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An oscillator is a circuit, which generates ac output signal without giving any input ac signal. This circuit is usually applied for audio frequencies only. The basic requirement for an oscillator is positive feedback. The operation of the RC Phase Shift Oscillator can be explained as follows. The starting voltage is provided by noise, which is produced due to random motion of electrons in resistors used in the circuit. The noise voltage contains almost all the sinusoidal frequencies. This low amplitude noise voltage gets amplified and appears at the output terminals. The amplified noise drives the feedback network which is the phase shift network. Because of this the feedback voltage is maximum at a particular frequency, which in turn represents the frequency of oscillation. Furthermore, the phase shift required for positive feedback is correct at this frequency only. The voltage gain of the amplifier with positive feedback is given by

From the above equation we can see that if there is output without any input.

. The gain becomes infinity means that

i.e. the amplifier becomes an oscillator. This condition is known as the Barkhausen criterion of oscillation. Thus the output contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. In the beginning, as the oscillator is switched on, the loop gain Aβ is greater than unity. The oscillations build up. Once a suitable level is reached the gain of the amplifier decreases, and the value of the loop gain decreases to unity. So the constant level oscillations are maintained. Satisfying the above conditions of oscillation the value of R and C for the phase shift network is selected such that each RC combination produces a phase shift of 60°. Thus the total phase shift produced by the three RC networks is 180°. Therefore at the specific frequency fo the total phase shift from the base of the transistor around the circuit and back to the base is 360° thereby satisfying Barkhausen criterion. We select R1=R2=R3∗ =R and C1=C2=C3=C The frequency of oscillation of RC Phase Shift Oscillator is given by

At this frequency, the feedback factor of the network is that the amplifier gain

. In order that

it is required

Class-C amplifier Class-C amplifiers conduct less than 50% of the input signal and the distortion at the output is high, but high efficiencies (up to 90%) are possible. Some applications (for example, megaphones) can tolerate the distortion. The usual application for class-C

the active element would pass only an instantaneous current pulse while the voltage across it is zero: it then disspates no power and 100% efficiency is achieved. The average voltage at the drain is then equal to the supply voltage. By this means. and the signal voltage appearing across the tuned circuit varies from near zero to near twice the supply voltage during the rf cycle. This allows the waveform to be restored to its proper shape despite the amplifier having only a one-polarity supply. but greater attenuation the farther from the tuned frequency that the signal gets. Any residual harmonics can be removed using a further filter. power dissipation in the active device is minimised. where the distortion is controlled by a tuned load on the amplifier. and efficiency increased. and the analysis of the waveforms shows the massive distortion that appears in the signal. When the proper load (e. The input signal is used to switch the active device causing pulses of current to flow through a tuned circuit forming part of the load. and the pulse must therefore be widened. and the efficiency is then 60-70%.g.[13] . The class-C amplifier has two modes of operation: tuned and untuned. The first is that the output's bias level is clamped with the average output voltage equal to the supply voltage. Ideally. This is why tuned operation is sometimes called a clamper. two things happen. whose components are chosen to resonate the frequency of the input signal. The residual distortion is dependent upon the bandwidth of the tuned load. This is directly related to the second phenomenon: the waveform on the center frequency becomes less distorted. Power can be coupled to a load by transformer action with a secondary coil wound on the inductor.[11] The diagram shows a waveform from a simple class-C circuit without the tuned load. with the center frequency seeing very little distortion. In one common arrangement the resistor shown in the circuit above is replaced with a parallel-tuned circuit consisting of an inductor and capacitor in parallel. and so the unwanted frequencies are suppressed. usually one third (120 degrees) or less. the fixed carrier frequency. an inductive-capacitive filter plus a load resistor) is used.. The input circuit is biassed so that the active element (e. to obtain a reasonable amount of power. transistor) conducts for only a fraction of the rf cycle. The signal bandwidth of the amplifier is limited by the Qfactor of the tuned circuit but this is not a serious limitation. and the wanted full signal (sine wave) will be extracted by the tuned load. to around 120 degrees.amplifiers is in RF transmitters operating at a single fixed carrier frequency. However practical devices have a limit to the peak current they can pass. In practical class-C amplifiers a tuned load is invariably used. The tuned circuit resonates at one frequency.g. This is called untuned operation.[12] The active element conducts only while the drain voltage is passing through its minimum.

