L|ements of nove

|
1he mosL lmporLanL elemenL ln a novel ls Lhe beglnnlngŦ lf your readers are noL engaged by
your beglnnlngţ lL wonƌL maLLer how good your sLory ls Ŵ Lhey wonƌL read lLŦ
1here are many dlfferenL ways Lo engage your readerţ buL Lhe common Lhread ln all of Lhem ls
curloslLyŦ ?ou dangle a carroL ln fronL of your readersţ so Lhey have Lo read more lf Lhey wanL
Lhelr curloslLy saLlsfledŦ
9|otť
8efore you even wrlLe a bookţ you should have a good ldea of whaL lL ls golng Lo be abouLŦ
?ou have everyLhlng well LhoughL ouLţ and you are bursLlng wlLh ldeas LhaL you can'L walL Lo
puL on paperŦ ln your mlndţ you can vlsuallze Lhe eventsţ and you very well know Lhe way
your sLory should f|owŦ ?ou wanL lL Lo end ln a cerLaln way and you deslre Lhe reader Lo be
affecLed ln a cerLaln mannerŦ
?esţ you have a rough ldea of how Lhe evenLs should flow from Lhe very beglnnlng down Lo
Lhe very endŦ ?our sLory wlll noL slmply be a comblnaLlon of unrelaLed and haphazard evenLsŦ
8aLherţ Lhese evenLs wlll be arranged ln a cerLaln paLLernţ wlLh dlscernable loglcal LranslLlons
beLween LhemŦ lndeed Lhese evenLs are brldgedţ so LhaL your reader wlll '[ourney' on wlLhouL
encounLerlng confuslng gapsŦ
ett|ng
1he seLLlng refers Lo Lhe place and Llme ln whlch you seL your sLoryŦ SeLLlngs ln novels
musL be reallsLlc Lo llfeŦ 1he sounds and Lhe slghLs should be Lhose LhaL Lhe reader ls
conversanL wlLhţ Lhose ln real llfeţ Lhose LhaL she can easlly lmaglneŦ
nffnte|zft|on
1he characLers ln a novel are reallsLlc and have full human aLLrlbuLesŦ 1hey feel Lhe sLlng
of fallureţ Lhe Lwlnge of consclence due Lo wrong dolngţ Lhe [oy of frlendshlpţ and a vasL
number of human emoLlonsŦ 1hey have hopesţ dreams and amblLlonsŦ
1he characLer ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL of Lhe elemenLs of a novelţ because lL ls
Lhrough Lhem LhaL Lhe auLhor Lells Lhe sLoryŦ
Slmply puLţ Lhere ls no sLory wlLhouL Lhe characLersŦ



1heme
1hls ls Lhe ma[or ldeaţ or moLlfţ LhaL permeaLes Lhe whole workŦ 1hls moLlf recurs
LhroughouL from Lhe beglnnlng Lo Lhe endŦ lL ls Lhe wrlLer's very reason for wrlLlngŦ
Some wrlLers wanL Lo mock Lhe bruLlsh reallLles of llfeţ Lhe corrupL pracLlces of people ln
powerţ or Lhey slmply wanL Lo brlng ouL a cerLaln polnL abouL llfeŦ

