This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CHAPTER-1 1.1 Introduction
Man is a social animal and he always live in society. An individual is a member of society, so long as he engages in relationship with other member of society. It means that individuals are in continuous interaction with other individuals in society. The limits of society are marked by the limits of social interactions. Social interaction is made possible because of mutual awareness. Every man of the society always tries to adjust themselves in the society. He tries to create great happiness for great number of people in the society. To live in society he has to face some problems. Suicide is specially a problem of human beings. Any animal can die by disease or can be killed by an outside agency. But only human being can kill themselves. Self destructive behavior not associated with the idea of death is not suicide. So, suicide not only the act of taking one’s own life but also one who dies from his own hand & one who attempts or has a tendency to commit suicide. It refers to the behavior of individuals or groups which may bring about their own destruction. Suicide is an individual phenomenon in terms of processes occurring within the person. It indicates a series of progressive changes from deep love life, to a desire to escape from life and all that it implies. Suicide indicates that man is against himself in the society of his own making. It may be noted that it is not simply a mild type of personal maladjustment, but the “final and irreversible culmination of personal disorganization” (Elliott and Merrill, 1961:31). Suicide implies that the person has reached a stage where he is no longer able to function adequately in the many interpersonal relationships of a normal human being, and that the ties that bind the members of the organized group are broken.
Suicide (Latin suicidium, from sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally terminating one's own life; many dictionaries also note the metaphorical sense of "willful destruction of one's self-interest". Suicide may occur for a number of reasons, often related to depression, shame, pain, financial difficulties or other undesirable situations. Views on suicide have been influenced by cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. Most Western and Asian religions—the Abrahamic religions, Buddhism, Hinduism—consider suicide a dishonorable act; in the West it was regarded as a serious crime and offense against God due to religious belief in the sanctity of life. Japanese views on honor and religion led to seppuku being respected as a means to atone for mistakes or failure during the samurai era; Japanese suicide rates remain some of the developed worlds highest. In the 20th century suicide in the form of self-immolation has been used as a form of protest, and in the form of kamikaze and suicide bombing as a military or terrorist tactic. Sati was a Hindu funeral practice in which the widow would immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.
There are many different types of “groups” that are at risk for the potential to commit suicide. Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death for all U.S. men, and men are four times more likely to die from suicide than women. Suicide rates are highest among whites and second highest among American Indian and Native Alaskan men. Among the 24,672 suicide deaths reported among men in 2001, 60% involved the use of a firearm.
Sometimes a depressed person plans a suicide in advance. Many times, though, suicide attempts happen impulsively, in a moment of feeling desperately upset. A situation like a breakup, a big fight with a parent, an unintended pregnancy, being outed by someone else, or being victimized in any way can cause someone to feel desperately upset. Often, a situation like this, on top of an existing depression, acts like the final straw.
Some people who attempt suicide mean to die and some don't. For some, a suicide attempt is a way to express deep emotional pain. They can’t say how they feel, so, for them, attempting suicide feels like the only way to get their message across. Sadly, even when a suicide attempt is a cry for help and the person doesn’t mean to die, there’s no way to control it. Many people who really didn’t mean to kill themselves end up dead or critically ill. Men aren’t the only people who are vulnerable to suicide. Women and youthful people are also in danger of possibly committing suicide. In 2002, women reported attempting suicide in their lifetime about three times as often as men. Rates of suicide among teenagers and adolescents are unbelievably high, but the rates have been declining since 1992. Adolescents and young adults often experience stress, confusion, and depression from situations occurring in their families, schools, and communities. These kinds of feelings can overwhelm young people and lead them to consider suicide as a “solution.” Suicide is the third leading cause of death among people ages fifteen to twenty-four. In 2001, 3,971 suicides were reported in this group and 54% of youth suicides involved the use of a firearm. Of the total number of suicides among ages fifteen to twenty-four in 2001, 86% were male and 14% were female. Suicide, as the most extreme expression of grief and anxiety and individual turmoil, is also an expression of despair and a cry for assistance. The sociology of death and suicide is largely concerned with the examination and exploration of the phenomena of suicide within a specific social context. This paper explains that the assumption that suicide is linked to the disparity between the individual and society is also an implied comment and critique of that society. Given this understanding this paper elucidates the meaning of suicide as a break in the ties between the individual and society. This study also deals with critiques of modern industrialized societies as the context of contemporary suicide especially with examples from relatively newly industrialized counties such as Japan.
1.2 Historical Perspective of Suicide
Suicide or intentional Self-destruction by man is perhaps as old as human civilian. There is no period in human history without records of suicide. The epic of Ramayana (1600B.C.) depicts suicide by lord Rama, the great Hindu king of Ayodhya along with the members of his family including his brothers and disciples who ended their lives by plugging into river Sarju. Suicide by Greek Philosopher Socrates (399B.C.) by taking a cup of hemlock is well as one of self immolation at the command and wishes of the then Greek emperor. In general the pagan world, both Roman and Greek, had a relaxed attitude towards the whole concept of suicide, a practice that was only finally outlawed with the advent of the Christians, who condemned it at the Council of Arles in 452 as the work of the Devil. In the middle Ages, the church had drawn-out discussions on the edge where the search for martyrdom was suicidal, as in the case of Martyrs of Cordoba. Despite these disputes and occasional official rulings, Catholic doctrine was not entirely settled on the subject of suicide until the later 17th century. For instance, John Donne's Thoughts on Emergent Occasions is a long argument in favor of suicide as divinely appointed opportunity.
There is some echo of later Christian hostility in ancient Greek thinkers. Pythagoras, for example, was against the act, though more on mathematical than moral grounds, believing that there was only a finite number of souls for use in the world, and that the sudden and unexpected departure of one upset a delicate balance. Aristotle also condemned suicide, though for quite different, far more practical reasons, in that it robbed the community of the services of one of its members. A reading of Phaedo suggests that Plato was also against the practice, inasmuch as he allows Socrates to defend the teachings of the Orphics, who believed that the human body was the property of God, and thus self-harm was a direct offense against divine law. Yet, it's not quite so simple, because after Socrates says than no man has a right to suicide, this is then qualified by the statement "...unless God sends some necessity upon him, as has now been sent upon me." In Rome suicide was never a general offense in law, though the whole approach to the question was essentially pragmatic. This is illustrated by the example given by Titus Livy of the colony of Massalia (the present day Marseilles), where those who wanted to kill themselves merely applied to the Senate, and if their reasons were judged sound they were then given hemlock free of charge. It was specifically forbidden in three cases: those accused of capital crimes, soldiers and slaves. The reason behind all three was the same - it was uneconomic for these people to die. If the accused killed themselves prior to trial and conviction then the state lost the right to seize their property, a loophole that was only closed by Domitian in the first century AD, who decreed that those who died prior to trial were without legal heirs. The suicide of a soldier was treated on the same basis as desertion. If a slave killed her or himself within six months of purchase, the master could claim a full refund from the former owner.