Two output terminals can be defined at the active devices. if Q2 is on and Set is grounded momentarily. Hence. This latch circuit is similar to an astable multivibrator. It is implemented by the coupling capacitors that instantly transfer voltage changes because the voltage across a capacitor cannot suddenly change. . or other types of amplifier. Accordingly. Similarly.Astable multivibrator An astable multivibrator is a regenerative circuit consisting of two amplifying stages connected in a positive feedback loop by two capacitive-resistive coupling networks. Bistable multivibrator circuit In the bistable multivibrator. vacuum tubes. Q2 remains on continuously. its collector is at 0 V. it is called a retriggerable monostable. thus keeping it on. The circuit can be thought as a 1/2 astable multivibrator. The circuit is usually drawn in a symmetric form as a cross-coupled pair. Monostable multivibrator circuit In the monostable multivibrator. The time period monostable multivibrator remains in unstable state is given by t = ln(2)R2C1. For example. Set is used to "set" Q1 on. The example diagram shows bipolar junction transistors. both the resistive-capacitive network are replaced by resistive networks (just resistors or direct coupling). The circuit has two stable states that change alternatively with maximum transition rate because of the "accelerating" positive feedback. and makes Q1 on. a monostable multivibrator will switch to its unstable position for a period of time. except that there is no charge or discharge time. Q2 gets switched off. As a result. due to the absence of capacitors. The circuit operation is based on the fact that the forward-biased base-emitter junction of the switched-on bipolar transistor can provide a path for the capacitor restoration. This results in more than half +V volts being applied to R4 causing current into the base of Q1. If repeated application of the input pulse maintains the circuit in the unstable state. Thus. the one resistive-capacitive network (C2-R3 in figure 1) is replaced by a resistive network (just a resistor). if it happens to get switched on first. Q2 collector voltage is the output of the circuit (in contrast to the astable circuit. The amplifying elements may be junction or field-effect transistors. If further trigger pulses do not affect the period. the circuit is a non-retriggerable multivibrator. the circuit remains stable in a single state continuously. and Reset is used to "reset" it to off state. when the circuit is switched on. it has a perfect square waveform since the output is not loaded by the capacitor). if Q1 is on. this switches Q2 off. one fully charged capacitor discharges (reverse charges) slowly thus converting the time into an exponentially changing voltage. one transistor is switched on and the other is switched off. Switching of state can be done via Set and Reset terminals connected to the bases. At the same time. the other empty capacitor quickly charges thus restoring its charge (the first capacitor acts as a time-setting capacitor and the second prepares to play this role in the next state). Thus. one will have high voltage while the other has low voltage. When triggered by an input pulse. and then return to its stable state. operational amplifiers. which will have complementary states. (except during the brief transitions from one state to the other). In each state.

Integrated circuits analog multipliers are incorporated into many applications. an integrated circuit designed to be used as a volume control may have a signal input designed for 1 Vp-p. In addition. but a number of general purpose analog multiplier building blocks are available such as the Linear Four Quadrant Multiplier. When dealing with high frequency signals. Although analog multipliers are often used for such applications. as are those used for highperformance amplifiers such as instrumentation amplifiers. and such devices are typically produced using specialist technologies and laser trimming. usually all positive). Obvious applications would be for electronic volume control and automatic gain control. such as a true RMS converter. For this reason.Analog multiplier In electronics. they are far more susceptible to noise and offset voltage-related problems as these errors may become multiplied. and if at all possible the functions that would require a multiplier tend to be moved to the digital side. or single quadrant (inputs and outputs have only one polarity. [edit] Decline of the analog multiplier In most cases the functions performed by an analog multiplier may be performed better and at lower cost using Digital Signal Processing techniques. An electronic analog multiplier can be called by several names. and allows the circuit function to be modified in firmware. and a control input designed for 0-5 V dc. This means they have a relatively high cost and so they are generally used only for circuits where they are indispensable.[1][2][3] General-purpose devices will usually include attenuators or amplifiers on the inputs or outputs in order to allow the signal to be scaled within the voltage limits of the circuit. manufacturing widerange general-purpose analog multipliers is far more difficult than ordinary operational amplifiers. Applications specific to a true analog multiplier are those where both inputs are signals. that is. At low frequencies a digital solution is cheaper and more effective. In this case the analog multiplier may be considered to be a voltage controlled amplifier. in . By contrast. most signals are now destined to become digitised sooner or later in the signal path. phase-related problems may be quite complex. As digital technology advances. in what is generally considered to be a true analog multiplier. a signal at the second input will be scaled in proportion to the level on the fixed input. the cost of implementing digital solutions increases much more steeply than for analog solutions. depending on the function it is used to serve (see analog multiplier applications). the two inputs are not symmetrical and the control input will have a limited bandwidth. for example in a frequency mixer or an analog circuit to implement a discrete Fourier transform. Voltage-controlled amplifier versus analog multiplier If one input of an analog multiplier is held at a steady state voltage. an analog multiplier is a device which takes two analog signals and produces an output which is their product. Many multipliers only work in 2 quadrants (one input may only have one polarity). Analog multiplier devices Analog multiplication can be accomplished by using the Hall Effect. voltage-controlled amplifiers are not necessarily true analog multipliers. A four-quadrant multiplier is one where inputs and outputs may swing positive and negative. As frequencies rise. For example. the two signal inputs have identical characteristics. and square roots. the use of analog multipliers tends to be ever more marginalised towards higher-frequency circuits or very specialized applications. Such circuits can be used to implement related functions such as squares (apply same signal to both inputs). For example. Although analog multiplier circuits are very similar to operational amplifiers.

