Topic 5.

5 Organic chemistry analysis, synthesis and application
(a) Organic analysis(i) Functional groups functional group -C=C-Cl reagent conditions bromine in inert solvent warm with NaOH(aq) add HNO3 then AgNO3 then NH3 (aq) warm with NaOH(aq) add HNO3 then AgNO3 then NH3 (aq) warm with NaOH(aq) add HNO3 then AgNO3 then NH3 (aq) add solid PCl5 warm with acidified aqueous potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 warm with acidified aqueous conc. potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 result of positive test orange bromine decolourised white ppt. of AgCl soluble in dil. NH3 (aq) cream ppt. of AgBr soluble in conc NH3 (aq) yellow ppt. of AgI Insoluble in conc NH3 (aq) acrid steamy fumes of HCl orange colour changes to green product tests +ve for -CHO orange colour changes to green product does not test +ve for -CHO no change yellow ppt. of hydrazone no change in blue colour yellow ppt. of hydrazone red/brown ppt of Cu2O forms


-I -OH primary -CH2-OH secondary -CH-OH | tertiary | -C-OH | -C=O | -CHO

warm with acidified aqueous conc. potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 add 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine warm with Fehling's solution add 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine warm with Fehling's solution

-COOH -C=O -CH-OH | | add iodine then aqueous NaOH CH3 CH3 ethanal ethanol

warm with AgNO3(aq) in NH3(aq) add NaHCO3

silver mirror forms effervescence CO2 formed yellow ppt. and antiseptic smell of iodoform

Task 5.5a.1 Complete a copy of the table below with names and structural formulae: functional group compound giving positive test similar compound with giving negative test

Task 5.5a.2 Write an equation for each of the reactions above. Task 5.5a.3 Predict the result of carrying out an iodoform test on the following compounds: methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, methanal, ethanal, propanone. (ii) Interpretation of physical data * A pure solid can be identified by its melting temperature, a pure liquid by its boiling temperature. Aldehydes and ketones produce solid derivatives with 2,4dinitrophenylhydrazine (hydrazones) which have high melting points. The melting points of these derivatives can be used to identify the original ketone or aldehyde. substance propanal pentan-2-one pentan-3-one boiling point/oC 48 102 102 melting point of hydrazone/oC 156 141 156

What are the identities of the following: Compound A forms a yellow precipitate with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and an orange precipitate with Fehlings solution. When the yellow precipitate is purified it melts at 156oC. Compound B forms a yellow precipitate with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine but does not

form a silver mirror with Tollens reagent. When the yellow precipitate is purified it melts at 156oC. The percentage by mass of Carbon and Hydrogen in a hydrocarbon can be found by the following method; A known mass of the compound heated in a stream of pure, dry oxygen in the presence of copper (II) oxide when hydrogen and carbon are oxidised, to steam and carbon dioxide respectively. The steam absorbed in weighed calcium chloride tubes, and carbon dioxide absorbed in weighed bulbs of concentrated potassium hydroxide solution. The masses of carbon and hydrogen in the sample are found from the increases in mass. Draw suitable labelled apparatus for the above procedure. If 7.80g of a hydrocarbon causes calcium chloride to increase in mass by 5.40g and potassium hydroxide to increase in mass by 26.4g what was the formula of the hydrocarbon? 5.5a(iii)(a) interpret simple fragmentation patterns from a mass spectrometer An organic compound produces ions in a mass spectrometer. The ions generate pulses of electric current which are sent as signals to a computer (or chart plotter) to be displayed as a mass spectrum. On the spectrum the large peak on the right is the parent molecular ion and this indicates the relative molecular mass of the compound. In the spectrometer the molecules are fragmented into positive ions which form a pattern which depends on the structure of the molecule. e.g. ether

Another compound of relative molecular mass 46 also contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen has the mass spectrum below. Identify each fragment and the structural