But the Romans fully approved of what might be termed "patriotic suicide"; death, in other words, as an alternative to dishonor. For the Stoics, a philosophical sect which originated in Greece, death was a guarantee of personal freedom, a way out of an intolerable existence. And so it was for Cato the Younger, who killed himself after the Pompeian cause was defeated at the Battle of Thapsus. This was a 'virtuous death', one guided by reason and conscience. His example was later followed by Seneca, though under somewhat more straightened circumstances. A very definite line was drawn by the Romans between the virtuous suicide and suicide for entirely private reasons. They disapproved of Mark Antony not because he killed himself, but that he killed himself for love. During World War II, Japanese units would often fight to the last man rather than surrender. Towards the end of the war, the Japanese navy sent kamikaze pilots to attack Allied ships. These tactics reflect the influence of the samurai warrior culture, where seppuku was often required after a loss of honor. It is also suggested that the Japanese treated Allied POWs harshly because, in Japanese eyes, by surrendering rather than fighting to the last man, these soldiers showed they were not worthy of honorable treatment. In fact, the Japanese unit in Singapore sentenced an Australian bombing unit to death in admiration for their bravery. The Kaiowas tribe in the South American rainforest committed a mass suicide to attract attention to their claim that their government was taking away their land. Their efforts successfully attracted massive international and national attention to their cause. In the 1960s, Buddhist monks, most notably Thích Quảng Đức, in South Vietnam gained Western praise in their protests against President Ngô Đình Diệm by burning themselves to death. Similar events were reported in Eastern Europe, such as Jan Palach following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. In 1970 Greek Geology student Kostas Georgakis burned himself to death in Genoa, Italy to protest against the Greek military junta of 19671974. During the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976), numerous publicly-known figures, especially intellectuals and writers, are reported to have committed suicide, typically to escape persecution, typically at the hands of the Red Guards. Some, or perhaps many, of these reported suicides are suspected by many observers to have, in fact, not been voluntary but instead the result of mistreatment. Some reported suicides include famed writer Lao She, among the best-known 20th century Chinese writers, and journalist Fan Changjiang.
1.3 Statement of the problem
Man by nature is a fighting animal. He always wants to survive in the empirical world. Psychologically, he wants to make his life long time. But only suicide can destroy his long life. Suicide is specially a problem of human beings. It also true that man can be death by disease, accident or can be killed by an outside agency. Any animal can die by disease or can be killed by an outside agency. But only human being can kill themselves. Self destructive behavior not associated with the idea of death is not suicide. So, suicide not only the act of taking one’s own life but also on. Truly speaking there is no society without the problem of suicide. Suicide has almost become a universal problem is most of the countries including Bangladesh. It is emerging as a major social problem in Bangladesh. With the changing attitude of the world it is imperative to study why the individual deviate from psychological, legal & social norms, why they attempt to suicide and which factor is mainly liable for suicide.
"The idea that suicide results from or is caused by a dislocation between the ties that should exist between an individual and his or her society implies that suicide must be understood as being more than a personal or psychological issue. This view of suicide is essentially sociological in nature. Furthermore, a critical analysis of this understanding of suicide also requires that the type and context of society must be taken into account. A society that is cohesive and supportive, with networks to deal with personal and social issues, is likely to have a very low suicide rate. Suicide in this social context would usually be more of a psychological than a social issue."
So, I have to study about various factors of suicide and which factor is more liable for suicide. My study mainly concerned with the causes of suicide.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
Throughout the ages the problem of suicide was there in the society & this was pondered by priests, poets & philosophers but to day it is a subject matter of scientific study. Though out the act of suicide is personal but the act of an individual can not be understood in total isolation from his social matrix. The main concern of this study is to know the socio-economic and psychological causes of suicide. Activities in the light of those studies several objectives were taken for this study. Earlier studies show that, various socio-economic and psychological factors are directly or indirectly caused for suicide. The problem of suicide deserves in-depth study.
The specific objectives of the present study are as follows To identify the causes of suicide in Tangail city. To find the psychological impact on suicide. To collect information about the family structure and family disorganization, family conflict, social tension etc. To study socio-economic conditions, employment pattern and sources of income of the families of the suicide victims. To investigate into the family relationships; and To find the policy issues for taking preventive measures for suicide.
2.1 Literature Review
Among the Sociologists two major theoretical positions are currently popular-the psychoanalytic & Durkheim’s sociological theory .Freud, an exponent of psychoanalytic theory if suicide proposed two major hypothesis to account for suicide- one is an expression of his theory of depression & the other theory postulates that death instinc can turn inward & make the person looses someone who he has loved and hated & if these murderous feelings are strong enough, the person will commit suicide. Emile Durkheim’s monograph ‘Le suicide’ published in 1897 and translated into English in 1952 is the pioneering and the most important sociological contribution to the problem of suicide. Durkeim after analyzing the records of different countries distinguished three types of suicide namely, egoistic, altruistic & anomic. Egoistic suicide is committed when a person helps to few ties to his society and community. It is the effect of the individual lack for concern for the community and his inadequate involvement with it. This includes most suicides to physical and mental illness as well the suicides of the deprived. Altruistic suicide includes the suicides of the old & the sick who want to relieve the society and this includes the Hindu women who used to sacrifice their lives with the death their husbands, the sacrifice of the martyrs as well as the “Hara-kiri” of Japanese officers. This type of suicide inspires people’s respect and admiration. This was common in primitive than in highly developed societies. This sort of suicide takes place for the sake of a noble cause or a larger social unity. Anomic suicide is the type that follows catastrophic social changes. Life is adjudged to be not worth continuing. When the society fails to control and regulate the behavior f individuals, when religious beliefs decline & when there is excessive relaxation of professional and marital codes- a State which Durkheim calls anomie, the incidence of suicide becomes frequent. Suicide results from loneliness and from the feeling that nobody cares for him. It may also result from excess individualism. According to Durkheim serious faults in social structure leads to an increase in the suicide rates. According to him heredity is not a sufficient explanation of suicide climatic factors and waves of imitation are also insufficient and inadequate explanations. Durkheim repudiated most of the accepted theories of suicide. His theory takes little care of psychological factors. He gives emphasis on group cohesion. Mintz has summarized the following motivations for suicide: aggression turned inward; retaliation by inducing guilt in others; efforts to make amends for perceived past wrongs; the desire for reincarnation, the desire to rejoin a dead loved one & the desire or need to escape from stress, deformity, pain or emotional vacuum.
Some see suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice and a human right (colloquially known as the right to die movement), and maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age that have no possibility of improvement. Proponents of this view reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma. This perspective is most popular in continental Europe, where euthanasia and other such topics are commonly discussed in parliament, although it has a good deal of support in the United States as well. A narrower segment of this group considers suicide something between a grave but condonable choice in some circumstances and a sacrosanct right for anyone (even a young and healthy person) who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives. Notable supporters of this school of thought include German pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, and Scottish empiricist David Hume. Adherents of this view often advocate the abrogation of statutes that restrict the liberties of people known to be suicidal, such as laws permitting their involuntary commitment to mental hospitals. Critics may argue that suicidal impulses are often products of mental illness rather than rational self-interest, and that because of the gravity and irreversibility of the decision to take one's life it is more prudent for society to err on the side of caution and at least delay the suicidal act.
