-"the study of life― - chemical machines inside our cells, to broad scale concepts of ecosystems and global climate change. (DNA, Brain, Population, Ecosystem) -Structure and function -History: European: Germany in 1800, popularized by the French naturalists Pierre-Antoine de Monet Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck -The unifying concept of biology received its greatest stimulus from the English zoologist Thomas Henry Huxley – integrated botany and zoology. of the detailed structure and functions of the cells of the group of cells performing a definite or specialized function/s 6. Cytology. Genetics. .a study that deals with the origin and diversification of organisms’ forms or the gradual change in the characteristics of a species over a course of successive generations. of the systematic classification of organisms into groups 2.a study that deals with the formation and early development of organisms 9. that deals with the functional processes associated with living things 7.a study that deals with past life as revealed by fossils. aggregation ad orientation of the molecules that compose the cellular system as a unit 10. Taxonomy .a study that deals with living things in relation to their environment of the detailed structure of organisms as revealed by gross dissection 4. 11. Anatomy. Evolution. Paleontology. Ecology. Molecular Biology.BASIC DIVISIONS of the form and structure of organisms that deals with heredity and variations in organisms 8. Embryology or Developmental Biology.a study in that deals with the shape.

a study that deals with fungi 4.Mycology.Carcinology.a study that deals with animals a. peat mosses and liverworts (bryophytes) c. Herpetology. Ornithology.a study that deals with algae b.a study of ferns (pteridophytes) 5.a study that deals with fishes d. Phycology.a study that deals with crabs .a study that deals with birds c. Bryology. Pteridology.a study that deals with insects b.TAXONOMIC DIVISIONS 1.Botany.Microbiology.a study that deals with microorganisms 2. Entomology.Zoology.a study that deals with plants a.a study that deals with protozoans 3.a study that deals with amphibians and reptiles 6. Icthyology.a study of mosses.Protozoology.

scientia.Science is an objective. to learn how the natural world works. and repeatable attempt to understand the principles and forces operating in the natural universe. Good science is not dogmatic. That events in the natural world have natural causes not supernatural causes. logical. to know. . called the Scientific Method. the scientific study of the idea that fundamental laws of nature operate the same way at all places at all times. The methods of science are based on Two Important Principles: A. B. but should be viewed as an ongoing process of testing and evaluation. Science is from the Latin word. Uniformity . Science is characterized by an organizational approach. in our context.

This model .scientific method Basic Structure of Science • refers to the working habits of practicing scientists • involves rigorous application of common sense to the study and analysis of data • refers to the model for research developed by Francis Bacon (1561–1626).

A Prediction is recorded for each hypothesis. . One tries to answer the question by forming HYPOTHESES.The process of science begins with an OBSERVATION. A PREDICTION is a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test (experiment) situation if the hypothesis were True. the DATA ARE ANALYZED and used to draw CONCLUSIONS. Once the experiment has been concluded. An EXPERIMENT is used to test a hypothesis and its predictions. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions. A hypothesis is also known as and educated guess to explain the observation. An observation is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a QUESTION.

turbidity. etc. the observed fish kill in your area Basic Structure of Science  Collecting data within the problem area (by observations. Identifying the problem ex. measurements. nutrient content  heavy metal concentrations  ask information from the folks . tempertaure.)  you may want to measure the physico-chemical factors of the river like pH.

meaningful connections. checking the data for correlations. and regularities  experimental design. which is an educated guess that explains the existing data and suggests further avenues of investigation  you may want to analyse fish tissues for metal contamination . appropriate statistical tool  formulating a hypothesis (a generalization).

modifying. or rejecting the hypothesis in light of the new findings Conclusion Theory .Testing the hypothesis rigorously by gathering new data Confirming.

3.The idea of a God working through the natural laws of the universe cannot be proven in science because it is not testable. . Science cannot make moral judgments.Science cannot make value judgments. 2.LIMITATIONS OF SCIENCE 1.

Metabolism which is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment. . and growth. 3. •TISSUE LEVEL: tissues are groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function •ORGAN LEVEL: organs are structures that carry out specialized jobs •ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL: organ systems are several organs working for a specific function. •CELLULAR LEVEL: a cell is the smallest unit of life that can perform all life's processes. Growth and development All living things grow and increase in size. fats. •ORGANISM LEVEL: one living individual. movement. 2. Organization CHEMICAL LEVEL: sugars. proteins. Development is produced by repeated cell division and cell differentiation or cell specialization. The process by which an adult organism arises is called development. carbohydrates.CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS 1. Multicellular organisms pass through a more complicated process of cell division. •ORGANELLES: are tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive. cell enlargement. and development. Metabolism Use of energy to power all of life processes. Development is a change in shape or form. such as repair.

Evolution • Populations of organisms evolve. 5. Adaptation Features that allow allow organisms to exist in their environment. 7. Species of organisms adapt to their environments through . Responsiveness and Irritability Taxis – Tropism – (phototropism) 6. • The survival of organisms with favorable traits causes a gradual change in populations of organisms over many generations.organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to successfully reproduce . Reproduction asexual (no recombination of genetic material) or sexual (recombination of genetic material). • A short segment of dna that contains the instructions for the development of a single trait of an organism is called a GENE contained in DNA -SEXUAL REPRODUCTION (egg and sperm and zygote) -ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION = clones (same DNA). The "theory of evolution" helps us to understand how many kinds of organisms that have lived on earth came into existence. Homeostasis Balance in internal environment in terms of temperature. water concentrations up to certain limits 8. • Scientist suggest that a process called natural selection is the most important driving force in evolution .4.survival of the fittest. pH. or change over generations (time). Use DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as the physical carrier of inheritance and the genetic information • transmit hereditary or trait information to their offspring.

