1. What is e-commerce?
E-commerce is a modern business methodology that addresses the needs
oI organization, merchants and consumers to cut costs while improving the
quality oI goods and services and increasing the speed oI service delivery.
2. What is i-way?
E-commerce is associated with the buying and selling oI inIormation,
products, and services via computer networks today and in the Iuture via any one
oI the myriad oI networks that make up the inIormation superhighway (i-way).
3. What is cross-media convergence?
Cross-media convergence reIers to the integration oI various industries
entertainment, publication, and communication mediabased on multimedia
4. List some simple technological advances that drive the phenomenon of
OConvergence oI content
OConvergence oI transmission
OConvergence oI inIormation access
. List some components of multimedia?
$ome components oI multimedia are: text, audio, video, images,
animation, graphics, hologram, and numerical data.
6. What is message passing?
The client-server model allows the client to interact with the server
through a request reply sequence governed by a paradigm known as message
7. List some challenges that each highway route provider faces?
OComputer Network-based
. List the functions of the supply-chain management?
O$upplier Management
OInventory Management
ODistribution Management
OChannel Management
OPayment Management
OFinancial Management
O$ales Iorce productivity
. What is a terminal equipment?
Customer Premises Equipment(CPE) or terminal equipment is a generic
term Ior privately owned communications equipment that is attached to the
10. List some drawbacks of ADSL?
Asymmetric digital subscriber line has the Iollowing drawbacks: It cannot
handle live transmissions, and the picture it produces is not as clear as that
provided by a well-tuned cable hookup.
11. What is fast packet switching?
The bundles oI data, known as packets move through a network at very
high speeds and this routing technique is known as Iast packet switching.
12. List the 4 types of ~last mile¨ connections?
The Iour types oI last mile connections are: plain old telephone system
(POT$) wires, cable TV coaxial cable, electricity wires, and wireless.
13. What is HDT?
The digital video signals Irom all providers are combined on a video
distribution element known as host digital terminal (HDT).
14. Give two advantages of DBS?
Two advantages oI Direct Broadcast satellite are:
1. List the two types of DBS available?
OPrime$tar DB$ service
ODirect $atellite $ervice
16. List some major issues that will play a crucial role in defining the i-way?
The major issues are: cost, subsidies, allocation oI scarce resources,
regulation, universal access, privacy, and social issues.
17. What is a Network Access Point?
A NAP is a high speed network or switch to which a number oI routers
can be connected Ior the purpose oI traIIic exchange and interoperation.
1. What is a routing arbiter?
A Routing Arbiter (RA) is an element that is introduced into the NAP
architecture. RA organization implements the concept oI policy-based network
routing that enables routing oI traIIic between diIIerent network operators.
1. List the goals of Gigabit Network Research?
There are two goals:
OTo advance the technology and understanding oI requirements Ior high speed
OTo explore the potential applications Ior such a network that are oI importance
to business and society in general.
20. List some services of the internet?
$ome services oI the internet are:
OIndividual to group communications
OInIormation TransIer and delivery services
OInIormation Databases
OInIormation Processing services
OResource-sharing services

(16 marks)
1. Explain E-commerce Framework? *InIormation $uper-highway *InIormation and
Multimedia Content *Technical $tandards
2. Explain E-commerce and Media Convergence? *E-commerce, Convergence *Cross-
Media *Technological Advances
3. Explain the anatomy of E-commerce applications? *Multimedia Content Ior e-commerce
applications *Multimedia $torage servers & e-commerce applications *InIormation
Delivery/ Transport and e-commerce applications *Consumer access devices
4. Explain the network infrastructure for e-commerce? *Market Iorces inIluencing the i-
way *Network access equipment *The 'Last Mile¨ *Global InIormation Distribution
Networks *Public policy issues shaping the i-way
. Explain the Internet as a Network Infrastructure? *Chronological history oI the internet
*N$FNET: Architecture and components *National Research and Education network
*Globalization oI the Academic Internet *Internet Governance and Applications
1. What are the 3 types of electronic tokens?
OCash or real-time
ODebit or prepaid
OCredit or postpaid
2. What are the properties of 0.,8?
OE-cash must have a monetary value
OIt must be interoperable
OIt must be storable and retrievable
OIt should not be easy to copy or tamper with while being exchanged
3. Write notes on electronic checks.
Electronic checks are another Iorm oI electronic tokens. They are designed
to accommodate the many individuals and entities that might preIer to pay on
credit or through some mechanism other than cash.