2.2 Theoretical Framework of the Study
One of Durkheim's most influential books is a detailed study of suicide. When it was published in 1897, Le Suicide not only changed the way in which suicide was understood, it fundamentally transformed the way sociological research was subsequently conducted. In that work, Durkheim created what became the standard structure for sociological research. On the first page of the book's introduction, he began defining the central term under discussion and proceeded to sketch out the tentative outlines of an explanation for suicide that would be informed by social science, replete with tables of suicide statistics. In critically reviewing the existing suicide literature, which largely viewed acts of selfdestruction as having physiological or psychological origins, Durkheim wondered why people from similar genetic origins did not have similar rates of suicide. Why did rates vary within one region over time? If it was related to weakness of character, why was it unrelated to levels of alcoholism? Utilizing logic and statistics, Durkheim challenged both popular and academic explanations. In doing so, he indicated that the tentative sociological approach he had begun to develop in the book's introduction offered greater explanatory power. The majority of the book lays out what became a classic sociological explanation for suicide. There are four major types, all related to group cohesion or solidarity. Egoistic suicide, Durkheim argued, was most common among groups of individuals with few connections to social groupings of any kind. Thus, loosely bound liberal Protestant groups had higher suicide rates than Catholics and Jews, for whom regular religious participation was expected; married people committed suicide at lower rates than singles; and nations undergoing political crises experienced lower rates because competing interests and parties became tightly integrated under stress. While egoistic suicide made sense to most readers, Durkheim's second category, that of altruistic suicide, was more controversial. Durkheim argued that certain types of suicide occurred among tightly knit groups when they came under severe threat and their members were prepared to die in the group's defense. Because suicide was widely understood as the act of sick or disturbed individuals, Durkheim's argument that soldiers who knowingly gave up their lives for their country were committing suicide appeared to diminish the valor of those actions. Durkheim delineated three types of altruistic suicide, based largely on a group's expectations that its members would undertake self-destruction in its defense. The third type of suicide, anomic, was identified with an abrupt shift in an individual's circumstances, shifts that removed him or her from membership in what had been a wellintegrated group. Durkheim showed that nations where divorce was common experienced higher suicide rates than nations where the practice was illegal. Similarly, economic crisis could lead to personal crises for individuals who once thought of themselves as important providers for their families, but when confronted with persisting unemployment found themselves evicted from their homes, their credit rejected, and prospects for improvement dim. If these individuals and their friends were accustomed to thinking of poor people as responsible for their circumstances, then they found themselves condemned by their own
categories of thought. Faced with humiliation and a lack of connection with groups who might ease their self-doubts, such individuals might commit anomic suicide. Durkheim's final category of suicide, fatalistic, is relegated to a footnote. This type of suicide occurred within tightly knit groups whose members sought, but could not attain, escape, whose "futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline" (Durkheim 1951, p. 276). Prisoners of war or slaves who were bound into distinct groups dominated by other groups might commit suicide in order to escape group membership or to demonstrate control over their lives. Suicide concludes by moving from what had been taxonomy of suicide types toward an explanation of how social, political, and economic forces produced those types. For instance, Durkheim explored links between suicide and urbanization, developing how cities atomize individuals, producing egoistic suicides. Sociologists admire Durkheim's book for a variety of reasons. Not only does the work present a clear understanding of what a sociological perspective was and how it differed from the perspectives offered by other emerging academic disciplines, it provides a clear and well-documented argument advocating the practical value of that discipline's perspective. Durkheim's reliance on statistics for calculating and comparing suicide rates was innovative for the time, as was his realization that the effects of some variables had to be controlled. Although he recognized problems in the comparability of data drawn from different regions or within one region in different periods, his work contributed to an emerging body of scholarship in comparative historical sociology. Several sociological studies have been conducted in the century since Suicide's original publication, and while some have qualified Durkheim's observations, none has seriously challenged his overall approach or conclusions. While his earlier work contains some optimism about the potentially liberating effects of industrialization and urbanization, it also reveals concerns for disruptions caused by change that occurs too rapidly. According to Durkheim serious faults in social structure leads to an increase in the suicide rates. According to him heredity is not a sufficient explanation of suicide climatic factors and waves of imitation are also insufficient and inadequate explanations. Durkheim repudiated most of the accepted theories of suicide. His theory takes little care of psychological factors. He give emphasis on group cohesion. Mintz has summarized the following motivations for suicide: aggression turned inward; retaliation by inducing guilt in others; efforts to make amends for perceived past wrongs; the desire for reincarnation, the desire to rejoin a dead loved one & the desire or need to escape from stress, deformity, pain or emotional vacuum. Some see suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice and a human right (colloquially known as the right to die movement), and maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age that have no possibility of improvement. Proponents of this view reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid
last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma. This perspective is most popular in continental Europe, where euthanasia and other such topics are commonly discussed in parliament, although it has a good deal of support in the United States as wellA narrower segment of this group considers suicide something between a grave but condonable choice in some circumstances and a sacrosanct right for anyone (even a young and healthy person) who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives. Notable supporters of this school of thought include German pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, and Scottish empiricist David Hume. Adherents of this view often advocate the abrogation of statutes that restrict the liberties of people known to be suicidal, such as laws permitting their involuntary commitment to mental hospitals. Critics may argue that suicidal impulses are often products of mental illness rather than rational self-interest, and that because of the gravity and irreversibility of the decision to take one's life it is more prudent for society to err on the side of caution and at least delay the suicidal act. Durkheim’s study and classification of types of suicide provide insight into suicide terrorism, but there are important differences between “ordinary” suicide and suicide terrorism. Despite these differences, when Durkheim’s principles are applied to the phenomenon of suicide terrorism, it suggests that suicide terrorism will flourish in highly integrated and highly regulated social environments. Scholars often note Emile Durkheim as one of the founders of modern sociology. In his writing, Durkheim investigated the effects of modern society on the individual. His seminal work, Suicide: A Study in Sociology (1979), provides insights about the societal conditions that contribute to increased rates of suicide within different countries. One precondition that contributes to increased suicide rates is integration, which is the extent to which an individual is part of a society. Durkheim argues that individuals who are either extremely under-integrated into society or over-integrated into society are the most likely to commit suicide. Durkheim defines suicide resulting from extremely weak integration as egoistic suicide. One type of weak integrated individual is the unmarried male. Marriage—more generally, family life—has the ability to “[neutralize] the suicidal tendency or [prevent] its outburst,” (Durkheim, 1979, 180). Therefore, unmarried men are more likely to commit suicide than married men. Educated people are also weakly integrated into society. Durkheim relates education to class, believing that the higher classes tend to pursue knowledge and have the “most active intellectual life,” (Durkheim, 1979, 165). He concludes that well-to-do classes exhibit higher suicide rates and, more importantly, that “suicide increases with knowledge,” (Durkheim, 1979, 168).
However, Durkheim (1979) notes that education does not cause the destruction of societal ties, but rather, education are pursued because societal ties have already fallen apart.
