# MBA SEMESTER III MB0050 –Research Methodology- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206 ) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question

carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions 1. a. Differentiate between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales, with an example of each. Ans
A) Some data are measured at the nominal level. That is, any numbers used are mere labels : they express no mathematical properties. Examples are SKU inventory codes and UPC bar codes. B) Some data are measured at the ordinal level. Numbers indicate the relative position of items, but not the magnitude of difference. An example is a preference ranking. C) Some data are measured at the interval level. Numbers indicate the magnitude of difference between items, but there is no absolute zero point. Examples are attitude scales and opinion scales. D) Some data are measured at the ratio level. Numbers indicate magnitude of difference and there is a fixed zero point. Ratios can be calculated. Examples include: age, income, price, costs, sales revenue, sales volume, and market share

b. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research?

This will prove that you are not just writing about any random subject but that many others have also poured their thoughts on the topic. While you have to fill most of the paper with your own analysis. and the like where you may be able to find any reference to the same topic that you are researching on. The more you include useless points in your paper. magazine. What would most certainly be lacking is the fact that your paper. and others. a. in a literature review alone. However. Obviously. article. novel. in this case. like that of Shakespeare alone. Literature review is also unique from the rest of the paper. newspaper. This time. pamphlet. There are many reasons why literature review is rendered as a significant part of any research or dissertation paper. Thus. Why literature survey is important in research? Research is made in order to inform people with new knowledge or discovery. without the literature review. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? b. what you can do to make your research more credible will be to support them with other works which have spoken about the same topic that you have for your research. This question can be answered by trying not to include the review in your paper. Thus. This is why literature review involves scanning the pages of any published literature like books. speech. website. comments. webpage. You can even have literature sources in works such as stories. By the mere fact that you are using “referencing” by citing what more credible people had said about the topic will build a stronger foundation for your paper. the committee who will scrutinize your paper? This is the need that is answered only by the literature review. With a literature review. poem. it is not to be expected that everybody would willingly believe what you are tackling in your whole research paper. Literature review is the part of the paper where the researcher will be given the opportunity to strengthen your paper for you will be citing what other reliable authors have said about your topic. theory. you will have to write purely about related works of other people. only contains all of your opinions about the facts that you have discovered through your research. “literature‟” does not exclusively refer to the poetic rendition of words. it affects the length of your paper but this is not the noticeable part. . project. You may also ask what makes literature review a necessary part of the paper. essay. you need to establish a clear tie between the works that you have cited and the topic that you are writing about. how can you further convince the readers. program. This is where literature review comes in.2. You should be able to justify the inclusion of a certain work in your review so as to make everything that you have written useful. paper. You may ask what makes it as such if it is only supposed to contain tidbits of other related works. collection. the more that the committee will think that you have not put in a lot of thinking into your paper.

The design anticipates potential problems in implementation. should choose from many design alternatives and consider over the trade-offs of each approach and decide the best possible solution. the researcher. new aspects. the research design decisions are influenced by the questions the investigator is trying to answer. Good research design finds its roots in theories. Situational. trained personnel. measurement and if necessary. 3. 4. The design comes up with strategies to cope with situational threats to validity such as "intergroup rivalry. Redundant. like an architect. Research design is a decision making process. Generally there are three types of research design: quantitative design. Generally speaking. methodologies. It has to be geared to the availability of data and the cooperation of the informants. and mixed methods design. It encourages co-ordination and effective organization. 2. 6. implementation procedures. Good research design reflects the setting of the investigation. new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. It has also to be kept within the manageable limits . 2. a. 3. 5. It reduces wastage of time and cost. Efficient. During the decision making process. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Research design is a formal plan of action for a research project. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications. It is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. 1.3. Good research design takes reality into account. Good research designs duplicate some essential design features. and money that the researcher have at hand. qualitative design. 4. Feasible. when the study progresses. Good research designs also refrain themselves from overdesign. that is. 5. includes additional groups or measurements. it has the power to test the existing theories as specific theoretical expectations are incorporated in the design. as circumstances demand. by the resources such as time. Research designs help researchers to lay out their research questions. competition". and data collection and analysis for the conduct of a research project. Characteristics 1. by the characteristics of the research sites. and also by the researcher's personal preferences. Theory-grounded.

