Chapter 14 Study Guide

Pluralism: many clerics, especially higher ecclesiastics, held several benefices (or offices) all at once, but hardly visited all of them, let alone perform the spiritual responsibilities. Instead they collected revenues from all of them and hired a poor priest, paying him just a fraction of the income to fulfill the spiritual duties of particular local church. This made the people who went to church upset Indulgences: papal statements granting permission of priest imposed penalty for sin. Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin, before and after death/ began when the archbishop of Magdeburg, Albert, held benefices in multiple places this required papal dispensation so had to borrow money from a rich banking family the Fuggers, in order to pay the family back, the Pope gave Albert permission to sell indulgences/ indulgences could be bought no only for the person buying them but for deceased family members, and friends Martin Luther: • a German Augustinian Friar who launched the protestant reformation of the sixteenth century • wrote the 95 Theses, or propositions on indulgences and prompted his fight with Rome • rejected the idea that salvation could be achieved by good works, such as indulgences • criticized the papal wealth • was later declared an outlaw by Charles V at Worms in 1521 • believed that salvation derived through faith alone, not faith and good works • stated that religious authority rests with the Bible, not the Pope • believed that the church consists of the entire community of Christian believers • believed that all work is sacred and everyone should serve God in his or her individual vocation • also believed that every believer was his/her own priest • while catholics believed in transubstantiation, luther believed in consubstantiation • Luther’s ideas were popular because of widespread resentment of clerical privileges and wealth • Luther’s ideas attracted many preachers and they became Protestant leaders • Peasants cited Luther’s theology as part of their demands for social and economic reforms • peasant complaints about landlord seizure of village land and over crop failure lead to revolts, which Luther initially supported: in the end, Luther did not support the peasants’ revolts, he believed in obedience to civil authority • Luther’s greatest weapon was his mastery of the language, and his words were spread by the advent of printing • gave dignity to domestic work, stressed the idea of marriage and the Christian home, ended confession, and encouraged education for girls • held enlightened views on sex and marriage, although he claimed that women should be no more than efficient wives 95 Theses: a letter written by Marin Luther to archbishop Albert, argued that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, computed with the preaching of the Gospel, and downplayed the importance of Christian life/ posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517/ invited other scholars to debate him/ got copied and quickly spread all throughout Germany/ originally intended for academic debate/ Diet of Worms: series of imperial meetings at the bishop’s palace at Worms in the Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. On 18 April Luther

the institution of monasticism. and on 26 May Charles V issued an imperial Edict condemning those doctrines Indulgences: papal statements granting permission of priest imposed penalty for sin. or theocracy. and friends John Tetzel: a dominican friar hired by archbishop Albert to sell indulgences/ used catchy slogans to attract attention and bring in customers. were his belief in the omnipotence of God. Popular belief. held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin.declared his final refusal to recant those doctrines. success on earth determined place in heaven. others to damnation. Matthew to Revelations./ was convinced that Christian life rested on the Scriptures. hard work and no leisure time were signs of success/ Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans/ Predestination: Calvin’s teaching that by God’s decree some persons are guided to salvation. and predestination/ worked to establish a Christian society ruled b god through civil magistrates and reformed ministers/ believed that body and blood of Christ are spiritually but not physically present in the bread and wine. the Pope gave Albert permission to sell indulgences/ indulgences could be bought no only for the person buying them but for deceased family members. that God has called us not according to our works but according to his purpose and grace Theocracy: a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state’s supreme civil ruler. in which the state was subordinate to the church/ calvin’s central ideas expressed in The Institutes of Christian Religion. before and after death/ began when the archbishop of Magdeburg. a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided 2 . which were the pure words of God and the sole basis of religious truth/ went on to attack indulgences. however. Ulrich affirmed that the Lord’s Supper is a memorial of the Last Supper and that no change occurs in the elements John Knox: brought Calvinism to Scotland from Geneva John Calvin: Calvin believed that God selects certain people to do his work and that he was selected to reform the church/ under John Calvin. relying on Erasmus’s New Testament “from A to Z”. Albert. and they are consumed spiritually/ people are predestined for salvation. and clerical celibacy/ disagreed with LUther on various theological issues such as the nature of the Eucharist/ Swiss reformer. the insignificance of humanity. this worked very well/ drew up a chart with specific prices for the forgiveness of particular sins/ Pope Alexander VI: Used papal power and wealth to advance the material interests of his own family/ real name Rodrigo Borgia/ publicly acknowledged his mistress and children/ Charles V: Emperor Charles V summoned the Diet of Worms (a trial) and declares it illegal to give Martin Luther shelter and food/ inherited much of Europe and was committed to the idea of its religious and political unity/ Charles V was a vigorous defender of Catholicism/ shared blame with German princes for the disintegration of imperial authority in the empire/ did not care about the constitutional problems of Germany/ went to war with the Valois kings of France about 5 times between 1521 and 1555/ finally recognized Lutheranism in the Peace of Augsburg Ulrich Zwingly: Swiss humanist/ introduced reformation to Switzerland/ preached not from the church’s prescribed readings but. the Mass. in order to pay the family back. held benefices in multiple places this required papal dispensation so had to borrow money from a rich banking family the Fuggers. Geneva became “a city that was a church”. or in a higher sense.