A measure of the frequency (wavenumber) is displayed in the spectrum. These might be stretching.formula.1750 1000 .5a (iii) (b) interpret simple infra-red spectra The bonds in organic molecule absorb infra-red radiation.5a(iii)a 5. Task 5.1300 700 .3550 2500 . A spectrometer shines infra-red light at a sample of an organic material and measures how much of the light is absorbed.3500 .800 3233 . Sketch the mass spectrum of propanal showing the masses of each fragment.3095 1610 .1680 1680 . This happens when the frequency of the radiation matches the natural frequency of vibrations in the bonds.3300 3100 . Each bond has its own frequency (wavenumber) and this can be used to identify the bonds present in a compound. or bending vibrations. bond C-H C-C C=O C-O C-Cl O-H N-H wavenumber/cm-1 seen on spectrum 2840 .

The exact resonance frequency for a proton (hydrogen atom) depends on its environment. Trimethylsilane.5aiiib 5. C6H5. This absorption of energy is used to detect protons in organic compounds. Type of proton R-CH3 R-CH2 R-CH2-OC6H5-O-H Chemical Shift (ppm) 0.0 7. The distance in the spectrum from the TMS peak is called the chemical shift. This can be aligned or not aligned with a magnetic field . TMS.3 4. The nucleus of a hydrogen atom. spins and so has a magnetic moment.and in O-H.0 . the proton.Infra-red spectrum for propanone Is substance A in the infra-red spectrum below most likely to be ethyl ethanoate or butane? Task 5. is used as a standard. CH2 . When electromagnetic radiation of the right frequency is applied resonance occurs and the protons flip from one state to the other and absorb energy.9 1.5 5.5a(iii)(c) Low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) Hydrogen atoms can be detected using this sort of spectrometry. For example the frequency is different for hydrogen atoms in CH3.

Sketch an NMR spectrum for propanal. Some chemical structures absorb electromagnetic radiation in the ultra violet part of . An excellent guide to low resolution nmr.-CHO 9.5a (iii) (d) The interpretation of simple ultra-violet/visible spectra.5 To which functional groups do the protons in the following NMR spectrum belong? Identify the compound. 5.

the spectrum.4hexadiene is shown below. which gives tomatoes their red colour. absorbs at 505nm. Visible light has wavelength between 400nm and 800nm. which gives carrots their orange colour absorbs at 497nm. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum for 2. Lycopene.5b(i)Pathways for organic synthesis Alkanes Organic reactant Alkane ethane C2H6 Alkane ethane C2H6 Alkenes Organic reactant Alkene ethene C2H4 unsymmetric alkene prop-1-ene Reagent halogen bromine Br2 hydrogen halide hydrogen bromide Conditions inert solvent inert solvent Organic Products halogenoalkane 1.2-dibromoethane CH2BrCH2Br halogenoalkane 2-bromopropane Reagent halogen bromine Br2 halogen chlorine Cl2 Conditions UV light inert solvent UV light inert solvent Organic Products halogenoalkane bromoethane CH3CH2Br halogenoalkane chloroethane CH3CH2Cl .g. These include conjugated (contain alternate double and single bonds) dienes. Ultra-violet wavelengths are from about 200nm to about 400nm. -carotene. 5. Both of these compounds have 11 conjugated double bonds.5-dimethyl-2. E. 1.3-butadiene.