1." In this way. Different types of research call for different experimental designs. age. The number of participants needed depends on the number of variables tested." Data Collection and Research Design o After the hypothesis is defined. such as laboratory tests for a biochemical research project. are conducted depending on the type of data. or a questionnaire or survey for marketing research. such as T-tests (which measure if two groups are statistically different from each other). hypothesis. living with a partner is healthier than living alone. an hypothesis could be "people living with partners have lower blood pressure than those living alone. Reporting of findings in scientific journals and other venues enables others to learn from and critique the research. general health. whether in the physical or social sciences. Revision of the Theory o If the hypothesis about living with a partner can lead to lower blood pressure was found to be statistically significant for older adults but not for younger ones. Experimental designs suffer when conducted in an artificial environment. An example of a theory would be a statement. These components include theory. . such as withholding a promising drug from a control group with a disease. such as "living with a partner is healthier than living alone. number and types of variables and data categories." An hypothesis is a testable statement based upon the theory. For example. the researcher then decides how to collect data. reporting the results and refining the theory. science builds upon and refines knowledge. Statistical Analysis and Reporting o A statistical analysis will determine if the findings of the study support the hypothesis. Each type of experimental design has advantages and disadvantages. Theory and Hypothesis o A theory is the over-reaching concept behind the research. analyzing data. sex and income. deductive research. Using the hypothesis above regarding couples and blood pressure. Drug tests involve many ethical issues. the variables tested would include blood pressure. the researcher looks at previous research and literature about the problem at hand. the theory that led to the hypothesis would need to be revised to take the new finding into account. A variety of statistical tests. Random samples ensure that the results of the study are not skewed due to the makeup of the test group. the presence of a partner.b. Questionnaires are cheap to distribute. choosing an experimental design and collecting data. What are the components of a research design? The key components of research design apply to all types of qualitative. In this first step. marital status. The original theory would be revised to state: "for older adults. but the sample returned will not be random. length of relationship. Chi-square tests (where data are compared to an expected outcome) and one-way analysis of variance (allows for the comparison of multiple groups). RD Info stresses the importance of a random sample.

further discussion in this section is restricted to only two phase sampling. height. Distinguish between Doubles sampling and multiphase sampling. in estimating the volume of a stand. usually a sub-sample. In the second phase. Double sampling is particularly useful in situations in which the enumeration of the character under study (main character) involves much cost or labor whereas an auxiliary character correlated with the main character can be easily observed.. Multiphase sampling plays a vital role in forest surveys with its application extending over continuous forest inventory to estimation of growing stock through remote sensing. etc. precise estimates for the main character can be obtained. In order to keep things simple. This technique is also referred to as double sampling. Thus it can be convenient and economical to take a large sample for the auxiliary variable in the first phase leading to precise estimates of the population total or mean of the auxiliary variable. The essential idea in multiphase sampling is that of conducting separate sampling investigations in a sequence of phases starting with a large number of sampling units in the first phase and taking only a subset of the sampling units in each successive phase for measurement so as to estimate the parameter of interest with added precision at relatively lower cost utilizing the relation between characters measured at different phases.4. It may be also possible to increase the precision of the final estimates by including instead of one. . number of shoots. a number of correlated auxiliary variables. can be taken as auxiliary variables. we may use diameter or girth of trees and height as auxiliary variables. a small sample. A sampling technique which involves sampling in just two phases (occasions) is known as two phase sampling. For example. In estimating the yield of tannin materials from bark of trees certain physical measurements like the girth. a. is taken wherein both the main character and the auxiliary character may be observed and using the first phase sampling as supplementary information and utilizing the ratio or regression estimates.

For example. The two major advantages of using secondary data in market research are time and cost savings. canes. potential product applications and the market place. is secondary information acquired within the organization where research is being carried out. A first stage sample for an auxiliary character may be used to sub-divide the population into strata in which the second (main) character varies little so that if the two characters are correlated.Like many other kinds of sampling.. period. reeds. precise estimates of the main character can be obtained from a rather small second sample for the main character. or inhouse data. Another use of double sampling is in stratification of a population. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? 5. the estimate of growing stock at a subsequent. External secondary data is obtained from outside sources. It may be mentioned that it is possible to couple with double sampling other methods of sampling like multistage sampling (sub-sampling)known for economy and enhancing the accuracy of the estimates. Secondary data is also used to gain initial insight into the research problem. blocks or plots may be taken for estimating the yield b. a. and estimate of the change in growing stock can be obtained based on a relatively small sample using double sampling technique. A variety of secondary information sources is available to the researcher gathering data on an industry. This technique can be used very advantageously in resurveys of forest areas. etc. Internal. a two-stage sample of compartments (or ranges) and topographical sections (or blocks) may be taken for the estimation of the effective area under the species and a subsample of topographical sections. How is secondary data useful to researcher? Research using Secondary Data Sources Secondary data is information gathered for purposes other than the completion of a research project. . in estimating the availability of grasses. After an initial survey of an area. double sampling is a technique useful in reducing the cost of enumerations and increasing the accuracy of the estimates. say 10 or 15 years later. Secondary data is classified in terms of its source – either internal or external.

