that will best fit the waterway of the channel or stream.
The following factors shourd be considered in any cuivefi type serection:

a) b) c) d) e) 0 If
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design discharge,
site conditions,

design life,

construction period,
construction joints, and blockage due to floating debris from upstream.

account the site constraints and economic factors.

the design discharge exceeds 60 cumecs based on a 50 years recurrence interval, consideration should be given to using a bridge structure taking into

2.3.2

Site Conditions

2.3.2.1 Low Allowable Headwater
Headwater is the water depth at the inlet of the culvert. Multiple cells culverts have to be used at places where the headwater should be kept low to get the water through quickly without ponding or flooding of the land upstream. In flat flood plain where there is no well-defined local flow path multiple culverts spread over the width of the flood plain may be more effective than a single large culvert.

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2-8

The designer should also take note of the amount of debris in the channel. In be provided areas where solid waste is a problem, trash screen with bypass should a distance upstream of the culvert entrance to prevent clogging of the culvert
barrel.

a)

Reinforced Concrete PiPe
When two or more pipes are used, the pipes should be separated by a clear distance of about 0.3m to 0.9m to allow space for thorough compaction of

backfilling, which is essential to the side support to prevent collapse of the pipes due to unequal surcharge loading. Backfilling between pipe barrels shouid be with well-graded sancl. Proper headwalis and wing walls should
be provided to prevent washouts of the sand back fill. Concrete backfill and haunching may be used in high fill areas where strength is required,
and where the founding soii is soft and weak'

b)

Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Multiple cells precast reinforced concrete box culvert should be laid without a gap between the culverts walls to provide less overall
obstruction to the flow of water. Precast box culverts are normally manufactured with butt ends. To prevenr wash-in of fine particles from surrounding soil the butt joints
should be wrapped all round with suitable drainage geotextile. The usage of multiple cells culverts should be considered with due care:

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if clogging by debris is very evident then multiple cells culverts should
avoided, and

be

where siltation of cells at the sides of the main cell is very likely then adoption of multiple ceils culverts should also be avoided.

2.3.2.2 Depth of Cover for Traffic Loading
The minimum cover over the crown of culverts to the road pavement formation level is normally dictated by traffic load and structural capacity of the culvert.
2-9
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a)

Reinforced Concrete pipe

The minimum cover is 0.4m. If the cover is ress than 0.4m, the pipes should be concrete encased. pipes of higher strength can arso be used but it would cost more. Reinforced concrete pipe below road pavement sharl have adequate structural strength to carry traffic load.
b)
Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Precast reinforced concrete box culverts are designed to withstand direct traffic loading. The minimum cover however is 0.1m.
R.einforced Concrete Cast-in-Situ Box

It can be designed structurally to withstand direct traffic loadins.

2.3.2.3 Settlement of Culverts
when culverts are liable to settle due to a high fi1l, or poor ground condition pipes should be selected which can withstand the anticipated unequal settlement. Reinforced concrete pipe can withstand anticipated unequal settlement provided rubber ring spigot and socketjoints are used.

2.3.2.4 Culvert Joints In cast-in-situ box culverts movement joints should be provided at appropriate

longitudinal intervals. The movement joints should be watertisht and detaiied to prevent wash in of backfill material.

For precast box culverts all joints should be wrapped round with non-woven geotextile to prevent wash-in of backfill material.
2.4

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF CULVERT
Hydrological Analysis
Please refer to Volume 1 Hydrological Analysis -

2.4.1

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2.4.2

Size of Culverts

2.4.2.1

Design Procedures

The hydraulic calculations of culverts shall be in accordance to the design procedures and worked examples as described in Chapter 27 CULYERT of
"IJrban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia".

2.4.2.2 Minimum

Size

For the purpose of maintenance, the minimum size of a culvert is related to the length of the culvert even if the flow to be conveyed is much lesser than the discharge capacity of the culvert. The recommended rninimum sizes of culverts
are as shown in Table 2.1.

Where there is a high possibility of accumulation of debris in the culvert, some reserve in cross sectional area is necessary i.e. the pipe size should be larger than

the required hydraulically adequate size.

If

an embankment with a culvert is

located on soft ground, some reserve area may aiso be necessary to compensate for a possible loss in cross sectional area due to long term settlement.
Table 2.1: Recommended Minimum Size of Culvert

Length of Culvert (m)

Minimum Diameter or lleight of Culvert (m)
1.0

<12

12-18
>19

t.2
1.5

At private access road

crossing

of roadside drainage, to reduce

depth of

downstream roadside drainage channel, the culvert size for the access road may not have to be in accordance to those in Table 2.I,blt it should be hydraulically
adequate to convey the roadside drainage

runoff and compatible with the roadside

channel and shall not be less than 0.6m diameter.

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Freeboard

Freeboard is the vertical distance from the water surface to the road formation level. For culverts, the design water surface leve1 should not be above the road formation level.

For high embankments, when the water level at the inlet exceeds 1.0m above the crown of culvert, the designer must check the stability of the whole embankment against the fluctuations of pore water pressure.

2.4.4

Length of Culvert
The required length of a culvert depends on:
a)

width of the carriageway,
height of

b)

fill

over the culvert,

slope of embankment, d)
e)

slope and skew of the culvert, and

type of end finish such as
transition/tapers or spillway.

headwall,

bevelled end, drop inlet,

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The length of culvert needed can be obtained by sketching out the cross section of the road embankment along the alignment of the culvert.
2.4.5

Skew of Culvert

a) '

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b)

When the road alignment crosses an existing channel at an oblique angle, as far as possible, the channel should be diverted so that the culverr intersects the road at nearly right angles. It is uneconomical to build longer culverts due to its skewness. However, it is not desirable either to

divert the channel in an abrupt manner to achieve a right angle crossing, especially, if it is a very rapid flowing stream.
The headwall of skew culverts should be aligned parallel to the roadway centreline. For traffic safety, the headwall should be located a minimum of 4m, away from the edge of the traffic lane.

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2.4.6

Gradient of Culverts

The gradient of a culvert is dictated by the minimum and maximum allowable flow velocities in the culvert. The minimum gradient is the flattest allowable to minimise deposition and accumulation of silts in the culvert, and the maximum gradient is the steepest allowable to control flow velocities to a level not
exceeding the scouring resistance of the culvert material:

gradient = Maximum gradient =
Minimum
Generally gradients

1:600 1:100

of 1:200 to 1:300 are used for ease of laying and minirnurn

velocity requirements.

2.4.1

Scour and Seepage Countermeasures

The inlet and outlet ends of the culvert should be protected against scour, particularly at the outlet end where design flow velocities have been raised above
previous natural stream velocities. Countermeasures would include rip-rap placed beyond the outlet end

or

the

provision

of

energy dissipating devices such as baffle-apron, drop spillway,

cascading drop, etc.
Seepage in the direction of culvert

flow, in the soil mass around the culvert, could lead to wash-out of fine material, leading to undermining of the cuivert bedding and side support and eventual failure of the structure. This problem could be minimised by the provision of an impervious bedding and embankment at the inlet end and concrete anti-seepage collar.

of fine material through the joints of precast culvert units couid be reduced by wrapping the joints with suitable geotextile drainage fabric.
Suitable water-stop should also be provided box culverts.

Seepage and wash-in

in movement joints of cast-in-situ

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some erosion and seepage countermeasures are illustrated in Fisure 2.4.

When the drop in level from the culvert outlet to the receiving natural stream invert is more than 1 m then considerations should be given to the provision
energy dissipators as described

of

in

Chapter 29

-

Special Structures

of

.,Urban

Stormwater Manage Manual for Malaysia',.
2.4.8

Flow Velocities
The flow velocities at the inlet, barrel and outlet of the culvert, are generally not the same. The inlet approach velocity, vi, is normally low and would not cause scouring problem of the embankment material at the inlet. The culvert barrel velocity, Vc, should not exceed the scouring velocity of the culvert mateial, and to minimise silting it should not be less than the self-cleansing velocitv.

The allowable outlet velocity can vary to prevent scouring the soil type of the downstream receiving channel. For a rough guide of permissible velocities
different conduit materials, Table 2.2 canbe used. If the outlet velocity is greater than the permissible velocity, consideration should be siven to:
a)

of

reducing the slope of the culvert, increasing the size of culvert, and

b)
c)

protecting the receiving channel
dissipator at the culvert outlet.

by lining or providing an

energy

In all

cases' however, a concrete apron shall be provided at the

inlet and outlet

end to prevent scouring.

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Table

2.22

Maximum Recornrnended FIow velocities (m/s) For Various Conduit Materials
8.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 3.0

Precast Concrete Pioes Precast Box Culverts

In Situ Concrete and Hard packed Rock (300mm min) Beaching or Boulders (250mm min)
Stones (150

-

l00mm)

-2.5
1.8

Grass Covered Surfaces

Stiff, Sandy Clav
Coarse Gravel Coarse Sand

- 1.5 1.3 - 1.8
1.3

Fine Sand

- 0.7 0.2 - 0.5
0.5

To reduce maintenance the flow velocities in culverts shall be as follows:

Minimum Self Cleansing velocity (to prevent siltation) Maximum velocity (to limit scouring)

= =

0.7 m/s
3 m/s

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2-16

LIST OF REFERENCES LOCAL PUBLICATIONS
Jabatan Pensairan Dan Saliran (JPS) 1. Hydrological Procedure No. 4

-

Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in peninsurar Malaysia (19g7)

2. 3.

Hydrological Procedure No. 10

- Stage Discharge

Curves (I976)

Hydrological Procedure No.

11

-

Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular Malaysia

4.

Hydrological Procedure No. 19 - The Determination of Suspended Sedirnent Discharge Hydrological Procedure No. 5 - Rational Method of Flood Estimation for Rural Catchments Hydrological Procedure No. 1 - Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in Peninsular Malaysia (1982) Hydrological Procedure No. 16 - Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in peninsular Malaysia
Planning and Design Procedure No. 1 - urban Drainage Design Standards and procedures for peninsular Malaysia
Garispaduan Untuk Memproses Permohonan dan Menetapkan Syarat-syarat Bagi Jambatan dan Lintasan

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Urban Stormwater Management Manual fbr Malaysia

Jabatan Keria Rava (.TKR) i 1.
Intermediate Guide to Drainage Design of Roads - Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/91 Terms of Reference for Survey works and Digital Ground Modelling. 2-17
t,I

1?.

'v i
t
i
!

j
I

: l

i

US PUBLICATIONS

1.

Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 Highway Hydrology (Sept 1996) FHWA_SA_96_061

-

2.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22 Urban Drainage Design Manual (Nov. 1996) FHWA_SA_96-078

-

(us DoT FHA)

3.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14 - Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels (Sept. 1983)

(us Dor FHA)

4.

Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 - Hydraulic Design of Highway Cuvlerts (Sept. 19g5) FHWA-IP_85_15

(us DoT FHA)

2-18

APPENDTX

1

Chapter 27

Culverts

Acknowledgement
The permission granted by Jabatan pengairan dan Saliran to REAM to publish the whole of this chapter of Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia is gratefully acknowledged.

REAM

T

isclaimer
ery effort and care has been taken in selecting methods and recommendations that are appropriate to Malaysian nditions. Notwithstanding these efforts, no warranty or guarantee, express, implied or statutory is made as to the

curacy, reliability, suitability or results of the methods or recommendations.
re use

of this Manual reguires professional interprebtion and judgement. Appropriate design procedures and assessment 'lst be applied, to suit the pafticular circumstances under consideration.
government shall have no liability or responsibility to the user or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, caused or alleged to be caused, direcily or indiredy, by the adoption and use of the methods and :ommendations of this Manual, including but not limited to, any interruption of service, loss of business or anticipatory cfits, or consequential damages resulting from the use of this Manual.
re

s or damage

2000 by JPS Malaysia.
rala Lumpur, Malaysia

I rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing rm the publisher.

'inted in Malaysia

t

-1
i

27 €e3LwffiR?s

27't 27.2

""""""" DESTGN CONSTDEMTTONS............ 27.2.t Headwater...
27.2.2 27.2.3
Culvert in p|an.........
Verticat

INTR'oDUcrIoN

................27-r
.....................27-1

...27-t
...................27 -r

profi1e,......... 27.2.4 Muttipte Ceils............ 27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Cr:hyerts... 27.2.6 Culverts in Flat Terrain 27.2.7 Site Investigation.....,....... 27.2.8 Safety.......... 27.2.9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device 27.2.10 Design Documentation................. 27.3 HYDRAUUCS 27.3.t General........ 27.3.2 Control at In1et........ 27.3.3 Control at Ouflet...... 27.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE. 27.5 COtvtpuTER MODELUNG 27.6 DEBRIS CONTROL 27.6.I General........ 27.6.2 Freeboard 27.6'3 Design Precautions 27.6.4 Relief Culvert 27.6.5 Debris Conkolstructures 27.7 CULVERT END TREATMENT............. 27.7.I Introduction. 27.7.2 Typical End Treatments............... 27.8 FLow vELocITY 27.8.1 Inlet Control. 27.8.2 Outlet Controt ................. 27.8.3 Erosion of Conduit 27.8.4 Scour at In1ets........... 27.8.5 Scour at Ouilets 27.8.6 Siltation

..........27-2
..........27_2 ..."........27_2

........27-z ...27-3
...27_4

...........27_4 ..........27_4 ................27_5
...27_s

...........?7_s

...........27-6 ,..27-g
..................27_t2
.........27_12 ...27_12

.......27_t3 .............27_t3
."27_t3

....27-13

.27-t3
...27_!3 ...........27_13

..........27-t3
...27_13
....z7_L4

...............27_!4 .........27_L4

.................27_tq

..........27-L5

i
it :

-.-*.dL

,l

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

27-i

Cutverts

tnl
tlt

lul
27.9
-.:1,

ul

riig
ht

hat

CULVERTS... APPENDIX 27.A DESIGN FORM, CHARTS AND NOMOGRAPHS APPENDIX 27.8 WORKED EGMPLE ?7.8.t Pipe Culvert (Inlet Control) ................ 27.8.2 Box Culvert (Inlet Control) ................. 27.A3 Pipe Culvert (Outlet Control) 27.8.4 Box Culveft (Outlet Control) 27.8.5 Minimum Energy Culvert.......".
27.10
MINIMUM ENERGY

....... 27-18

is

.......,.....27-2I
............ 27-35

27
,t

....27-35 ....27-36 ..................27-37
.........."........ 27-37 ............... 27-38
^.n'

at

-3el
cul 'h

tht sl

le

ft
hr

qK
- -Je

in(
I ll

av
Cir
1C

-be
let

lh
I

'f

Pr

o!
cl'

m
I It

ts

th

m

ol

1/-ll

lltfut Stumwater

u
l4anagement Manual
i

- ;f--

-l
.1

CulverE

27.T

IruTRCDI.'CTTON

culverts are

culvert inlets. The procedures for the hydraulic deiign of ..Hydraulic
based

This chapter provides. guidance on the hydrauric design of culverts, culvert end treatment, the design of scour protection, debris contror and an introduction to improved

and catastrophic failure of the embankment should be investigated. When culverts are installed under high embankments, an appropriate invegrigation shourd be

attenuate flood peaks downstream" If deep ponding is considered, the consequences of scour at the outlet

made

Culverts', Hydraulic Engineering Circular Highway Administration, 19g5).

on

Oeiign
ru-o

of Highway S (US Federal

blockage of the culverts by debris.

to evaluate the risk of a larger iood occurring or

27.2.2 Culvert in plan
Ideally, a culvert should be placed in the natural channel (Figure 27.1.). A culvert in this location is usuaily aligned with flow and little structural excavation and channel work are required at the inlet and outlet, especially for shorter culverts. In the case, where rocation in the natural channel would require an inordinately long culvert, some stream reafignment may be required (FigieZT.Z). Such modification to reduce skew and shorten iulverts should be carefully designed, environmental concerns for stream velocity, flow depth and factors important to the stream ecosystem, and hydraulic concerns for stream bed and bank stability make it advisable not to undertake channel

discussed herein.

The emphasis in this Chapter is on the design of culverts for urban stormwater.drainage. Highway authorities may have different or additional requirements, which are not

2V.2 DESIGNCONSIDERATTONS
27.2.L Headwater
cause a rise in the upstream water surface. The total flow

Any culvert that constricts the natural stream flow will

culvert inlet is termed headwater.

depth in the stream measured from the invert

of

the

modifications unless there is no practical alternative.

the site and the vertical road profile in ieiation to that topography. In flat or undurating country or where a high standard vertical road profile is used
ground or the elevation at which the road formation cuts through the hydraulic Arade line. Raised levee banks may be necessary to maintain the headwater depth required as indicated in Section 27.2.6. The most economical culveft is one which utilise all of the available headwater to pass the design discharge, since the discharge increases with increasing head. However, it is not always possible to utilise all of the available headwater,
available headwater may be limited by the height of the surrounding

The available headwater will depend on the topography of

the

consideration needs to be given to the hydraulic efficiency of the wingwalls.

measured from a line perpendicular to the roaclway centreline. if the skew is greater than 45 degrees special

Culvert skew should not generaiiy exceed 45

degrees

because of constraints, which limit the upstream water level. Selection of the design headwater shoutO be based therefore, on consideration of the following factors

culvert

recommended where severe or abrupt changes in channel alignment are reguired upstream or downiream of the culvert. Small radius bends are subject to erosion on the lon:ave bank and deposition on the inside of the bend. Such changes, upstream of the culverts, result in poor alignment of the approach flow to the culvert with resuiting loss of hydraulic efficiency, subject the embankment to erosion and increase the probability of deposition in the

culvert alignments square to the road centrerine are not

cell.

downstream

.

:

agricultural land.

on bachlrater resulting from the presence of buildings upstream and/or the inundation
Limits

deposition of material in adjacent properties.

Abrupt changes in channel alignment of culverts may also cause erosion or

of

.

The outlet velocity and the potential for scour.

Potential damage to adjacent property or inconvenience to owners should be of primary concem in the design of all culverts. Expensive court cases and resultant compensation

may result

if

urban areas, the potential for damage to adjacent propefi is greater, because of the number inO value of properties that can be affected.

property owner,s rights are neglected. In

may present the design engineer with an opportunity to adopt a high headwater and allow ponding"upstream
to

Culvert installation under high embankments in rural areas Figure

27.1

Culvert Located in Natural Channel

l

i

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

,-:i---&

27-t

Cu/verB

I
I

Channel Change
v

-[
€ I

(

Altemate Cutvert Location

(
r

Relocated Ctannel

J\

A
Recommended

Channel ChanEe

Not Recomrnended

Figure

27.2

Methods of Culvert Location in the Natural Channel to avoid an Inordinately Long Culvert

2V.2.3 Vertical Profile
Most longitudinal culvert profiles should approximate the natural stream bed. Other profiles may be chosen for either economic or hydraulic reasons. Modified culvert slopes, or slopes other than that of the natural stream, can

27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Culverts
Changed landuse, such as urbanisation upstream from an existing crossing may increase the magnitude of flooding and necessitate increasing the culvert capacity to accommodate additional flow without exceeding a given headwater elevation. Before deciding that the culvert has to be replaced by a larger structure, (assuming relief flow is not feasible), the possibility of improving the inlet of the

be used to prevent stream

degradation, minimise

t-

sedimentation, improve the hydraulic peformance of the culvert, shoften the culvert, or reduce structural requirements, Modified slope can also cause stream erosion and deposition. Slope alterations should, therefore, be given special attention to ensure that detrimental effects do not result from the change.
Channel changes often result in culverts being shorter and steeper than the natural channel. A modified culvert slope

existing culvert should be investigated (see Section 27.9 for details of improved inlet culverts).