Therefore, education can serve as an indicator of weak societal bonds.On the other end of the integration spectrum, suicide that results from an individual being over-integrated is altruistic suicide, Durkheim states that: [W]hen a person kills himself…it is not because he assumes the right to do so but, on the contrary, because it is his duty. If he fails in this obligation, he is dishonored and also punished, usually, by religious sanctions…Now, we have seen that if such a person insists on living he loses public respect; in one case the usual funeral honors are denied, in another a life of horror is supposed to await him beyond the grave. The weight of society is thus brought to bear on him to lead him to destroy himself. (Durkheim, 1979, 219) The individual that is highly integrated into society commits suicide when society’s needs and opinions dictate that the person should commit suicide. Since the society or group is important to the person, s/he is willing to commit suicide for the society. The other societal factor that fosters suicide Durkheim investigates is regulation. Regulation is the extent to which society controls the actions and desires of an individual. Similar to integration, extreme levels of regulation—either excessive or insufficient— tend to increase suicide rates. Durkheim refers to suicide resulting from low levels of regulation as anomic suicide. Crises—positive or negative—result in low levels of regulation, which interrupt the social order, thus disturbing individual identities (Durkheim, 1979). The disturbance of social order removes restrictions on individual desires. Individual desires need to exist in equilibrium with the means to fulfill those desires, or an individual may be unhappy and be more inclined to commit suicide. Individuals that are highly regulated by society are more inclined to commit suicide. This type of suicide is referred to as “fatalistic suicide”. Durkheim mentions fatalistic suicide as a footnote in his overall study, briefly describing it as “the suicide deriving from excessive regulation, that of persons with futures pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline,” (Durkheim, 1979, 276). An example of someone that fits this example is a slave, because a slave’s actions — from the most complex actions to the most mundane — are regulated by his or her owner. The two scales (regulation and integration) work independently in equilibrium. It is not sufficient to keep the levels high or low, since a drastic calibration in either direction is likely contribute to the increased prevalence of suicide. If integration is too low, individuals are more inclined toward egoistic suicide; if integration is too high, individuals are more inclined toward altruistic suicide. Furthermore, if regulation is too low, individuals are more inclined toward anomic suicide; if regulation is too high, individuals are more inclined toward fatalistic suicide.
2.3 Conceptual Framework of the Study
The present study intends mainly to investigate the causes of suicide by the psychological, social and economical factors. Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending one's own life. Suicide can also refer to the individual who has committed or attempted the act. Suicide, said Goeth, “is an incident in human life which, however, disputed and discussed, demands the sympathy of everyman”. Emile Durkheim assumed that the most common definition of suicide is that of death caused by an action initiated by the actor with the intention of causing his own death. Morselli had considered society and in particular the morals of a society to be the most important cause a given suicide rate. According to Jacobziner, suicide is a sudden precipitous reaction to a stressful situation resulting from frustration, depression, overt or masked anger or a rebellious act against a restraining figure, a loved one. It is often intend to frighten & to cause the restraining persons in to a change of attitude or behavior towards the victim. It is also intended as a warning to parents or loved ones as an expression of dissatisfaction or displeasure with existing unpleasant situations as a plan for improved relationships. Suicide is a depressive emotional illness which produces feelings of helplessness and worthlessness as well as a less interest in food, work, friends and everything that make life worth living. It is a type of mental illness. According to Freud in every individual there is a desire to survive & there is also the desire to die. So, the desire to commit suicide is there in the subconscious mind of every human being. In some jurisdictions, an act or failed act of suicide is considered to be a crime. Some places consider failure to be attempted murder, with the victim being oneself, and will prosecute such offenders for attempted murder. More commonly, a surviving party member who assisted in the suicide attempt will face criminal charges. In Brazil, suicide is not a crime, but it is the instigation or help to commit it. If the help is directed to a minor, the crime is homicide. According to Islam it treated as a homicide.
There are some other concept about suicide related .Here some are given bellowSelf harm:- Self-harm has traditionally been known as self-injury (SI), self-inflicted violence (SIV), self-injurious behavior (SIB), and self-mutilation, although this last term has connotations that some people find worrisome, inaccurate, or offensive. A broader definition can also include the phenomenon of those who inflict harm on their bodies by means of disordered eating, or compulsive tattooing or body piercing.
Suicide Note:-A written message left by someone who attempts or commits suicide is known as a suicide note. The practice is fairly common, occurring in approximately one out of three suicides. Motivations for leaving one range from seeking closure with loved ones to exacting revenge against others by blaming them for the decision. Assisted Suicide:- A suicidal individual who lacks the physical capacity to take their own life may enlist someone else to carry out the act on their behalf, frequently a family member or physician. This may or may not be considered a form of suicide according to different moral views of the practice, with opponents regarding it instead as akin to murder. Assisted suicide is a contentious moral and political issue in many countries. Suicide Attack:- A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker (attacker being either an individual or a group) intends to kill others and intends to die in the process of doing so . In a suicide attack in the strict sense the attacker dies by the attack itself, for example in an explosion or crash caused by the attacker. The term is sometimes loosely applied to an incident in which the intention of the attacker is not clear though he is almost sure to die by the defense or retaliation of the attacked party. Para suicide:- A suicidal act that does not end in death is commonly called a "suicide attempt" or a "suicidal gesture." In the technical literature people prefer the use of the neologism parasuicide. Many suicidal people participate in suicidal activities which do not result in death. These activities fall under the designation attempted suicide or Para suicide. Those with a history of such attempts are almost 23 times more likely to eventually end their own lives than those who don't participate in such activities.
Causes of Suicide
Social factor Marriage
Less self confidence
Acceptability in family
Fear of attack Education
Social Opposition /Social Shock
Dis-Satisfaction about Life
Leads a Human being to Suicide
Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the Study
Economical shock Leads to a human being to suicide Societal opposition
Mental deficiency Dis–satisfaction about life
Causes of suicide
Figure 2: Operational Framework of the Study
Here I use both qualitative methods and tried to examine the causes of suicide by collecting and gathering information to follows several steps are given bellow1. Area selection 2. Population 3. Sample selection
Data collection methods & techniques.
5. Data Processing. 6. Data Analyzing
3.1: Area selection
The first step in the study is to collect preliminary information to know the number of suicide cases in Tangail district. The records of suicide cases in Tangail Sadar Upazila & Nagarpur Upazilla for the period 2000-2007 are collected from the police stations & Tangail General Hospital. The research design consisted of drafting, pre-testing and reviews of questionnaire, and selection of families. Data about income, employment pattern, sources of income, family size, level of education of the victim etc. shall be collected.
It is fact that, there is no any sponsor and there is no so much time. So it is not possible to study a large number of people at a short time. So, we have to study about some case as it is possible for this study.
3.3: Sample selection
In this research the population is unknown. After selecting area or field, we can not define fixed population. So that non-probability sampling method can be applied for unselecting sample. For non-probability sampling we use Purposive or Judgmental sampling.
3.4: Data collection methods & techniques
In case of suicide respondent does not want to give the data. They are afraid for various factors. I collect data from both primary and secondary source. I collect my data by using case study method. I also collect my data by using an interview schedule through questionnaire. We have to use Case Study method for collecting data. The methods of data collectioni) Near relations and in the case of married female victims, near relations from husband and father’s side of suicide victims, local leaders , neighbors, police authority etc. are interviewed and consulted; and ii) Observation by the investigators and the researcher are recorded.
3.5. Data Processing:
After the collection of data I edit the data. In the time of data collection I use matrix questionnaire in interview schedule questionnaire. After collection the data, all finding data convert to coding. And through this coding I make this questionnaire as close-ended questionnaire.