onf||nt
1he confllcLţ Lenslon or problem ls whaL makes Lhe sLory moveŦCf Lhe elemenLs of a
novelţ Lhls one ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanLŦ 1he characLers move Lo solve Lhls confllcLţ
and Lhelr endeavours Lo solve Lhese problems are whaL make Lhe sLory worLh readlngŦ
WlLhouL confllcLţ Lhere ls no sLoryŦ
Pere ls Lhe blue prlnL of a normal sLoryť
A problem arlsesŴŴŴŴcharacLer(s) move Lo solve problemŴŴŴÞroblem solvedŦ
?ou wlll flnd Lhls sequence ln all sLorlesŦ lL ls all abouL problemsŧ
ÞloLţ 1here are many deflnlLlons of ploLţ buL ploL ls essenLlally Lhe sLoryţ or Lhe evenLs LhaL make up
whaL Lhe book ls abouLŦ ÞloLţ of courseţ ls deflned by confllcLţ elLher lnLernal (Comlng Lo Lerms wlLh Lhe
loss of a spouseţ for example) or exLernalţ (A sLalker ls waLchlng Lhrough Lhe wlndow)ţ and Lhe besL ploLs
are boLh orlglnal and lnLeresLlngŦ ComplexlLy of Lhe ploL ls a maLLer of LasLeţ so ls Lhe seLLlng (such as
Llme perlod)Ŧ
no maLLer whaL oLher deflnlLlon ls glvenţ Lhe very besL ploLs are deflned by readers wlLh Lhe slmple
phraseţ ƍl couldnƌL puL Lhe book downŦƍ ln oLher wordsţ a greaL sLoryŦ
CharacLer uevelopmenLţ 8rlnglng Lhe characLers Lo llfe ln Lhe readerƌs mlndŦ 1hey can range from
Lhumbnall skeLches Lo deepţ wordyţ hlghly deLalled blographles of each characLerŦ lLƌs lmporLanL Lo noLe
LhaL dlfferenL genres and sLorles requlre dlfferenL Lypes of characLer developmenL
WrlLlng SLyleţ Pow Lhe novel ls wrlLLenŦ ls Lhe wrlLlng sLyle efflclenL or complex? uoes Lhe auLhor use an
exLenslve vocabulary or geL sLralghL Lo Lhe polnL? Are words used approprlaLely wlLh regard Lo meanlngţ
or do Lhey seem wrlLLen Lo showcase Lhe ƍsoundƍ of a senLence? SLyle should always be approprlaLe for
Lhe genre or sLoryŦ An approprlaLe sLyle adds Lo Lhe LexLure of Lhe novelŤ an lnapproprlaLe sLyle does [usL
Lhe opposlLeŦ LlLerary flcLlon Lends Lo lean Loward complex senLences wlLh orlglnal languageŦ 1hrlllers
Lend Lo use shorLerţ more efflclenL senLencesţ especlally as Lhe pace qulckens ln Lhe novelŦ


"1heme"
ntodunt|on to teme
A novel's Lheme ls Lhe maln ldea LhaL Lhe wrlLer expressesŦ 1heme can also be deflned as Lhe
underlylng meanlng of Lhe sLoryŦ
1he Lheme of a novel ls more Lhan lLs sub[ecL maLLerţ because an auLhor's Lechnlque can play as sLrong a
role ln developlng a Lheme as Lhe acLlons of Lhe characLers doŦ lor exampleţ Amerlcan novellsL WrlghL
Morrls explores Lhe lnLeracLlon of Lhe pasL and presenL ln hls work 1he lleld of vlslon (1936)ţ whlch ls
seL aL a bullflghL ln MexlcoŦ Morrls's Lechnlque ls Lo use Lhe bullflghL's acLlon as a Lrlgger LhaL causes
each of Lhe flve characLersţ all Amerlcan specLaLorsţ Lo remember evenLs from Lhe pasLŦ