6-tribromophenol C6H2Br3OH ester ethylbenzoate below 5oC below 5oC NaNO2 and dil HCl heat under reflux aqueous aqueous .4.CH3CHCH2 Alkene ethene C2H4 Arenes Organic reactant arene benzene C6H6 arene methylbenzene C6H5CH3 arene benzene C6H6 arene benzene C6H6 arene benzene C6H6 diazonium salt benzen diazonium chloride C6H5N2+Cldiazonium salt benzene diazonium chloride C6H5N2+Clphenylamine C6H5NH2 nitrobenzene C6H6NO2 phenol C6H5OH phenol C6H5OH phenol C6H5OH HBr potassium manganate(VII) KMnO4 alkaline solution CH3CHBrCH3 ethane-1.2-diol CH2OHCH2OH Reagent nitric acid sulphuric acid potassium manganate VII chloroalkane chloromethane CH3Cl acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl halogen bromine Br2 phenol C6H5OH 2-naphthol nitrous acid HNO2 concentrated hydrochloric acid and tin HCl and Sn sodium hydroxide bromine ethanoyl chloride Conditions heat under reflux below 60oC concentrated acids alkaline conditions heat under reflux anhydrous aluminium chloride as catalyst anhydrous aluminium chloride as catalyst anhydrous aluminium chloride as catalyst below 5oC Organic Products nitrobenzene C6H5NO2 benzoic acid C6H5COOH arene methylbenzene C6H5CH3 ketone methylphenylketone C6H5COCH3 halogenoarene bromobenzene C6H5Br azo dye C6H5N2C6H5OH azo dye C10H6(OH)N2C6H5 diazonium salt benzenediazonium chloride C6H5N2+Clphenylamine C6H5NH2 sodium phenoxide C6H5ONa 2.

H2SO4 phosphorus and iodine red phosphorus carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl phosporus pentachloride concentrated H2SO4 . .C6H5COOC2H5 Primary alcohols Organic reactant primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH primary alcohol ethanol C2H5OH Reagent aqueous potassium dichromate VI dilute sulphuric acid aqueous potassium dichromate VI dilute sulphuric acid hydrogen halide hydrogen bromide HBr Conditions Organic Products aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br halogenoalkane iodoethane C2H5I ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 halogenoalkane chloroethane C2H5Cl distil product mild conditions boil under reflux forcing conditions heat under reflux HBr formed in situ from KBr and conc.dry Secondary alcohols Organic reactant secondary alcohol propan-2-ol Reagent aqueous potassium dichromate VI sulphuric acid Conditions conc. acid heat under reflux Organic Products ketone propanone CH3COCH3 .

phosphorus and 2-ol iodine (CH3)3OH red phosphorus ester CH3COOC(CH3)3 halogenoalkane 2-iodo-2methylpropropane (CH3)3I . red phosphorus dry tertiary alcohol carboxylic acid 2-methylpropanethanoic acid 2-ol CH3COOH (CH3)3COH heat concentrated H2SO4 tertiary alcohol acid chloride 2-methylpropanethanoyl chloride . H2SO4 Organic Products halogenoalkane 2-bromo-2methylpropane (CH3)3Br ester CH3COOC(CH3)3 heat under reflux HBr formed in situ from KBr and conc. 2-ol CH3COCl (CH3)3OH tertiary alcohol 2-methylpropan.CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary hydrogen halide alcohol hydrogen bromide propan-2-ol HBr CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary carboxylic acid alcohol ethanoic acid propan-2-ol CH3COOH CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary acid chloride alcohol ethanoyl chloride propan-2-ol CH3COCl CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary alcohol phosphorus and propan-2-ol iodine CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary alcohol phosporus propan-2-ol pentachloride CH3CH(OH)CH3 Tertiary alcohols Organic reactant tertiary alcohol 2-methylpropan2-ol (CH3)3OH Reagent hydrogen halide hydrogen bromide HBr Conditions heat under reflux HBr formed in situ from KBr and conc. H2SO4 halogenoalkane 2-bromopropane CH3CH2(Br)CH3 ester 2-propylethanoate CH3COOCH(CH3)2 ester 2-propylethanoate CH3COOCH(CH3)2 halogenoalkane 2-iodopropropane CH3CH(I)CH3 halogenoalkane 2-chloropropane CH3CH2(Cl)CH3 concentrated H2SO4 .