like torque. electrical current.early digital multimeters.e. However. • In the seesaw analogy. a class-1 lever) where the inverting (i. thus. blindly digitizing the signal as early in the signal path as possible costs unreasonable amounts of power due to the need for high-speed ADCs. asymmetric lengths in the seesaw allow for small forces on one side of the seesaw to generate large forces on the other side of the seesaw.. the mechanical moment or torque from the force on one side of the fulcrum is balanced exactly by the force on the other side of the fulcrum.e.. A much more efficient solution involves analog preprocessing to condition the signal and reduce its bandwidth so that energy is spent to digitize only the bandwidth that contains useful information. the Rin–Rf resistor network acts as an electronic seesaw (i. [edit] Analog multiplier applications Electronics portal • • • • • • • • • • • Variable-gain amplifier Ring modulator Product detector Frequency mixer Companding Squelch Analog computer Analog signal processing Automatic gain control True RMS converter Analog filters (especially voltage-controlled filters) Inverting amplifier An inverting amplifier uses negative feedback[2] to invert (i.. In the inverting amplifier. That is. Just as the movement of one end of the seesaw is opposite the movement of the other end of the seesaw. true RMS functions were provided by external analog multiplier circuits.e. −) input at the same 0 V (ground) voltage of the non-inverting (i..e. because the operational amplifier is in a negative-feedback configuration. In particular. negate) and amplify a voltage. consequently. its internal high gain effectively fixes the inverting (i. digitally controlled resistors allow microcontrollers to implement many functions such as tone control and AGC without having to process the digitised signal directly. is conserved across the Rin–Rf network and • . which is similar to the stiff mechanical support provided by the fulcrum of the seesaw. the amplifier is said to be inverting. positive movement away from 0 V at the input of the Rin–Rf network is matched by negative movement away from 0 V at the output of the network. Continuing the analogy.e. In addition.. Nowadays (with the exception of high-frequency measurements) the tendency is to increase the sampling rate of the ADC in order to digitise the input signal allowing RMS and a whole range of other functions to be carried out by a digital processor. −) input of the operational amplifier is like a fulcrum about which the seesaw pivots. +) input.

the conductances or admittances) that play the role of lengths in the seesaw. the amplifier output is related to the input as in . the input impedance is actually much higher. The current into the inverting (i.e. if Rf is 10 kΩ and Rin is 1 kΩ. However. if input currents are roughly equivalent. In a real operational amplifier. the input impedance of the device is Rin because the operational amplifier's inverting (i. which appears like a small parasitic voltage difference between the inverting (i.g. or −10 (or −10 V/V).. Thus.. R1 in parallel with R2). it is the reciprocals of the resistances (i..[2] Moreover. plus the impedance of the path from the inverting ( − ) input to ground (i.relative differences between the Rin and Rf resistors allow small voltages on one side of the network to generate large voltages (with opposite sign) on the other side of the network. the voltage added at the inverting input will match the voltage at the non-inverting input. the current into its two inputs is small but non-zero (e. −) input is a virtual ground. [edit] Non-inverting amplifier Amplifies a voltage (multiplies by a constant greater than 1) Input impedance o The input impedance is at least the impedance between noninverting ( + ) and inverting ( − ) inputs. o Because negative feedback ensures that the non-inverting and inverting inputs match. +) inputs of the operational amplifier.e.. • Although this circuit has a large input impedance. the device amplifies (and inverts) the input voltage.. a third resistor of value can be added between the non-inverting (i. +) input and the true ground. However. due to input bias currents). and so this commonmode signal will be ignored by the operational amplifier (which operates on differences between its inputs).e.[3] This resistor does not affect the idealized operation of the device because no current enters the ideal non-inverting input. So the voltage gain of the amplifier is A = − Rf / Rin where the negative sign is a convention indicating that the output is negated. which is typically 1 MΩ to 10 TΩ. • . Hence. then the gain is −10 kΩ/1 kΩ.e.. in the practical case. −) input of the operational amplifier is drawn across the Rin and Rf resistors in parallel. in this analogy.e. For example.e.e.. it suffers from error of input bias current.. To mitigate this practical problem. −) and non-inverting (i.