4. What are 82,79.,7/8?
$mart cards are credit and debit cards and other card products enhanced
with microprocessors capable oI holding more inIormation than the traditional
magnetic stripe.
. Mention the 2 types of smart cards.
ORelationship-based smart credit cards
OElectronic purses
6. What are the 3 basic categories of credit card payment on on-line networks?
OPayment using plain credit card details
OPayment using encrypted credit card details
OPayments using third-party veriIication
7. Mention some factors to be included for designing electronic payment
OIntuitive interIace
ODatabase integration
. Define EDI.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the electronic transIer, Irom computer to
computer, commercial and administrative data using an agreed standard to
structure an EDI message.
. Specify the 4 layers of EDI architecture.
OEDI semantic layer
OEDI standard layer
OEDI transport layer
OPhysical layer
10. Mention the benefits for international trade.
OReduced transaction expenditure
OQuicker movement oI imported and exported goods
OImproved customer service through 'track and trace¨ programs
OFaster customer clearance and reduced opportunities Ior corruption, a huge
problem in trade.
11. Give out the basic kit necessary for EDI implementation.
OCommon EDI standards
OTranslation soItware
OTrading partners
OEDI value-added networks (VANs)
OProprietary hardware and networking
12. What are the 2 major ED standards?
OAN$I X.12
13. Give the elements of an EDI message.
OTransaction set
OData segments
OData elements
14. Compare EDIFACT and X.12 Standards.
OBoth are comprised oI strings oI data elements called segments.
OAN$I standards require each element to have a very speciIic name, such
as order date or invoice date. EDIFACT segments, in contrast, allow Ior
generic or multiuse elements, such as date.
1. Mention the layers of EDI software implementation.
OBusiness Application Layer
OInternal Iormat conversion
OEDI Translator Layer
OEDI envelope Ior document messaging

16. Mention the 3 types of EDI access methods.
ODirect dial or modem to modem connection
OLimited third-party VANs
OFull-service third-party VANs
17. What are the factors involved in EDI implementation cost?
OThe expected volume oI electronic documents.
OEconomics oI the EDI translation soItware
OImplementation time
OMaintenance Iees
OVAN charges
1. What are the 2 types of EDI envelopes used?
OInternet EDI based on MIME
1. Define VAN.
A value-added network (VAN) is a communications network that typically
exchanges EDI messages among trading partners.
20. What are the factors that make the internet useful for EDI?
OFlat pricing
OCheap access
OCommon mail standards
1. Explain EDI Software Implementation.
ODiagram: How EDI works
OEDI Business application layer
ODiagram: The preparation process Iollowed by the application s/w
OEDI Translator layer
OEDI Communications layer
2. Write notes on digital token-based electronic payment systems.
OE-cash & its properties
OE-cash in action
OBusiness issues
OOperational risk
OLegal issues
OE-checks with diagram
3. Explain the EDI applications in business.
OInternational trade and EDI
OFinancial EDI
OHealth care and insurance EDI
OManuIacturing/Retail procurement using EDI
OBusiness inIormation, product design, and procurement
4. Define VAN. Explain it in detail.
OVAN pricing structures
OVAN service providers
OVANs and the internet
. Write notes on smart cards and electronic payment systems.
ORelationship-based smart cards
OElectronic purses and debit cards
O$mart card readers and smart phones
OBusiness issues and smart cards
1. What is mean by Marketing?
Marketing is a way oI managing a business so that each important
business decision is made with Iull knowledge oI the impact it will have on the
2. What are the assumptions of marketing?
The assumptions are (i) all company policies and activities should be
aimed at satisIying customer needs and (ii) proIitable sales volume is better
company goal than maximum sales volume.