27.2.6 Culverts in FlatTerrain
In flat terrain, drainage channels are often ill-defined
or

can be used to achieve a flatter gradient to prevent channel degradation. Figure 27.3 illustrates possible
culveft profiles.

non-existent and culverts should be located and design for

27.2.4 Multiple Cells
watenany

It is impoftant to select a culvert shape that will best fit the of the channel or stream. In narrow deep channels, a small number of large diameter pipes or box culverts are usually appropriate. In flat areas having no well defined watenray the flood may be larger in volume, but of shallow depth. A number of separate culverts spread over the width of the flooded area may be more
appropriate for these conditions.

least disruption of the existing flow conditions. In these locations multiple culverts can be considered to have a common headwater elevation, although this will not be precisefy so. Figure27.4 illustrates a design technique that can be used to determine the combined capacity of multiple culverts with different invert levels and capacities. The total discharge at any point of the headwater elevation for culverts 1 and 2, on FigureZ7.4, is the sum of the discharges Ql and Q2.

In flat

terrain

it

may be necessary to construct levee

Special consideration should be given to multiple cell culveds where the approach flow is of high velocity, particularly if supercritical. These sites are best suited to a single cell or special inlet treatment to avoid adverse
hydra u lic j ump effects.

banks, as shown on Figure 27.5, to achieve the design headwater at the culvert location. This is only possible if there is no danger of increased flooding of upstream properties. Therefore, approval of the local drainage Authority must be obtained prior to construction of any
such levee bank.

27-2

tJrban Stormwater Management Manual

-.--.,=d,.

't

27.2.7 Site trnvestigatlon
A site investigation must be carried out at each proposed
culvert site. The extent and complexity of the invesUgation

irnportani buildings upstream, such as houses, commercial property, roads or railways should be recorded, if_tney are likely to be affected by backwater

the embankment and the loading that will be imposed on the foundation material and on the culvert itself.

will depend on the size, importance and cost of the proposed culvert, site conditions, the height of

should be sufficient to permit the culvert to be located in plan and profile and should include relevant physical features. In flat terrain the elevation of

Survey information

distance upstream and downstream
longitudinal siream gradient.

the stage-discharge curve may have to be calculated by the srope Area l.rettroc, as is often the case in urban.or developing areas and for all major culverts, the survey should include a cross_section of the channel and floodplain and a water surface profile extending a sufficient

At, sites where

to

est Otirn tf,e

I
Streambed l-ma$on Deposftion

R

epr€ed

r-tF...Use Chute

Rffi
Degndlng Channel
Figure

Where Necessary

Stable Channel Gradient

27.3

possible Culvert profiles

Perfonnance Curve Culvert 1

Perbrmance Curve
Cutuert 2

Cornbind Performance Curve
Cuh/eft 1 plus Culvert 2

Discfiarge

Dlsdrarge

ToblDisdrarge

(er = er + ez )

Figure 27

'4

Stage-Dixharge Curue for Multiple Cutverts with Different invert Levels

Urfun Sbrmwater lvlanagement Manual
27-3

Culverts

Levee Bank b Maintain Design Headwater - Shculd be Extended Far Enough Out fiom Embankment to Match Nahrnl Surface.

Zt

!I
cc

ut
'r)

It
TI

w

n
Figure

27.5

a(

Development of Headwater

di
5t

scour prone areas, soil characteristics should be assessed to enable stream protection strategies to be formulated. The design engineer should also know the nature of the subsoil material underlying the stream bed, unless it is obvious that it is sound bed-rock or other material, which will not cause foundation problems.
Detailed foundation investigations should be carried out for all large culverts, unless it is certain that thev will be founde on sound bed-rock.

In

considered to prevent entry. However, this may cause blockages and reduce the efficiency of the culvert.

lc

d

_d

27,2"9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device
As stream flow records for small catchments are very
scarce, any reliable supplementary data gathered during or after major floods are of considerable value. A convenient

27.2.8 Safety
Traffic safety - An exposed culveft end (projecting from the plane of the batters) acts as an unyielding obstruction, which is likely to bring an out of control vehicle to an abrupt stop, causing considerable damage to the vehicle
and high deceleration forces on the occupants. Where a road safety barrier is not provided, culvert ends

way of deriving such data is to measure high water marks at culverts after major floods and then to estimate the actual flood flows, which pass through the culvert (see Section 27.4). The calculated discharge can then be related to the catchment characteristic and used to verifo or improve existing runoff estimation methods. Careful identification and measurement of high water marks is essential and should be carried out as soon as possible after the flood, before the evidence disappears.
27 .2.1O

Design Documentation

should be designed so that they will not present an obstruction to vehicles running off the road. This can be
achieved by covering exposed sides with

Records

headwalls or wingwalls which will not present an obstruction, or mitrering culveft ends flush with the
embankment surface.

fill, providing

of culveft designs should be retained for at

least

the lives of the culverts. The amount and detail

of documentation should be related to the importance of the structure. The following data would normally be retained for large culverts:

The location

culvert ends placed flush with the embankment slope should be indicated by markers to reduce hazards to equipment operators and others. High culverts in populated areas should be fenced whenever
oossible.

of

The hazard presented by culverts under private and sideroad entrances should be minimised by placing them as far as practicable from the roadway and avoiding the use of
headwalls.

Child safety

-

Culverts can also be an attradion for

. . . r . . . r . . .

Field notes and data Site plan, profiles and cross-sections

Soildata
Summary of calculations
Design flood frequency

Headwater depth Outlet velocity Culvert drawings
Rationale for culvert choice

adventurous and inquisitive children. At locations where

long culverts could

a

hazard, especially

in urban

areas,

Photographs of site and developments, if there is a possibility of future claims resulUng from the hydraulic performance of the culvert. Flood data observed during and after construction of the culvert.

fencing, swing gates or grates at upstream ends should be

274

utban Stcrmwater Management Manual
j,

-'!

Culverts

2V.3

STYDRAT.Ii_ICS

For the two fypes of control, different factors and formulae

2V,3.L General
The flow hydraulics in the culvert is normally either under

are used to calculate the hydraulic capacity of b cutuert.
Under inlet control, the cross-sectional area of the culvert cell, the inlet geometry and the amount of headwater or ponding at the entrance are of primary importance. Ouilet control involves the additional consideration of the elevation of the tailwater in the outlet channel and the slope, roughness and length of the culvert cell.

condition of full flow in closed conduit or part full flow under uniform flow or non-uniform flow. The fundamental hydraulic principles under these two flow conditions were described in Chapter 12. The most irnportant consideration in culvert hydraulics is whether the flow is subject to inlet or ouflet control. Figures 27.6 and 27.7 show the range of flow types commonly encountered in culverts. For inlet control two distinct regimes exist, depending on whether the inlet is

2V,3.2 Contnol at Inlet
For cul.reds subjeC to inlet control, the important factors are entrance conditions, including the entrance type, existence and angle of headwalls and wingwalls and the projection of the culvert into the headwater pond. For one dimensional flow, the theoretical relation between discharge and upstream energy can be computed by an iterative process or by the use of nomographs.

or not submerged. Outlet control occurs in long culverts, laid on flat grades and with high tailwater depths. In designing culverts, the type of control is determined by the greater of the headwater depths
submerged calculated for both inlet control and outlet control.

A. Projecting

End - Unsubmerged Inlet

B. Projecting

End - Submerged Inlet

C. Mitred
Figure

End - Submerged Inlet

27.6

Flow Profiles for Culvert under Inlet Control

Urban Stomwater Management Manual

77-5

-

..-3

Inlet control can occrJr with the inlet submerged and the outlet not submerged (Figure 27.6). Sketches of inlet control flow for both unsubmerged and subrnerged projecting €ntrances are shown on Figure 27.6(a) and 27.6(b). Figure 27.6(c) shows a mitred entrance flowing submerged with inlet control. Under inlet control, the flow contracts to a supercritical jet immediately downstream from the inlet. When the tail water depth exceeds critical depth f. and the culvert is laid on a steep grade, flow remains supercritical in the cell and a hydraulic jump will form near the outlet. If the culvert is laid on a slope less than critical, then a hydraulic jump will form within the
culveft.

rt2

'29
where

(27.2)
-Lt

!.ll

/is the mean

acceleration due to gravity. The mean velocity is the discharge, Q divided by the cross-sectional area .4 of the
cell.

velocity in the culvert cell and g is the

TI

The entrance loss is expressed as,

'"=f.#
The entrance loss coefficient, K"

(27.3)

In inlet control the roughness and length of the culvert cell and the outlet conditions (including depth of tail water) are not factors in determining culvert capacity. An increase in the slope of culvert reduces headwater only to a small degree and can normally be neglected for conventional
culvefts flowing under inlet control.

, depends on the inlet geometry primarily through the effect it has on contraction of the flow. Values of K. determined from experiment, range from 0.2 for a well rounded entrance, through 0.5 for a square edged inlet in a vertical headwall to 0.9 for a
sharp pipe (e.9. corrugated steel) projecting from an embankment. Ku coefficients are given on Design Chart
27.2.

27.3.3 Contro! at Outlet
Culverts flowing with outlet control can flow with the culvert cell full or with the cell part full for all of the culvert

length. With outlet control and both inlet and submerged (Figure 27.7(a)) the culvert flows full
length, then part-full at the ouUet (Figure

outlet under

Since most engineers are familiar with Manning's n, the following expression is used to calculate the friction loss, H,. aiong ihe conduit:

pressure. The culvert can also flow full over part of its

27.7). The point at which the water surface breaks away from the culvert crown depends on the tailwater depth and culvert grade
and can be determined by using backwater calculaUons.

H,=H*,#
where,

(27.4)

If

the culverts is laid on a flat gnde, outlet control can occur with both inlet and outlet not submerged (Figure 27.7) and

part full flow throughout the cell is subcritical. Minor
variations of these main types can occur, depending on the relative value of critical slope, normal depth, culvert height and tailwater depth.

n tV g

The procedure given in Section 27.4 provides methods or the accurate determination of headwater depths for the full flow condition and for the case of the cell paft-full over part of the culvert length. The method given for the condition of the celi part full, over the total length, gives a solution for headwater depth that decreases in accuraqy as
the headwater decreases.

= = = = = R= A = We =

Manning's friction factor

length (m) of culvert cell
mean velocity (m/s) of flow in culvert cell acceleration due to gravity

9.80 m/sz

hydnulic radius (m) = 4Wp area (m2) of flow for full cross-section
wetted perimeter (m)

Substituting in Equation

27.t and simplifying, we get

for

tullflow:

u l,. - .zgnztlvz lz=Lrr""tnru

(27.s)

(a)

Determination of Energy Head (H)

)ZS

The head, H (Figure 27.7) or energy required to pass a given flow through a culveft operating under outlet control is made up of three major parts. These three parts are usually expressed in metres of water and include a velocity head, Hn an entrance loss, H, and a friction loss, ff,. The energy head is expressed in equation form as:

of Equation 27.5, the energy line, the hydraulic grade line and the headwater depth, HW. The energy line represents the total energy at any point along the culvert cell. The hydraulic grade line ls defined as the pressure line to which water would rise in
Figure 27.8 shows the terms

H=Hr+H"+H1
The velocity head, H" is given by,

small veftical pipes attached to the culvert wall along its length. The difference in between these b/vo -elevation
lines is the velocity nead

(27.1)

Y1 "6'

27-6

lJtban Stormwater Management l'lanual

Cu/verb By referring to Figi:re 27.g and using th€ outlet as datum, we get:

the culvert invert at

H=ht+fi"U-hz=H,+H,+H,

(27.8)

tl*ii+LS=hr+H,+H"+H,
zg
Then,

rt2

(27.5)

Figure 27.8,

hr**+LS-h2--H,+Hu+H,
2g
and,

tt2

(?7.7)

the inlet. Since the velocity head in the entrance poot is usually small under ponded conditions, the water sr:rface of the headwater pool elevation can be assumed to equal
the elevation of the energy line.

the hydraulic arade line at the outiet and the energy line at

Frorn the development of this energy equation and ff is the difference between the elevation of

Equation 27.5 can be readily solved for # by the use of the fulf flow nomographs in Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5.

(a) Culvert Flowing Full, Sr.lbmerged Oudet

(b) Culvert Flowing tull, Unsubmerged OuUet

-

Jv$tllcfrgegne

(d) Culvert Not Floruing Full

FiEure

27.7

Flow Profiles for Culvert under Outlet Control

Urban Stormwater Nanagement Manual

-,,s

27-7

CulverE

for

- .: -. aqgv-li1. \ - - IYqE@gld€r,j_"e -

r-or
sat tol

_)e
cal
UI

-2i
Figure

27.8

Hydraulics of Culvert Flowing Full under Outlet Control

of

hsfor High Tailwater

--eq

ih

(b)

Determination of Headwater Depth (HWo)

9n

Headwater depth,

HW6 can be

determined from an

Two tailwater condiUons can occur with culverts operating under outlet control, (i) tailwater above the top of the opening and (ii) tailwater at or belsw top of opening:

JN

equation for outlet control:

HWs=H+ho-LS
where,

(i) Tailwater above the top of opening t27.s)

when the

tailwater, TWinthe outlet channel is above the too of the culvert ouUet Figure 27.7(a),

H=
h0 hc

-

head (m) determined from Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5 or from Equation 27.8 greater of TW and (hc + D)IZ, in which D < D

ho--TW

(27.10)

The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation
27

critical depth (m) from the Design Charts
Appendix 27.A

in

.9, for this situation, is illustrated on Figure 27.9.

D = culvert height (m) l- = length (m) of culvert S = slope (m/m) of cell (c) Determination of ho
The determination of hs is an important factor in calculating both the headwater depth and the hydraulic
capacity a culveft flowing under outlet control.

(ii)

or below top of opening - when the tailwater in the outlet channel is at or below the top of the culvert ouUet, as on Figure 27.7(b), 27.7(c) and 27.7(d), fa is more difficult to determine.
Tailwater at

Full flow depth at the outlet, Figure 27.7(b), will occur only when the flow rate is sufficient to give critical depths equal or higher than the height of the culveft opening. For all such flows the hydraulic arade line will pass through the

top of the culveft at the outlet and the head, H can be added to the level of the top of the culvert opening in
calculating HWq

the outlet to the water surface in the outlet channel. Engineering judgement is required in evaluating possible tailwater depths. Tailwater is often controlled by a downstream obstruction or'by water levels in another stream. A field inspection should be made to check on downstream conditions and flood levels. The Slope Area Method can be used to calculate flow depths, if
downstream conditions do not provide an obvious control.

Tailwater depth, TWis the depth from the culveft invert at

When critical depth is less than the height of the culvert

opening, the water surface drops as shown on Figures 27.7(c) and /7.7(d), depending on the flow. For the condition shown on Figure 27.7(c), the culvert must flow full for of its length. Flow profile computations show that the hydraulic arade line, if extended as a straight line from the point where the water breaks away from the top of the
culvert, will be at a height approximately halfway between critical depth and the top of the culvert, at the culvert outlet. i.e.:

Foftunately, most natural streams are wide compared to the culveft and the depth of water in the natural channel is considerably less than critical depth in the culvert section. In such cases the natural tailwater does not govern.

n"

=(tg:ro)

(27.r1)

This fevel should be used if it is greater than TW.

27-8

Uftan Starmwater Management Manual

Ut

Culverts

The head, Hcan be added to this level in calculating f/llla. The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation 27.9 for this situation is illustrated on Figure 27.10.
As the discharge decreases

inadequate, unsafe, or costly structures. The procedures does not address the effect of storage. The design procedure is summarised on the Culveft Design fbwcha-4
Figure 27.11.

the situation approaches that of Figure27.7(d). For design purposes, this method is satisfactory for calculated headwater depths above 0.75D. For smaller values of headwater, more accurate result can
obtained by flow profile calculations or by the use of the capacity charts from Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10 (US Federal Highway Administration, t972).
be

1. r . . " e . . "

Assemble Site Data Site survey and locality map.

Embankmentcross-section.
Roadway profile. Photographs, aerial photographs.

27.4

DESIGN PROCEDURE

existing structure).

Detaiis from field visit (sediment, debris and scour at

The design engineer should be familiar with all the equations in the previous Section before using these procedures. Following the design method without an
understanding

Design data for nearby structures.

of

culvert hydraulics can result

in

Studies by other authorities near the slte, including small dams, canals, weirs, floodplains, storm drains.
Recorded and observed flood data.

an

D

S--+

Figure

27.9

Determination of hs for High Tailwater

f atl

Dt-

lb

= Greater of h. + D and TW
2

Figure

27.10

Determination

of hsfor Tailwater

Below Top of Opening

Urban Stcrmwater Management Manual

27-9

2.

Determine Design Flood Discharge

(iii)

If the Manning's n value of the culvert

under

Determine ARI of design flood - see Chapter 4. Deterrnine design flood discharge, Q - see Chapter 14.

consideration differs from the Manning n value shown on the nomograph, this can be allowed for by adjusting the cuivert length as follows:

3. 4.

Commence Summarising Data on Design Form

See Design Chari 27.1 in Appendix 27.A.
Select Trial Culveft

L = L(!L\ - \n )
wnere,

(27.12)

(i)
(ii)

lr =

adjusted culvert length

Choose culvert material, shape, size and entrance type. Determine the initial trial size of culvert, either by arbitrary selection or by assuming a velocity (say

I = actual culved length
,t = desired Manning n value rl = Manning n value given on the nomograph
(iv) Calculate HW = H + ho- LS
As with inlet control, where the approach velocity is considerable, the approach velocity head can be ealeufated and deducted from the calculated HWo to give the actual physical head required.

3 m/s) and calculating a culvert area from A = o/v

5.

Determine Inlet Control Headwater Depth, inlet Control Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5.

flft-

Use

The nomographs cover various culvet types and inlet configurations. Each nomographs has an example on it which is self-explanatory. Using the trial culvert size, the relevant nomograph can be used to calculate l7W1 given a known O. They can also be used in reverse to calculate e
given a known HWi

(v) It HWo is less than

0.75Dand the culvet is under

ouflet control, then the culvert may be flowing only part full and using (/t. + D)12 to calculate fa
may not be applicable. If required, more accurate results can be obtained by flow profile calculations or the use of Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10 (as discussed in Section 27.3.3 under (ii) tailwater depth at or below top of opening).

It should be noted that where the approach velocity
physical head required.

is

considenble, the approach velocity head can be calculated and deducted from the calculated HWi to give the actual

B.
f4for Outlet control

Determine Controlling Headwater, Hl1/,

6.

Determine Depth,

Compare HWland HWsand use the higher:

(i)

(r. + D)12 and the tailwater, Il,/ from known flood levels, downstream controlling levels or from the Slope Area Method. If it is
Calculate both clear that the downstream tailwater conditlons do not control, take f4 = ftc + D)/2. 11, can be calculated from Design Chafts 27.8 or 27.9. If hc exceeds Dthen take D.as D.

It

HW > HWo the culvert is under inlet control ?nd HW, =

HW

lf

HWy HWo

>

HWithe culvert is under outlet control and HW, =

9.

Calculate OuUet Velocity,

1,24

(ii)

h0 is

the larger of TWor (h, + D1/2

7.

Determine Outlet Control Headwater Depth

at Inlet,

HW

The average outlet velocity will be the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area of flow at the culvert outlet. The cross-sectional area of flow depends, in turn, on the flow depth at the outlet. controlling headwater, the flow depth can be approximated by calculating the normal depth, yn, for the culvert crogs-section using Manning's Equation. The flow area, A is calculated using yn and the outlet velocity: v"

(i)
(ii)

Determine entrance loss coefficient, Ku from
Design Chart27.2.

If inlet control is the

the outlet control nomographs, Design
Charts 27.10 to 27.tZ (or Equation 27.5 if outside the range). As with the inlet control nomographs, these nomographs cover various cuivert types and each nomograph has an self-explanatory example on it.