g.. between the Vin source and the non-inverting ( + ) input will ensure the impedances looking out of each input will be matched. is a modification of the differential amplifier that also provides high input impedance. The resistance can be tuned until the offset voltages at each input are matched. the input currents are not matched. Making those impedances equal makes the offset voltage at each input equal. Another solution is to insert a variable resistor between the Vin source and the non-inverting ( + ) input. These unmodeled effects can lead to noise on the output (e. by way of an external potentiometer). Alternatively." which is also shown on this page.. o Assuming that the two leaking currents are matched. an external offset can be added to the operational amplifier input to nullify the effect. A resistor of value o which is the equivalent resistance of R1 in parallel with R2. The matched bias currents will then generate matched offset voltages. their effect can be mitigated by ensuring the DC impedance looking out of each input is the same. o [edit] Differential amplifier Main article: Differential amplifier The name "differential amplifier" should not be confused with the "differentiator.The non-inverting ( + ) and inverting ( − ) inputs draw small leakage currents into the operational amplifier. and so the non-zero bias currents will have no impact on the difference between the two inputs. . The voltage produced by each bias current is equal to the product of the bias current with the equivalent DC impedance looking out of each input." which is also shown on this page. o These input currents generate voltages that act like unmodeled input offsets. and their effect will be hidden to the operational amplifier (which acts on the difference between its inputs) so long as the CMRR is good.g. The "instrumentation amplifier. Most operational amplifiers provide some method of balancing the two input currents (e. Operational amplifiers with MOSFET-based input stages have input currents that are so small that they often can be neglected. offsets or drift). Very often.

to improve phase margin and ensure closed-loop stability of the operational amplifier). as before. choosing R1 = R2 and Rf = Rg is common in practice. Consequently. Otherwise. if the two sources feeding this circuit have appreciable output impedance. it is a more general property of the impedances in the circuit.g. similar changes need to be made in the rest of the circuit to maintain the ratio balance..e. and the circuit is a differential follower with: • Inverting integrator Integrates the (inverted) signal over time (where Vin and Vout are functions of time. if a compensation capacitor is added across any resistor (e. for example.The circuit shown computes the difference of two voltages multiplied by some constant.. the same current into each operational amplifier input will generate a parasitic differential signal and thus a parasitic output component. • There are several potential problems with this circuit. Consequently. Otherwise. Additionally.e. the amplifier synthesized with this choice of parameters has good common-mode rejection in theory because components of the signals that have V1 = V2 are not expressed on the output. Moreover. It is a filter with a single pole at DC (i. The input currents vary with the operating point of the circuit. Vinitial is the output voltage of the integrator at time t = 0. the output voltage is: The differential input impedance Zin (i. the output expression becomes: • where is the differential gain of the circuit. where ω = 0) and gain. Under the condition that the Rf/R1 = Rg/R2. it is usually desirable for the impedance looking out each input to the operational amplifier to be equal to the impedance looking out of the other input of the operational amplifier. Although this property is described here with resistances. So.) Note that this can also be viewed as a low-pass electronic filter.. and Rf = R1. the impedance between the two input pins) is approximately R1 + R2. In the special case when Rf/R1 = Rg/R2. the differential gain A = 1. • . because of leakage or bias currents in a real operational amplifier. then non-linearities can appear in the output. high-frequency components common to both V1 and V2 can express themselves on the output. In particular. An instrumentation amplifier mitigates these problems.