3.6. Data Analysis:
I analyze my data through SPSS Program in computer. Here at first I did analysis my data by frequency distribution. To test the data I use Chi-squire test, and Cross tabulation.
Here table-1 shows the frequency of age of the respondents
Table-1:-Age of the Respondent
15 16 17 18 22 23 27 29 30 31 32 33 56 71 Total Frequency 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 Percent 11.1 5.6 16.7 5.6 5.6 11.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 100.0 Valid Percent 11.1 5.6 16.7 5.6 5.6 11.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 100.0 Cumulative Percent 11.1 16.7 33.3 38.9 44.4 55.6 61.1 66.7 72.2 77.8 83.3 88.9 94.4 100.0
Here also described the Bar Chart about age of the respondentSeries1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 15-25 26-40 41-above
Figure-4.1:- Age of the Respondent
This table & Bar Chart shows that most of suicide victims are young and it most of them are 15 to 30 years old. So by this frequency we can make also a decision that young people are more vulnerable for committing suicide.
Table-2:- Sex of suicide victims
Frequency 8 10 18 Percent 44.4 55.6 100.0 Valid Percent 44.4 55.6 100.0 Cumulative Percent 44.4 100.0
Male Female Total
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Male Female Series1
Figure-4.2:- Sex of the suicide Victims
From this statistics we see that, female are more committing suicide rather than male.
Table-3:- Marital Status of suicide victims Frequency 7 8 1 2 18 Percen t 38.9 44.4 5.6 11.1 100.0 Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 38.9 38.9 44.4 83.3 5.6 88.9 11.1 100.0 100.0
Married Unmarried Divorce Widowed Total
Married Unmarried Divorce Widowed
Figure-4.3:- Marital Status of suicide victims.
This frequency refers that there is no relation of suicide with marital status. Because in this research we see that the married & unmarried victims are probably same. Table-4:- Occupation of suicide victim
Frequency 6 1 1 5 5 18 Percent 33.3 5.6 5.6 27.8 27.8 100.0 Valid Percent 33.3 5.6 5.6 27.8 27.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 33.3 38.9 44.4 72.2 100.0
Student Employee Businessma n Housewife Unemploye d Total
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Frequency Student Employee Businessmen Housewife Unemployed
Figure- 4.4:- Occupation of suicide victims.
From this table & Bar Chart we see that Students are more prone to committing suicide. Because they are showed more love of adventure. If they fail this adventure of love they think that they also lost his inspiration of life. They also don’t know bout the reality of life.
Table-5:- Income of respondent
Frequenc y 15 1 1 1 18 Percent 83.3 5.6 5.6 5.6 100.0 Valid Percent 83.3 5.6 5.6 5.6 100.0 Cumulative Percent 83.3 88.9 94.4 100.0
0 18000 3500 9000 Total
If we explain this table we found that most of suicide victims are not able to earn money. They also suffer for money. So we can say that economical factors are also liable for
pushing a person to suicide. More over those people who are not earn money; they have found lot of time to thinking about unraveling matter.
16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Series1
Figure-4.5:- Respondent Expenditure
From this Frequency we see that the average Expenditure of suicide victims is also same like ordinary people. It also to be said that there is no relation suicide with respondent victims.
Table-6:- Educational Qualification of the Respondent
Educational Qualification Primary level Secondary Level Higher Secondary level Frequency 8 6 4
Frequency 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Primary level Higher Secondary level Primary level Secondary Level Higher Secondary level
Figure-4.6:- Educational Qualifications of suicide Victims.
Suicide chance is closely related to educational qualification. Here we see that those people whoa are low educated they are more prone to commit suicide. Because they have
low intelligence to thinking about their life & fact. From this Statistics we see that 8 people out of 18 are low educated.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0-10000 1000120000 20001above Series1
Figure-4.7:- Family income of respondents family
Here we can say that low family income people are also chance to commit suicide. But it would not be said that those family whose income level is high they are not prone to suicide. Table-7:- Family types of suicide victims
Frequency 13 2 3 18 Percent 72.2 11.1 16.7 100.0 Valid Percent 72.2 11.1 16.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 72.2 83.3 100.0
Nuclear Joint Extended Total
Frequency 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Nuclear Joint Extended Frequency
Figure-4.8:- Family types of suicide respondents
From this table and chart we se that, nuclear Family are also push to a person to suicide. Those people who are belongs in to nuclear family, most of time they are not open
minded and they can’t share his thinking like with his/her grandfather, grandmother or uncle. So it also to be said that suicide rate is high in nuclear family.
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Paka Semipaka Kacha
Figure- 4.9:- Housing condition of suicide victims.
From this frequency we can say that most of suicide victims are belongs in semi-paka house. It is generally middle class people are live inn semi-paka house. So middle class are more prone to commit suicide.
Table-8:- Sociability of victims
Frequency 5 2 11 18
Sociable Open minded Enjoy to gossiping Total
Percent 27.8 11.1 61.1 100.0
Valid Percent 27.8 11.1 61.1 100.0
Cumulative Percent 27.8 38.9 100.0
Sociable Open Minded Enjoy to Gossiping
Figure-4.10:-Sociability of victims
In the sociable point of we see that most of suicide victims are enjoy to gossiping. So those people who are not mixing with others they are not suicide victim. Actually suicide is
not depending on sociability. Generally it seems that those people are not mixing with others are chance to commit suicide. But it is not true. Table- 9:- Used to get pleasure in mixing with
Friends Relatives Known Person Neighbors Total Frequency 13 1 1 3 18 Percent 72.22222 5.555556 5.555556 16.66667 100 Valid Percent 72.22222 5.555556 5.555556 16.66667 100 Cumulative Percent 72.22222 77.77778 83.33333 100
Friends Relatives Known Person Neighbors
Figure-4.11:- Used to get pleasure in mixing with
From this table we see that suicide victims are more like to mixing with friends. About 72.22% respondents are more preferable to mixing with friends.
Table-10 Love affairs of suicide victims
Frequency 11 7 18 Percent 61.1 38.9 100.0 Valid Percent 61.1 38.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 61.1 100.0
Yes No Total
Figure- 4.12:- - Love affairs of suicide victims
From this frequency & Chart we see that most of suicide victims have love affairs with others, it about 62% respondents are experienced about love. So it would be said that, fall in love also liable to suicide occurring.
Table- 11:- Feeling of the victim before committing suicide
Frequency 1 7 3 3 4 18 Percent 5.6 38.9 16.7 16.7 22.2 100.0 Valid Percent 5.6 38.9 16.7 16.7 22.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.6 44.4 61.1 77.8 100.0
1 2 3 4 5
Nobody bothered for him Nobody had affection or kindness for him Nobody had any responsibility for him Every body though him as liable He had no identity in society Total
Before committing suicide most of suicide victims are feel that, nobody had affection or kindness for him. Some of them are suffered to his identity in society. Actually it is true that suicide victims are psychologically suffer to as emotional problem.
Table -12:- Abnormal types of behavior showed by victims before committing suicide.
Quarreling on trifling matter Not taking meal out of anger Indifference Stopping talking with others Total Frequency 2 3 7 6 18 Percent 11.1 16.7 38.9 33.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 11.1 27.8 66.7 100.0
Suicide is sort time thinking. So before committing suicide sometimes suicide victim showed some abnormal behavior. Sometimes they stop to talking with others sometimes not taking meal out of anger.