Glculate the losses through the culvert, H using

=n

(27.13)

27-LA

tlrban Stormwater Management lutanual

Url

Culverts

TRY CULVERT SIZE D

HWo=Ho+H-SoL

HW=HWi
(TNLET CONTROL)

OF CULVERT CELLS; REPEAT DESIGN STEPS

CONSIDER OPTIONS: SCOUR PROTECTION ENERGY DISSIPATOR IF CHANGE OF CULVERT SIZE. REPEAT DESIGN STEPS

r/rr. H€ADWATER FO8 OLfTIET COr.mOt

'Yl

HEADWATER, FOR

IIttET COi{TNOI

ADOTT DESIGN AND
RECORD CALCUUTIONS

Figure

27.11

Design Flow Chart

Urban Stormwater Management f"fanual
27

-t1

.. 6,d

a

The outlet velocity computed utilising the normal depth, y, will usually be high, because the normal depth is seldom reached in the relatively short length of average culvert.

27.5

ESMPI.|TER MODFLLIEVG

Related Interests

7,

depth can be either critical depth
TW

if outlet control is the controlling headwater, the flow f., the tailwater depth
(if below the top of the culvert), or the full depth D of

the culvert depending on the following relationships:

HEC-2 Water Surface profiles, (Hydrologic Engineering Centre, US Army Corps of Engineers) is a widely_usej general purpose program with advanced culvert design features which is available in the public domain. ftre revised version, September 1991, includes the hydraulic

ell
be

r

ne
- _hc size

design

of

culverts using

the US Federal Highway
A
commercial

. . .

Use hc,if

hr>

Administration culvert design methods.
TW development, HEC-MS, is also available.

!7,

Use TW,if
Use

hc< TW< D
Several computer programs have been developed
specifically for the hydraulic design of culverts, including:

wh
,th

D,if D< TW

Calculate flow area using appropriate flow depth and then

cell

outlet velocity using Equation 27.13.

" '

XP-Culvert200O, distributed by Xp Software, Canberra, Australia.

ni

_ps

10. Review

Results

Waterflow, Hydraulic Design of Culvefts, Distributed by Roads and Traffic Authority, lVagga Wagga, NSW
Australia.

wit ,-

Compare alternative design with the site constraints and assumptions. If any of the following conditions are not met, repeat steps 4 to 9:

Further information on computer modelling is given
Chapter 17.

in

AI
ig

. . . . .

The culvert must have adequate cover.

_te

The final length of the culvert should be close to the approximate length assumed in design. The headwalls and wingwalls must fit the site. The allowable headwater should not be exceeded. The allowable overtopping flood frequency should not
be exceeded.

2V.6
27.6.!

DEERIS CONTROL
General

alg
la
:li,

iuh
rha

All too often floods have clearly demonstrated how the performance of culverts can be affected by an accumulation of debris at inlets. This accumulation can
cause failure of the drainage structure, possibly resulting in overtopping of the roadway by floodwaters, with ensuing

t7
ltr
)et

The performance of the culvert should also be considered, (i) with floods larger than the design flood to ensure such rarer floods do not pose unacceptable risks to life or

potential for major damage and (ii) with smaller floods than the design flood to ensure that there will be no
unacceptable problems of maintenance.

damage to the embankment or to the properties upstream and downstream of the culvert.

ma

-D(
,dt

Experience has shown that in non-urban areas, the following stream characteristics tend to produce the most
serious debris problems:

ttel

jnv
xil

If

outlet velocity is high, scour protection or an energy

dissipater (see Section 27.8.5) may be required.

o n . .

Susc€ptibility gradients.

of stream to flash flood, i.e. relatively impervious watersheds with moderate or steep

--na rat

11. Improved Designs
Under certain conditions more economic designs may be achieved by consideration of the following:

Actively eroding banks bordered by trees
shrubs

or

large

-)7
L7

. .

The use of an improved inlet for culverts operating
under inlet control (see Section 27.9).

Relatively straight unobstructed stream channels with no sharo bends.
Cleared land upstream with fallen trees on the ground"

-

fn,
:ul
ln(

Allowing ponding to occur upstream to reduce the peak discharge, if a large upstream headwater pool
exists.

In urban

areas there is additional potential for debris to enter waterways and cause blockage. The risk of debris blockage is very high in all urban areas in Malaysia.
Precautions to be taken range from providing freeboard, and taking design precautions to providing elaborate debns control structures.

"dj to
lis
Cul

12. Documentation
Prepare report and background information. See 'Design Documentation' in Section 27.2.10.

file

nc

a

z/-r1

Urban Stormwater Hanagement l,lanuat

Culverts

27.6.2 Freeboard
of 1.0 m2 or more should be designed with a minimum of 300 mm freeboard above the design water level. For large culverts the designer should consider increasing this freeboard to allow for the size of debris anticipated, up to a maximum of 1000 mm.
Ail culverts with a waterway area

" . " . . . .

To prevent erosion of the fill and adjacent channel; To prevent undermining of culvert ends; To inhibit the seepage and piping through the bedding and backfill;

To ineet traffic safety
27.2.8);

requirements (see Section

27,6.3 Design precautions
debris accumulation is considered to be problem, a other design precautions should be taken, such as providing a smooth well designed inlet, avoiding multiple cells and increasing the size of culvert. if multiple cells are unavoidable, provision of a sloping cutwarer on the upstream pier (wall) ends may help to align floating debris
Where

To improve the appearance of large culverts; To resist hydraulic uplift forces on corrugated metal pipe culverts; and/or

To strengthen the ends of large flexible
especially those with mitred or skewed ends.

culverts,

with the culvert entrance.

2V.6,4 Relief Culvert

corrugated metar pipe curverts, the cut-off wails arso act to counteract uplift at the culvert inlet.
a

Cut-offs in the form of a vertical wall, constructed below the end apron of a culvert, should always be provided at culvert inlets to prevent undermining and piping.
For

that will be less subject to blockage.

higher level than the main culvert permits water to by_pass the latter, if it becomes blocked. The relief culvert could also be placed at a low level some distance away from the main culvert where it is not likely to be blockeo. tu this relief culvert is an additional requirement, the cost of both culverts should be compared with that of

A relief culvert passing through the embankment at

27.7"2 Typieal End Treatnnenf-s
and wingwalls _ are the most common encl treatment in overseas countries. An apron is generally incorporated between the wingwals to rimit scour of the stream becl. They are usually constructed from reinforced concrete, but can be formed from masonry, or rock filled
gabions and mattresses, or concrete filled mattresses.

a larger culvert

27.6.5 Debris Control Structures be cosfly both to construct and maintain. of the various types of debris control structures 6" found in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 9, .TaV nDebris Control Structures,, (US federat Highway Administration, L97L). The choice of structure type depends upon size, quantity and type of debris, the cost involved and the maintenance proposed. However, for existing culverts, which are prone to debris clogging, it may be worthwhile to construct a debris control structure
Details

These can

embankment around the ends paved with concrete or rock.

Mitred ends - these are generally limited to corrugated metal pipe culverts, where the end of the pipe is cut parallel to the slope of the embankment. The area of

of the culverts is

usually

Projecting ends - where the ends of the culvert project from the face of the embankment. Although they are the

rather than replace or enlarge the culvert.

inefficient, do not meet safety requirements and are visually objectionable. For these reasons their use in
Malaysia is not recommended.

least costly end treatment, they

.r"

hydraulically

27.7

CULVERT END TREATMENT

27.8

FLOW VELOCITY

27,7.1 Introduction
The term "end treatment,, encompasses the shape of the culvert ends, end structures such as wingwalls, cut_offs

Culverts usually increase the flow velocity over that in the natural water course. Except when the culverts flow full, the highest velocity occurs near the ouflet and this is the point where most erosion damage is likely to occurs.

and anchorages and erosion control measures

adjoining fill and channel (see Standard Drawini;s SD F_21 to SD F-24). The design of hydraulically improved inleb is disdssed separately in Section 27.9. Culvert end treatment may be required more of the following functions:

for

the

A check on outlet velocity, therefore, must be carried out as part of the culvert design if the outlet discharqes to an
unlined watenaray.

to perform one or

27.8.1 Inlet Control
For a pipe culvert flowing with inlet control the outlet velocity can be determined from Figure 25.81 to 25.84 in Chapter 25, Appendix 25.B (k = 0.6) in combination with charts for part full flow in Chapter 12.

r r

To increase the hydraulic efficiency of the culvert;

To prevent fill from
opening;

encroaching

on the

culvert

Urban Stormwater lvlanagement l,lanual
l

25.84 were derived from *te Cdebr@k Figures 25.81 White equation (in Chapter 12) for k = 0.06 to 0.6. This approach assumes that the depth of flow at the outlet equals the depth corresponding to uniform flow, but the sholc length of the average culveft mostly precludes this, making this approach conservative
The depth of flow should be checked against critical depth

b

-

bar across the stream, while finer material will be carried further downstream. Depending on the supply bf sediment the scour hole may gradually refill until after the
next major fiood occurs.

lal

1n
:nl

Table

27.1

-rlo
Ma;imum Recommended Flow Velocities (m/s) for various conduit materials
,

str
tlJt

as determined from Design Charts 27.8 or 27.9. If the flow is supercritical the effed of a hydraulic jump must be
considered. Material Precast concrete pipes Precast box culverts Maximum V (m/s)

:le

jur
Jis

27.4.2 Outlet Control
For outlet control the average outlet velociV will be the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area of flow at the outlet. This flow area can be either that corresponding to criticai depth, tailwater depth (if below the crown of the cuivert) or the full cross section of the culveft barrel.

8.0
8.0

-1?
,l

In situ concrete and hard
packed rock (300mm min) Beaching or boulders (250mm min) Stones (150

o.u

-,F

5.0
dv

27.8.3 Eroslon of Conduit
Flow

-

100mm)

3.0

-

2.5

lc

of the water subjects the conduit

material to

Grass covered surfaces SUff, sandy clay Coarse gravel Coarse sand Fine sand

1.8 1.3

abrasion, and too fast a velocity for a given wall material will cause erosion to the conduit. Very fast flows can cause cavitation unless the conduit surface is very smooth,

- 1.5 1.3 - 1.8
0.7
0.5

Cr

and this results in erosion taking place at a rapid rate. However, cavitation damage does not occur in full flowing pipes with velocity less than about 7.5 - 8 m/s and about

0.5

0.2 -

u(
!L
Ltl
CU

t2 mls in open

conduits.

The maximum velocity b,eyond which erosion will take place depends on factors like smoothness of conduit, quantity and nature of debris discharged and frequen{ of peak velocity. Commonly adopted maximum values based
on experience are listed in Table 27.1.

27.8.4 Sceur at Inlets
A culvert normally constricts the natural channel, forcing the flow through a reducing opening. As the flow contracts, vortices and areas of high velocity flow impinge against the upstream slopes of the embankment adjacent to the culveft. Scour can also occur upstream of the culveft, as a result of the acceleration of the flow, as it
leaves the natural channel and enters the culvert.

The provision of wing walls, headwall, cut-off wall and apron is generally all the protection that is required at culvert outlets. The judgement of design engineers, working in a particular area is required to determine the need for any further protection. Investigation of scour and outlet protection at similar culverts in the vicinity of the culvert being designed may provide guidance on whether further protection is required. Periodic site visits and inspection after major flood events will also confirm whether the protection is adequate or further protection is
required.

In

generally unacceptable and therefore a choice must be made as to which type of scour protection is suitable for the site. The

urban areas,

the risk of outlet scour is

options available include the following:

n

. . .

Local protection of the stream bed material, in the
case of unlined drains and waterways. Flow expansion structure. An energy dissipating structure

-dr
IA

Upstream wing walls, apronsr cut-off walls and
embankment paving assist protecting the embankment and stream bed at the upstream end of a culvert.

ta

-o
p

c)

27.a.5 Scour at Outlets
If the flow emerging from a cuivert has a sufficiently high velocity and the channel is erodible, the jet will scour a hole in the bed immediately downstream and back eddies will erode the stream banks to form a circular elongated scour hole. Coarse material scoured from the hole will be deposited immediately downstream, often forming a low

Stream bed protection can be achieved with a concrete apron, rock riprap, or rock mattresses, or concrete filled matFesses. It is important that mattresses are anchored to the cut-off wall or apron at the culvert outlet, to stop them moving downstream. A geotextile filter is usually provided under the mattresses and may also be required

ir n

zl

- L.+

llrban Stormwa ter Managemen t Manual

under the rock

riprap.

detail in Chapter- 29"

Seour protection is discussed in

?7"9
27.9.t

TMPR,SVSF gruL€T'EL'LVER.TS General

An important parameter in the selection of an appropriate energy dissipater is the Froude Number, f, of the outlet flow. Where an outlet has !.7, a simple apron sb'ucture, riprap, or a flow expansion structure will suffice. Where 1.7 < n< 3 a riprap basin or hcrizontal roughness elements basin is appropriate. Where E > S a hydraulic jump basin wlll be reguired. Energy dissipaters are discussed in detaii ln Chapter 29.

4<

the entrance losses form oniy a minor part of the total
head losses and major inlet improvement are not justified.

The capacity of a culvert operating under inlet control can be significanUy increased by providing a more efficient inlet, which reduces the flow concentration at the entrance and increases the flow depth in the cell. In outlet
control,

27.8"6 Siltation
If the flow velocity becomes too low siltation occurs. Flow velocity below about 0.5 m/s will cause settlement of fine to medium sand particles.

various vpes of inret improvements are discussed in this Section. A nurnber of these are aimed merely at improving the inlet efficiency by reducing the entrance loss, r(* These focus on headwalls, wingwails and the end of the culvert cell. Other major types of improvement, include the provision of a fall (or steep slope) In the bed of the

To be seif-cleansing cuive*s must be graded to the average grade of the water course upstream and downstream of the culvert, and levels must represent the
average stream levels before the culvert was built.

inlet or tapers in the end

section

combination of these improvernents. The aim of these
rnajor improvements is to increase the velocity head or the effective headwater depth. The material in this Section is based on ..Hydraulic Design

of the cell, or

Culvert locaUon

cells. Deposition can occur in culverts when the sediment trcnsport capacity of flow within the culvert is less than in the stream. The following factors may cause deposition in
culverts:

in both plan and profile is of particular importance to the maintenance of se,jiment_free culveit

of improved inlets for Culvertsi

ttydrauiic Engineering

. .

Culverts often provide a wider flow width at low flows than natural streams. This results in the flow depth and sediment transport capacity being reduced.

Transportation and Communications, 19g5, which includes metric design nomographs). These references may need to be consulted for further inforrnaticn when undertakino the design of improved inlet culverts.

Circular i,io. 13, (i.iS FerJerai Highway Administration,ISTZ) and the "Hydraulic Design of Culverts,, (Ontario Ministry of

27.9.2 Bevelled Inlets
Adding bevels to a conventional culvert design with a square-edge at the periphery of the inlet opening increases culvefts capacity by 5 to 20 percent. The greatest benefit occllrs with high headwaters. Bevelled inlets increase the hydraulic efficiency of the culvert (4 = 0.2). Details of typical bevels are shown on

o

Point bars (deposition) form on the inside of stream bends and culvert inlet placed at bends in the stream will be subjected to deposition in the same manner. This effect is most pronounced in multiple-cell culver8 with the cell on the inside of the curve often becoming almost totally plugged with sediment deposits.

the channel upstrearn of the culvert will

Abrupt changes to a flatter grade in the culvert or in
induce

deposition. Gravel and sand deposits are common downstream from the break in grade because of the
reduced transport capacity in the flatter section.

Figure27.t2. They should be considered for all box culvert installations, which operate under inlet controi. Bevelled inlets can be provided on both pre-cast and cast
in-situ culverts.

Deposition usualiy occurs at flow rates smaller than the design flow rate. The deposits may be removed during

The 1.5:1 bevel (33.7 degrees) is more efftcient than the
1:1 bevel (45 degrees), but the latter is easier to construct and more practical. Bevels should be provided on the top and side edges of the opening.

larger floods, depending upon the relative transport capacity of flow in the stream and in the culvert, compaction and composition of the deposits, flow duration,
ponding depth above the culvert and other factors.

27.9.3 Frovision of Depre*sed Inlet
Provision sf a fall or steep slope upstream from the culvert inlet may innprove the capacity of a culvert operating under inlet control by increasing the veiocity head. The fall may be achieved by flattening the cell slope. This may tend to induce sedimentation during low flows, but the deposit will in most c:ses be washed out during floods.

Siltation can also occur upstream of culverts if they are instailed at incorrect levels, creating pcnding areas. Such grading should generally be avsidecj.

Urban Stormwater Management Manua!

,---3,

27-15

Culverts

PI.AN

2V.9.4 Tapered Inlets
Side BevelAngle A tapered inlet is a culvert inlet with a side-taper or a slope taper within the end section of the culvert cell. This result

r t

)?r

l,v

sectir

f'arle

in an enlarged face section and a hydraulically efficient throat section. A tapered inlet may have a fall, incorporated into the inlet structure. The fall is used to provide more head on the throat section for a given
b = 0.(X2 B for 45o (1:1) b = 0.083 B for 33.7o (1.5:1) headwater elevation.

tlp
gr?€l

A

Side BorelAngle

tapered inlet can sometimes greatly improve the of a culvert operating under inlet control. This may permit the use of a cell size considerably smaller than would be required for a conventional culvert. The greatest savings are achieved with long culverts, but the possibility of increasing the capacity of an existing
performance
undersized culvefc by adding an improved inlet should not be overlooked, since it may eliminate the need for a costly replacement structure. A disadvantage of a tapered inlet culvert is the high outlet

(a) Side Berels
LOT{GITUDINAL SECTION

velocity, which
Side BevelAngle

in

some cases may necessitate

an

expensive outlet structure or downstream channel erosion

control

works.

Cost comparisons between

various

irnproved inlet designs and conventional designs should be made to select that with the least overall cost.

Side Tapered Inlet d = 0.(X2 D for 45' (1:1) d = 0.083 D for 33.7o (1.5:1)

Figure27,L4. In some cases, they may increase flow capacity by 25 to 40 percent over that of conventional
culverts with a square edge-inlet. The side tapered inlet has an enlarged face area with a tapered transition to the constant culvert cell section. The inlet face has the same height as the cell and its top and bottom are extensions of the top and bottom of the cell. The intersection of the sidewall tapers and the cell is defined as the throat section.

-

Side tapered inlets are illustrated in

(b) Top Eorel
NOTE:

Side-tapers may range

from 6:1

to 4:1 taper being
two
possible control

recommended as it results in a shorter inlet.
1. Dimensions of Bevels Shall Not be

Les than

Shorrn.

For

a

side-tapered inlet, there are

Rectangular Box, either Increase d b Equal b, or Deoease the Top Bevel Angle. 4. For Multiple Cells Calanlate b from Total CIear Width or 3D, whidtener is Smaller. Figure

2. Dimensions b and d are Basd on the Squarc Dimensions of the Opening. To Obtain BsrelTerminaUon in One Plan on a 3.

sections

the face and the throat. H; shown

on

Figure27.14, is the headwater depth measured from the

face section invert and

l{ is the headwater depth

measured from the throat section invert. The weir crest is a third possible control section when a fall is used.

27.12

Bevelled Inlet for Box Culvert

The fall may be constructed within the limits of the flared wingwalls, as illustrated in Figure 27.13. The drop may also form an integral part of a slope-tapered inlet. The fall slope should be paved to prevent upstream bed degradation and an upstream cut-off wall provided.

Slope Tapered Inlet- The slope tapered inlet, like the sidetapered inlet, has an enlarged face section with tapered side walls at the throat section (Figure 27.LS). In addition, a steep fall is incorporated into inlet between the face and throat section. This fall concentrates more head on the throat section. At the location where the steeper slope of the inlet intersects the flatter slope of the cell, a third section, designated the bend section, is formed.

The

slope-tapered

improvement.

inlet is the most complex inlet This type of inlet can in some instances

provide a capacity more than 100o/o greater than that of a conventional culvert with square edges. The increase in

27-76

Urban Stomwater Management Manual

Itt

Culverts

capacity depends largely upon the amount of fall available between the invert at the face and invert at the throat

section. Construction difficulties are inherent, but the benefits in increased performance can be great. With
proper design, a slope tapered inlet passes more flow at a given headwater elevation than any other configuration.

to both box culverts and circular pipe culverts. For the latter application, a
Slope-tapered inlets can be applied square or round transition is normally used to connect the rectangular slope-tapered inlet to the circular pipe.