the offset of the output may not agree with expectations (i.e. In effect. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. this resistor will have negligible effect.. o Many of these problems can be made less severe by adding a large resistor RF in parallel with the feedback capacitor. In particular... search This page is about the electronic device. o Even when Vin has no offset. The high-pass characteristics of a differentiating amplifier (i.. the capacitor appears like an open circuit to signals with ω = 0). the leakage or bias currents into the operational amplifier inputs can add an unexpected offset voltage to Vin that causes the output to drift. Balancing input currents and replacing the noninverting ( + ) short-circuit to ground with a resistor with resistance R can reduce the severity of this problem. the low-frequency zero) can lead to stability challenges when the circuit is used in an analog servo loop (e. Otherwise.. as a root locus analysis would show.It is usually assumed that the input Vin has zero DC component (i. • Instrumentation amplifier From Wikipedia. the resistor provides the necessary feedback to hold the output steady at the correct value. where angular frequency ω = 0 radians) and gain. this resistor reduces the DC gain of the "integrator" – it goes from infinite to some finite value RF / R. [edit] Inverting differentiator Differentiates the (inverted) signal over time. At significantly high frequencies. increasing feedback gain will drive a closed-loop pole toward marginal stability at the DC zero introduced by the differentiator. Amplifiers for musical instruments are instrument amplifiers.e. It is a filter with a single zero at DC (i. Typical instrumentation amplifier schematic . in a PID controller with a significant derivative gain). has a zero average value). Vinitial may be out of the designer's control with the present circuit).e. Note that this can also be viewed as a high-pass electronic filter. unless the capacitor is periodically discharged. However. o Because this circuit provides no DC feedback (i..e. at low frequencies where there are drift and offset problems.g. the output will drift outside of the operational amplifier's operating range.e.

MAX4194. Obtaining very closely matched resistors is a significant difficulty in fabricating these circuits. Another benefit of the method is that it boosts the gain using a single resistor rather than a pair. the single resistor Rgain between the two inverting inputs is a much more elegant method: it increases the differential-mode gain of the buffer pair while leaving the common-mode gain equal to 1. along with the resistors labelled R2 and R3 is just the standard differential amplifier circuit. with gain simply equal to R3 / R2 and high input impedance because of the buffers. low noise. These are arranged so that there is one op-amp to buffer each input (+. with gain = R3 / R2 and differential input resistance = 2·R2.[1][2] The most commonly used instrumentation amplifier circuit is shown in the figure. Linear Technology and Maxim Integrated Products).[4][5] Instrumentation amplifiers can be built with individual op-amps and precision resistors. where the negative power rail is simply the circuit ground (GND). This increases the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the circuit and also enables the buffers to handle much larger common-mode signals without clipping than would be the case if they were separate and had the same gain. reduced noise (no thermal noise is brought on by the feedback resistors) and increased bandwidth (no frequency compensation is needed). which eliminate the need for input impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment. and very high input impedances.and long-term are required. With Rgain removed (open circuited). The design of such amplifiers is treated here. the electronic instrumentation amp is almost always internally composed of 3 op-amps. A set of switchselectable resistors or even a potentiometer can be used for Rgain. which extend the operating range of these amplifiers to the negative power supply rail. the circuit will work in that state.An instrumentation (or instrumentational) amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffers. commonmode gain is caused by mismatches in the values of the equally-numbered resistors and by the mismatch in common mode gains of the two input op-amps. National Semiconductor. providing easy changes to the gain of the circuit. The gain of the circuit is The rightmost amplifier. The ideal common-mode gain of an instrumentation amplifier is zero. The two amplifiers on the left are the buffers. Although the instrumentation amplifier is usually shown schematically identical to a standard op-amp. In the circuit shown. This can be particularly useful in single-supply systems. very high common-mode rejection ratio.[3] An instrumentation amp can also be built with 2 op-amps to save on cost and increase CMRR. LT1167 and INA128. . but are also available in integrated circuit form from several manufacturers (including Texas Instruments. and in some cases the positive power supply rail. An IC instrumentation amplifier typically contains closely matched laser-trimmed resistors. and one to produce the desired output with adequate impedance matching for the function. Examples of parts utilizing this architecture are MAX4208/MAX4209 and AD8129/AD8130.−). Examples include AD620. and very conveniently allowing the gain of the circuit to be changed by changing the value of a single resistor. Instrumentation amplifiers are used where great accuracy and stability of the circuit both short. and therefore offers excellent common-mode rejection. Instrumentation Amplifiers can also be designed using "Indirect Current-feedback Architecture". thus avoiding a resistor-matching problem (although the two R1s need to be matched). as is optimizing the common mode performance of the input op-amps. but the gain must be higher than 2 (+6 dB). without the complexity of having to switch matched pairs of resistors. The buffer gain could be increased by putting resistors between the buffer inverting inputs and ground to shunt away some of the negative feedback. Feedback-free instrumentation amplifier is the high input impedance differential amplifier designed without the external feedback network. low drift. very high open-loop gain. This allows reduction in the number of amplifiers (one instead of three). they are simple unity gain buffers. Analog Devices. however. Additional characteristics include very low DC offset.