3. What is mean by Advertising?
Advertising is the process oI reaching the customer using a broadcast or
direct mail campaign orchestrated to inIluence purchasing behavior.
4. What is mean Bundling?
Bundling is a classic marketing strategy in which two or more
complementary products and/or services are oIIered as a package at a discounted
. List out the bundling strategies. *Only components. *Only bundles. *Mixed strategy.
6. What are the two important information based products?
The two important inIormation based products are: *Pricing. *Priority.
7. What are the two main types of micromarketing?
The two main types oI micromarketing are: *Direct-relationship micromarketing. *Direct-
order micromarketing.
. What are the two different advertising paradigms in the on-line world?
The two diIIerent advertising paradigms in the on-line world are: *Active or Push-Based
Advertising. *Passive or Pull-Based Advertising.
. What are the two types of Push-based advertising?
The two types oI Push-based advertising are: *Broadcast Model. *Junk Mail Model.
10. What are the disadvantages of television advertising?
The disadvantages oI television advertising are: *High cost oI production. *Limited
exposure time. *$hort air time. *Clutter oI many other ads.
11. What are the types of Pull-based advertising?
The types oI Pull-based advertising are: *Billboards. *Catalogs or yellow page directories.
12. What is Billboard or World Wide Web Model?
Billboard model reIers to inIormation placed where it will come to the
attention oI customers in the course oI other activities and does not require active
13. What are the advantages of Billboard Model?
The advantages oI Billboard Model are: *Ability to completely cover a market. *Maintain
high levels oI viewing Irequency.
14. List the four major classifications of Electronic publishing.
The Iour major classiIications oI Electronic publishing are: *On-line Iull text publishing.
*CD-ROM publishing. *Collaboratories. *Video.
1. What are the two types of software agents function?
The two types oI soItware agents Iunction are: *$tatic *Mobile.
16. What are the properties of Mobile Software Agents?
The properties oI Mobile $oItware Agents are: *Programming *$aIety. *Resource usage.
*Navigation *Privacy. *Communication.
17. What are the challenges for resource discovery of software agents?
The challenges Ior resource discovery oI soItware agents are: *The scale oI problem. *Need
Ior cooperative brokerages. *Need Ior resource sharing.
1. What are the three camps of agent requests?
The three camps oI agent requests are: *$ynchronous communication-oriented remote
call (RPC). *Asynchronous message-oriented agents. *Intermediaries or database
1. What are the features of software agent?
The Ieatures oI soItware agent are: *Owner *Author *LiIetime *Account *Goal
*$ubject description *Background
20. What are the three approaches of Agent Reasoning Capability?
The three approaches oI Agent Reasoning Capability are: *Rule-based approach.
*Knowledge-based approach. *Learning approach.
1. What are the technological components of Education on-Demand?
*On-line Iull text publishing. *CD-ROM publishing. *Collaboratories. *Video.
2. What are characteristics and properties of user agent? *Characteristics *Properties
3. Write notes on On-Line Advertising Paradigms. *Active or Push-Based Advertising
*Passive or Pull-Based Advertising
4. Write briefly on computer-based education and training. *On-Line Education and
Virtual Classrooms *Training On-Demand *Changing Roles OI Institutions
. Write notes on digital copyrights and electronic commerce *Digital Copyright Basics
*Digital Copyright Wording in On-Line Databases *EnIorcing Digital Copyrights Using
2 Marks
1. What is operational picture?
Managers and workers need to obtain inIormation regarding their own situation,
including the customers, suppliers, and other department in the areas oI interest and, oI
course, the disposition oI a competitor through market intelligence. The totality oI the
inIormation relevant to manager can be reIerred to as the operational picture.
