# Aperture Antennas

INEL 5305 Prof. Sandra Cruz-Pol ECE, UPRM

Ref. Balanis Chpt. 12

Aperture Antennas
Most common at microwave frequencies Can be flushed-mounted We will analyze radiation characteristics at far field
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Rectangular aperture Circular aperture

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y ) Y yx = −k x2 Y yx u ( x. y ) ∂x ∂u 2 ( x. y)e −∞ jk x x + jky y dx dy ∫∫ ∞ −∞ U (k x . y ) Yx = − jk x Y x u ( x. k y )e − jk x x − jk y y dk x dk y Properties of Fourier Transform ds (t ) = jωY t s (t ) dt ∂u ( x. y ) = 1 4π 2 − ∞ −∞ ∞ ∫ ∫ u(x. ky )= u ( x. y ) 2 Yx = (− jk x ) Y x u ( x. U(k x . y ) 2 ∂x Yt 2 . y ) 2 ∂x ∂u 2 ( x.Far field is the F of the near field Fourier Transform for 1-D f t ∞ −∞ W (k x ) = ∫ w( x)e jk x x dx −∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ w( x) = 1 2π ∫ W (k x )e − jk x x dk x For two-dimensions. x and y.

And we obtain.∇ 2 E + k o2 E = 0 ∇⋅E = 0 ⎛∂ ∂2 ⎞ ∂ ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟E + ko2 E = 0 ⎜ ∂x ∂z ⎟ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ∂E x ( x. we define. z ) + (ko2 − k x2 − k y )E(k x . k y . k . k y . k y . z ) + j z x y ⎟ = 0 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ Now. z ) ∂z 2 + k z2E(k x . z ) + k y E y (k x . z ) ∂E y ( x. y. y . z ) = 1 4π 2 ∞ −∞ ∫∫ ∞ −∞ f (k x . k y . y. k y . z ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ k x Ex (k x . k y . k y )e − jk ⋅r dk x dk y 3 . z ) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=0 + + ⎜ ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 Taking the Fourier transform of the 2 equations above: ∂2 2 E(k x . z ) ∂E z ( x. z ) = 0 2 ∂z ∂E (k . 2 k z2 = ko2 − k x2 − k y ∂ 2 E( k x . y. z ) = f (k x . k y . z ) = 0 − jk z Which has a solution of E(k x . k y )e z Then we take the inverse transform E( x .

4 .If z=0. y. ky )= − ∞ −∞ ∫ ∫ u(x. k y )e − jk x x − jk y y dk x dk y Which looks like: u ( x. k y )e − jk x x − jk y y dk x dk y Which is the inverse of F… This is the Fourier transform for 2 dimensions. =>First. we are at the aperture E a ( x. y )e Sa jk x x + jk y y dxdy It can be shown that. E(r ) ≈ jk o cos θ − jko r e f t (k o a cos θ cos φ . we can used these equations to find E(r). y)e ∞ ∞ jk x x + jky y dx dy ft ( k x . k y ) = ∫∫ Ea ( x. y ) = E tan ( x. k o b sin θ sin φ ) 2πr Therefore. so: U(k x . if we know the field at the aperture. then.0) = 1 4π 2 ∞ −∞ ∫∫ ∞ −∞ f (k x . y ) = 1 4π 2 ∞ −∞ ∫∫ ∞ −∞ U (k x . we’ll look at the case when the illumination at the rectangular aperture it’s uniform.

the aperture is axb. y ) = Eo x =0 for |x| ≤ a a b |y| ≤ b elsewhere ft = Eo x ∫ ∫ e − a− b jk x x + jk y y dxdy = 4abEo x = 4abEo x = 4abEo x sin k x a sin k y b kxa k yb sin (ko a sin θ cosφ ) sin (kob sin θ sin φ ) ko a sin θ cos φ kob sin θ sin φ sin u sin v u v E(r ) = jk o 4abEo − jko r sin u sin v ˆ ˆ θ sin φ − φ cos φ cosθ e 2πr u v ( ) *Note: in Balanis book. above.Uniformly illuminated rectangular aperture E a ( x. How does this pattern looks… u = ko a sin θ cos φ v = ko b sin θ sin φ 5 . so no 4 factor on the eq.

y ) = Eo cos⎜ ⎟ y for . is 100% but in practice difficult to implement uniform illumination. 6 .b / 2 ≤ y' ≤ b / 2 ⎝ a ⎠ =0 elsewhere ˆ ft = Eo y ∫ ∫ cos( − a −b a b πx a )e jk x x + jk y y dxdy u 2 v Y= 2 X= u = ko a sin θ cos φ v = kob sin θ sin φ E(r ) = − jko abEo e − jko r 4r sin Y ˆ ˆ θ sin φ − φ cos φ cos θ 2 Y ⎛π ⎞ X 2 −⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ cos X ( ) Rectangular Aperture: Directivity ⎛ 4π ⎞ Do =∈ap ab⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝λ ⎠ For TE10 illuminated Rectangular Aperture the aperture efficiency is around 81%.TE10 illuminated rectangular aperture .a / 2 ≤ x' ≤ a / 2 ⎛ πx' ⎞ ˆ E a ( x. For the uniform illumination.

is 100% but in practice difficult to implement uniformity 7 . For the uniform illumination.Circular Aperture (Uniform illumination) In this case we use cylindrical coordinates ft = Eo x ∫ ∫ e jk o sin θ cos(φ −φ ') ρ dφ ' dρ 0 0 a 2π = 2πa 2 Eo x J1 (ko a sin θ ) ko a sin θ Circular Aperture w/ uniform illumination 2 ⎛C ⎞ Do =∈ap ⎜ ⎟ ⎝λ⎠ For TE11 illuminated Circular Aperture the aperture efficiency is around 84%.