Hewlett figured out how to make the oscillator with a stable output amplitude and low distortion. co-founded Hewlett-Packard. In normal operation. and Hewlett-Packard's first product was the HP200A. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. along with David Packard. search In this version of the oscillator.[citation needed] Hewlett. The oscillator is based on a bridge circuit originally developed by Max Wien in 1891. Usually R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. The modern circuit is derived from William Hewlett's 1939 Stanford University master's degree thesis. The oscillator can also be viewed as a positive gain amplifier combined with a bandpass filter that provides positive feedback. Rb is a small incandescent lamp. The frequency of oscillation is given by: . a precision Wien bridge oscillator.Chopper stabilized (or zero drift) instrumentation amplifiers such as the LTC2053 use a switching input front end to eliminate DC offset errors and drift. [edit] See also Electronics portal • • • • Differential amplifier Isolation amplifier Operational amplifier Operational amplifier applications Wien bridge oscillator From Wikipedia. It can generate a large range of frequencies. Rb self heats to the point where its resistance is Rf/2. A Wien bridge oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator that generates sine waves.[1] The bridge comprises four resistors and two capacitors.

Although the limiting action stabilizes the output voltage. the loop gain must be greater than one under all possible conditions. (The effect is called gain compression.) In a stable oscillator.3 LC versus RC oscillator o 1. A loop gain greater than one has a down side. The linear oscillator can support any amplitude. The linear oscillator theory doesn't address how the oscillator starts up or how the amplitude is determined. and some of that noise will be near the desired frequency. it has two significant effects: it introduces harmonic distortion and it affects the frequency stability of the oscillator. the oscillator amplitude will increase without limit. A larger loop gain makes the oscillator start quickly.1 Analyzed from loop gain 4 Amplitude stabilization 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links [edit] Background [edit] Problems with a conventional oscillator The conventional oscillator circuit is designed so that it will start oscillating ("start up") and that its amplitude will be controlled.2 Bridge oscillator o 1. the loop gain needs to be just a little bigger than one.5 Conventional RC oscillator 2 Wien bridge 3 Analysis o 3. the amplitude will increase until the output runs into some limiting factor such as the power supply voltage (the amplifier output runs into the supply rails) or the amplifier output current limits.1 Problems with a conventional oscillator o 1. . A large loop gain also compensates for gain variations with temperature and the desired frequency of a tunable oscillator.Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Background o 1. the oscillator will start. With a loop gain greater than one. For the oscillator to start. The limiting reduces the effective gain of the amplifier. In practice. In theory. Ideally. For a linear circuit to oscillate. Random noise is present in all circuits. the loop gain is initially larger than unity. the average loop gain will be one. it is often significantly greater than one. but in practice. In practice. A loop gain greater than one allows the amplitude of frequency to increase exponentially each time around the loop. it must meet the Barkhausen conditions: its loop gain must be one and the phase around the loop must be a multiple of 360 degrees.4 Hewlett's oscillator o 1.

[2] Instead of using limiting to set an average gain of 1 around the loop. Meacham's design was a linear circuit with constant gain. then the gain must decrease more at higher instantaneous amplitudes. so there is some distortion. C1. Wien bridge oscillator can be considered as a combination of a differential amplifier and a Wien bridge connected in the positive feedback loop between the op-amp output and differential input. R1. For larger amplitudes. Meacham designed a quartz crystal oscillator based on a Wheatstone bridge that was a significant improvement over earlier designs. Often an unknown component would be put in one arm of a bridge. For small amplitudes. At the oscillator frequency. and then the bridge would be nulled by adjusting the other arms or changing the frequency of the voltage source. (In practice. In the ideal situation. As a result. If there's a lot of extra loop gain at small amplitudes. Although an amplifier's gain is ideally linear. At the oscillating frequency. an amplifier is not perfectly linear. That means more distortion. the distortion would be reduced and the frequency stability would be improved. the higher order terms have little effect. See. . C1 = C2 = C and Rf/Rb = 2. Rb and the op-amp compose a noninverting amplifier with small gain of 1 + Rf/Rb ≈ 3. R1 = R2 = R.) [edit] LC versus RC oscillator [edit] Hewlett's oscillator High-gain differential amplifier with positive feedback. there was no distortion of the sine wave. the bridge is almost balanced and has very small transfer ratio. The loop gain is a product of the very high op-amp gain and the very low bridge ratio. Meacham proposed a circuit that would set the loop gain to one while the amplifier was still in its linear region. but that distortion is much less than the gain compression approach. The band pass filter is connected to provide positive feedback at the frequency of oscillation. Rf.The amount of distortion is related to the extra loop gain used for startup. the Wheatstone bridge.[4] Wien's bridge is used for precison measurement of capacitance in terms of resistance and frequency. in practice it is nonlinear. Rb self heats and reduces the amplifier gain until the point is reached that there is just enough gain to sustain sinusoidal oscillation without over driving the amplifier. the nonlinearity is pronounced. for low distortion. the oscillator's output amplitude should be a small fraction of the amplifier's dynamic range. The amount of distortion is also related to final amplitude of the oscillation. for example. Consequently. The nonlinear transcribing function can be viewed as a Taylor series.[3] [edit] Conventional RC oscillator Low-gain single-ended amplifier with positive feedback. C2 compose a bandpass filter. [edit] Bridge oscillator Meacham proposed a bridge oscillator to address those problems. [edit] Wien bridge Main article: Wien bridge Bridge circuits were a common way of measuring component values by comparing them to known values. The Wien bridge is one of many common bridges.[5] It was also used to measure audio frequencies. R2. Consequently.