2. What are the challenges faced by a companies in handling data?
The challenges are:
i. To pull together the technology Ior amassing operational inIormation
ii. To maximize the utility oI existing inIormation to managers
3. What were/was expected to help improve a company`s competitive position in the
10s to manage information overload?
a. Decision $upport $ystems(D$$)
b. Management $upport $ystems(M$$)
c. Visual InIormation Access and Analysis(VIAA)
d. Data/InIormation Warehouses
e. $tructured Document and Imaging Databases
I. Executive InIormation $ystems(EI$)
g. Business Intelligence $ystems(BI$)
h. On-line Analytical Processing(OLAP)
i. Multidimensional databases(MDD)
4. Write the three key decision support trends
1. Digital inIormation inIrastructure consisting oI documents and data.
2. Better utilization oI inIormation in strategic and operational decision making,
which involves eIIective on-line inIormation search and retrieval in a
distributed environment.
3. Architecture Ior implementing decisions through workIlow automation and
business process integration.
. What is an ~infosphere¨?
Millions oI transactions and oceans oI multimedia data will Ilow through the network
every day. This creates an 'inIosphere¨.
6. What are the two types of on-line transactions?
Two types oI on-line transactions are:
i. On-line transaction processing(OLTP)
ii. On-line analytic processing(OLAP)
7. What are the two activities related to navigating the infosphere?
Navigating the inIosphere involves two related activities:
i. InIormation search, discovery, and retrieval
ii. Presentation or visualization oI the retrieved inIormation
. List few document management schemes
i. Ad hoc documents
ii. Process-speciIic documents
iii. Knowledge-oriented documents
. Give some examples for Ad-hoc documents.
i. Letters
ii. Financial reports
iii. Manuals
10. Write about Process-specific documents
$ome oI the process speciIic documents are invoices and purchase orders. They
are typically created, constructed, and distributed by support personnel. These are oIten
Iorms-based: context and appearance undergo virtually no alteration and context varies
only slightly according to well-articulated rules.
11. What are Knowledge-oriented documents?
Knowledge-oriented documents encompass documentation, catalogs oI product
inIormation, and design documents.
12. What are User models?
User models are interposed between the user interIace and inIormation sources to
Iilter the available inIormation according to the needs oI the task and the user. These
models can be customized.
13. List the types of digital documents
ODocument imaging
O$tructured documents
OHypertext documents
OActive documents
14. What are the steps involved in document oriented processes?
ODocument creation
ODocument media conversion
ODocument production and distribution
ODocument storage and retrieval
1. Write notes on document imaging.
Document imaging emulates microIiche and microIilm. An imaging system
passes a paper document through a scanner that renders it digital and then stores the
digital data as a bit-mapped image oI the document. Keywords are used Ior indexing and
retrieval oI document.
16. Write brief notes on hypertext documents.
Hypertext is a way oI making document based inIormation more mobile.
Relationships between documents can be represented through hypermedia links.
17. Write notes on active document.
Active documents (or compound documents) represent what is known as
document-oriented computing. Active documents provide an interactive interIace where
all documents, applications, and data related to a particular task are assembled, arranged,
and interlinked in such a manner that the user can Iocus on the task at hand and be
shielded Irom nontask-related issues like access, storage, data Iormats, location,
computing, or delivery mechanisms.
1. Name the activities involved in document-based work flows
ODocument modeling
OBusiness modeling
1. List the advantages of structured documents.
OAllows document Iormatting
ODocuments can be edited, linked to graphics, video, photo etc.
OEasy to search and query documents.
20. Name the types of data warehouses.
OPhysical data warehouse
OLogical data warehouse
OData library
ODecision support systems
21. List the elements in building data warehouse
OBack end: Accessing and organizing data easily Irom disparate
OPreparing data Ior analysis: Querying, searching, and governing
the data.
OFront end: Providing means Ior eIIective analysis oI the
22. What are the advantages of data warehouses?
OUsers can manage and access large volumes oI inIormation in
one cohesive Iramework.
OManagers can distribute inIormation on a variety oI platIorms.
OEnables Iaster access and decision making.
OIncreases Ilexibility.