Table -13:- Types of shock received by the victims before committing suicide
Frequency 3 5 2 2 6 18 Percent 16.7 27.8 11.1 11.1 33.3 100.0 Valid Percent 16.7 27.8 11.1 11.1 33.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 16.7 44.4 55.6 66.7 100.0
Loose character of husband/wife Illicit sex relation Conflict over property & financial Matter Serious physical illness Failure in love Total
We can explain this table as most of suicide victims is gets shock by failing of love affairs. So we can say that the concept of love is highly vulnerable phenomena in life or in suicide causation. Illicit sex relation is also liable to push a person to commit suicide.
Table -14:- Types of Despair the victims suffered from before committing suicide
Physical illness Raped by her husband of sister-inlaw Illicit sex relation Conflict with husband Illegitimate pregnancy Miserable economic condition Failure in love Loose character of husband /wife Total Frequency 2 1 2 2 1 3 6 2 18 Percent 11.1 5.6 11.1 11.1 5.6 16.7 33.3 11.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 11.1 16.7 27.8 38.9 44.5 61.2 88.9 100.0
The table shown before states that most of suicide victims are despair of fail in love. Actually these people are ancient brain oriented and they want to acquire one thing though he is not ready to survive. Table -15:-Methods of committing suicide Frequenc y
Taking Pesticide Hanging with rope Taking Overdose of Sleeping Pills Taking Nitric Acid Jumping from High Place Total
Frequency 6 5 4 3 2 1 Taking Overdose Jumping from High Taking Pesticide Hanging with rope Taking Nitric 0 Taking Overdose of Sleeping Pills Taking Nitric Acid Jumping from High Place Taking Pesticide Hanging with rope
27.77778 27.77778 16.66667 5.555556 22.22222 100
27.77778 27.77778 16.66667 5.555556 22.22222 100
27.77778 55.55556 72.22222 77.77778 100
5 5 3 1 4 18
Figure-4.13:- Methods of committing suicide
If we see the method of committing suicide we see that Taking pesticide or poison & Hanging with rope are the mo0st popular method of suicide. Choice of one method also depends on sex. Most male victims are choice to taking poison to suicide and other side female are choose to jumping from high place to execute suicide. Table -16:- Days of committing suicide
Frequency 8 1 5 2 2 18 Percent 44.4 5.6 27.8 11.1 11.1 100.0 Valid Percent 44.4 5.6 27.8 11.1 11.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 44.4 50.0 77.8 88.9 100.0
Saturday Sunday Monday Wednesday Friday Total
Saturday Sunday Monday Wednesday Friday
Figure-4.14 :- Days of committing suicide
In this table we see that, most of suicide occurs in Saturday. The main cause is that, Friday is government holiday in Bangladesh. So people are get time to thinking about himself and frustrated for which not can get himself. So for his thinking he can be making decision to commit suicide. By this thinking or dead stimulus thinking he takes to commit suicide in Saturday. Table - 17:- Time of committing suicide by victims
11.00am 11.00pm 11.30pm 11.40am 4.30am 5.00am 5.30am 6.00am 6.30am 6.33am 7.00am 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3
11.1 5.6 11.1 5.6 5.6 11.1 11.1 11.1 5.6 5.6 16.7
11.1 5.6 11.1 5.6 5.6 11.1 11.1 11.1 5.6 5.6 16.7
11.1 16.7 27.8 33.3 38.9 50.0 61.1 72.2 77.8 83.3 100.0
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Before 7.00am 7.00am to 12.00am Night
7.00am to 12.00am
Figure -4.15:- Time of committing suicide by victims
Time is important phenomenon in case of suicide. In this study we see that most of suicide occurs in morning. Here about 12 cases are occurring in morning out of 18 cases. We know suicide is not log process thinking decision but it also sort process thinking phenomena. This thinking most time occurs in night and result menu face in morning. Table-18:- Number of attempted to commit suicide
Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent 13 72.22222 72.22222 72.22222 4 22.22222 22.22222 94.44444 1 5.555556 5.555556 100 18 100 100
Did not Attempt Earlier One Attempt More than One attempt Total
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1
Did not Attempt Earliar One Attempt made Earliar More than one Attempt
Figure-4.16:-Number of attempted to commit suicide
By these case studies, we see that, generally suicide is rehab table. Because from this table we can explain that most of victim is not make of suicide attempt earlier. Actually it is true that, a person who attempt one time i. e. after attempt he want to try to live in the world. These live instincts make a fence to rapid this attempt.
Table-19:- Reasons for committing suicide as seen by near relations of the suicide victims
Miserable economic Condition Love affair without consent of Parent Failure of Love Absence of good relationship between husband & wife Decay of social value system Family Trouble Lack of Proper socialization Total Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent 1 5.555556 5.555556 5.555556 1 5.555556 7 38.88889 1 5.555556 5 27.77778 2 11.11111 1 5.555556 18 100 5.555556 38.88889 5.555556 27.77778 11.11111 5.555556 100 11.11111 50 55.55556 83.33333 94.44444 100
Frequency 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Love affair social value Miserable economic Failure of Absence of Lack og
Figure-4.17:- Reasons for committing suicide
This is the opinion of reasons for committing suicide as seen by near relations of the suicide victims. It may not be fully true in all cases. But it is also true reason for committing suicide if a victims. From this table we see that, most of suicide victims are attempt it because they fail to interact with his partner as it is also called failure of love and for this suicide most time occurs. It is the effect of Industrialization & Urbanization. By Industrialization & Urbanization there broke down social norms and order. There also broke down social stratification. In modern’s times according to emerging of science it also emerges the movies and all movies shown the love of adventure and those activities which
decays social value system though these are not fact. Some people try to adjust these activities in empirical world and fall in love like Paner Dokander. They not only fall in love they sometimes break social value system. In the table we see that, the most causes of suicide are failure in love and decay of social value system.
Table-20:- Measures suggested for reducing the incidence of suicide
Frequency Percent Improvement of socio-economic system Peace & tranquility in family life Developing love & affection between husband & wife Proper socialization of children Have to consent of parents about love Have to Regulate social order Total 1 5 3 4 2 3 5.555556 27.77778 16.66667 22.22222 11.11111 16.66667 18 100 Valid Percent 5.555556 27.77778 16.66667 22.22222 11.11111 16.66667 100 Cumulative Percent 5.555556 33.33333 50 72.22222 83.33333 100
5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
Improvement of socio-economic system Peace & transquility in family life Developing love & affection betwwen husband & wife Proper socialization of children Have to consent of parents about love Have to Regulate social order
Figure- 4.18:- Measures suggested for reducing the incidence of suicide.
There are various opinion of taken to reduce suicide from general people. They emphasis on peace & tranquility in family life. They also emphasis on proper socialization of children.
Occupation of the respondent and expenditure of the respondent cross tabulation
Occupation Student Respondent Expenditure 1000 12000 1300 1500 15000 1800 2000 2500 2800 3000 4,000 4000 Total 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 6 Employee 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Business 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Housewife 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 5 Unemployed 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 18 Total
From this cross tabulation we say that respondent expenditure depends on their occupation.