At some frequency. the reactance of the series Rc–Cc arm will be an exact multiple of the shunt Rd–Cd arm. At lower frequencies the time period of the oscillator approaches the thermal time constant of the thermistor element and the output distortion starts to rise significantly. but the equations above show that for fixed values in the c and d arms. the values of R and C will never be exactly equal. p.[dubious – discuss] The radiated power is proportional to T . so resistance increases at a greater rate than amplitude. the oscillator gain stage reaches a steady state and operates as a near ideal class A amplifier. they follow the Stefan-Boltzmann law. If the oscillation frequency is significantly higher than the thermal time constant of the heating element. In practice. [edit] Analysis [edit] Analyzed from loop gain According to Schilling. then the bridge is balanced. p.[3] the loop gain of the Wien bridge oscillator is given by where is the frequency-dependent gain of the op-amp. achieving very low distortion at the frequency of interest. Since heating elements are close to black body radiators. which is often undesirable. (Note. If the gain is inversely proportional to the oscillation amplitude. 671) and Hamilton (2003. 449). with particular reference to frequency stability and selectivity. This leads to high harmonic distortion. The resistance of light bulbs and similar heating elements increases as their temperature increases. Which. Hewlett used an incandescent bulb as a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor in the oscillator feedback path to limit the gain. [edit] Amplitude stabilization The key to Hewlett's low distortion oscillator is effective amplitude stabilization. The amplitude of electronic oscillators tends to increase until clipping or other gain limitation is reached. The bridge is balanced when:[6] and where ω is the radian frequency. If the two Ra and Rb arms are adjusted to the same ratio.) Schilling further says that the condition of oscillation is . assuming and is satisfied by and with Another analysis. the bridge will balance at some ω and some ratio of Rb/Ra. the component names in Schilling have been replaced with the component names in the figure.The Wien bridge does not require equal values of R or C. 4 . The equations simplify if one chooses Rc = Rd and Cc = Cd. will be found in Strauss (1970. the radiated power is proportional to the oscillator power. the result is Rb = 2 Ra.

At the oscillation frequency each filter produces a phase shift of 60 degrees and the whole filter circuit produces a phase shift of 180 degrees.Light bulbs have their disadvantages when used as gain control elements in Wien bridge oscillators. if R1 = R2 = R3 = R. and disturbances cause the output amplitude to exhibit a decaying sinusoidal response. Distortion as low as 0. The mathematics for calculating the oscillation frequency and oscillation criterion for this circuit are surprisingly complex. due to each R-C stage loading the previous ones. In the diagram. then: . thermistors. and a feedback filter which 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by 180 degrees at a specific oscillation frequency. three capacitors and four resistors. as shown in the diagram. and 270 degrees at high frequencies. This is due to the low damping factor and long time constant of the crude control loop. such as diodes. which together produce a phase shift of zero at low frequencies. field effect transistors.0003% (3 ppm) can be achieved with modern components unavailable to Hewlett. or photocells for amplitude stabilization in place of light bulbs. This can be used as a rough figure of merit. The most common way of achieving this kind of filter is using three identical cascaded resistor-capacitor filters. so that the phase shift at the desired oscillation frequency is 180°. search A phase-shift oscillator is a simple electronic oscillator. most notably a very high sensitivity to vibration due to the bulb's microphonic nature amplitude modulating the oscillator output. The calculations are greatly simplified by setting all the resistors (except the negative feedback resistor) and all the capacitors to the same values. and C1 = C2 = C3 = C. and a limitation in high frequency response due to the inductive nature of the coiled filament. the lower the output distortion under steady state conditions. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.[1] The filter produces a phase shift that increases with frequency.[7] Wien bridge oscillators that use thermistors also exhibit "amplitude bounce" when the oscillator frequency is changed. It contains an inverting amplifier. as the greater the amplitude bounce after a disturbance. [edit] Op-amp implementation A simple example of a phase-shift oscillator One of the simplest implementations for this type of oscillator uses an operational amplifier (op-amp). Modern Wien bridge oscillators have used other nonlinear elements. [edit] See also • • • • • • Armstrong oscillator Clapp oscillator Colpitts oscillator Hartley oscillator Relaxation Oscillator Vačkář oscillator Phase-shift oscillator From Wikipedia. It must have a maximum phase shift of considerably greater than 180° at high frequencies.