Pl-Aftl

NOTE: Weir Slope to be Paved to hevent Upstream Degradation

where Necessary.

ELEVATION

Suggested Slope for Fall 2:1 to 3:1

s----->.
27.13

Figure

Fallfor ConventionalCulvert with Flared Wingwalls

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

CulverE

?
PI.AN
a a

1s'to s07

t{

WeirCrd

a

{Flare Angle

--n
st
s{

15"
(,4) With Fall

b So
(B) Wirhour Fatl

(Wingwalls Not Shown)

n
ST

fr
ELEVATION ELEVATION

$

t{-Face
I

section

lV.--Faesection
Throat Section

-'-el
a\

Throat Section

Weir C,rest

q
Figure

27.14

Side-Tapered Improved Inlet

c

PI.AN

27.TO MINIMUM EI{ER.GY C!.'LVERTS
In the coastal plains the natural slope of the land is often little more than a fraction one per thousand, which in concrete conduits laid on natural grade, grass covered channels and natural water courses resulb in b-anouil flow
(see Chapter 12).

Taper (4:1 To 5:1)

To reduce the coSs of bridging these waterways the concept of the 'The Minimum Energy Culverf'was developed.

ET.S/ATION

The aim of

\he Minimum Energy Culvert" concept is to concentrate the flow in a narrow, deep cross section flowing with critical velocity under maximum design flow thus taking advantage of the minimum specific energy

Face Secdon

Bend S€ction

under critical flow condition (see Chapter 12). This maximises the flow per unit length of waterway crossing. By keeping the flow outside the supercritical region the designer avoids the energy loss in a hydraulic jump and the cost of having to protect against the erosion associated
with the jump. Figure

Throat Section

27.75

Slope-Tapered Improved Inlets for Box Culverts

27-18

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

Culverb The design requires knowledge of:

. . , .

PLAro

Design disdrarge Average nafural slope of ternin
Flood levels

Survey details of floodplain adjacent to culvert

On the basis
so the

section of the culvefi is drawn up. (Figure

of this information a plan and
:

longitudinal

following assumptions are made
terrain

27.16). in doing
EIEI/ATTON

0

The energy line panllels the natural fall of the

(iD Energy losses at enty and exit of cufuert are
disregarded T[re justification

for the ratter assumpton is that srmth fansitions are generally small.

rosses at

In his ontext it is warth nc$ng that $e exit expansion of Se sfeam bed needs to progress at a smaller angle than the enby angle if the formation of Snding eddies avrided.
Using

is to

be

Figure

27.16 Characteristic Flow Line of Minimum
Energy Culvert

the equations:

One problem

Hr, = 1.5d, and

Q=Mrr[4
coneponding values
ornpared.

(27"14)

of

b,

d, and H,

en

be bied

and

approach is not feasible if there are high sediment loads.

potential for ponding can sometimes be minimised by a small diameter pipe drain or a channel connecting the culvert to a suitable point downstream. However this

pdential site for ponding and sediment deposition. The

witi minimum-energy culvefts is that they are located in a dip below the drain or waterway inveft, creating a

't

n
tol

Urban Stormwater Management f"lanual

zl'!>

Cu/verb

A''ENDIX 27.A

DESIGT{ FORM, CHARTS Ar{D

NOMOGRA**'

Design Form for Culvert Calculation Entrance Loss Coefficients

Inlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete pipe Culvert

Inlet Control Nomograph -Box Culvert Inlet Control Nornograph

-

Comrgated Metal pipe (CMp) Culvert

Relative Dixharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in part_full pipe Flow Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in part_full Box

Culvert Flow

Critical Depth in a Circular pipe Critical Depth in a Rectangular (Box) Section

outlet control Nomograph
n = 0.012 ouuet control Nomograph n = 0.012 Outlet Conhol Nomograph

-

concrete pipe curvert Frowing Fuil with

concrete Box curvert Frowing Fuil with

Fullwith n = 0.024

-

Corrugated Metat pipe (CMp) Ftowing

Urfun Stormwater Management Manual

27-27

CulverE

I

N

s

v) F z.

)tl
T_

t!

;
F F F
V1

--+l f.I I I

= = o U

1l

z l! (' F z.
TIJ

; uJ

tri

h 8
ArIf,O-r3A

t

__l
I

tl ll

UJ

-|jnrno

p =

tr v tJ)

(Jf!

tl tl iltl

ll tl
i
I

Ill

Er XLJ
JY

/uH 9NntourNof,

I
I

\

I

t;
j

=E E;r< =lu

\r^s
!

-t,
ll

I

I

t,h
z.

I

fi{
=E
z. F lo-

{
I

!ry

;!
\t

Lr.l

s a

\
J

P +
tl

as

\

s \o d.
F z.

F
N

al 1l\
s']
{.s

= o U

E pr

I
F l! J

k

z.

o F
F

o o = tu

F

'l-

= o TL
J

z. z.
z.
(J
IJ.J

ss

illl

ge
Eg oi5
ll

Related Interests


F z
(J

Eh

\ \-

z.
J

I

s
o
T

E't E8 lt

b

-) z,
l.lJ

ss

il"
N
VI

(t,

z
F
z.
trl

9

a
r-9 * dFF tu a>= I :f L) oaE
o) (q

E

z
U
Iu

2.6

&

z
= = (t

; L)
ut

cts
Design Chart

lt

il

og,

27.1

Design Form for Culvert Calculations

z7-22

lJrban Stormwater Management lvlanual

Ut1

Culvefts

control. Entrance head loss

coefficient K" to apply velocity head v,2/2g for determination of head loss at entrance to a culvert operating under outlet Hu: K" V2,/2g

TYPE OF BARREL AND INLET

Pipe, Concrete
Projecting from fill, socket end Projecting from fill, square cut end

Ke

0.2 0.5

Headwallor headwall and wingwalls
Socket end of pipe

Square-edge Rounded (radius

0.2 0.5
D)

= t/LZ

0.2 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.2

Mitred to conform to fill slope End-section conforming to fill slope (standard precast) Bevelfed edges, 33.7o or 45. bevels

Side-tapered or slope-tapered inlets Pipe, or Pipe-Arch, Corrugated Steel
Projecting from fitl Headwall or headwall and wingwalls, square edge
MiUed

0.9 0.5 0.7 u.5

to conform to fill slope 33.7" or 45" bevels

End-section conforming to fill slope (standard prefab)
Beveffed edges,

0.2s
0.2

Side'tapered or slope-tapered inlets

Box, Reinforced Concrete
Headwall

Square'edged on 3

edges
I/12 barreldimension,

0.5

Rounded on 3 edges to radius of Or bevelled edges on 3

sides
of Ut2 baneldimension

O.2

Wingwalls at 30" to 75" to barrel

Square.edged at

crown

0.4

Crown edge rounded to radius

Or bevelled top

edge crown

O.z

Wingwalls at 10. to 25" to banel

Square'edged at

0.5

Wingwalls parallel (extension of sides) Square'edged at
Side-tapered Projecting

crown or slope-tapered intet
45.

0.7
0.2

Square.edged
Bevelled edges, 33.7" or

bevels

0.7* O.jo

* Esiimated

Design

Chart27.2

Entrance Loss Coefficients

Urbn Sbrmwater Management Manual

27-23

Culverb

D (m) 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00

$r*tl.l
300 200

HW
D

(1)
F:omple

(2)

(3)
6
5

D=0.80m Q=1.7m3ls
N

F6 r
5
5

100 80 60 50 40 30 20

rs r
F t-

2.50

Inlet (1) (2) (3)

Ut'
D

HW(m) 2.08

l4
F-3

4
3

2.60 2.18 2.20

4
3

r.74

t.76

2.00
10

,*o9

-&'

-/

8 1.50
5

\]./ 9*'j'^Ey'

3

sl,F" t.oooa$)/
1

1.0

1.0 0.9

Inlet Type

0.90'
0.80 0.70 0.60

0.9

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.15

(1) Headwallwith
Square Edge

(2) Headwallwith
Sod<et End

0.8

0.8

(3) Projectng wilh
Socket End

0.50

8.H
0.40 0.05 0.04 0.5 0.03 0.02 0.30 0.5

Design Chart

27.3

Inlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete Pipe Culvert

27-24

Urban Stormwater Management lvlanuar

Un

Cu/verts

D (m)

4.00 3.50

S f*Vr

per mebe span)
HW D
( 2)

1.50

I
s

x
1.00

_d
")'
o.st'
0.80 0.70

,'#)" ^F' F lZuu>" 1,7' F,, /
Fy^
zI
Angleofl

ry il$ t: F" F" til i'E i:,ffi,'+' E *,.s r, F,
. :f
$

4.0m3/s per m f <o ffi= In'|et

Example r7O2.00 x 0.80m Box e = 8.0m3/s h60 (1) rso n

(3)
10

f

g

9

I
6 5

7

4
3
I

I

I

I

o

5l

el_a

f'H'JlE""'i\_gF l__ El.

t

.9 (u

FFi,i -ho'o
[-o.oe

FF*g

:t-

'/,/-

I

E

i-'.0

i
1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

,FLo.ni

F[.'
g
E

0.9

I

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

Fo.os o.o+
L

rlt F[.$9
[ 0.,
B = span per

t-0.3 Erl

r|

[" l-ou

0.8 o.7

I t
|

l- 0., t

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.5

cell

I L

[04 I I| 0.4
I

0.4 0.35

o.s

L 0.35

WingwallFlare 30" - 75"
90o (headwall) 0o (parallel)

HWD Scale
1

2 3

E1'
Inlet Control Nomograph

Design Chart

27.4

-

Box Culvert

Urban Stormwater Management Man

ual

z/-tJ

Culverts

D (m) 4.61 4.50

$t"lr1
300 200

HW
D

4.30

(2)

(3)

4.00 3:88 3.30
100 80 60 50

Fxample

3.0s
2.74
2

3.00 2.70 2.40 2.20 2.00
1.80 1.50 1.50 1.40

D=0.90m Q=

n

1.8m3/s

40
30 20

g
u',
i
I

2.43 2.28 2.L2
1.97

Inlet !W D

Hw(m)
1.s8
1.83

(1) (2) (3)

1.73 2.03 2.10

1.8e

l.ol
1.65
1.50

tn
8 6
5

I I

i_

1l' '/ \ ^$$''*- z->-/

t9'>

*.$o-

-

1.0
1

0.9

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

Inlet Edges
(1)Headwall

(2)MiEed (3)Prcjecting

Design Chart

27.5

Inlet Control Nomograph

*

Conugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Culvert

27-26

Urban Stormwater Management t lanuar

Utt

Culverb

0.9 0.8

o >

0.7

F #
E

0'6

-<
a/q

I
v/vr

/F/&

o's
0.4

,(
I I

Q = Part - full Disdrarge Q = Full Flow Discfrarge

0.1 I

I

,1

'/

I

/v

1I

.7

,(

v = Part - full Velocity vr = Full Flor Velocity

Y

Y

R = Part - tull Flow Hydraulic Radius Pv= Full How l-ldraullc Radius

vive VRr Q/Qr 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 t.2
v/v, , Relative
Hydraulic Radius R/R,

Relative Discharge Q/QF , Relauve Velocity

Design Chaft

27.6

Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in Part-full pipe Flow.

Uban Stormwater Management Manual

27-27

Culverts

vlD
1.0

0.9

NOTE:

Q/Q, =
0.8

UQ,
0.7 0.6

t

1 ConesPonds to Full Flow with Top Slab Fully Wetted 1 Disregards All Effects of Top Slab

0.5

0.4 Part - Full Flow Box Culverts

0.3

0.2

k_E___t
0.1
n

0.1

0.4

vtvr UQr 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 L.2 1,3 L.4
Q/Qr and
vTvo

1.5

Design Chaft.27.7 Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in Part-full Box Culvert Flow.

27-?8

IJrban Stormwater Management Manual

*"-!:--+:t:"4

Culverts

1.0 E

E
I

c) o

a

u.5

6
0.30 0.5

1.2o

O,n

rt

E
(J
0

0.0

1.5

3.0

Disctrarge

$ f*?.1

2.4

2.0

s c

E u

E. l.s
1.0

E

c

u

0.6

4.0

-, t
I

E

3.0

t
CL

E

E 2.0
u
L

to

1.2

10 20 30 40 s0 60 70
Discharse

80

ft f*rlO

(h.lD)

CriticalDepth

rn \J/
27-29

Circular Pipe

Design Chart

27.8

Critical Depth in a Circular pioe

Ufuan Stormwater Management Manual

Culverts

(m) -20

$
-15

tr'lrl
g 1000

l-800

10

FM
Fsoo
200 150 100 80 60 50

9

I
5

7

6

'4
3

40
30 20

2

rs Q/N =

11.5 m3ls

1.5

n=2'00fi
v-

I
! J

10

rtl hs = 1.50
1.0 0.9

6

4
2 1.5

5

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.05

0.4
0.3

0.2

0.r5

:-T
h.
= 0.q67(r,rQsl*

fttD) p-

| l. l;
s---+,
Rectangular Section

CriticalDepth

Design Chart

27.9

Critical Depth in a Rectangular (Box) Section

27-30

Uhan Stormwater Management Manual

Culverts

I
N

(m3 /s)

:80 :70
-60

:s0
-40
-30
-20

0.2

0.3
10

9 8 7 6
5

u'-'o

0.4

"^t-u.t "

,"

0.5 0.6 0.8
1

4

{tfr
6"
4

9o

t

0.70 0.60 'o 0.50

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Q"
J

c

0.,10

rG
0.2 0.5

Winswall Anole - Socket enO lerolectingE neaawaiij- Bevelled Inlet (33.70 or 45o) - gqu-ap (Cut). EId (Proj. or Headwalt)

FEdoE-ffiifr-

- HabricaEd End Section

Oudet Control Conrete Pipe Culvert Flowing Full n = 0.012

Design Chart

27.10

Outlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete Pipe Culvert Flowing Full with n = 0.012

l*ban Stormwater Management Manual

27-31

Cu/verts

ftt m3/s)
-200 A (mz) '

-100 :90

: :60 so
.40 :

40_1 J

30t
151

2ol

I

:30
.

. :20
:
l-l

l rgf

ttl
E] t1 oi

,10 -8or '--\-Ul/:-

4l
3-j
I
I

sJ

_l<

' :4

{(7rzl \]
0.8
0.7

}rk"
.-

$-

,t '.2
: :

t+'
-l 0.61
0.O

]

, ;1

o'sl

=t_iq

-0.8

l
-I
IG WnswallAnqle & Edqe Finistl 0.2 0.5

-o.u0.21l =o'4 :
j
;
o.z 0.1

0.3 -l

:
: :
O.t

0.7

- 0o or 90o Bodled Edge - 30o to 75o Banelled Edge - 90" Squre Edge - 10o to 25o Square Edge - Projectirg Square Edge

T
B

D

_t
NOTE:

@
Design Chart

A = Ocs-sectionalArea per Cell

If BID = 0.5 to
Glculate
H

2.0

from

87.5

27.11

Outlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete Box Culvert Flowing Full with n

= 0.012

27-32

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

Culverts

(rn3/s

:s0 :40

D (m)

:to
.zo

4.00

:10

.8 .6 .5

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5

'4
3

as
2

A$ 6, Lso %

0.8
I

a
F=1

1 fln

-a$
J99

0.90

+-

o.eol-*
0.70 0.60

-

t--9Pu-K"){P

s' ll Lro Vso
1o

,\,p ?

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

SIl.r
r50

H=2.29 m
3

o c
or

4
5

c
c L
f

F

6

-!e-

WingwallAngle & Edge Finish 0.2 - Side-tapered or Slope-.tapered 0.25 - Bevelled Edge 0.5 or Wingwails, Square Edge - leajygtt Prefabricabd End Section
o.7

0.9

Iitred Paraltetb Fiil Stope - Projecting

OuUet Control

Corugated Steel Pipe Flowing Full n=0.024

Design Chart

27.12

Outiet Control Nomograph

-

Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMp) Flowing Full with n=0.024

Urban Stormwater [vlanagement Manua/

27-33

Culvefts

APPEi{DIX

27.8

WOR,KED EXAMPI-E

Step

3

: Check for Oufiet Control

27.8.1 Pipe Cutvert (Intet Control)
Given the following problem.

Height of tailwater above invert:

TW = 49.80
1.05m

- 49.00 = 0.g0 < proposed

pipe diameter of

and check the ouflet velocity

data, carcurate a suitabre curvert size to see if erosion will be a

Diagram in Figure 27.7(c) depicts actual conditions, flowing full for part of the tength.
Now enter Design chart 27.g to determine criticar deprth 0.83m 4=

Step 1 : Data
Flow

=

?=

5.00 m3/s

d, + D _ 0.83+1.05

Culvert lengfr

2

0.94 > TW = 0.g0

= l. = 90m Natural watenrrray invert levels

:

Inlet: R.1.50.00m
OuUet: R.1.49.00m Aaepbble upstream flood level: R.1.52.50 Desinble road pavement level : R.L. 52.00
Minimurn height of pavement above head water : 0.30 Btimated downstream tailwater level : R.L. 49.g0 Maximum headwater height, HW, is the lesser of: Maximum practicalculvertheight:

as ouflined in Section 27.3.3 enter Design Chart 27.10 with

I=90m D= 1.05m

Ke= 0.2 (socket end of pipe upsiream)

Then use A-/N = 2.50 m3/s and obtain f/r= 1.15m
Fall of culvert invert, L,

= 50.00 - 49.00 = 1.00 hence:
= 0.94+1.15-1.00 = 1.09m

i)

HW =(

dc : t2l'

Dl*

s-rs

52.00

ii) Acceptable

-

50.00 = 1.70m, and u/s flood level

0.30

-

52.50-50.00=2.50m
Therefore maximum

HW(inlet control) = 1.70m greater than Hl1/ (outletcontrol) = 1.09m
Therefore inlet control governs.

HW= t.70m

Step4:FlowVelocity
Step 2 : Assume

Inlet Control
For 1050mm diameter pipes:

E*imate required waterway area assumin
Estimated area A

g V = 2.0 mls

-n2 A="1 4

=0.87 and s= 1/90 = 0.0111
= 0.6mm (Figure 25.84

= UV = 2.5 m2
From Colebrook-White's Chart for k

D

Try 1550mm pipe, D

=

1.65m

in Chapter 25, Appendix 25.B):

Enter Design Chart 27.3

with e = 5.00m3/s.

Qr= 3.1msls Vr= 3.6 m/s
Because the culvert does not flow full it is necessary to use the part-full flow relationships ptotted in Design Chart 27.6.

HffD= t.09
HW

= t.80 > 1.70m maximum. Not acceptable

ii) Try 1800mm pipe, D = 1.8m
Obb,in Hl/r//D

UQr= 2.5/3.t = 0.81 and from Design Chart27.6,
V/Vr= L.0 and

= 0.93

r=

1.0 x 3.G

HW= L.67m
But maximum culvert height available is only 1.70m

=

3.G m/s

y/D=0.75and y= 0.75x 1.05
= 0.79 < d. = 0.83
Unless the drain, which receives the culvert discharge, flows at supercritical flow a hydraulic jump will form at the culvert outlet.

iii)

Try twin lines, 2/1050mm
D

= 1.05m g/N = 2.5m3/s

Qbhin HIU/D = 1.62 HW= L.70m
Use

Step 5 : Surrnnaly
Use 2/1050 mm diameter concrete pipes with socket end facing upstream.

2/1050mm diameter pipes

Uban Stamwater Management l4anual

27-35

Pipes will flow with inlet control with a headwater height

of

Therefore inlet control governs.

I

1.70m and headwater R.L.

= 51.70m.