phosporus 2-ol pentachloride (CH3)3OH Carboxylic acids Organic reactant carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH Primary amines Organic reactant primary amine ethylamine C2H5NH2 primary amine ethylamine C2H5NH2 Halogenoalkanes Organic reactant halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br Reagent hydroxide ion sodium hydroxide NaOH hydroxide ion potassium hydroxide Reagent Reagent alcohol ethanol C2H5OH dry halogenoalkane (CH3)3Cl Conditions heat concentrated H2SO4 dissolved in dry ether Organic Products ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 alcohol ethanol C2H5OH acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl salt sodium ethanoate CH3COONa lithium aluminium hydride phosphorus pentachloride sodium carbonate or sodium hydrogencarbonate dry Conditions aqueous solution Organic Products salt alkyl ammonium chloride C2H5NH3+Clamide N-ethylethanamide CH3CONHC2H5 acid hydrochloric acid HCl acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl Conditions Organic Products alcohol ethanol C2H5OH alkene ethene C2H4 aqueous solution heat and distil off product ethanolic solution .tertiary alcohol 2-methylpropan.

4dinitrophenylhydrazine C6H3(NO2)2NHNH2 iodine or sodium iodide and alkaline conditions chloate(I) .KOH halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br halogenoalkane bromoethane C2H5Br cyanide ion potassium cyanide KCN ammonia heat under reflux in ethanolic solution nitrile propanonitrile C2H5CN amine heat with concentrated ammonia ethylamine etc in a sealed tube C2H5NH 2 .4dinitrophenyhydrozone C6H3(NO2)2NHNC(CH3)2 halogenoalkane tri-chloromethane hydrogen cyanide 2. nitrile 2-hydroxy -2methylpropanonitrile CH3C(OH)(CH3)CN 2. (C2H5)2NH etc in solution in dry ether grignard reagent ethylmagnesiumbromide C2H5MgBr magnesium Mg Grignard reagent Organic reactant Reagent Conditions in ether solution followed by dilute acid in ether solution followed by dilute acid Organic Products primary alcohol propan-1-ol C2H5CH2OH secondary alcohol butan-2-ol CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3 tertiary alcohol 2-methylpropan-2-ol (CH3)3OH carboxylic acid propanoic acid C2H5COOH grignard reagent methanal ethylmagnesiumbromide HCHO C2H5MgBr grignard reagent aldehyde ethylmagnesiumbromide ethanal C2H5MgBr CH3CHO grignard reagent ketone in ether solution followed by ethylmagnesiumbromide propan-2-one dilute acid C2H5MgBr (CH3)2CO grignard reagent carbon ethylmagnesiumbromide dioxide C2H5MgBr CO2 Ketones Organic reactant ketone propanone (CH3)2CO ketone propanone (CH3)2CO ketone propanone Reagent Conditions in alkaline conditions potassium cyanide used as source of HCN dil. sulphuric acid in ether solution followed by dilute acid Organic Products alcohol.

(CH3)2CO ketone propanone (CH3)2CO ketone propanone (CH3)2CO Aldehydes Organic reactant aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO Reagent Conditions sodium borohydride NaBH4 aqueous solution (iodoform) secondary alcohol propan-2-ol CH3CH(OH)CH3 secondary alcohol propan-2-ol CH3CH(OH)CH3 Lithium aluminium hydride dry LiAlH4 ether solution Organic Products hydrogen cyanide 2.4dinitrophenyhydrozone C6H3(NO2)2NHNCHCH3 carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH halogenoalkane tri-chloromethane (iodoform) alcohol ethanol C2H5OH alcohol ethanol C2H5OH warm in water bath iodine or sodium iodide and alkaline conditions chlorate(I) sodium borohydride NaBH4 aqueous solution Lithium aluminium hydride dry LiAlH4 ether solution Acid chlorides Organic reactant acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl Reagent water H2O alcohol ethanol CH3CH2OH Conditions .4dinitrophenylhydrazine C6H3(NO2)2NHNH2 ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollen's reagent) in alkaline conditions alcohol. nitrile 2potassium cyanide hydroxypropanonitrile used as source of CH3CH(OH)(CN) HCN dilute sulphuric acid 2. Organic Products carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 no water .