Housing condition, Family income Cross tabulation
Family Income 4 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 5 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 Total
11000 H ousi ng C ond itio n Semipaka Kacha Total Paka
1 0 1
2 0 2
0 0 1
1 0 1
0 0 1
2 0 3
0 1 1
0 2 2
1 0 1
1 0 1
0 0 1
1 0 1
2 0 2
11 3 18
From this cross tabulation we can say that Housing condition depends on family income.
Love affairs, Illicit sex relation Cross tabulation
Illicit sex relation yes Love Affairs Total Yes No 6 0 6 no 5 7 12 11 7 18 Total
From this cross tabulation we see that illicit sex relation is closely related to love affairs. It means those suicide victims have love affairs they have chance to involve illicit sex relation with his couple.
Method of committing suicide and sex of the suicide respondent Cross tabulation
Sex of the respondent Male Female Method of committing suicide Taking pesticides Hanging with rope Taking sleeping pills Taking nitric acid Jumping from high place Total 3 3 2 0 0 8 0 3 0 1 6 10 Total 3 6 2 1 6 18
Actually it is true that, choice of method of suicide is closely related to sex of the respondent. From this cross tabulation we see that, male respondents are more prone to taking pesticides, poison and sleeping pills to commit suicide. On the other hand, female are choose jumping from high place.
(The names of the respondent are not used here to avoid any problem in her life.)
Case Study-1:- A Youngman of 22 Years of age had a love affair with a girl but could not marry her as his guardian got him married elsewhere. But he developed extra-marital sex relation with the girl & in course of time she became pregnant. Again he wanted to marry her but his guardians opposed it vehemently. When the girl came to know that marriage with that man was not at all possible she committed suicide by hanging on the rope. On hearing the death news of girl he also committed suicide. Case Study-2:-A young married girl of 18 years was living with her husband in her father’s house along with her mother and a younger brother. Her younger sister was married to the younger brother of her husband. Her husband developed illicit sex relation with her mother and when she sense it she tried her best to refrain her husband from such a heinous thing but her husband did not listen to her and threaten to marry for the second time. Her mother also gave her pressure to leave the house and go to her husband’s house and live separately. Ultimately, she committed suicide. It may be mentioned that her father & Uncle also committed suicide a few years ago. Case Study-3:- A boy of 15 years of a very well-do-family consisting of father, 2 brothers & 2 sisters committed suicide by taking pesticide. The family income was Tk.12, 000/= and the family had 50 bighas of land plus some houses in the town. The boy did not keep good relationship with his sisters. Though a house tutor was engaged for him but he was not very interested in his studies. He used to quarrel off and on with his sisters. One day his sister beat him & he committed suicide. Case Study-4:- A married girl of 29 years was very healthy and beautiful. He falls in love and committed love marriage few years ago. Her husband’s brother had a wife but no children. They used to live together. Within few months of her marriage her husband began to doubt her that she had special attraction for his brother and they had illicit sex relation. She tried to convince her husband that she was a good and on honest girl but her husband was not convinced. She also narrated the whole thing to her father and her father wanted to get her divorce but she did not like the idea of having divorce from her husband as she was very faithful and true to her husband. But ultimately she want to her father’s house and committed suicide.
Suicide is highly vulnerable phenomena for any human being. Suicide is specially a problem of human beings. Any animal can die by disease or can be killed by an outside agency. But only human being can kill themselves. Self destructive behavior not associated with the idea of death is not suicide. So, suicide not only the act of taking one’s own life but also one who dies from his own hand & one who attempts or has a tendency to commit suicide. It refers to the behavior of individuals or groups which may bring about their own destruction. From this study we see that, those three factors are liable for suicide, but psychological factors are more important to commit a suicide. If we study these 18 cases, economical factors are low in related to suicide. Social factors are also liable to attempt suicide. Actually, there are high social on an individual. But all of these psychological factors are most emphasis on human minds and leads them to suicide. Actually suicide is a result of psychological depression. Here economical and social factors are emphasis on psychological factors. It is time that psychological factors are main point of the suicide. If we see the case studies of these 18 cases we can find that all of these are psychologically inferior or deficient. So when he found any economical or social pressure then they turn into suicide. Here the relation of these three factors are- economical status of one individual based of his social position and attribution. And this social status is earned by an individual by his psychological status. On the other side, an individual acquire his social status by his psychological attribution and by this social status in one society he can earn his economical comfort ability. Here we can identify the three factors which lead an individual to commit suicide. These can be explained by three ball theory of this study. After a long term research about suicide we found some general and unique Causes of suicide. If we discuss about causes of suicide, we found that there is no single causes of suicide more than it is a combination of some causes which push a person to commit suicide. The findings of this research about suicide are Explained bellow by points:
Suicide Is Not Always Planned
Suicide is not planed as long time. A person can not made a planed from long time as like one years. Suicide is a causes of depression and it is not belongs as long time because human thinking is changeable. Sometimes a depressed person plans a suicide in advance. Many times, though, suicide attempts happen impulsively, in a moment of feeling desperately upset. A situation like a breakup, a big fight with a parent, an unintended pregnancy, being touted by someone else, or being victimized in any way can cause
someone to feel desperately upset. Often, a situation like this, on top of an existing depression, acts like the final straw. Some people who attempt suicide mean to die and some don't. For some, a suicide attempt is a way to express deep emotional pain. They can’t say how they feel, so, for them, attempting suicide feels like the only way to get their message across. Sadly, even when a suicide attempt is a cry for help and the person doesn’t mean to die, there’s no way to control it. Many people who really didn’t mean to kill themselves end up dead or critically ill.
Why Do Teens Try to Kill Themselves?
Most teens interviewed after making a suicide attempt say that they did it because they were trying to escape from a situation that seemed impossible to deal with or to get relief from really bad thoughts or feelings. Like Ethan, they didn’t want to die as much as they wanted to escape from what was going on. And at that particular moment dying seemed like the only way out. Some people who end their lives or attempt suicide might be trying to escape feelings of rejection, hurt, or loss. Others might be angry, ashamed, or guilty about something. Some people may be worried about disappointing friends or family members. And some may feel unwanted, unloved, victimized, or like they’re a burden to others. We all feel overwhelmed by difficult emotions or situations sometimes. But most people get through it or can put their problems in perspective and find a way to carry on with determination and hope. So why does one person try suicide when another person in the same tough situation does not? What makes some people more resilient (better able to deal with life’s setbacks and difficulties) than others? What makes a person unable to see another way out of a bad situation besides ending his or her life? The answer to those questions lies in the fact that most people who commit suicide have depression.
Causes of suicide
No single factor has gained acceptance as a universal cause of suicide. However, depression is a common phenomenon amongst those who commit suicide. Other factors that may be related are as follows (Note that this is not meant as a comprehensive list, but rather as a summary of notable causes): Pain (e.g. physical or emotional agony that is not correctable) Stress (e.g. Grief after a death)
Crime (e.g. escaping judicial punishment and dehumanization, boredom of incarceration)
Mental illness and disability (e.g. depression, bipolar disorder, trauma, and schizophrenia) Catastrophic Injury (e.g. paralysis, disfigurement, loss of limb) Substance abuse Adverse environment (e.g. sexual abuse, poverty, homelessness, discrimination, bullying, fear of murder and/or torture) Financial loss (e.g. gambling addiction, loss of job/assets, stock market crash, debts) Unresolved sexual issues (e.g. sexual orientation, unrequited love, aftermath of a break up)
To avoid shame or dishonor (e.g. Under the Bushido ideal, if a samurai failed to uphold his honor he could regain it by performing seppuku.) Curiosity (e.g. the need to know what comes after life.)