Outlet velocity = 3.6 m/s and the possibility of scour or the

Step4:FlowVelocity
Hydraulic radius R =

,l
I

formation
checked.

of a

hydraulic jump at the outlet must

be

ffit'ffi*;
=o.36m

I I
i

27,8.2 Bor Culvert (Inlet Control)
Step 1
:

R=--?:ltr2(1.8 +
Equivalent

1.2)

-i,
= 0.6mm (Figure 25.84
I

D= 4x 0.36 = 1.44m and s= 1/90 = 0.011

Using the same data as provided for the previous pipe culvert, calculate a suitable box culvert size and check for the effects of the ouUet velocity.

From Colebrook-White's Chart for k in , Appendix 25.8) we get:

Vr= 4.4mls
s

Step 2 : Assume

Inlet Control

Qr= 2.!6 x 4.4 = 9.5 m3/s
Eecause the culvert does noi fiow full it is necessary to use the paft-fullflow relationships plotted in Design Chart27.7.
I

Estirnate required waterway area assuming V = 2,0 mls Estimated

areaA=

W= 2.5m2
Q=
5.00 m3/s.

Try 1800 (wide) x 1200 (high) box culvert.

I -s'o=0.526. Q, 9.5
and from Design Chart 27.7 for

I
B/D=
L.5
I

Enter Design Chaft27.4 with
-Y- - 1 1q 1,te NB
Draw line and obtain HW

n

;
HffD = I.30
is acceptable

V =

t.O2

I and y

=

L.02 x 4.4 = 4.5 m/s

-l

I

= t.30 x 1.2 = 1.56 < 1.70m, which

v
D

=

0.53

and y = 0.53 x 1.2 = 0.64 <d. = 0.92m

-1
C

Step 3 : Check for Outlet Control

Hence the same remark about hydraulic jump applies as made for pipes (see example 1: step 4).

r

TW=0.8 < 1.2m
Enter Design Chart 27.9 with

i

Step

5:

Summary

dr= 0'92m
Use 1800

x

-t
(

d.+D -:-22

1200mm concrete box culvert with souare

0.92+1.20

=

1.06, which exceeds the

edges.

tailwater depth of 0.80m
As outlined in section 27.3.3 enter Design Chart 27.11 with

Culvert will flow with inlet control with a headwater height of 1.5m and headwater R.L. = 51.5m Outlet velocity = 4.5 m/s and the possibility of erosion or hydraulic jump must be checked.
a

l=90m A=t.2x1.8=2.16m2
ku

= 0'5

27.8.3 Pipe Culveft (Outlet Control)

f

Draw line with Q
obtain
Fall of

=

5.0m3/s then draw the other line to

H=

0.45m

Given the following data calculate a suitable pipe size and check the outlet velocity for the possibility of erosion.

I

culvet invert,

l, = 50.00 -

-i
c

49.00

= 1.00m

hence:

HW=-c'-+H-L 2"-s
=1.06 + 0.45

rJ +D

Step 1 : Data
Flow

P=

0.5 m3/s

-2
=
100.0m

I
I
(

- 1.00 = 0.51m

Culvertlength,

l=120m
: outlet R.L. = 99.0m

HW(inlet control) = 1.56m which is greater than HW(outlet control) = 0.51m

Natural waterway invert levels : inlet R.L.

Acceptable upstream flood level : R.L.

=

103.0m

27-36

Urban Stormwater Management f,lanual

Cutverts

pavement level : R.L. 102.5m = Minimum height of road above headwater level : 0.5m Rquired freeboard : Nil
Desirable road

Now check for ouflet control. Re_enter Design Chart 27.10 with D = 0.525m and obtain H L.Sm hencJ: =

downstream tailwater level : R.L. 100.5m = Maximum headwater height, HW, isthe lesser of: iii) Maximum practical culveft height:
Estimated

HW= L.5 + 1.5 _ 1.0 = 2.0m
This headwater depth is acceptable. and since 2.0m governs.

102.5- 0.5 * 100.0 = 2.0m, and iv) Acceptable u/s flood level 103.0-100.00=3.0m
Therefore Maximum

> 0.95m = HW(inletcontrol) ouflet control

HW=

With HW and TW both well above the crown of the pipe and a slope of 1A/e0 = 0.0083 the pipe _moderate witl flow full hence:

2.Om

v= UA
Step 2 : Assurne
Estimate required

Intet Control
waterway area assumin

4x0.5 ,.=;oE "

= z'3m /

s

g V = Z.O m/s

Estimated area A

= AV = 0.25 m2

This velocity must be checked against erosion danger at outlet (Tabte 27.1).

Try450mmpipe,D=0.45m
Step 4 : Summary Enter Design Chart 27.3
Draw line and

with e/N = 0.5 m3/s

obtain for Inlet Type 2:

Use a single line of 525mm diameter concrete pipes with socket end upstream.

HWD= 2.8
HW= 2.8 x 0.45
This

=

1.26m for inlet control

The pipe wiil flow full under outlet control and with a HW height of 1.3m giving a HW R.L. of 101.3m and an ouflet velocity of 2.3m/s.

depth is tess than the limit of 2.0m.

Step 3 : Check
Height

for Outtet Controt

of tailwater above inveft:
100.5

27,8.4 Box Culvert (OuUet Control)
pipe culvert calculate a suitable box culvert size ancl check for the effects of the outlet velocity.

W=

-

99.0 = 1.50 > 0.45m

Step 1 : Using the same data as provided for the previous

Diagram in Figure 27.7(a) depicts flow condition, i.e. pipe is flowing full with a submerged outlet. Now enter Design
Chart 27.10

with:

D= 450mm

Step 2 :Assume Inlet Control
Using the previous estimate of required area, try 600mm x 300mm box culvert. Enter Design Chart27.4 with

I = 120m
ke

= 0.2 (socket end of pipe upstream)
m37s

Then use

? = 0.5

to draw line and obtarn

e=

0.5 m3/s

H
Fall

= 3.4m
OO.O

UNB = 0.5/0.6 = 0.83

m37s7m

of culvert invert, 1., = f

-

99.0 = 1.00 hence: 1,0 = 3.9m

Draw fine and obtain HW/D = 4.3 Hl,1/= 4.3 x 0.30 = 1.29m < 2.0m

HW= TW+
Note

H- Lr= 1.5 + 3.4 -

culvert is under ouflet control.

that because 3.9m > HWfor inlet control (1.26m), the

Step 3 : Check for Outlet Control
TW = 1.50m (see example 3) > 0.30m hence diagram in Figure27.7(a) depicts flow condition, i.e. culvert is flowing

However
2.0m.

the design is unacceptable because HWr., =
Design

fullwith a submerged outlet.

Return to step 2 using 525mm pipe diameter in
Chart 27.3 and obtain HW/D

=

L.6Z

A=0.6x0.3=0.18m2

HW= 1.62 x 0.525 = 0.g5m for inlet control

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

27-37

Cu/verts

Calculate H from Design Chart 27.11, noting that B/D =2.0 so the chart is applicable.

27.8.5 Mlninrum
Given

Energy Culveft

H= lAm
then HW= TW+

H- l,

=1.5 + 1.4

-

1.0

=

1.9m

a required design flow of 25 m3/s and referring to Figure 27.16 with chosen widths b as set out in the following table, calculate suitable levels for the bottom profile of the flared culvert entry at the given sections to achieve critical flow through the culveft. Choose an
appropriate box culveft size for the culvert.

Note that 1.9m > 1.29m, the headwater depth control, so outlet control appties.

for inlet

However the design is not acceptable because of the risk of clogging of the 300mm deep culvert due to debris. Try 500mm x 375mm box culvert. A = 0.225m2
Repeating the above steps gives:

The widths b are chosen with regard to the survey data, and then q and d, can be calculated for each section as
shown in the table below.

Section

1-1

2-2
9

3-3 4 6.25 1.59

HLI/D = 2.7 and HW =

t.1lm for inlet control,
1.45m for outlet control.

width b
and

t4
1.79

q=

Q/b

2.78 0.92

H= 0.95m and HW=

This is acceptable because 1.45

< HW

dr=1'[m
trial depth D

u.ov

^",

= 2.0
1.10 1.30 1.58 3.96 0.80 2.38

And the culvert flows with outlet control since: 1.45m > 0.9m
As

= HW(inlet control)

v=

Qr/A

1A?
0.13

2.t4
0.23
1.53

the culvert flows full,

v2/29

,,- rt/A- Q'5 v=tJ/A=m=2.2m/s
Step 4 : Summary
Use a single 600
edges.

Hr= D+ v2/2g

t.23

x 375 concrete box culveft with square

The depth of flow is required to be critical in the culvert and unchanged subcritical at the start of the flared entry.
Intermediate depths are interpolated.

The culvert will flow with outlet control with a HW height of 1.45m giving a HW R.L. of 101.45 and an outlet velocity of

For chosen values of d, H, can be calculated and the bottom level of the culvert and approach is located 4
metre below the energy line in each section.
From the table it will be noted that a box culvert flow area of 4m.x 1.58m is required hence a 4.0m wide x 1.8m high

2.2mls.

culvert with a flow area

of 7.2m2 will be suitable. This culvert must then be checked for the risk of debris blockage and sediment deposition in the depressed section.

27-38

lJrban,stormwater Management Manual

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Main Committee Member.s
Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Ahmad Fuad Emby Wan Suraya Mustaffa Normala Hassan
Teh Ming Hu
6

- DRAINA.GE

Chairman Deputy Chairman
Secretary

Alternate Secretary Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Lim Kim Oum
Alias Hashim Low Kom Sing Nor Asiah Othman
Johan Les Hare Abdullah

Editor

Lim Kim Oum
Normala Hassan
Yeap Chin Seong

Chairman Secretary

Committee member
Cornmittee member Committee member

Chin Kok Hee

K. Nanthakumar
Chia Chong Wing

Committee member
Committee member

Ng Kim Hooi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Volume 2 is a review of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15197 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS, the chapter was authored originally
by Mustafa Shamsudin of Public Works Department Malaysia.

Volume 2 now provides guidelines to the practical design of culverts, with a few worked examples provided in Appendix 1, which is reprinted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication - Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MASMA 2000).
Thanks are due to:

-

'

Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia - Chapter 27 , CuIveft.

REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the
guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Volume 2.

Members of the Technical Committee 6

Hydraulic Design of Cuiverts for completion of Volume 2.

Drainage and Sub-Committee for their untiring efforts to ensure timely

-

Related Interests

ll \lr,

5/ ti
//
tt

ei )t

tl

Iul /9t
t I

t,

,o/

/L /4., It/
l

/)

rl -'
vl

)lzl rnt

(Yt

l

Y
tt

I

\

u

-

2-6

z

a

:gu\ss.im\i

(o)

nruttCtPATlNG SEDIMENTATION

(b)

CHANGE FROM CHANNEL GRADE MAY CAUSE SEDIMENTATION OR EROSION

PAVING OR OTHER OPEN SPILLWAY

(c)

CULVERT PLACED BILOW PROPIR GRADE
WATERWAY

IS

REDUCTD

rYELL-,coMPrcTEo

\

FILLING-

- /GASION UATTRESS

(e)
NOTE:

HTLLSIDE GRADES.

EROSION PR

(f) (f) CANTTLTVER

EXTINSTON

I. 2. 3,

PROPER CUL\€RT GRADE IS ESSENThL FOR THE PROPER FUNTIONING OF THE SIRUCTURE

rN FiALF CUl

H LF FrtL (d), (f) rHE CUL\GRT SHOULD BE LAlo ON UNIFORM BEDoINC XATERIAL FOR THE WHOLE LENGTH, TO UINIMIZE DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT

/

DIFFERENThL S€TTLEMENT SHOULD

8E

CONSIOERED IN THE DESIGN OF THE CULVERT STRUCTURE

FIGURE

2.3

:

CULVTRT PROFILt

2-l

tl
2.3.1

CULVERT TYPE SELECTION
Type Selection
Types of culverts commonly used in this country are as follows:
a)

precast reinforced concrete pipes (refer M.S. gg1: part 1, part

3:1991),
b) c) d)

2 and.part

M.s. 1293 : part 1 reinforced concrete cast-in-situ box (refer M.s. 11g5:1gg5), and culvert of other material approved by relevant authorities.

precast reinforced concrete box culverts (refer

:

r99z),

culvert type selection includes the choice of materiai, shape, cross section and the number of culvert barrels that will best fit the waterway of the channel or stream.
The following factors shourd be considered in any cuivefi type serection:

a) b) c) d) e) 0 If
-l

design discharge,
site conditions,

design life,

construction period,
construction joints, and blockage due to floating debris from upstream.

account the site constraints and economic factors.

the design discharge exceeds 60 cumecs based on a 50 years recurrence interval, consideration should be given to using a bridge structure taking into

2.3.2

Site Conditions

2.3.2.1 Low Allowable Headwater
Headwater is the water depth at the inlet of the culvert. Multiple cells culverts have to be used at places where the headwater should be kept low to get the water through quickly without ponding or flooding of the land upstream. In flat flood plain where there is no well-defined local flow path multiple culverts spread over the width of the flood plain may be more effective than a single large culvert.

-l
I

2-8

The designer should also take note of the amount of debris in the channel. In be provided areas where solid waste is a problem, trash screen with bypass should a distance upstream of the culvert entrance to prevent clogging of the culvert
barrel.

a)

Reinforced Concrete PiPe
When two or more pipes are used, the pipes should be separated by a clear distance of about 0.3m to 0.9m to allow space for thorough compaction of

backfilling, which is essential to the side support to prevent collapse of the pipes due to unequal surcharge loading. Backfilling between pipe barrels shouid be with well-graded sancl. Proper headwalis and wing walls should
be provided to prevent washouts of the sand back fill. Concrete backfill and haunching may be used in high fill areas where strength is required,
and where the founding soii is soft and weak'

b)

Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Multiple cells precast reinforced concrete box culvert should be laid without a gap between the culverts walls to provide less overall
obstruction to the flow of water. Precast box culverts are normally manufactured with butt ends. To prevenr wash-in of fine particles from surrounding soil the butt joints
should be wrapped all round with suitable drainage geotextile. The usage of multiple cells culverts should be considered with due care:

o o

if clogging by debris is very evident then multiple cells culverts should
avoided, and

be

where siltation of cells at the sides of the main cell is very likely then adoption of multiple ceils culverts should also be avoided.

2.3.2.2 Depth of Cover for Traffic Loading
The minimum cover over the crown of culverts to the road pavement formation level is normally dictated by traffic load and structural capacity of the culvert.
2-9
i
-1,
T

a)

Reinforced Concrete pipe

The minimum cover is 0.4m. If the cover is ress than 0.4m, the pipes should be concrete encased. pipes of higher strength can arso be used but it would cost more. Reinforced concrete pipe below road pavement sharl have adequate structural strength to carry traffic load.
b)
Precast Reinforced Concrete Box

Precast reinforced concrete box culverts are designed to withstand direct traffic loading. The minimum cover however is 0.1m.
R.einforced Concrete Cast-in-Situ Box

It can be designed structurally to withstand direct traffic loadins.

2.3.2.3 Settlement of Culverts
when culverts are liable to settle due to a high fi1l, or poor ground condition pipes should be selected which can withstand the anticipated unequal settlement. Reinforced concrete pipe can withstand anticipated unequal settlement provided rubber ring spigot and socketjoints are used.

2.3.2.4 Culvert Joints In cast-in-situ box culverts movement joints should be provided at appropriate

longitudinal intervals. The movement joints should be watertisht and detaiied to prevent wash in of backfill material.

For precast box culverts all joints should be wrapped round with non-woven geotextile to prevent wash-in of backfill material.
2.4

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF CULVERT
Hydrological Analysis
Please refer to Volume 1 Hydrological Analysis -

2.4.1

I

j

i

I

2-rc

2.4.2

Size of Culverts

2.4.2.1

Design Procedures

The hydraulic calculations of culverts shall be in accordance to the design procedures and worked examples as described in Chapter 27 CULYERT of
"IJrban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia".

2.4.2.2 Minimum

Size

For the purpose of maintenance, the minimum size of a culvert is related to the length of the culvert even if the flow to be conveyed is much lesser than the discharge capacity of the culvert. The recommended rninimum sizes of culverts
are as shown in Table 2.1.

Where there is a high possibility of accumulation of debris in the culvert, some reserve in cross sectional area is necessary i.e. the pipe size should be larger than

the required hydraulically adequate size.

If

an embankment with a culvert is

located on soft ground, some reserve area may aiso be necessary to compensate for a possible loss in cross sectional area due to long term settlement.
Table 2.1: Recommended Minimum Size of Culvert

Length of Culvert (m)

Minimum Diameter or lleight of Culvert (m)
1.0

<12

12-18
>19

t.2
1.5

At private access road

crossing

of roadside drainage, to reduce

depth of

downstream roadside drainage channel, the culvert size for the access road may not have to be in accordance to those in Table 2.I,blt it should be hydraulically
adequate to convey the roadside drainage

runoff and compatible with the roadside

channel and shall not be less than 0.6m diameter.

L-I] ^

11

_t

4Aa

/.-+._)

Freeboard

Freeboard is the vertical distance from the water surface to the road formation level. For culverts, the design water surface leve1 should not be above the road formation level.

For high embankments, when the water level at the inlet exceeds 1.0m above the crown of culvert, the designer must check the stability of the whole embankment against the fluctuations of pore water pressure.

2.4.4

Length of Culvert
The required length of a culvert depends on:
a)

width of the carriageway,
height of

b)

fill

over the culvert,

slope of embankment, d)
e)

slope and skew of the culvert, and

type of end finish such as
transition/tapers or spillway.

headwall,

bevelled end, drop inlet,

I I
-l

The length of culvert needed can be obtained by sketching out the cross section of the road embankment along the alignment of the culvert.
2.4.5

Skew of Culvert

a) '

I
I
b)

When the road alignment crosses an existing channel at an oblique angle, as far as possible, the channel should be diverted so that the culverr intersects the road at nearly right angles. It is uneconomical to build longer culverts due to its skewness. However, it is not desirable either to

divert the channel in an abrupt manner to achieve a right angle crossing, especially, if it is a very rapid flowing stream.
The headwall of skew culverts should be aligned parallel to the roadway centreline. For traffic safety, the headwall should be located a minimum of 4m, away from the edge of the traffic lane.

;tr

1 \L 1a --

2.4.6

Gradient of Culverts

The gradient of a culvert is dictated by the minimum and maximum allowable flow velocities in the culvert. The minimum gradient is the flattest allowable to minimise deposition and accumulation of silts in the culvert, and the maximum gradient is the steepest allowable to control flow velocities to a level not
exceeding the scouring resistance of the culvert material:

gradient = Maximum gradient =
Minimum
Generally gradients

1:600 1:100

of 1:200 to 1:300 are used for ease of laying and minirnurn

velocity requirements.

2.4.1

Scour and Seepage Countermeasures

The inlet and outlet ends of the culvert should be protected against scour, particularly at the outlet end where design flow velocities have been raised above
previous natural stream velocities. Countermeasures would include rip-rap placed beyond the outlet end

or

the

provision

of

energy dissipating devices such as baffle-apron, drop spillway,

cascading drop, etc.
Seepage in the direction of culvert

flow, in the soil mass around the culvert, could lead to wash-out of fine material, leading to undermining of the cuivert bedding and side support and eventual failure of the structure. This problem could be minimised by the provision of an impervious bedding and embankment at the inlet end and concrete anti-seepage collar.

of fine material through the joints of precast culvert units couid be reduced by wrapping the joints with suitable geotextile drainage fabric.
Suitable water-stop should also be provided box culverts.

Seepage and wash-in

in movement joints of cast-in-situ

z^

1a I) L

some erosion and seepage countermeasures are illustrated in Fisure 2.4.

When the drop in level from the culvert outlet to the receiving natural stream invert is more than 1 m then considerations should be given to the provision
energy dissipators as described

of

in

Chapter 29

-

Special Structures

of

.,Urban

Stormwater Manage Manual for Malaysia',.
2.4.8

Flow Velocities
The flow velocities at the inlet, barrel and outlet of the culvert, are generally not the same. The inlet approach velocity, vi, is normally low and would not cause scouring problem of the embankment material at the inlet. The culvert barrel velocity, Vc, should not exceed the scouring velocity of the culvert mateial, and to minimise silting it should not be less than the self-cleansing velocitv.