16 Marks
1. Explain in detail the dimensions of internal electronic commerce systems.
InIosphere- complexity oI data-technological architecture Ior internal commerce(Iigure)-
key areas-user modeling interaction-EIIective utilization oI inIormation-Types oI On-line
transactions-Navigating the inIosphere-Electronic Brokerages and Work Flow
2. What is a document library? Explain in detail about business can be promoted to
meet customer`s needs by improving document management support with an
DeIiniions-Challenges in an organization-Corporate digital library as a core oI document
management (Iigure)-Digital document management-issues and concerns.
3. Explain the types of digital documents.
ODocument imaging
O$tructured documents
OHypertext documents
OActive documents
4. Explain the elements in building data warehouse
OBack end: Accessing and organizing data easily Irom disparate
OPreparing data Ior analysis: Querying, searching, and governing
the data.
OFront end: Providing means Ior eIIective analysis oI the
. Explain the issues behind document infrastructure.
ODocument constituencies
ODocument-oriented processes
ODocument-based work Ilows
1. What is the compression method used in Multimedia?
O$ector-oriented disk Compression
OBackup or archive-oriented compression
OGraphics and video-oriented Compression
OCompression oI data being transmitted over low-speed networks
2. What is the goal of data compression in action?
The goal oI data compression is to make the size oI the 100 bit message
as close as possible to the 100 bits oI underlying inIormation.
3. What is the disadvantage of data compression?
The most obvious problem is the time to transIer that much data Irom
storage to the display. Nearly 30 Mb per second is enough to choke almost
any I/O port or data bus. Other problems include both storage and
4. What are the types of Compression Technique? Grief brief notes on them
Compression techniques can be divided into two major categories,
OLossless Compression
OLossy Compression
Lossless compression:
It means that a given set oI data will undergo a loss oI accuracy or
resolution aIter a cycle oI compression and decompression.
Lossy Compression:
It produces compressed output that is exactly the same as the input.
. Define Multiprocessing?
Multiprocessing is deIined as the ability to support the concurrent
execution oI several tasks on multiple processors. This implies that ability
to use more than one CPU Ior executing programs. The processors can be
tightly or loosely coupled.
6. Define multitasking?
Multitasking means that the server operating systems can run multiple
programs and give the illusion that they are running simultaneously by
switching control between them.
Two types oI multitasking are used:
ONo preemptive
7. Define Multithreading?
Multithreading is a sophisticated and reIers to the ability to support paths
oI execution within a single address space. Older operating systems
achieve multitasking by creating multiple processes, which creates a great
deal oI overhead.
. Give brief notes about the types of storage technology?
$torage technology can be divided in to two types:
ONetwork-based (disk arrays)
ODesktop-based (CD-ROM)
Disk arrays:
Disk arrays store enormous oI inIormation and are becoming an important
storage technology Ior Iirewall servers and other electronic commerce
The preemptive desktop storage technology Ior electronic commerce
applications is CD-ROM.
. What are the types of Desktop video conferencing?
There are three types oI desktop video conIerencing they are
OPlain Old Telephone lines(POT$)
10. What is MBONE?
The MBONE is a virtual network that has been in existence since early
1992. The MBONE shares the same physical media as the internet. It uses
a network oI routers is not Ior the Iaint oI heart and is time consuming
because a lot oI learning and Iixing are involved.
11. Define SONET?
$ONET, or $ynchronous Optical NETwork, is a set oI standards that
govern synchronous Iiber optic data transmission at rates ranging Irom
51.8Mbps to 2.5Gbps.
12. How fast packet switching differs from the traditional circuit switching?
The Iast packet switching diIIers Irom the traditional circuit switching in
the Iollowing three aspects
OCall set-up
OTraIIic management
13. Describe the benefits of Frame relay?
Frame relay has two beneIits:
It is no longer necessary to carryout error controls and corrections between
each node due to the improvements in transmission media.
$haring costly bandwidth:
Frame relay allows users to share costly, high throughput channels over a
single access line, and it uses a 'hubbing¨ approach to distribute traIIic
over a wide area.