Organic Products nitrile ethanonitrile CH3CN amine methylamine CH3NH2 bromine aqueous alkali Organic Products alcohol. sodium ethanoate C2H5OH. acid ethanol. Organic reactant Reagent nitrile ethanonitrile CH3CN nitrile ethanonitrile CH3CN nitrile ethanonitrile CH3CN Amides Organic reactant amide ethanamide CH3CONH2 amide ethanamide CH3CONH2 Esters Organic reactant ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 ester ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5 Reagent water Conditions Reagent phosphorus V oxide water Conditions acidic heat under reflux Organic Products carboxylic acid ethanoic acid CH3COOH water salt alkaline heat under reflux sodium ethanoate CH3COONa amine ethylamine CH3CH2NH2 lithium aluminium hydride dry ether solution Conditions . CH3COOH alcohol ethanol.acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl acid chloride ethanoyl chloride CH3COCl Nitriles ammonia NH3 primary amine phenylamine C6H5NH2 conc. ammonia amide ethanamide CH3CONH2 amide N-phenylethanamide CH3CONHC6H5 . ethanoic acid C2H5OH. sulphuric acid water aqueous sodium hydroxide . CH3COONa conc.

When carrying out organic reactions safety goggles should always be worn. fume cupboards.5. Non-biodegradability Some substances do not decay naturally in the environment. and pouring waste solvents in a suitable container rather than pouring it down the sink. Some common apparatus for organic preparation: Quickfit apparatus such as a pear shaped flask Liebig condenser T connector thermometer holder . gloves and normal laboratory safety procedures reduces the risk of harmful amounts of a chemical entering the body by inhalation. Use electrical heaters Toxicity The use of small amounts. Avoid naked flames.5b (ii) Apparatus and safety in organic synthesis Organic compounds may be hazardous because of: Flammability. ingestion or by skin absorption. Use in small amounts avoids the undue risk of fire. The hazard is reduced by using small quantities.


5b (iii) Practical techniques Mixing can involve adding a liquid to a solid or another liquid using a separating funnel. Practice setting up reflux apparatus. boiling under reflux.Separating funnel delivery tubes 5. (Needs Microsoft Word.) . Mixing can involve adding a gas to a liquid through a delivery tube into the liquid.

.fractional distillation.

Filtration under reduced pressure (filter pump and Buchner funnel an flask). .

If a solid product has been purified it can be identified from its melting point or if we know what it is we can tell if it is pure. 6. The solvent is suitable if the product is insoluble in the cold solvent but soluble in the hot solvent. Soluble impurities are now removed. Dissolve the impure sample in the minimum volume of hot solvent.Recrystallisation This is used to purify an impure organic solid. This removes solid impurities which were insoluble in the solvent.02 gcm-3 0.01 gcm-3 50% water 50% ethanol 0.06 gcm-3 Determination of melting temperature A pure solid has a sharp melting point which can be found in a data book. Wash the residue with a little cold solvent. . Solvent Solubility of X in cold solvent Solubility of X in hot solvent 0. Choose a suitable solvent. Again filter the mixture under reduced pressure. 4. 1. Impurities lower the melting point.06 gcm-3 3. Filter the hot solution through hot apparatus and collect the filtrate. 3. 5. 2. Allow the filtrate to cool so that crystals of the product form. Dry the residue which should then be the pure product.65 gcm-3 water 0. 7. Describe with a series of labelled diagrams how compound X can be purified using the information below.03 gcm-3 ethanol 0.