The allowable outlet velocity can vary to prevent scouring the soil type of the downstream receiving channel. For a rough guide of permissible velocities
different conduit materials, Table 2.2 canbe used. If the outlet velocity is greater than the permissible velocity, consideration should be siven to:
a)

of

reducing the slope of the culvert, increasing the size of culvert, and

b)
c)

protecting the receiving channel
dissipator at the culvert outlet.

by lining or providing an

energy

In all

cases' however, a concrete apron shall be provided at the

inlet and outlet

end to prevent scouring.

a z- 1A r+

UC

xu

Qoa E6>

9:9 -<b aVz-

$;:E *b!fr ..-vll
E=

tr:

EH Sg

(n
U

V

l a

LtrJ

Z
F

z

b: YC
oc
-f Fe

F trj F

u
o_

U
o_

s3 !!i
':6
FL UL

l{ <e

<t

6=

<l
VI -I

tl

zl

I

L! L!
<c [< U] Hd o
ol ZF

9I 66
jz
iF

el al

O

z
:)

U.

,3
9E c: ouu >z

a
c\j

1
q)

t;

cfl

l

U
@

>t FS

gE ua

6

o fi c
n c 2
F F

tr

6 o

2-75
_,...i&.
--

Y
l

Table

2.22

Maximum Recornrnended FIow velocities (m/s) For Various Conduit Materials
8.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 3.0

Precast Concrete Pioes Precast Box Culverts

In Situ Concrete and Hard packed Rock (300mm min) Beaching or Boulders (250mm min)
Stones (150

-

l00mm)

-2.5
1.8

Grass Covered Surfaces

Stiff, Sandy Clav
Coarse Gravel Coarse Sand

- 1.5 1.3 - 1.8
1.3

Fine Sand

- 0.7 0.2 - 0.5
0.5

To reduce maintenance the flow velocities in culverts shall be as follows:

Minimum Self Cleansing velocity (to prevent siltation) Maximum velocity (to limit scouring)

= =

0.7 m/s
3 m/s

-i
I

I

I i
,

!

2-16

LIST OF REFERENCES LOCAL PUBLICATIONS
Jabatan Pensairan Dan Saliran (JPS) 1. Hydrological Procedure No. 4

-

Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in peninsurar Malaysia (19g7)

2. 3.

Hydrological Procedure No. 10

- Stage Discharge

Curves (I976)

Hydrological Procedure No.

11

-

Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular Malaysia

4.

Hydrological Procedure No. 19 - The Determination of Suspended Sedirnent Discharge Hydrological Procedure No. 5 - Rational Method of Flood Estimation for Rural Catchments Hydrological Procedure No. 1 - Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in Peninsular Malaysia (1982) Hydrological Procedure No. 16 - Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in peninsular Malaysia
Planning and Design Procedure No. 1 - urban Drainage Design Standards and procedures for peninsular Malaysia
Garispaduan Untuk Memproses Permohonan dan Menetapkan Syarat-syarat Bagi Jambatan dan Lintasan

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Urban Stormwater Management Manual fbr Malaysia

Jabatan Keria Rava (.TKR) i 1.
Intermediate Guide to Drainage Design of Roads - Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/91 Terms of Reference for Survey works and Digital Ground Modelling. 2-17
t,I

1?.

'v i
t
i
!

j
I

: l

i

US PUBLICATIONS

1.

Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 Highway Hydrology (Sept 1996) FHWA_SA_96_061

-

2.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22 Urban Drainage Design Manual (Nov. 1996) FHWA_SA_96-078

-

(us DoT FHA)

3.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14 - Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels (Sept. 1983)

(us Dor FHA)

4.

Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 - Hydraulic Design of Highway Cuvlerts (Sept. 19g5) FHWA-IP_85_15

(us DoT FHA)

2-18

APPENDTX

1

Chapter 27

Culverts

Acknowledgement
The permission granted by Jabatan pengairan dan Saliran to REAM to publish the whole of this chapter of Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia is gratefully acknowledged.

REAM

T

isclaimer
ery effort and care has been taken in selecting methods and recommendations that are appropriate to Malaysian nditions. Notwithstanding these efforts, no warranty or guarantee, express, implied or statutory is made as to the

curacy, reliability, suitability or results of the methods or recommendations.
re use

of this Manual reguires professional interprebtion and judgement. Appropriate design procedures and assessment 'lst be applied, to suit the pafticular circumstances under consideration.
government shall have no liability or responsibility to the user or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, caused or alleged to be caused, direcily or indiredy, by the adoption and use of the methods and :ommendations of this Manual, including but not limited to, any interruption of service, loss of business or anticipatory cfits, or consequential damages resulting from the use of this Manual.
re

s or damage

2000 by JPS Malaysia.
rala Lumpur, Malaysia

I rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing rm the publisher.

'inted in Malaysia

t

-1
i

27 €e3LwffiR?s

27't 27.2

""""""" DESTGN CONSTDEMTTONS............ 27.2.t Headwater...
27.2.2 27.2.3
Culvert in p|an.........
Verticat

INTR'oDUcrIoN

................27-r
.....................27-1

...27-t
...................27 -r

profi1e,......... 27.2.4 Muttipte Ceils............ 27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Cr:hyerts... 27.2.6 Culverts in Flat Terrain 27.2.7 Site Investigation.....,....... 27.2.8 Safety.......... 27.2.9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device 27.2.10 Design Documentation................. 27.3 HYDRAUUCS 27.3.t General........ 27.3.2 Control at In1et........ 27.3.3 Control at Ouflet...... 27.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE. 27.5 COtvtpuTER MODELUNG 27.6 DEBRIS CONTROL 27.6.I General........ 27.6.2 Freeboard 27.6'3 Design Precautions 27.6.4 Relief Culvert 27.6.5 Debris Conkolstructures 27.7 CULVERT END TREATMENT............. 27.7.I Introduction. 27.7.2 Typical End Treatments............... 27.8 FLow vELocITY 27.8.1 Inlet Control. 27.8.2 Outlet Controt ................. 27.8.3 Erosion of Conduit 27.8.4 Scour at In1ets........... 27.8.5 Scour at Ouilets 27.8.6 Siltation

..........27-2
..........27_2 ..."........27_2

........27-z ...27-3
...27_4

...........27_4 ..........27_4 ................27_5
...27_s

...........?7_s

...........27-6 ,..27-g
..................27_t2
.........27_12 ...27_12

.......27_t3 .............27_t3
."27_t3

....27-13

.27-t3
...27_!3 ...........27_13

..........27-t3
...27_13
....z7_L4

...............27_!4 .........27_L4

.................27_tq

..........27-L5

i
it :

-.-*.dL

,l

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

27-i

Cutverts

tnl
tlt

lul
27.9
-.:1,

ul

riig
ht

hat

CULVERTS... APPENDIX 27.A DESIGN FORM, CHARTS AND NOMOGRAPHS APPENDIX 27.8 WORKED EGMPLE ?7.8.t Pipe Culvert (Inlet Control) ................ 27.8.2 Box Culvert (Inlet Control) ................. 27.A3 Pipe Culvert (Outlet Control) 27.8.4 Box Culveft (Outlet Control) 27.8.5 Minimum Energy Culvert.......".
27.10
MINIMUM ENERGY

....... 27-18

is

.......,.....27-2I
............ 27-35

27
,t

....27-35 ....27-36 ..................27-37
.........."........ 27-37 ............... 27-38
^.n'

at

-3el
cul 'h

tht sl

le

ft
hr

qK
- -Je

in(
I ll

av
Cir
1C

-be
let

lh
I

'f

Pr

o!
cl'

m
I It

ts

th

m

ol

1/-ll

lltfut Stumwater

u
l4anagement Manual
i

- ;f--

-l
.1

CulverE

27.T

IruTRCDI.'CTTON

culverts are

culvert inlets. The procedures for the hydraulic deiign of ..Hydraulic
based

This chapter provides. guidance on the hydrauric design of culverts, culvert end treatment, the design of scour protection, debris contror and an introduction to improved

and catastrophic failure of the embankment should be investigated. When culverts are installed under high embankments, an appropriate invegrigation shourd be

attenuate flood peaks downstream" If deep ponding is considered, the consequences of scour at the outlet

made

Culverts', Hydraulic Engineering Circular Highway Administration, 19g5).

on

Oeiign
ru-o

of Highway S (US Federal

blockage of the culverts by debris.

to evaluate the risk of a larger iood occurring or

27.2.2 Culvert in plan
Ideally, a culvert should be placed in the natural channel (Figure 27.1.). A culvert in this location is usuaily aligned with flow and little structural excavation and channel work are required at the inlet and outlet, especially for shorter culverts. In the case, where rocation in the natural channel would require an inordinately long culvert, some stream reafignment may be required (FigieZT.Z). Such modification to reduce skew and shorten iulverts should be carefully designed, environmental concerns for stream velocity, flow depth and factors important to the stream ecosystem, and hydraulic concerns for stream bed and bank stability make it advisable not to undertake channel

discussed herein.

The emphasis in this Chapter is on the design of culverts for urban stormwater.drainage. Highway authorities may have different or additional requirements, which are not

2V.2 DESIGNCONSIDERATTONS
27.2.L Headwater
cause a rise in the upstream water surface. The total flow

Any culvert that constricts the natural stream flow will

culvert inlet is termed headwater.

depth in the stream measured from the invert

of

the

modifications unless there is no practical alternative.

the site and the vertical road profile in ieiation to that topography. In flat or undurating country or where a high standard vertical road profile is used
ground or the elevation at which the road formation cuts through the hydraulic Arade line. Raised levee banks may be necessary to maintain the headwater depth required as indicated in Section 27.2.6. The most economical culveft is one which utilise all of the available headwater to pass the design discharge, since the discharge increases with increasing head. However, it is not always possible to utilise all of the available headwater,
available headwater may be limited by the height of the surrounding

The available headwater will depend on the topography of

the

consideration needs to be given to the hydraulic efficiency of the wingwalls.

measured from a line perpendicular to the roaclway centreline. if the skew is greater than 45 degrees special

Culvert skew should not generaiiy exceed 45

degrees

because of constraints, which limit the upstream water level. Selection of the design headwater shoutO be based therefore, on consideration of the following factors

culvert

recommended where severe or abrupt changes in channel alignment are reguired upstream or downiream of the culvert. Small radius bends are subject to erosion on the lon:ave bank and deposition on the inside of the bend. Such changes, upstream of the culverts, result in poor alignment of the approach flow to the culvert with resuiting loss of hydraulic efficiency, subject the embankment to erosion and increase the probability of deposition in the

culvert alignments square to the road centrerine are not

cell.

downstream

.

:

agricultural land.

on bachlrater resulting from the presence of buildings upstream and/or the inundation
Limits

deposition of material in adjacent properties.

Abrupt changes in channel alignment of culverts may also cause erosion or

of

.

The outlet velocity and the potential for scour.

Potential damage to adjacent property or inconvenience to owners should be of primary concem in the design of all culverts. Expensive court cases and resultant compensation

may result

if

urban areas, the potential for damage to adjacent propefi is greater, because of the number inO value of properties that can be affected.

property owner,s rights are neglected. In

may present the design engineer with an opportunity to adopt a high headwater and allow ponding"upstream
to

Culvert installation under high embankments in rural areas Figure

27.1

Culvert Located in Natural Channel

l

i

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

,-:i---&

27-t

Cu/verB

I
I

Channel Change
v

-[
€ I

(

Altemate Cutvert Location

(
r

Relocated Ctannel

J\

A
Recommended

Channel ChanEe

Not Recomrnended

Figure

27.2

Methods of Culvert Location in the Natural Channel to avoid an Inordinately Long Culvert

2V.2.3 Vertical Profile
Most longitudinal culvert profiles should approximate the natural stream bed. Other profiles may be chosen for either economic or hydraulic reasons. Modified culvert slopes, or slopes other than that of the natural stream, can

27.2.5 Increasing Capacity of Culverts
Changed landuse, such as urbanisation upstream from an existing crossing may increase the magnitude of flooding and necessitate increasing the culvert capacity to accommodate additional flow without exceeding a given headwater elevation. Before deciding that the culvert has to be replaced by a larger structure, (assuming relief flow is not feasible), the possibility of improving the inlet of the

be used to prevent stream

degradation, minimise

t-

sedimentation, improve the hydraulic peformance of the culvert, shoften the culvert, or reduce structural requirements, Modified slope can also cause stream erosion and deposition. Slope alterations should, therefore, be given special attention to ensure that detrimental effects do not result from the change.
Channel changes often result in culverts being shorter and steeper than the natural channel. A modified culvert slope

existing culvert should be investigated (see Section 27.9 for details of improved inlet culverts).

27.2.6 Culverts in FlatTerrain
In flat terrain, drainage channels are often ill-defined
or

can be used to achieve a flatter gradient to prevent channel degradation. Figure 27.3 illustrates possible
culveft profiles.

non-existent and culverts should be located and design for

27.2.4 Multiple Cells
watenany

It is impoftant to select a culvert shape that will best fit the of the channel or stream. In narrow deep channels, a small number of large diameter pipes or box culverts are usually appropriate. In flat areas having no well defined watenray the flood may be larger in volume, but of shallow depth. A number of separate culverts spread over the width of the flooded area may be more
appropriate for these conditions.

least disruption of the existing flow conditions. In these locations multiple culverts can be considered to have a common headwater elevation, although this will not be precisefy so. Figure27.4 illustrates a design technique that can be used to determine the combined capacity of multiple culverts with different invert levels and capacities. The total discharge at any point of the headwater elevation for culverts 1 and 2, on FigureZ7.4, is the sum of the discharges Ql and Q2.

In flat

terrain

it

may be necessary to construct levee

Special consideration should be given to multiple cell culveds where the approach flow is of high velocity, particularly if supercritical. These sites are best suited to a single cell or special inlet treatment to avoid adverse
hydra u lic j ump effects.

banks, as shown on Figure 27.5, to achieve the design headwater at the culvert location. This is only possible if there is no danger of increased flooding of upstream properties. Therefore, approval of the local drainage Authority must be obtained prior to construction of any
such levee bank.

27-2

tJrban Stormwater Management Manual

-.--.,=d,.

't

27.2.7 Site trnvestigatlon
A site investigation must be carried out at each proposed
culvert site. The extent and complexity of the invesUgation

irnportani buildings upstream, such as houses, commercial property, roads or railways should be recorded, if_tney are likely to be affected by backwater

the embankment and the loading that will be imposed on the foundation material and on the culvert itself.

will depend on the size, importance and cost of the proposed culvert, site conditions, the height of

should be sufficient to permit the culvert to be located in plan and profile and should include relevant physical features. In flat terrain the elevation of

Survey information

distance upstream and downstream
longitudinal siream gradient.

the stage-discharge curve may have to be calculated by the srope Area l.rettroc, as is often the case in urban.or developing areas and for all major culverts, the survey should include a cross_section of the channel and floodplain and a water surface profile extending a sufficient

At, sites where

to

est Otirn tf,e

I
Streambed l-ma$on Deposftion

R

epr€ed

r-tF...Use Chute

Rffi
Degndlng Channel
Figure

Where Necessary

Stable Channel Gradient

27.3

possible Culvert profiles

Perfonnance Curve Culvert 1

Perbrmance Curve
Cutuert 2

Cornbind Performance Curve
Cuh/eft 1 plus Culvert 2

Discfiarge

Dlsdrarge

ToblDisdrarge

(er = er + ez )

Figure 27

'4

Stage-Dixharge Curue for Multiple Cutverts with Different invert Levels

Urfun Sbrmwater lvlanagement Manual
27-3

Culverts

Levee Bank b Maintain Design Headwater - Shculd be Extended Far Enough Out fiom Embankment to Match Nahrnl Surface.

Zt

!I
cc

ut
'r)

It
TI

w

n
Figure

27.5

a(

Development of Headwater

di
5t

scour prone areas, soil characteristics should be assessed to enable stream protection strategies to be formulated. The design engineer should also know the nature of the subsoil material underlying the stream bed, unless it is obvious that it is sound bed-rock or other material, which will not cause foundation problems.
Detailed foundation investigations should be carried out for all large culverts, unless it is certain that thev will be founde on sound bed-rock.

In

considered to prevent entry. However, this may cause blockages and reduce the efficiency of the culvert.

lc

d

_d

27,2"9 Culvert as Flow Measuring Device
As stream flow records for small catchments are very
scarce, any reliable supplementary data gathered during or after major floods are of considerable value. A convenient

27.2.8 Safety
Traffic safety - An exposed culveft end (projecting from the plane of the batters) acts as an unyielding obstruction, which is likely to bring an out of control vehicle to an abrupt stop, causing considerable damage to the vehicle
and high deceleration forces on the occupants. Where a road safety barrier is not provided, culvert ends

way of deriving such data is to measure high water marks at culverts after major floods and then to estimate the actual flood flows, which pass through the culvert (see Section 27.4). The calculated discharge can then be related to the catchment characteristic and used to verifo or improve existing runoff estimation methods. Careful identification and measurement of high water marks is essential and should be carried out as soon as possible after the flood, before the evidence disappears.
27 .2.1O

Design Documentation

should be designed so that they will not present an obstruction to vehicles running off the road. This can be
achieved by covering exposed sides with

Records

headwalls or wingwalls which will not present an obstruction, or mitrering culveft ends flush with the
embankment surface.

fill, providing

of culveft designs should be retained for at

least

the lives of the culverts. The amount and detail

of documentation should be related to the importance of the structure. The following data would normally be retained for large culverts:

The location

culvert ends placed flush with the embankment slope should be indicated by markers to reduce hazards to equipment operators and others. High culverts in populated areas should be fenced whenever
oossible.

of

The hazard presented by culverts under private and sideroad entrances should be minimised by placing them as far as practicable from the roadway and avoiding the use of
headwalls.

Child safety

-

Culverts can also be an attradion for

. . . r . . . r . . .

Field notes and data Site plan, profiles and cross-sections

Soildata
Summary of calculations
Design flood frequency

Headwater depth Outlet velocity Culvert drawings
Rationale for culvert choice

adventurous and inquisitive children. At locations where

long culverts could

a

hazard, especially

in urban

areas,

Photographs of site and developments, if there is a possibility of future claims resulUng from the hydraulic performance of the culvert. Flood data observed during and after construction of the culvert.

fencing, swing gates or grates at upstream ends should be

274

utban Stcrmwater Management Manual
j,

-'!

Culverts

2V.3

STYDRAT.Ii_ICS

For the two fypes of control, different factors and formulae

2V,3.L General
The flow hydraulics in the culvert is normally either under

are used to calculate the hydraulic capacity of b cutuert.
Under inlet control, the cross-sectional area of the culvert cell, the inlet geometry and the amount of headwater or ponding at the entrance are of primary importance. Ouilet control involves the additional consideration of the elevation of the tailwater in the outlet channel and the slope, roughness and length of the culvert cell.

condition of full flow in closed conduit or part full flow under uniform flow or non-uniform flow. The fundamental hydraulic principles under these two flow conditions were described in Chapter 12. The most irnportant consideration in culvert hydraulics is whether the flow is subject to inlet or ouflet control. Figures 27.6 and 27.7 show the range of flow types commonly encountered in culverts. For inlet control two distinct regimes exist, depending on whether the inlet is

2V,3.2 Contnol at Inlet
For cul.reds subjeC to inlet control, the important factors are entrance conditions, including the entrance type, existence and angle of headwalls and wingwalls and the projection of the culvert into the headwater pond. For one dimensional flow, the theoretical relation between discharge and upstream energy can be computed by an iterative process or by the use of nomographs.

or not submerged. Outlet control occurs in long culverts, laid on flat grades and with high tailwater depths. In designing culverts, the type of control is determined by the greater of the headwater depths
submerged calculated for both inlet control and outlet control.