The term creationism is most often used to describe the belief that creation occurred literally as described in the book of Genesis (for both Jews and Christians) or the Qur'an (for Muslims) created by a supernatural being (God or Allah. Natural or Marine .natural reaction of inorganic to form organic substances In addition the metabolic atmosphere and oceans contained the inorganic compounds such as oxygen and carbon dioxide in quantities similar to those present today proteins – enzymes – self replicating molecules (proto RNA) – proto DNA . or other forms of supernatural intervention.Protoplasm as resistant spores of simple living forms might have reached the earth accidentally via meteorites from some other source from the universe. dreamtime).THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF LIFE 1. bathala. Cosmozoic or Interplanetary. Divine Creation (Bible/ Creationism). 3.

According to Aristotle it was a readily observable truth that aphids arise from the dew which falls on plants.e. who. at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible organisms. spontaneous generation) is to question reason.. and Commonly Presumed Truths. Such was the prestige of the ancient Greek philosophers in general. begot of the mud of Nylus. Alexander Ross wrote: "To question this (i. of 1646. sense and experience. e. e. subtitled Enquiries into Very many Received Tenets. held that complex. mice from dirty hay. to the great calamity of the inhabitants However. that mice spontaneously appear in stored grain or maggots spontaneously appear in meat." His conclusions were not widely accepted. From the seventeenth century onwards it was gradually shown that. now more precisely known as spontaneous generation. Classical notions of abiogenesis. The first step was taken by the Italian Francesco Redi.Certain living things could arise directly from non-living things. proved that no maggots appeared in meat when flies were prevented from laying eggs. and so forth. an attack on false beliefs and "vulgar errors. fleas from putrid matter.g. . such as that by Sir Thomas Browne in his Pseudodoxia Epidemica. living organisms are generated by decaying organic substances. If he doubts of this let him go to Egypt. the previous sentiment regarding spontaneous generation was false. experimental scientists continued to decrease the conditions within which the spontaneous generation of complex organisms could be observed. and there he will find the fields swarming with mice.g. Spontaneous Generation (Abiogenesis). In the 17th century such assumptions started to be questioned. The alternative seemed to be omne vivum ex ovo: that every living thing came from a preexisting living thing. in 1668.4. his contemporary.

combine in ever-more complex fashion until they are dissolved into a coacervate droplet. These droplets could then fuse with other droplets and break apart into two replicas of the original.It was believed that a long time ago that the atmosphere containes the following substances: CH3. demonstrated that organic molecules could be created in an oxygen-less atmosphere. he suggested. purines and pyrimidines. in his "The Origin of Life on Earth". H2 and water vapor. These substances were exposed to cosmic radiation. it is usually a little ball of organic matter which is formed by the repulsion of water by something like an oil . NH3. In 1936 Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin. This could be viewed as a primitive form of reproduction and metabolism. through the action of sunlight. Favorable attributes such as increased durability in the structure would survive more often than nonfavorable attributes A coacervate is a spherical aggregation of lipid molecules making up a colloidal inclusion which is held together by hydrophobic forces. These reactions took place very slowly. Physico-Chemical or Coacervate Droplet Theory. glycerol.5. The compounds formed were nonliving but they furnished the building blocks or materials from which living mater could be constructed as the DNA that forms the gene. More plainly stated. The compounds formed were sugar. fatty acids. amino acids. These molecules. UV rays and electrical discharges by lightning where the following were forced to react among themselves and produce smaller carbon compounds and were made to react again to form larger organic compounds.

until sufficient to form colloids and. While Miller and Urey did not actually create life. life is thought to have gone through many intermediate steps before becoming cellular. coacervates. While this is vaguely similar to modern theories. Since these coacervates do superficially resemble living cells. therefore. possess osmotic properties and form spontaneously from certain weak organic solutions. some of the building blocks of life. taking their cue from Oparin and Haldane. could have formed. Miller and Harold C. regarding the formation of first life. in an oxygen-free atmosphere and then would sometimes recombine into larger molecules. Haldane suggested that the earth's pre-biotic oceans . He noted that organic chemicals could be formed by the exposure of natural substances to sunlight (ultraviolet radiation. water vapor and hydrogen.very different from their modern counterparts . B. In 1953. organic matter. they demonstrated that a more complex molecule — a few amino-acids — could emerge spontaneously from simpler chemicals.would have formed a "hot dilute soup" in which organic compounds. They were even once suggested to have played a significant role in the evolution of cells and. Around the same time J. Urey carried out an experiment on the "primeval soup". meaning to assemble together or cluster. Oparin suggested that they eventually became complex enough to be simple life. into their flask) There was careful filtering in place to preserve the results from destruction. had formed from the highly reduced mixture of methane. Within two weeks a racemic mixture of a few amino acids. the building blocks of life.Coacervates measure 1 to 100 micrometers across. of life itself Coacervates were actually suggested by Aleksandr Oparin. The environment was meant to simulate a primeval earth. the chemists Stanley L. therefore. as a means by which that first "ur-organism" could have formed from non-living. more specifically). the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but nonliving molecules. ammonia. It included an external energy source and an atmosphere largely devoid of oxygen. coacervates are no longer thought actually to have become the first cells directly. This idea was called biopoiesis or biopoesis. . representing lightning. (the specific experiment involved shooting a spark. S. Their name derives from the Latin coacervare.

Aleksandr Oparin’s Hypothesis (1922) Urey-Miller Experiment (1953) .