a massive multiclass rebellion that proved the largest in english history/ the “pilgrims” accepted a truce. pacifism. which displeased people very much. ignorance. Most priests were less educated than the common people. Act of Supremacy: Declared King of England as Head of Church Anabaptists: general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. in accepting the status quo. nonetheless. adult baptism. and they were bitterly executed/ What were the problems or the early 16th century church? The church in the early 16th century was not in a good state of being at all. official recognized Lutheranism/ Each prince was permitted to choose their religion for their territory/ princes or town councils established state churches to which everyone had to belong/ whoever did not want to belong had to convert or leave Consubstantiation: the belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present (in spirit) but the bread and wine are not transformed/ Lutheran belief Transubstantiation: by the consecrating words of the priest during the Mass. and barely visited or practiced their religious responsibilities. children and some of them even got married. absenteeism and pluralism. executed and tried Elizabethan Settlement: term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeth’s reign that required conformity to the church of England and uniformity of church worship. Some priests just ignored their vows of celibacy and had mistresses. the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ. didn’t know how to read or write. There was Clerical immorality. Because of their belief in pacifism and that the Christian could not participate in civil affairs (by implication the separation of church and state) Luther. Charles V agreed to the Peace of Augsburg which. The higher levels of the church even lived luxurious lifestyles that aren’t recommended in the bible. popular opposition in the north to the religious changes led to the Pilgrimage of Grace. religious tolerance/ beliefs and practices were too radical for the times. Luther was severely troubled that ignorant people believed they had no further need to repent once they had purchased an indulgence 3 . materialism. and indulgences. who is then fully present in the bread and wine/ Catholic belief Pilgrimage of Grace: in 1536. and Catholics condemned and persecuted them/ believed in separation of church and state. and sometimes didn’t even know how to speak the language of the country they were sent to. and their leaders were arrested. the principle of papal authority was maintained. A bunch of priests held benefices in more than one place and collected revenue from each place in which they held benefice. considerable reform was undertaken and the spiritual renewal of the church was begun/ Tridentine decrees forbade the sale of indulgences and outlawed pluralism and simony/ attempts were made to curb clerical immorality and to encourage education/ great emphasis was placed on preaching Peace of Augsburg: In 1555. What circumstances inspired Martin Luther to post 95 Theses? The fact that the church was selling indulgences inspired Luther to post the 95 Theses. Calvin. The clergy were not exactly role model catholics.Council of Trent: Pope Paul III called the Council of Trent/ an attempt to reconcile with the Protestants which failed/ international politics hindered the theological debates.

Luther also 4 is Lutheranism different from the Catholic Church? Sacraments observed? Luther wanted to cut out the middle men and allow people to establish a relationship with God directly.: Catholics hold the dogma of trans. by the consecrating word of the priest during the mass. give salvation. ecclesiastical or secular. God. Roman Catholic practice of a clerical. hierarchal institution headed by the pope in Rome Transubstantiation vs. He also wanted to reform the church by teaching people that salvation did not come from penance or external observances but from faith alone. and interpreted by the individual’s conscience. Luther re-emphasized Catholic teaching that the church consists of entire community of Christian believers. Luther believed that authority rests in the word of God as in the bible alone. It is a decision of God.cons. Luther believed that the scriptures have three sacraments: baptism. Lutheranism Luther held that salvation comes from faith alone. not people. penance.: in opposition. every person should serve God in their own calling.trans. Medieval church men had identified the church with the clergy. Also he believed that everyone should be able to read and study the bible for themselves.How did Martin Luther want to “reform” the church. Luther argued that all vocations have equal merit. The medieval church stressed the superiority of the monastic and religious life over the secular. the belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present but the bread and wine are not transformed Why was Luther successful? Luther was successful because Luther’s linguistic skills in German attracted the literate and thoughtful middle class parties because Luther appealed to their intelligence. Luther defined that cons. Catholic doctrine support that there are seven sacraments. Luther’s idea of the church. invisible fellowship not fixed in any place or person Authority rests both in the bible and in traditional teaching of the church. who is then fully present in the bread and wine Luther. Consubstantiation Catholics. and the Eucharist. Lutheranism is different from the Catholic Church in such ways: Catholic Church Church teachings held that salvation is achieved by both faith and good works. the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of christ.