Comment on the purification of X by student A and B given the data below. After the sample is melted it is allowed to cool.1. 2. 3. MP of X in data book/oC MP of X by student A/oC 128 129 Mp of X by student B/oC 126 . When the first crystals of solid appear in the sample the temperature is recorded again. 5. The apparatus is heated gently with stirring until the first solid is seen to melt when the temperature is recorded. 4. A liquid is chosen for the boiling tube so that its boiling point is well above the melting point of the solid. The apparatus is set up as shown.

Other apparatus 5. using an electrical heating mantle which can surround a round bottom flask or using a water bath.5b(iv) The principles of fractional distillation Raoult's Law Raoult's law states that the saturated vapour pressure of a component in a mixture is equal to the product of the mole fraction of that component and the saturated vapour pressure of that component when pure. Alternatives include using an electrically heated hot plate.Determination of boiling temperature In both apparatus the bulb of the thermometer is below the surface of the liquid but not touching the side of the glass. Heating with a variety of sources Heating with a naked Bunsen flame is a fire hazard with flammable organic compounds. For a mixture of A and B obeying Raoult's law pA = poA * XA where pA = partial vapour pressure of A in the solution poA = vapour pressure of pure A XA = mole fraction of A in the solution .

(2) no volume change on mixing. The substances A and B form an ideal solution if the intermolecular forces A----A. pT = poA * XA + poB * XB where pT = total vapour pressure This law is obeyed by mixtures of similar compounds. B----B are all equal. Also for an ideal solution there is: (1) no enthalpy change on mixing.1 Pure hexane has a vapour pressure of about 340 mmHg and pure pentane has a vapour pressure of about 310 mmHg.mole fraction of A in mixture A+B. moles A nB= no. They form IDEAL SOLUTIONS. moles B. As these forces are alike the vapour pressure of an ideal mixture is not increased or decreased because the escape of molecules is neither helped nor hindered. Sketch a vapour pressure composition graph and a boiling point composition graph for a mixture of these two compounds.5biv. XA = nA/nA+nB nA= no. Diagrams for Idea Solutions Task 5. . A----B.

fuel oil 300 oC. Fractions are oxygen -183oC. The air is compressed and cooled to liquefy it. The fractions are bitumen >350oC. LPG <25 oC. and nitrogen -196oC. petrol 40 oC. Boiling points for any composition of this mixture will be higher than predicted. (2) used to separate fractions from petroleum. The particles of one liquid surround those of the other and change the forces on them so affecting their tendency to escape from the liquid. Principles of fractional distillation Fractional distillation relies on the fact that the composition of a two liquid mixture in equilibrium with its vapour is different in the liquid and vapour phases. . (1) Negative from deviations Raoult's law: If the attractive forces between the different particles from the two liquids are stronger than the attractive forces in pure liquids. then the particles will be held in the liquid more strongly. diesel 240 oC. kerosene 200 oC. thus the vapour pressure will be lower than predicted by Raoult's law. Fractions are ethanol 78 oC and water 100 oC. (3) used to produce whisky and other alcoholic drinks. Therefore fewer particles will escape. naptha 120 oC.Fractional distillation This technique has a number of important applications: (1) used to separate the components of liquid air. argon -186oC. Real mixtures are not ideal and show deviations from Raoult's law.

then the particles will be held in the liquid less well. A plot of temperature against composition is needed to explain how fractional distillation works.(2) Positive deviations from Raoult's law: If the attractive forces between the different particles from the two liquids are weaker than the attractive forces in the pure liquids. Boiling points for any composition of this mixture will be lower than predicted. thus the vapour pressure will be higher than predicted by Raoult's law. Therefore more particles will escape. .