14. Describe the three functional levels in physical layer?
The physical layer can be divided into three Iunctional levels:
OTransmission path
ODigital section
ORegenerator section
1. What are the four dimensions in mobile computing?
The Iour dimensions in mobile computing are,
OWireless delivery technology and switching methods
OMobile inIormation access devices
OMobile data internetworking standards and equipment
OMobile computing based business applications
16. What are the categories of Radio based systems?
Radio based services can be grouped into two main categories:
OLand based
O$atellite based
17. What is palmtop?
Palmtop computers attempt to provide higher Iunctionality and more
closely resemble what`s available in desktop computers. Palmtops called
personal organizers. It oIIer the combined Iunctionality oI a personal
organizer and communications terminal to provide access an applicationspeciIic
personal computer and communications terminal to provide
access to e-mail.
1. Specify the advantage of circuit-Switched Cellular transmission?
The advantage oI circuit switched cellular transmission is that users should
be able to use a cellular modem as they would any modem. Because the
charge call is by the minute and also Ior set-up, cellular modems can be
more cost-eIIective when used to send large messages.
1. What is licensed broadband?
Licensed bandwidth allocation oI 120 MHz in the 1850 MHz to 1990
MHz band represents a considerable amount oI spectrum-by comparison,
the current cellular phone system, known as advanced mobile phone
system occupies only 50 MHz.
20. What is the application of unlicensed broadband?
These applications today are relegated to the industrial/scientiIic/medical
bands should make better use oI the radio spectrum and allow Ior more
simultaneous users and better signal quality.
1. Explain about digital video and electronic commerce?
OCharacteristics oI Digital video
ODigital video compression/Decompression
OTypes oI Codecs *Hybrid *$oItware-based
OThree Hybrid standards *JPEG *MPEG I *MPEG II
2. Describe Desktop Video Processing?
Video on the desktop is a key element in turning a computer into a true
multimedia platIorm. However digital video isn`t what one would call a
'natural Iit` when it comes to desktop computers due to their inability to
process the compression and decompression oI video satisIactorily.
ODesktop Video Hardware Ior playback and capture
OVideo playback
OVideo capture and Editing
ODesktop Video Application $oItware
OApple`s Quick Time
OMicrosoIt`s video Ior Windows
3. Explain Desktop video conferencing? What are the types of Desktop video
Desktop video conIerencing is gaining momentum as a communications
tool. For many business users, Iace-to-Iace videoconIerences are already a
common practice allowing distant colleagues to communicate without the
expense and inconvenience oI traveling.
OUsing POT$ Ior video conIerencing
OUsing I$DN Ior video conIerencing
OUsing the internet Ior video conIerencing *CU-$eeMe *MBONE
4. Describe the concept of Broadband background?
ONarrowband Versus Broadband Networks
OIntegrated services Digital Network (I$DN)
O$ONET and $DH
OConnectionless versus connection oriented networks
O$witching techniques *Call set-up *TraIIic management *$witching
. Explain about Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)?
ATM is a high-speed, connection-oriented, cell based transmission scheme
that oIIers bandwidth on demand Ior voice, data and video telephony applications.
ATM networks are being created to switching technology voice, data and video
signals at multiples oI 155 Mbps through multigigabit 'hubbing devices¨
Types oI ATM traIIic and switching:
OATM $witching
OATM cell structure
OATM system Architecture
6. Give brief description about wireless delivery technology and switching
ORadio-Based $ystems
OCellular Communications *Increasing Capability and widespread coverage Ior cordless
telephones *Decreasing cell size (micro cells) and power levels Ior
hand-held and vehicular cellular radio. *$pecialized wireless data systems
OWireless packet data networks
O$atellite networks
OVery small aperture terminals (V$ATs)
OPaging and satellite Networks
OInIrared or Light-Based Mobile computing
7. Explain Mobile information access devices?
OPortable computers
OHybrid pen computers
OPersonal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
ODigital Assistants
OPersonal communicators
OCellular modems and PCMIA adapters

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