Boredom (e.g. The dissatisfaction with life has resulted in more calculated and planned suicides) Terrorism can also be a motive for suicide, especially when related to the following: o Religion (e.g., suicide bombings, Heaven's Gate) o Extreme nationalism (e.g., the Kamikaze, Selbstopfer, and Kaiten suicide weapons)
6.2 Explanation about Causes of suicide
The individual was surrounded by all of his relatives and this larger family determined his career and his ambitions. His principal satisfactions were found in co-operation with that group, which was considered as extending beyond his own life into the distant future. Within this group he had perfect individual security, for the group cared for him in case of sickness, accident, old age, insanity, or any other emergency. Such charity involves no sigma or disgraces what so ever. This large family, more ever, was supported by the surrounding community, which also harmonious in its traditional culture. The social organization provided few opportunities for ‘individualism’ in behavior. In contemporary urban society, a child is confronted with various ways of behaving even with in his own home, for no parents can act consistently in modern life; the parent himself is the recipient of many alternative roles and behavior patterns. Similarly, groups outside the home have standards of
conduct which often are extremely different from those within the home. A great deal of behavior is in the nature of the role-playing, and when roles are conflicting or ambiguous the behavior is inconsistent. Sellin has described the conflicts within contemporary communities thus. An individual try to acquire some status in the society by his Psychological, Social and Economical attribution. These three attributions may lead a person to commit suicide. This suicide causation can be explained by these three factors as ‘Three Balls Theory’
Three Balls Theory
Three balls Theory is based on assumption that human life is complex and this complex life is depends on three factors e.g. economical social and psychological factors. In this theory these three factors assume as three ball and these are essential elements of life to live in society, like in Atom there are three elements proton, neutron, and electron. An individual stay in his society with some social, economical & psychological attribution which also indicates his social status in the society. This Psycho-socioeconomical attribution also can be indicating by value as binary digit. For example – an individual psychologically fit, mixing with society and not any economical power in the society, then his value belongs =110. Now the main fact is that suicide is a result of spin of these three balls. If we think these three factors as three balls then we can easily explain the causes of suicide as simply. We know these three factors are running with our life. In this running there are possible to make spin of these ball. There are three possibilities in this spin1. Clock wise 2. Anti-clock wise 3. There is no make any spin The value system for clockwise spin is 1, anti-clockwise spin is -1 and when there is no make any spin then the value is 0. Here described various factors spin:Psychological Factors:- Psychological factors are important for human being. Here the clock wise spin means positive spin and it is refers as ‘life instinct’ of human being. Anticlock wise spin means negative spin it is refers as ‘Death instinct” of human being. When there is no any instinct are not work then it means stable. Social Factors: - Here the clock wise spin means positive spin and it is refers as ‘Social support’ of human being. Anti-clock wise spin means negative spin it is refers as ‘ Social opposition” of human being. When there is no any instinct are not work then it means stable.
Economical Factors:- Here the clock wise spin means positive spin and it is refers as ‘ economical comfortable’ of human being. Anti-clock wise spin means negative spin it is refers as ‘economical shock” of human being. When there is no any instinct are not work then it means stable. There is possible value of these three factors Psychological Social factors factors Positive spin 1 1 Stable 0 0 Negative spin -1 -1
Economical factors 1 0 -1
Here by using this measuring system we can identify ones psycho-socio-economical attribution. This value also is defined as Suicidal probability value. In this theory the main point is that, when this binary numerical value belongs below 0 then he would commit suicide.
Psycho Social Economic
Figure:- Factors of causing suicide
Suicide is a destructive phenomenon for any society. It is highly rapid in result of industrialization and urbanization. Actually it is rapid for modernization and for this modernization family kinship system is broken down. So it growth as rapidly. It is very essential to prevent this suicide. To prevent this suicide there are many measure should be prescribed to prevent suicide. The measures are given bellow:1. It is need to maintain law and order in the society. 2. Loneliness is main factor s for commit suicide. So, there should be need well psychological treatment for depressed people.
3. 4. 5. 6.
Family kinship system has to growth. Husband wife relation should be as like friend and have to good understanding among them. There need to control love of adventure among young people. There should be warning advertised before movies shown that, it is not related with fact or empirical world.
6.4 Limitations of the study
This Research faces many more limitations of the study as it is not fulfilled in every side. Because of some limitations, which are as followed1. The major problem was the respondents’ response as they are not keen enough about giving real data.
Area was limited in the sphere of suicide. As it is in different places.
3. Data was not sufficient in the number of sample. 4. Fund was very limited
Experience seemed as a very greater problem. Because, the researcher is new and not skilled in social research.
Bar chart: A graphic device used for displaying nominal or ordinal data. Case studies: Observational studies of a single environment (an organization, a neighbor hood, a public place). Field research is often based on a single case study. Chi-Square test (x ): An inferential statistics testing the null hypotheses of independence between two variables. Cross tabulation: A table showing the relationship between two or more variables by presenting all combinations of categories of variables.
Degrees of freedom (df): A characteristic of the sample statistics that determines the appropriate sampling distribution. Dependent variable: the variable that the researcher wishes to explain. Family: A group organized around ties of kinship. Face to face interview: A method of administering a survey in which an interviewer questions an interviewee using a structured set of questions. Histogram: A graphic device used to display frequency distributions of interval and ratio level data. Hypothesis: A proportion tentatively assumed to be valid until disproved. Independent variable: on a dependent variable The variable, in an experiment or survey that exercise an effect
Pie chart: A graphic device used to show differences in frequencies or percentage among the categories of nominal variables.
Atran, S. (2004). Mishandling suicide terrorism. The Washington Quarterly, 27:3, 67-90. Durkheim’s monograph,’le suicide’ pubmished in 1897 and translated ito English. Atran, S. (2006). The moral logic and growth of suicide terrorism. The Washington Quarterly, 29:2, 127-147. Morgan, King. Introduction to Psychology Tata Mcgraw hill ,1985. Durkheim, E. (1979). Suicide: A study in sociology. New York City: The Free Press. Shaffer, D.J. (September 1988). "The Epidemiology of Teen Suicide: An Examination of Risk Factors". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (supp.): 36–41. PMID 3047106. Retrieved on 2006-04-12. Khan, A., Warner, H. A., & Brown, W. A. (2000) Symptom reduction and suicide risk in patients treated with placebo in antidepressant clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 311-317. Cantor CH. Suicide in the Western World. In: Hawton K, van Heering K, eds. International handbook of suicide and attempted suicide. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2000: 9-28. La Vecchia, C., Lucchini, F., & Levi, F. (1994) Worldwide trends in suicide mortality, 1955-1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90, 53-64.; Lester, Patterns, 1996, pp. 28-30. Baldessarini, R. J., & Jamison, K. R. (1999) Effects of medical interventions on suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60 (Suppl. 2), 117-122.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.