One draw back is that it is very soluble (due to its ionic group) and is eliminated very rapidly by the kidneys so has to be given in large doses. These chemicals will have a large number of CH3 or CH2 groups. Other pharmaceuticals like penicillin are targeted at non-fatty tissue and must be more water soluble. . Vapour C2 will condense and then boil to give a mixture richer again in B. For this the molecules must contain hydroxyl groups to form hydrogen bonds to water or an ionic group. Penicillin-G shown below prevents the growth of cell walls in bacteria and so is an antibiotic.5b(iv). The residue in the flask will be A. 5.2 Methanol has a boiling point of 338K and ethanol has a boiling point of 351K. It will be in equilibrium with vapour at composition C2. The following pharmaceutical inhibits cholesterol synthesis and acts within fatty tissue. Eventually the distillate will be pure B. Task 5.5c(i) The solubility of pharmaceuticals Drugs can be made to target fatty tissue like lipids in the body. Sketch a temperature composition curve for this mixture and use it to explain how they can be separated. State the names of the distillate and the residue.For a liquid mixture of composition C1 it will boil at temperature T.

The bark of Birch trees can be used to make oil of wintergreen. has a high proportion of nitrogen and does not immediately change soil pH. H2N-CO-NH2 + H2O -----> CO2 +2NH3 The process is catalysed by urease made by soil bacteria. Alternatives include manure.1 State steps in the process of eutrophication.rxlist. Task 5. 5. Margarine is made from an ester of a long chain carboxylic acid containing carbon to carbon double bonds.5c(i). or dried blood.Task 5. and for osmotic reasons.5c(ii). The resulting edible solid fat is margarine. This unsaturation makes the original ester a liquid oil.5c(ii).com/drugs/alpha_a. Other problems are that they decrease soil pH. oils and fats Esters find a use as food flavourings because of their characteristic fruity smells. It undergoes hydrolysis in the soil to form ammonia. The ammonia is converted to nitrates in the soil which can then be absorbed by plants.5c(ii) The use of organic fertilisers Inorganic fertilizers like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate are very soluble.5c(ii). Ethyl methanoate is used in raspberry essence.3 Explain water loss to soil through osmosis.5c(iii) Uses of esters. The amount of unsaturation is reduced in an addition reaction with hydrogen using a nickel catalyst.2 Explain equilibrium giving low pH. Aczone Gel and other drugs found at http://www. A typical source is peanuts or sunflower seeds. can be leached easily which may lead to the eutrophication of rivers and lakes. hoof and horn. of use in relief of muscle . Urea is an organic fertilizer which only slowly releases nitrogen to the soil. Task 5.htm 5. (requires Powerpoint) Essential oils are so called because they are extracted from the essence of plants. 3-methylbutylethanoate is used in pear essence. The nature of fats and oils and saturation. cause burning and foliage decay in some plants. Task 5.1 Describe the inplications for solubility of ziagen.

It is a methyl cyclohexene with a CH3CCH2 group attached. The forces between water and grease are thus much increased. so that the grease is lifted off the surface in the form of small globules.g. On the other hand. . This prevents them being washed away by water. The chemistry involved in the production of soaps and soapless detergents Detergent. shaving creams especially K+ salts) The charged -COO. O // R-C \ O-Na+ (R is the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain) (e. so in effect the soap is wasted in hard water. But the soapy detergent forms a lather with greater difficulty with tap water (tap water 300 mg/litre Ca2+ ). Why is a detergent necessary? Though very effective at removing water-soluble dirt (hydrophilic). Water molecules attach themselves to this end of the soap molecule via hydrogen bonds and the oil/ grease molecules attach around the alkyl with Van der Waals forces. Many of these essential oils are hydrocarbons or simple derivatives. Soapy detergents Animal fats are in fact esters made from long chain carboxylic acids and the compound glycerol. gels in shampoos. It is the salt which is the soap. These differences can be explained if the chemical nature of these materials is considered. The main problem is caused by greasy fats and carboxylic acids.A substance that acts as a cleaning agent. A detergent works by enabling water to mix with and remove greasy materials. a lather is only possible if a lot of soap is used. This is methyl-2-hydroxylbenzoate. which tend to bind other “dirt” particles to the skin or fabric. Limonene can be separated from citrus peel. Types of detergents (i) Soapy detergents (ii) Soapless detergents All detergents form a lather easily when shaken with PURE water. water is poor at removing material that does not dissolve in water (hydrophobic). These can be rinsed away. The alkaline hydrolysis or saponification (soap making) of animal fats gives glycerol and the sodium or potassium salt of the carboxylic acid.pain. improving the ability of water to wash things. that is. toilet (carboxylate ion) at the end of a soap enables it to dissolve in water. the soapless detergent forms a lather readily in hard water.