Phase-locked loop From Wikipedia. It is an electronic circuit consisting of a variable frequency oscillator and a phase detector. the calculations become more complex: Oscillation criterion: A version of this circuit can be made by putting an op-amp buffer between each R-C stage which simplifies the calculations. . This circuit compares the phase of the input signal with the phase of the signal derived from its output oscillator and adjusts the frequency of its oscillator to keep the phases matched. the amplifier will contribute significant phase shift itself. Keeping the input and output phase in lock step implies keeping the input and output frequencies in lock step. The former property is used for demodulation. the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices. Some modulation schemes. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. with output frequencies from a fraction of a hertz up to many gigahertz electronics. Frequency multipliers are often used in frequency synthesizers and communications circuits. Phase-locked loops are widely employed in radio. or it can generate a frequency that is a multiple of the input frequency. see PLL (disambiguation). and then use a frequency multiplier chain to generate an output frequency in the microwave or millimeter wave range. a phase-locked loop can track an input frequency. The signal from the phase detector is used to control the oscillator in a feedback loop. telecommunications. Consequently. Since a single integrated circuit can provide a complete phase-locked-loop building block. When the oscillation frequency is high enough to be near the amplifier's cutoff frequency. Тhe voltage gain of the inverting channel is always unity. Frequency is the derivative of phase. Therefore the circuit will oscillate at a frequency at which the phase shift of the feedback filter is less than 180 degrees. They can be used to recover a signal from a noisy communication channel. which will add to the phase shift of the feedback network. a frequency multiplier is an electronic circuit that generates an output signal whose output frequency is a harmonic of its input frequency. For other uses. and the latter property is used for indirect frequency synthesis.and the oscillation criterion is: Rfeedback = 29(R) Without the simplification of all the resistors and capacitors having the same values. It can be more economic to develop a lower frequency signal with lower power and less expensive devices. A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop (PLL) is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input "reference" signal. Frequency multipliers consist of a nonlinear circuit that distorts the input signal and consequently generates harmonics of the input signal. search "PLL" redirects here. generate stable frequencies at a multiple of an input frequency (frequency synthesis). or distribute clock timing pulses in digital logic designs such as microprocessors. A subsequent bandpass filter selects the desired harmonic frequency and removes the unwanted fundamental and other harmonics from the output. computers and other electronic applications.

Frequency multiplication is also used in nonlinear optics. The nonlinear distortion in crystals can be used to generate harmonics of laser light. If the input source is a current source.such as frequency modulation. If the input source is a current source. survive the nonlinear distortion without ill effect (but schemes such as amplitude modulation do not). If the input source is a voltage source. it must be converted into a Norton source for the gain. . the gain A represents a transresistance with the units Ω. it must be converted into a Thévenin source for the. Because the input is a voltage and the output is a voltage. Because the input is a current and the output is a voltage. the gain A represents a dimensionless current gain. it must be converted into a Norton source for the gain. Series-Series Feedback A series-series feedback amplifier is a non-inverting amplifier in which the input signal x is a voltage and the output signal y is a current. the gain A represents a transconductance with the units f. it must be converted into a Thévenin source for the gain. Series-Shunt Feedback A series-shunt feedback amplifier is a non-inverting amplifier in which the input signal x is a voltage and the output signal y is a voltage. the gain A represents a dimensionless voltage gain. Shunt-Shunt Feedback A shunt-shunt feedback amplifier is an inverting amplifier in which the input signal x is a current and the output signal y is a voltage. Shunt-Series Feedback A shunt-series feedback amplifier is an inverting amplifier in which the input signal x is a voltage and the output signal y is a current. Because the input is a current and the output is a current. Because the input is a voltage and the output is a current. If the input source is a voltage source.

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