A. Projecting

End - Unsubmerged Inlet

B. Projecting

End - Submerged Inlet

C. Mitred
Figure

End - Submerged Inlet

27.6

Flow Profiles for Culvert under Inlet Control

Urban Stomwater Management Manual

77-5

-

..-3

Inlet control can occrJr with the inlet submerged and the outlet not submerged (Figure 27.6). Sketches of inlet control flow for both unsubmerged and subrnerged projecting €ntrances are shown on Figure 27.6(a) and 27.6(b). Figure 27.6(c) shows a mitred entrance flowing submerged with inlet control. Under inlet control, the flow contracts to a supercritical jet immediately downstream from the inlet. When the tail water depth exceeds critical depth f. and the culvert is laid on a steep grade, flow remains supercritical in the cell and a hydraulic jump will form near the outlet. If the culvert is laid on a slope less than critical, then a hydraulic jump will form within the
culveft.

rt2

'29
where

(27.2)
-Lt

!.ll

/is the mean

acceleration due to gravity. The mean velocity is the discharge, Q divided by the cross-sectional area .4 of the
cell.

velocity in the culvert cell and g is the

TI

The entrance loss is expressed as,

'"=f.#
The entrance loss coefficient, K"

(27.3)

In inlet control the roughness and length of the culvert cell and the outlet conditions (including depth of tail water) are not factors in determining culvert capacity. An increase in the slope of culvert reduces headwater only to a small degree and can normally be neglected for conventional
culvefts flowing under inlet control.

, depends on the inlet geometry primarily through the effect it has on contraction of the flow. Values of K. determined from experiment, range from 0.2 for a well rounded entrance, through 0.5 for a square edged inlet in a vertical headwall to 0.9 for a
sharp pipe (e.9. corrugated steel) projecting from an embankment. Ku coefficients are given on Design Chart
27.2.

27.3.3 Contro! at Outlet
Culverts flowing with outlet control can flow with the culvert cell full or with the cell part full for all of the culvert

length. With outlet control and both inlet and submerged (Figure 27.7(a)) the culvert flows full
length, then part-full at the ouUet (Figure

outlet under

Since most engineers are familiar with Manning's n, the following expression is used to calculate the friction loss, H,. aiong ihe conduit:

pressure. The culvert can also flow full over part of its

27.7). The point at which the water surface breaks away from the culvert crown depends on the tailwater depth and culvert grade
and can be determined by using backwater calculaUons.

H,=H*,#
where,

(27.4)

If

the culverts is laid on a flat gnde, outlet control can occur with both inlet and outlet not submerged (Figure 27.7) and

part full flow throughout the cell is subcritical. Minor
variations of these main types can occur, depending on the relative value of critical slope, normal depth, culvert height and tailwater depth.

n tV g

The procedure given in Section 27.4 provides methods or the accurate determination of headwater depths for the full flow condition and for the case of the cell paft-full over part of the culvert length. The method given for the condition of the celi part full, over the total length, gives a solution for headwater depth that decreases in accuraqy as
the headwater decreases.

= = = = = R= A = We =

Manning's friction factor

length (m) of culvert cell
mean velocity (m/s) of flow in culvert cell acceleration due to gravity

9.80 m/sz

hydnulic radius (m) = 4Wp area (m2) of flow for full cross-section
wetted perimeter (m)

Substituting in Equation

27.t and simplifying, we get

for

tullflow:

u l,. - .zgnztlvz lz=Lrr""tnru

(27.s)

(a)

Determination of Energy Head (H)

)ZS

The head, H (Figure 27.7) or energy required to pass a given flow through a culveft operating under outlet control is made up of three major parts. These three parts are usually expressed in metres of water and include a velocity head, Hn an entrance loss, H, and a friction loss, ff,. The energy head is expressed in equation form as:

of Equation 27.5, the energy line, the hydraulic grade line and the headwater depth, HW. The energy line represents the total energy at any point along the culvert cell. The hydraulic grade line ls defined as the pressure line to which water would rise in
Figure 27.8 shows the terms

H=Hr+H"+H1
The velocity head, H" is given by,

small veftical pipes attached to the culvert wall along its length. The difference in between these b/vo -elevation
lines is the velocity nead

(27.1)

Y1 "6'

27-6

lJtban Stormwater Management l'lanual

Cu/verb By referring to Figi:re 27.g and using th€ outlet as datum, we get:

the culvert invert at

H=ht+fi"U-hz=H,+H,+H,

(27.8)

tl*ii+LS=hr+H,+H"+H,
zg
Then,

rt2

(27.5)

Figure 27.8,

hr**+LS-h2--H,+Hu+H,
2g
and,

tt2

(?7.7)

the inlet. Since the velocity head in the entrance poot is usually small under ponded conditions, the water sr:rface of the headwater pool elevation can be assumed to equal
the elevation of the energy line.

the hydraulic arade line at the outiet and the energy line at

Frorn the development of this energy equation and ff is the difference between the elevation of

Equation 27.5 can be readily solved for # by the use of the fulf flow nomographs in Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5.

(a) Culvert Flowing Full, Sr.lbmerged Oudet

(b) Culvert Flowing tull, Unsubmerged OuUet

-

Jv$tllcfrgegne

(d) Culvert Not Floruing Full

FiEure

27.7

Flow Profiles for Culvert under Outlet Control

Urban Stormwater Nanagement Manual

-,,s

27-7

CulverE

for

- .: -. aqgv-li1. \ - - IYqE@gld€r,j_"e -

r-or
sat tol

_)e
cal
UI

-2i
Figure

27.8

Hydraulics of Culvert Flowing Full under Outlet Control

of

hsfor High Tailwater

--eq

ih

(b)

Determination of Headwater Depth (HWo)

9n

Headwater depth,

HW6 can be

determined from an

Two tailwater condiUons can occur with culverts operating under outlet control, (i) tailwater above the top of the opening and (ii) tailwater at or belsw top of opening:

JN

equation for outlet control:

HWs=H+ho-LS
where,

(i) Tailwater above the top of opening t27.s)

when the

tailwater, TWinthe outlet channel is above the too of the culvert ouUet Figure 27.7(a),

H=
h0 hc

-

head (m) determined from Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5 or from Equation 27.8 greater of TW and (hc + D)IZ, in which D < D

ho--TW

(27.10)

The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation
27

critical depth (m) from the Design Charts
Appendix 27.A

in

.9, for this situation, is illustrated on Figure 27.9.

D = culvert height (m) l- = length (m) of culvert S = slope (m/m) of cell (c) Determination of ho
The determination of hs is an important factor in calculating both the headwater depth and the hydraulic
capacity a culveft flowing under outlet control.

(ii)

or below top of opening - when the tailwater in the outlet channel is at or below the top of the culvert ouUet, as on Figure 27.7(b), 27.7(c) and 27.7(d), fa is more difficult to determine.
Tailwater at

Full flow depth at the outlet, Figure 27.7(b), will occur only when the flow rate is sufficient to give critical depths equal or higher than the height of the culveft opening. For all such flows the hydraulic arade line will pass through the

top of the culveft at the outlet and the head, H can be added to the level of the top of the culvert opening in
calculating HWq

the outlet to the water surface in the outlet channel. Engineering judgement is required in evaluating possible tailwater depths. Tailwater is often controlled by a downstream obstruction or'by water levels in another stream. A field inspection should be made to check on downstream conditions and flood levels. The Slope Area Method can be used to calculate flow depths, if
downstream conditions do not provide an obvious control.

Tailwater depth, TWis the depth from the culveft invert at

When critical depth is less than the height of the culvert

opening, the water surface drops as shown on Figures 27.7(c) and /7.7(d), depending on the flow. For the condition shown on Figure 27.7(c), the culvert must flow full for of its length. Flow profile computations show that the hydraulic arade line, if extended as a straight line from the point where the water breaks away from the top of the
culvert, will be at a height approximately halfway between critical depth and the top of the culvert, at the culvert outlet. i.e.:

Foftunately, most natural streams are wide compared to the culveft and the depth of water in the natural channel is considerably less than critical depth in the culvert section. In such cases the natural tailwater does not govern.

n"

=(tg:ro)

(27.r1)

This fevel should be used if it is greater than TW.

27-8

Uftan Starmwater Management Manual

Ut

Culverts

The head, Hcan be added to this level in calculating f/llla. The relationship of hs to the other terms in Equation 27.9 for this situation is illustrated on Figure 27.10.
As the discharge decreases

inadequate, unsafe, or costly structures. The procedures does not address the effect of storage. The design procedure is summarised on the Culveft Design fbwcha-4
Figure 27.11.

the situation approaches that of Figure27.7(d). For design purposes, this method is satisfactory for calculated headwater depths above 0.75D. For smaller values of headwater, more accurate result can
obtained by flow profile calculations or by the use of the capacity charts from Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10 (US Federal Highway Administration, t972).
be

1. r . . " e . . "

Assemble Site Data Site survey and locality map.

Embankmentcross-section.
Roadway profile. Photographs, aerial photographs.

27.4

DESIGN PROCEDURE

existing structure).

Detaiis from field visit (sediment, debris and scour at

The design engineer should be familiar with all the equations in the previous Section before using these procedures. Following the design method without an
understanding

Design data for nearby structures.

of

culvert hydraulics can result

in

Studies by other authorities near the slte, including small dams, canals, weirs, floodplains, storm drains.
Recorded and observed flood data.

an

D

S--+

Figure

27.9

Determination of hs for High Tailwater

f atl

Dt-

lb

= Greater of h. + D and TW
2

Figure

27.10

Determination

of hsfor Tailwater

Below Top of Opening

Urban Stcrmwater Management Manual

27-9

2.

Determine Design Flood Discharge

(iii)

If the Manning's n value of the culvert

under

Determine ARI of design flood - see Chapter 4. Deterrnine design flood discharge, Q - see Chapter 14.

consideration differs from the Manning n value shown on the nomograph, this can be allowed for by adjusting the cuivert length as follows:

3. 4.

Commence Summarising Data on Design Form

See Design Chari 27.1 in Appendix 27.A.
Select Trial Culveft

L = L(!L\ - \n )
wnere,

(27.12)

(i)
(ii)

lr =

adjusted culvert length

Choose culvert material, shape, size and entrance type. Determine the initial trial size of culvert, either by arbitrary selection or by assuming a velocity (say

I = actual culved length
,t = desired Manning n value rl = Manning n value given on the nomograph
(iv) Calculate HW = H + ho- LS
As with inlet control, where the approach velocity is considerable, the approach velocity head can be ealeufated and deducted from the calculated HWo to give the actual physical head required.

3 m/s) and calculating a culvert area from A = o/v

5.

Determine Inlet Control Headwater Depth, inlet Control Design Charts 27.3 to 27.5.

flft-

Use

The nomographs cover various culvet types and inlet configurations. Each nomographs has an example on it which is self-explanatory. Using the trial culvert size, the relevant nomograph can be used to calculate l7W1 given a known O. They can also be used in reverse to calculate e
given a known HWi

(v) It HWo is less than

0.75Dand the culvet is under

ouflet control, then the culvert may be flowing only part full and using (/t. + D)12 to calculate fa
may not be applicable. If required, more accurate results can be obtained by flow profile calculations or the use of Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 10 (as discussed in Section 27.3.3 under (ii) tailwater depth at or below top of opening).

It should be noted that where the approach velocity
physical head required.

is

considenble, the approach velocity head can be calculated and deducted from the calculated HWi to give the actual

B.
f4for Outlet control

Determine Controlling Headwater, Hl1/,

6.

Determine Depth,

Compare HWland HWsand use the higher:

(i)

(r. + D)12 and the tailwater, Il,/ from known flood levels, downstream controlling levels or from the Slope Area Method. If it is
Calculate both clear that the downstream tailwater conditlons do not control, take f4 = ftc + D)/2. 11, can be calculated from Design Chafts 27.8 or 27.9. If hc exceeds Dthen take D.as D.

It

HW > HWo the culvert is under inlet control ?nd HW, =

HW

lf

HWy HWo

>

HWithe culvert is under outlet control and HW, =

9.

Calculate OuUet Velocity,

1,24

(ii)

h0 is

the larger of TWor (h, + D1/2

7.

Determine Outlet Control Headwater Depth

at Inlet,

HW

The average outlet velocity will be the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area of flow at the culvert outlet. The cross-sectional area of flow depends, in turn, on the flow depth at the outlet. controlling headwater, the flow depth can be approximated by calculating the normal depth, yn, for the culvert crogs-section using Manning's Equation. The flow area, A is calculated using yn and the outlet velocity: v"

(i)
(ii)

Determine entrance loss coefficient, Ku from
Design Chart27.2.

If inlet control is the

the outlet control nomographs, Design
Charts 27.10 to 27.tZ (or Equation 27.5 if outside the range). As with the inlet control nomographs, these nomographs cover various cuivert types and each nomograph has an self-explanatory example on it.

Glculate the losses through the culvert, H using

=n

(27.13)

27-LA

tlrban Stormwater Management lutanual

Url

Culverts

TRY CULVERT SIZE D

HWo=Ho+H-SoL

HW=HWi
(TNLET CONTROL)

OF CULVERT CELLS; REPEAT DESIGN STEPS

CONSIDER OPTIONS: SCOUR PROTECTION ENERGY DISSIPATOR IF CHANGE OF CULVERT SIZE. REPEAT DESIGN STEPS

r/rr. H€ADWATER FO8 OLfTIET COr.mOt

'Yl

HEADWATER, FOR

IIttET COi{TNOI

ADOTT DESIGN AND
RECORD CALCUUTIONS

Figure

27.11

Design Flow Chart

Urban Stormwater Management f"fanual
27

-t1

.. 6,d

a

The outlet velocity computed utilising the normal depth, y, will usually be high, because the normal depth is seldom reached in the relatively short length of average culvert.

27.5

ESMPI.|TER MODFLLIEVG

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7,

depth can be either critical depth
TW

if outlet control is the controlling headwater, the flow f., the tailwater depth
(if below the top of the culvert), or the full depth D of

the culvert depending on the following relationships:

HEC-2 Water Surface profiles, (Hydrologic Engineering Centre, US Army Corps of Engineers) is a widely_usej general purpose program with advanced culvert design features which is available in the public domain. ftre revised version, September 1991, includes the hydraulic

ell
be

r

ne
- _hc size

design

of

culverts using

the US Federal Highway
A
commercial

. . .

Use hc,if

hr>

Administration culvert design methods.
TW development, HEC-MS, is also available.

!7,

Use TW,if
Use

hc< TW< D
Several computer programs have been developed
specifically for the hydraulic design of culverts, including:

wh
,th

D,if D< TW

Calculate flow area using appropriate flow depth and then

cell

outlet velocity using Equation 27.13.

" '

XP-Culvert200O, distributed by Xp Software, Canberra, Australia.

ni

_ps

10. Review

Results

Waterflow, Hydraulic Design of Culvefts, Distributed by Roads and Traffic Authority, lVagga Wagga, NSW
Australia.

wit ,-

Compare alternative design with the site constraints and assumptions. If any of the following conditions are not met, repeat steps 4 to 9:

Further information on computer modelling is given
Chapter 17.

in

AI
ig

. . . . .

The culvert must have adequate cover.

_te

The final length of the culvert should be close to the approximate length assumed in design. The headwalls and wingwalls must fit the site. The allowable headwater should not be exceeded. The allowable overtopping flood frequency should not
be exceeded.

2V.6
27.6.!

DEERIS CONTROL
General

alg
la
:li,

iuh
rha

All too often floods have clearly demonstrated how the performance of culverts can be affected by an accumulation of debris at inlets. This accumulation can
cause failure of the drainage structure, possibly resulting in overtopping of the roadway by floodwaters, with ensuing

t7
ltr
)et

The performance of the culvert should also be considered, (i) with floods larger than the design flood to ensure such rarer floods do not pose unacceptable risks to life or

potential for major damage and (ii) with smaller floods than the design flood to ensure that there will be no
unacceptable problems of maintenance.

damage to the embankment or to the properties upstream and downstream of the culvert.

ma

-D(
,dt

Experience has shown that in non-urban areas, the following stream characteristics tend to produce the most
serious debris problems:

ttel

jnv
xil

If

outlet velocity is high, scour protection or an energy

dissipater (see Section 27.8.5) may be required.

o n . .

Susc€ptibility gradients.

of stream to flash flood, i.e. relatively impervious watersheds with moderate or steep

--na rat

11. Improved Designs
Under certain conditions more economic designs may be achieved by consideration of the following:

Actively eroding banks bordered by trees
shrubs

or

large

-)7
L7

. .

The use of an improved inlet for culverts operating
under inlet control (see Section 27.9).

Relatively straight unobstructed stream channels with no sharo bends.
Cleared land upstream with fallen trees on the ground"

-

fn,
:ul
ln(

Allowing ponding to occur upstream to reduce the peak discharge, if a large upstream headwater pool
exists.

In urban

areas there is additional potential for debris to enter waterways and cause blockage. The risk of debris blockage is very high in all urban areas in Malaysia.
Precautions to be taken range from providing freeboard, and taking design precautions to providing elaborate debns control structures.

"dj to
lis
Cul

12. Documentation
Prepare report and background information. See 'Design Documentation' in Section 27.2.10.

file

nc

a

z/-r1

Urban Stormwater Hanagement l,lanuat

Culverts

27.6.2 Freeboard
of 1.0 m2 or more should be designed with a minimum of 300 mm freeboard above the design water level. For large culverts the designer should consider increasing this freeboard to allow for the size of debris anticipated, up to a maximum of 1000 mm.
Ail culverts with a waterway area

" . " . . . .

To prevent erosion of the fill and adjacent channel; To prevent undermining of culvert ends; To inhibit the seepage and piping through the bedding and backfill;

To ineet traffic safety
27.2.8);

requirements (see Section

27,6.3 Design precautions
debris accumulation is considered to be problem, a other design precautions should be taken, such as providing a smooth well designed inlet, avoiding multiple cells and increasing the size of culvert. if multiple cells are unavoidable, provision of a sloping cutwarer on the upstream pier (wall) ends may help to align floating debris
Where

To improve the appearance of large culverts; To resist hydraulic uplift forces on corrugated metal pipe culverts; and/or

To strengthen the ends of large flexible
especially those with mitred or skewed ends.

culverts,

with the culvert entrance.

2V.6,4 Relief Culvert

corrugated metar pipe curverts, the cut-off wails arso act to counteract uplift at the culvert inlet.
a

Cut-offs in the form of a vertical wall, constructed below the end apron of a culvert, should always be provided at culvert inlets to prevent undermining and piping.
For

that will be less subject to blockage.

higher level than the main culvert permits water to by_pass the latter, if it becomes blocked. The relief culvert could also be placed at a low level some distance away from the main culvert where it is not likely to be blockeo. tu this relief culvert is an additional requirement, the cost of both culverts should be compared with that of

A relief culvert passing through the embankment at

27.7"2 Typieal End Treatnnenf-s
and wingwalls _ are the most common encl treatment in overseas countries. An apron is generally incorporated between the wingwals to rimit scour of the stream becl. They are usually constructed from reinforced concrete, but can be formed from masonry, or rock filled
gabions and mattresses, or concrete filled mattresses.

a larger culvert

27.6.5 Debris Control Structures be cosfly both to construct and maintain. of the various types of debris control structures 6" found in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 9, .TaV nDebris Control Structures,, (US federat Highway Administration, L97L). The choice of structure type depends upon size, quantity and type of debris, the cost involved and the maintenance proposed. However, for existing culverts, which are prone to debris clogging, it may be worthwhile to construct a debris control structure
Details

These can

embankment around the ends paved with concrete or rock.