Data published to promote the interest of a particular group. not all data . the data must have the same units of measurement specified in the project. For example. There are also a number of disadvantages of using secondary data. must be applicable to the periods of time in question. for instance. When feasible. the capabilities and motivation of the individuals responsible for the data collection should also be appraised. This often reduces itself to a matter of authority and prestige. whether political commercial or social are suspect. highly trained personnel. experience. and must be derived from the universe. The research may have been done months or even years earlier. or is only available in insufficient quantities. Much secondary data is several years old and may not reflect the current market conditions. the researcher must examine the organization that collected the data and the purposes for which they were published. the researcher need only locate the source of the data and extract the required information. specialized. Discovering the purpose for which data are published is mandatory for an adequate evaluation of secondary data. can obtain accurate information about income more easily than any private firm simply because it has legal authority to do so. The choice should be guided by the determination of which data score highest on the following considerations: Pertinency: To be usable. These include:     Secondary information pertinent to the research topic is either not available. When secondary data is available. Substantial useful secondary data can be collected in a matter of days by a skillful analyst. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data?       On many occasions.    The secondary research process can be completed rapidly – generally in 2 to 3 week. An organization that makes the collection and publication of data its chief functions is apt to furnish accurate data. Trade journals and other publications often accept articles six months before appear in print. Some secondary data may be of questionable accuracy and reliability. The US Bureau of Internal Revenue. researchers must choose from two or more sources of data. Classes of data must be constructed in the same way as in the project. Obviously. Reputation. many trade magazines survey their members to derive estimates of market size. b. Secondary research is generally less expensive than primary research. The ability of an organization to procure the wanted information is a pivotal consideration. Who collected and Published the Data and Why: In evaluating secondary data. and degree of independence on the particular project are all genuine considerations in assessing the reliability of an „expert‟. then average out these results. Often these statistics are merely average opinions based on less than 10% of their members. An individual working for an independent research agency would be more likely to turn out an accurate report than the same individual working or an organization committed to one side of a question. Secondary research expenses are incurred by the originator of the information. Even government publications and trade magazines statistics can be misleading. the success of such a firm depends on the long-run satisfaction of its client that the information supplied is accurate. The bulk of secondary research data gathering does not require the use of expensive. At the same time. market growth rate and purchasing patterns. Data may be in a different format or units than is required by the researcher.

Though they try to be honest. . 6. Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection. describe their methods. there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. As a method of data collection. Most primary sources. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. there are differences that will be highlighted in this article. Observation Observation. All too. in the form of questionnaires. Interviewing Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. Use of wrong methods of data collection or any inaccuracy in collecting data can have significant impact on the results of a study and may lead to results that are not valid. Nevertheless information so procured should always be handled with care. credited to sources with an axe to grind should be dismissed out of hand. as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. There are many techniques of data collection along a continuum and observation and interviewing are two of the popular methods on this continuum that has quantitative methods at one end while qualitative methods at the other end. Though there are many similarities in these two methods and they serve the same basic purpose. Collection of data is the most crucial part of any research project as the success or failure of the project is dependent upon the accuracy of the data. [10 marks]. they have their own strengths and weaknesses. often shyness about revealing the procedures used to collect data suggest the employment of inadequate methods. observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. however. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. researchers should be hesitant about using the information provided. even if only briefly. there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. These interviews could be either one to one. However. Data Collection Methods: If a source fails to give a detailed description of its method of data collection. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing.

Answer all the questions 1. Briefly explain Interviewing techniques in Business Research? [ 5marks] b. a.1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. What is the Utility of Observation in Business Research? [ 5 marks] 2.4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set. What are the various steps in processing of data? [ 5 marks] b. What are the fundamental of frequency Distribution? [ 5 marks] b. What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data? [ 5 marks] . a.MBA SEMESTER III MB0050 –Research Methodology. [ 5 marks] b. What are the problems encountered in Interview? [ 5 marks] 3. a. How is data editing is done at the Time of Recording of Data? [ 5 marks] 4. Explain the General characteristics of observation. a.

Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. Analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research.5. would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? [10 marks] 6. [5 marks]. a. [5 Marks] . b. Strictly speaking.