Scotland. The Presbyterian church became the national church of Scotland Anabaptists: Leader. monks. a religious settlement requiring outward conformity to the Church of England was made. and such self governing cities as Geneva and Zurich in Switzerland and Satsbourg in Germany had rejected the religious authority or Rome and had adopted new faiths What were the ideas and who were the leaders of the new religious sect. and Church of England. Calvin believed that God selects certain people to do his work and that he was selected to reform the church. Calvin’s central ideas. who used religion as a means of gaining more political independence and preventing the flow of German money to Rome. he and his teachings became known. Geneva became “a city that was a church” ( a theocracy). Calvinists did not view women much differently that Catholics: women were to be obedient to their husbands-. Under John Calvin. They believed men and women are sinful by nature. Luther attracted peasants also because he was a peasant himself when he was young. The Protestant movement proved to be a political disaster for Germany. although driven underground in the fifteenth century. English reformation.Under Elizabeth I. Church of England: Queen Elizabeth I.became successful because printing presses spread his messages and teachings all over Germany. and predestination. Church teachings based on bible alone. Presbyterians: Leader. survived and stressed the idea of a direct relationship between the individual and God. Presbyterian is the same religion as Calvinism except in Scotland. and priests had. Michael Servetus was burned at the stake for denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity and rejecting child baptism. They were men with superior knowledge and they had to give about 100 sermons a year. Catherine. Austere living and intolerance of dissenters characterized Calvin’s Geneva. Impact of the reformation on the political establishment in Germany? The Protestant Reformation stirred nationalistic feelings in Germany against the wealthy Italian papacy. Geneva. with its emphasis on the work ethic.Presbyterians. the insignificance of humanity. The English humanist William Tyndale began printing and English translation of the New Testament in 1525. So they established preacher-ships. expressed in The Institutes of Christian Religion. stirred much resentment.John Calvin. Educated townspeople condemned irregularity and poor quality of sermons. Lutherans. Anabaptists. Luther’s ideas attracted preacher-ships. daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella 5 . were his belief in the omnipotence of God. So city governments could relate to Lutheran's teachings and his feelings toward catholic clergies. The city of Geneva was the model for international Protestantism. Switzerland. The wealth and corruption of the clergy. Luther’s appeal to patriotism earned him the support of the princes. became the most dynamic and influential form of Protestantism Lutherans: Martin Luther. What other areas of Europe were impacted by the reformation? All of Scandinavia. as exemplified by Thomas Wolsey. Scotland. They believed that people could win salvation by faith and forgiveness. Calvinists. The Genevan Consistory monitored the private morals of citizens. All people are equal. Germany. Luther also became successful because city governments resented clerical privileges and immunities that nuns. England (except under Mary Tudor). Henry VIII desired a divorce from his queen. Calvin said the God chooses a few people to save. in which the state was subordinate to the church.John Knox.How did this happen? the Lollards.and unmarried women were upsetting the natural order. and Calvinism. Peasants like Luther and his teachings. They did not pay taxes and had lots of land. which are called the “elect”.

Henry’s heir. however. England shifted closer to Protestantism. Under Elizabeth I. engineered the divorce. Mary Tudor attempted to bring Catholicism back to England. Under Edward VI. resulting in greater efficiency and economy. so he dissolved the monasteries and confiscated their lands. Some traditional Catholic practices. The result was Reformation Henry needed money. Archbishop Cranmer. governmental administration. a religious settlement requiring outward conformity to the Church of England was made. such as confession. Pope Clement VII (who did not wish to admit papal error) refused to annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine.Order of succession: King Arthur -> King Henry VIII-> King Edward VI->Queen Mary->Elizabeth I 6 .of Spain so he could marry Anne Boleyn. but this did not lead to more equal land distribution. Tudor Dynasty.