which part of the molecule dissolves in water and which part in oil . therefore quite cheap to make.more agreeable than with other detergents.scum. they work in a similar way to soaps but a sulphonate group (-SO2-O-) or sulphate group (-O-SO2-O) replace the carboxylate group as the hydrophilic component. Advs: The Ca2+/ Mg2+ compounds formed with soapless detergents are more soluble in water. The reaction of oil and concentrated sulphuric acid will produce a soapless detergent.5d(iii) In the following molecules on the web page below explain if they are soapy or soapless. Thus there is no wastage in hard water. 2R-COONa (aq) + Ca2+(aq) -----> Ca(R-COO)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) Made from vegetable/ animal fats . the microorganisms present in the water can not destroy them.Advantages: Reaction of soap is more favourable with skin. dishwasher powder. Thus when discharged in rivers. This has been overcome by modifying the structure of the detergents. Made from the by-products of oil refining. washing powder) The process of sulphonation gives rise to these detergents. Chains without branches were introduced which are biodegradable.often expensive Soapless detergents These are very much synthetic materials. as they react with calcium and magnesium ions to form insoluble calcium/ magnesium salts . Thus causing foaming in rivers and streams. O || R-O-S-O-Na+ || O O || also R-C6H4-S-O-Na+ || O (e.g. Disadvs: First soapless detergents were not biodegradable. The scum is insoluble calcium or magnesium salt. Disadvantages: They do not remove some types of dirt well They do not clean very efficiently in hard water.the side chains cannot be degraded. Task 5.

soft. ropes tougher than polyethene covering insulator electrical wire low friction on surface non-stick coatings on frying pans moulded shapes coffee cups foam packaging chloroethene (vinylchloride) CHCl=CH2 tetrafluroethene CF2=CF2 phenylethene (styrene) C6H5CH=CH2 ethane-1.6) HO-(OC-(CH2)4-COHN-(CH2)6-NH)n-H high tensile strength low melting point low affinity for water resistance to abrasion ropes.6-diaminohexane H2N-(CH2)6-NH2 poly(phenylethene) softens at low polystyrene temperature -(-CH(C6H5)-CH2-)n. floor polyethene.5d(iv) Uses and properties of polymers Monomer ethene CH2=CH2 Polymer polyethene -(CH2-CH2)nProperties low mp. packaging.thermal insulator polyester terylene H-O-(COC6H5-COO-CH2-CH2-O)n-H stability to light resistance to abrasion high tensile strength low melting point net curtains conveyor and drive belts ropes. brushes . parachutes.html 5.elmhurst. safety belts permanent pleating polyamide (nylon6. squeezy bottles. stockings permanent pleating easy drying garments conveyor belts. washing up bowls. buckets propene CH3CH=CH2 polypropene -(CH(CH3) -CH2-)npolychloroethene (polyvinylchloride PVC) -(-CHCl-CH2-)npolytetrafluroethene -(-CF2-CF2-)n- high tensile strength ropes. http://www. guttering. less flexible than raincoats.and state what if anything would happen if calcium ions were present.2-diol H-O-CH2-CH2-OH benzene1. sacks water repellent carpets and curtains low melting point low density. electrical tiles.4-dicarboxylic acid H-O-COC6H5-COO-H hexanedioic acid HOOC-(CH2)4COOH 1. flexible Uses plastic bags.

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