Mitred ends - these are generally limited to corrugated metal pipe culverts, where the end of the pipe is cut parallel to the slope of the embankment. The area of

of the culverts is

usually

Projecting ends - where the ends of the culvert project from the face of the embankment. Although they are the

rather than replace or enlarge the culvert.

inefficient, do not meet safety requirements and are visually objectionable. For these reasons their use in
Malaysia is not recommended.

least costly end treatment, they

.r"

hydraulically

27.7

CULVERT END TREATMENT

27.8

FLOW VELOCITY

27,7.1 Introduction
The term "end treatment,, encompasses the shape of the culvert ends, end structures such as wingwalls, cut_offs

Culverts usually increase the flow velocity over that in the natural water course. Except when the culverts flow full, the highest velocity occurs near the ouflet and this is the point where most erosion damage is likely to occurs.

and anchorages and erosion control measures

adjoining fill and channel (see Standard Drawini;s SD F_21 to SD F-24). The design of hydraulically improved inleb is disdssed separately in Section 27.9. Culvert end treatment may be required more of the following functions:

for

the

A check on outlet velocity, therefore, must be carried out as part of the culvert design if the outlet discharqes to an
unlined watenaray.

to perform one or

27.8.1 Inlet Control
For a pipe culvert flowing with inlet control the outlet velocity can be determined from Figure 25.81 to 25.84 in Chapter 25, Appendix 25.B (k = 0.6) in combination with charts for part full flow in Chapter 12.

r r

To increase the hydraulic efficiency of the culvert;

To prevent fill from
opening;

encroaching

on the

culvert

Urban Stormwater lvlanagement l,lanual
l

25.84 were derived from *te Cdebr@k Figures 25.81 White equation (in Chapter 12) for k = 0.06 to 0.6. This approach assumes that the depth of flow at the outlet equals the depth corresponding to uniform flow, but the sholc length of the average culveft mostly precludes this, making this approach conservative
The depth of flow should be checked against critical depth

b

-

bar across the stream, while finer material will be carried further downstream. Depending on the supply bf sediment the scour hole may gradually refill until after the
next major fiood occurs.

lal

1n
:nl

Table

27.1

-rlo
Ma;imum Recommended Flow Velocities (m/s) for various conduit materials
,

str
tlJt

as determined from Design Charts 27.8 or 27.9. If the flow is supercritical the effed of a hydraulic jump must be
considered. Material Precast concrete pipes Precast box culverts Maximum V (m/s)

:le

jur
Jis

27.4.2 Outlet Control
For outlet control the average outlet velociV will be the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area of flow at the outlet. This flow area can be either that corresponding to criticai depth, tailwater depth (if below the crown of the cuivert) or the full cross section of the culveft barrel.

8.0
8.0

-1?
,l

In situ concrete and hard
packed rock (300mm min) Beaching or boulders (250mm min) Stones (150

o.u

-,F

5.0
dv

27.8.3 Eroslon of Conduit
Flow

-

100mm)

3.0

-

2.5

lc

of the water subjects the conduit

material to

Grass covered surfaces SUff, sandy clay Coarse gravel Coarse sand Fine sand

1.8 1.3

abrasion, and too fast a velocity for a given wall material will cause erosion to the conduit. Very fast flows can cause cavitation unless the conduit surface is very smooth,

- 1.5 1.3 - 1.8
0.7
0.5

Cr

and this results in erosion taking place at a rapid rate. However, cavitation damage does not occur in full flowing pipes with velocity less than about 7.5 - 8 m/s and about

0.5

0.2 -

u(
!L
Ltl
CU

t2 mls in open

conduits.

The maximum velocity b,eyond which erosion will take place depends on factors like smoothness of conduit, quantity and nature of debris discharged and frequen{ of peak velocity. Commonly adopted maximum values based
on experience are listed in Table 27.1.

27.8.4 Sceur at Inlets
A culvert normally constricts the natural channel, forcing the flow through a reducing opening. As the flow contracts, vortices and areas of high velocity flow impinge against the upstream slopes of the embankment adjacent to the culveft. Scour can also occur upstream of the culveft, as a result of the acceleration of the flow, as it
leaves the natural channel and enters the culvert.

The provision of wing walls, headwall, cut-off wall and apron is generally all the protection that is required at culvert outlets. The judgement of design engineers, working in a particular area is required to determine the need for any further protection. Investigation of scour and outlet protection at similar culverts in the vicinity of the culvert being designed may provide guidance on whether further protection is required. Periodic site visits and inspection after major flood events will also confirm whether the protection is adequate or further protection is
required.

In

generally unacceptable and therefore a choice must be made as to which type of scour protection is suitable for the site. The

urban areas,

the risk of outlet scour is

options available include the following:

n

. . .

Local protection of the stream bed material, in the
case of unlined drains and waterways. Flow expansion structure. An energy dissipating structure

-dr
IA

Upstream wing walls, apronsr cut-off walls and
embankment paving assist protecting the embankment and stream bed at the upstream end of a culvert.

ta

-o
p

c)

27.a.5 Scour at Outlets
If the flow emerging from a cuivert has a sufficiently high velocity and the channel is erodible, the jet will scour a hole in the bed immediately downstream and back eddies will erode the stream banks to form a circular elongated scour hole. Coarse material scoured from the hole will be deposited immediately downstream, often forming a low

Stream bed protection can be achieved with a concrete apron, rock riprap, or rock mattresses, or concrete filled matFesses. It is important that mattresses are anchored to the cut-off wall or apron at the culvert outlet, to stop them moving downstream. A geotextile filter is usually provided under the mattresses and may also be required

ir n

zl

- L.+

llrban Stormwa ter Managemen t Manual

under the rock

riprap.

detail in Chapter- 29"

Seour protection is discussed in

?7"9
27.9.t

TMPR,SVSF gruL€T'EL'LVER.TS General

An important parameter in the selection of an appropriate energy dissipater is the Froude Number, f, of the outlet flow. Where an outlet has !.7, a simple apron sb'ucture, riprap, or a flow expansion structure will suffice. Where 1.7 < n< 3 a riprap basin or hcrizontal roughness elements basin is appropriate. Where E > S a hydraulic jump basin wlll be reguired. Energy dissipaters are discussed in detaii ln Chapter 29.

4<

the entrance losses form oniy a minor part of the total
head losses and major inlet improvement are not justified.

The capacity of a culvert operating under inlet control can be significanUy increased by providing a more efficient inlet, which reduces the flow concentration at the entrance and increases the flow depth in the cell. In outlet
control,

27.8"6 Siltation
If the flow velocity becomes too low siltation occurs. Flow velocity below about 0.5 m/s will cause settlement of fine to medium sand particles.

various vpes of inret improvements are discussed in this Section. A nurnber of these are aimed merely at improving the inlet efficiency by reducing the entrance loss, r(* These focus on headwalls, wingwails and the end of the culvert cell. Other major types of improvement, include the provision of a fall (or steep slope) In the bed of the

To be seif-cleansing cuive*s must be graded to the average grade of the water course upstream and downstream of the culvert, and levels must represent the
average stream levels before the culvert was built.

inlet or tapers in the end

section

combination of these improvernents. The aim of these
rnajor improvements is to increase the velocity head or the effective headwater depth. The material in this Section is based on ..Hydraulic Design

of the cell, or

Culvert locaUon

cells. Deposition can occur in culverts when the sediment trcnsport capacity of flow within the culvert is less than in the stream. The following factors may cause deposition in
culverts:

in both plan and profile is of particular importance to the maintenance of se,jiment_free culveit

of improved inlets for Culvertsi

ttydrauiic Engineering

. .

Culverts often provide a wider flow width at low flows than natural streams. This results in the flow depth and sediment transport capacity being reduced.

Transportation and Communications, 19g5, which includes metric design nomographs). These references may need to be consulted for further inforrnaticn when undertakino the design of improved inlet culverts.

Circular i,io. 13, (i.iS FerJerai Highway Administration,ISTZ) and the "Hydraulic Design of Culverts,, (Ontario Ministry of

27.9.2 Bevelled Inlets
Adding bevels to a conventional culvert design with a square-edge at the periphery of the inlet opening increases culvefts capacity by 5 to 20 percent. The greatest benefit occllrs with high headwaters. Bevelled inlets increase the hydraulic efficiency of the culvert (4 = 0.2). Details of typical bevels are shown on

o

Point bars (deposition) form on the inside of stream bends and culvert inlet placed at bends in the stream will be subjected to deposition in the same manner. This effect is most pronounced in multiple-cell culver8 with the cell on the inside of the curve often becoming almost totally plugged with sediment deposits.

the channel upstrearn of the culvert will

Abrupt changes to a flatter grade in the culvert or in
induce

deposition. Gravel and sand deposits are common downstream from the break in grade because of the
reduced transport capacity in the flatter section.

Figure27.t2. They should be considered for all box culvert installations, which operate under inlet controi. Bevelled inlets can be provided on both pre-cast and cast
in-situ culverts.

Deposition usualiy occurs at flow rates smaller than the design flow rate. The deposits may be removed during

The 1.5:1 bevel (33.7 degrees) is more efftcient than the
1:1 bevel (45 degrees), but the latter is easier to construct and more practical. Bevels should be provided on the top and side edges of the opening.

larger floods, depending upon the relative transport capacity of flow in the stream and in the culvert, compaction and composition of the deposits, flow duration,
ponding depth above the culvert and other factors.

27.9.3 Frovision of Depre*sed Inlet
Provision sf a fall or steep slope upstream from the culvert inlet may innprove the capacity of a culvert operating under inlet control by increasing the veiocity head. The fall may be achieved by flattening the cell slope. This may tend to induce sedimentation during low flows, but the deposit will in most c:ses be washed out during floods.

Siltation can also occur upstream of culverts if they are instailed at incorrect levels, creating pcnding areas. Such grading should generally be avsidecj.

Urban Stormwater Management Manua!

,---3,

27-15

Culverts

PI.AN

2V.9.4 Tapered Inlets
Side BevelAngle A tapered inlet is a culvert inlet with a side-taper or a slope taper within the end section of the culvert cell. This result

r t

)?r

l,v

sectir

f'arle

in an enlarged face section and a hydraulically efficient throat section. A tapered inlet may have a fall, incorporated into the inlet structure. The fall is used to provide more head on the throat section for a given
b = 0.(X2 B for 45o (1:1) b = 0.083 B for 33.7o (1.5:1) headwater elevation.

tlp
gr?€l

A

Side BorelAngle

tapered inlet can sometimes greatly improve the of a culvert operating under inlet control. This may permit the use of a cell size considerably smaller than would be required for a conventional culvert. The greatest savings are achieved with long culverts, but the possibility of increasing the capacity of an existing
performance
undersized culvefc by adding an improved inlet should not be overlooked, since it may eliminate the need for a costly replacement structure. A disadvantage of a tapered inlet culvert is the high outlet

(a) Side Berels
LOT{GITUDINAL SECTION

velocity, which
Side BevelAngle

in

some cases may necessitate

an

expensive outlet structure or downstream channel erosion

control

works.

Cost comparisons between

various

irnproved inlet designs and conventional designs should be made to select that with the least overall cost.

Side Tapered Inlet d = 0.(X2 D for 45' (1:1) d = 0.083 D for 33.7o (1.5:1)

Figure27,L4. In some cases, they may increase flow capacity by 25 to 40 percent over that of conventional
culverts with a square edge-inlet. The side tapered inlet has an enlarged face area with a tapered transition to the constant culvert cell section. The inlet face has the same height as the cell and its top and bottom are extensions of the top and bottom of the cell. The intersection of the sidewall tapers and the cell is defined as the throat section.

-

Side tapered inlets are illustrated in

(b) Top Eorel
NOTE:

Side-tapers may range

from 6:1

to 4:1 taper being
two
possible control

recommended as it results in a shorter inlet.
1. Dimensions of Bevels Shall Not be

Les than

Shorrn.

For

a

side-tapered inlet, there are

Rectangular Box, either Increase d b Equal b, or Deoease the Top Bevel Angle. 4. For Multiple Cells Calanlate b from Total CIear Width or 3D, whidtener is Smaller. Figure

2. Dimensions b and d are Basd on the Squarc Dimensions of the Opening. To Obtain BsrelTerminaUon in One Plan on a 3.

sections

the face and the throat. H; shown

on

Figure27.14, is the headwater depth measured from the

face section invert and

l{ is the headwater depth

measured from the throat section invert. The weir crest is a third possible control section when a fall is used.

27.12

Bevelled Inlet for Box Culvert

The fall may be constructed within the limits of the flared wingwalls, as illustrated in Figure 27.13. The drop may also form an integral part of a slope-tapered inlet. The fall slope should be paved to prevent upstream bed degradation and an upstream cut-off wall provided.

Slope Tapered Inlet- The slope tapered inlet, like the sidetapered inlet, has an enlarged face section with tapered side walls at the throat section (Figure 27.LS). In addition, a steep fall is incorporated into inlet between the face and throat section. This fall concentrates more head on the throat section. At the location where the steeper slope of the inlet intersects the flatter slope of the cell, a third section, designated the bend section, is formed.

The

slope-tapered

improvement.

inlet is the most complex inlet This type of inlet can in some instances

provide a capacity more than 100o/o greater than that of a conventional culvert with square edges. The increase in

27-76

Urban Stomwater Management Manual

Itt

Culverts

capacity depends largely upon the amount of fall available between the invert at the face and invert at the throat

section. Construction difficulties are inherent, but the benefits in increased performance can be great. With
proper design, a slope tapered inlet passes more flow at a given headwater elevation than any other configuration.

to both box culverts and circular pipe culverts. For the latter application, a
Slope-tapered inlets can be applied square or round transition is normally used to connect the rectangular slope-tapered inlet to the circular pipe.

Pl-Aftl

NOTE: Weir Slope to be Paved to hevent Upstream Degradation

where Necessary.

ELEVATION

Suggested Slope for Fall 2:1 to 3:1

s----->.
27.13

Figure

Fallfor ConventionalCulvert with Flared Wingwalls

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

CulverE

?
PI.AN
a a

1s'to s07

t{

WeirCrd

a

{Flare Angle

--n
st
s{

15"
(,4) With Fall

b So
(B) Wirhour Fatl

(Wingwalls Not Shown)

n
ST

fr
ELEVATION ELEVATION

$

t{-Face
I

section

lV.--Faesection
Throat Section

-'-el
a\

Throat Section

Weir C,rest

q
Figure

27.14

Side-Tapered Improved Inlet

c

PI.AN

27.TO MINIMUM EI{ER.GY C!.'LVERTS
In the coastal plains the natural slope of the land is often little more than a fraction one per thousand, which in concrete conduits laid on natural grade, grass covered channels and natural water courses resulb in b-anouil flow
(see Chapter 12).

Taper (4:1 To 5:1)

To reduce the coSs of bridging these waterways the concept of the 'The Minimum Energy Culverf'was developed.

ET.S/ATION

The aim of

\he Minimum Energy Culvert" concept is to concentrate the flow in a narrow, deep cross section flowing with critical velocity under maximum design flow thus taking advantage of the minimum specific energy

Face Secdon

Bend S€ction

under critical flow condition (see Chapter 12). This maximises the flow per unit length of waterway crossing. By keeping the flow outside the supercritical region the designer avoids the energy loss in a hydraulic jump and the cost of having to protect against the erosion associated
with the jump. Figure

Throat Section

27.75

Slope-Tapered Improved Inlets for Box Culverts

27-18

Urban Stormwater Management Manual

Culverb The design requires knowledge of:

. . , .

PLAro

Design disdrarge Average nafural slope of ternin
Flood levels

Survey details of floodplain adjacent to culvert

On the basis
so the

section of the culvefi is drawn up. (Figure

of this information a plan and
:

longitudinal

following assumptions are made
terrain

27.16). in doing
EIEI/ATTON

0

The energy line panllels the natural fall of the

(iD Energy losses at enty and exit of cufuert are
disregarded T[re justification

for the ratter assumpton is that srmth fansitions are generally small.

rosses at

In his ontext it is warth nc$ng that $e exit expansion of Se sfeam bed needs to progress at a smaller angle than the enby angle if the formation of Snding eddies avrided.
Using

is to

be

Figure

27.16 Characteristic Flow Line of Minimum
Energy Culvert

the equations:

One problem

Hr, = 1.5d, and

Q=Mrr[4
coneponding values
ornpared.

(27"14)

of

b,

d, and H,

en

be bied

and

approach is not feasible if there are high sediment loads.

potential for ponding can sometimes be minimised by a small diameter pipe drain or a channel connecting the culvert to a suitable point downstream. However this

pdential site for ponding and sediment deposition. The

witi minimum-energy culvefts is that they are located in a dip below the drain or waterway inveft, creating a

't

n
tol

Urban Stormwater Management f"lanual

zl'!>

Cu/verb

A''ENDIX 27.A

DESIGT{ FORM, CHARTS Ar{D

NOMOGRA**'

Design Form for Culvert Calculation Entrance Loss Coefficients

Inlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete pipe Culvert

Inlet Control Nomograph -Box Culvert Inlet Control Nornograph

-

Comrgated Metal pipe (CMp) Culvert

Relative Dixharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in part_full pipe Flow Relative Discharge, Velocity and Hydraulic Radius in part_full Box

Culvert Flow

Critical Depth in a Circular pipe Critical Depth in a Rectangular (Box) Section

outlet control Nomograph
n = 0.012 ouuet control Nomograph n = 0.012 Outlet Conhol Nomograph

-

concrete pipe curvert Frowing Fuil with

concrete Box curvert Frowing Fuil with

Fullwith n = 0.024

-

Corrugated Metat pipe (CMp) Ftowing

Urfun Stormwater Management Manual

27-27

CulverE

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TYPE OF BARREL AND INLET

Pipe, Concrete
Projecting from fill, socket end Projecting from fill, square cut end

Ke

0.2 0.5

Headwallor headwall and wingwalls
Socket end of pipe

Square-edge Rounded (radius

0.2 0.5
D)

= t/LZ

0.2 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.2

Mitred to conform to fill slope End-section conforming to fill slope (standard precast) Bevelfed edges, 33.7o or 45. bevels

Side-tapered or slope-tapered inlets Pipe, or Pipe-Arch, Corrugated Steel
Projecting from fitl Headwall or headwall and wingwalls, square edge
MiUed

0.9 0.5 0.7 u.5

to conform to fill slope 33.7" or 45" bevels

End-section conforming to fill slope (standard prefab)
Beveffed edges,

0.2s
0.2

Side'tapered or slope-tapered inlets

Box, Reinforced Concrete
Headwall

Square'edged on 3

edges
I/12 barreldimension,

0.5

Rounded on 3 edges to radius of Or bevelled edges on 3

sides
of Ut2 baneldimension

O.2

Wingwalls at 30" to 75" to barrel

Square.edged at

crown

0.4

Crown edge rounded to radius

Or bevelled top

edge crown

O.z

Wingwalls at 10. to 25" to banel

Square'edged at

0.5

Wingwalls parallel (extension of sides) Square'edged at
Side-tapered Projecting

crown or slope-tapered intet
45.

0.7
0.2

Square.edged
Bevelled edges, 33.7" or

bevels

0.7* O.jo

* Esiimated

Design

Chart27.2

Entrance Loss Coefficients

Urbn Sbrmwater Management Manual

27-23

Culverb

D (m) 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00

$r*tl.l
300 200

HW
D

(1)
F:omple

(2)

(3)
6
5

D=0.80m Q=1.7m3ls
N

F6 r
5
5

100 80 60 50 40 30 20

rs r
F t-

2.50

Inlet (1) (2) (3)

Ut'
D

HW(m) 2.08

l4
F-3

4
3

2.60 2.18 2.20

4
3

r.74

t.76

2.00
10

,*o9

-&'

-/

8 1.50
5

\]./ 9*'j'^Ey'

3

sl,F" t.oooa$)/
1

1.0

1.0 0.9

Inlet Type

0.90'
0.80 0.70 0.60

0.9

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.15

(1) Headwallwith
Square Edge

(2) Headwallwith
Sod<et End

0.8

0.8

(3) Projectng wilh
Socket End

0.50

8.H
0.40 0.05 0.04 0.5 0.03 0.02 0.30 0.5

Design Chart

27.3

Inlet Control Nomograph

-

Concrete Pipe Culvert

27-24

Urban Stormwater Management lvlanuar