8arely can a novel's Lheme be lnLerpreLed ln only one wayŦ 8ecause of Lhe lengLh of novelsţ and Lhe
varlous characLersţ confllcLsţ and scenes found wlLhln Lhemţ readers can look aL dlfferenL aspecLs of Lhe
work Lo uncover dlfferenL lnLerpreLaLlons of Lhe meanlng of Lhe LaleŦ 8rlLlsh novellsL Ceorge LllloL
demonsLraLed Lhls ln hls serles of novels 1he 5i/os MornerŦ
A common Lheme ln novels ls Lhe confllcL beLween appearance and reallLyŦ lor exampleţ 1he PearL ls a
Lonely PunLer (1940) by Amerlcan wrlLer Carson McCullers concerns !ohn Slngerţ a man who cannoL
speak or hearŦ neverLhelessţ he serves as a sorL of confessor Lo a group of nelghborsŦ 1hese people
ldeallze hlm as a llsLenerŸºLach man descrlbed Lhe muLe as Lhey wlshed hlm Lo be"Ÿand unburden
Lhemselves by speaklng Lo hlmŦ Poweverţ Lhe reallLy ls LhaL Slnger cannoL undersLand Lhe people and
LhaL Lhey do noL undersLand hlmŤ Lhey are bewlldered when he commlLs sulcldeŦ
AnoLher common Lheme ls Lhe search for personal ldenLlLyŦ 1he CaLcher ln Lhe 8ye (1931) by Amerlcan
wrlLer !Ŧ uŦ Sallnger convlnclngly deplcLs Polden Caulfleldţ a Leenager who reallzes LhaL he ls no longer a
chlldţ buL who ls noL qulLe ready for adulLhoodŦ Polden's desperaLe search for ldenLlLy has capLured Lhe
lmaglnaLlon of generaLlons of adolescenL readersŦ
1he Lheme of an lndlvldual who sLrlkes ouL alone Lo face Lhe world ls used ln many worksŦ Cne of Lhe
mosL famous lnsLances ls ln nuck/eberry linn {1884) by 4mericon nove/ist Mork 1woinŦ 1he bookţ seL
before Lhe Amerlcan Clvll War (1861Ŵ1863)ţ ls abouL a boyţ Puckţ who cannoL endure Lhe resLrlcLlons of
hls llfe ln a Lown along Lhe Mlsslsslppl 8lverŦ Pe runs away and rafLs down Lhe rlverţ along Lhe way
becomlng frlends wlLh an escaped slave named !lmŦ
Some novels feaLure people who cannoL break from Lhelr socleLy's convenLlons and lnsLead become
dlslllusloned wlLh Lhe confllcL beLween Lhelr asplraLlons and Lhe reallLy of Lhelr llvesŦ Amerlcan novellsL
!ohn updlke explored Lhls Lheme ln 8abblLţ 8un (1960)ţ abouL a former hlgh school baskeLball sLar who
ls dlsappolnLed wlLh hls marrlageţ unseLLled by Lhe blrLh of hls flrsL chlldţ and unhappy wlLh hls [ob as a
usedŴcar salesmanŦ

CLher common Lhemes ln novels lnclude how arL and llfe are reflecLed ln one anoLherţ Lhe meanlng of
rellglonţ and wheLher Lechnology helps people or wheLher lL ls a harmful aspecL of socleLyŦ

oos|ng f 1eme fo ¥ou Nove|
1heme ls one area where uramaLlca Lheory excelsŦ uramaLlca may say llLLle abouL seLLlngţ see
Chooslng A SeLLlngţ buL lL has more Lo say abouL Lhls Loplc Lhan any oLher Lheoryţ LheorlsLţ or
novel wrlLer lƌve ever come acrossŦ
1heme ls such a blg Loplc because lL descrlbes several dlfferenL sLrucLural elemenLs ln flcLlonŦ
Pereţ weƌre golng Lo dlscuss Lhe mosL lmporLanL elemenLţ Lhe one whlch has Lhe blggesL lmpacL
on readersţ because lL goes rlghL Lo Lhe hearL of why we wrlLe and Lell sLorlesŦ
All of us wanL Lo make good declslons ln llfeŦ We wanL Lo learn how Lo reach our goals and do
Lhe besL or Lhe rlghL Lhlngs for ourselvesţ our frlendsţ our famllyţ or our communlLyŦ 1he way we
lnsLlncLlvely learn ls by llsLenlng Lo or readlng oLher peopleƌs sLorlesŦ
lor Lhousands of yearsţ upper class chlldren (ofLen Lhe only ones Lo geL an educaLlon) have
been LaughL hlsLory Ŷ sLorles of pasL leaders Ŷ so Lhey could learn from Lhe Lrlumphs and
fallures of Lhelr predecessorsŦ Slmllarlyţ rellglous leaders have always known LhaL Lhe besL way
Lo pass on wlsdom ls Lhrough sLorles Ŷ wheLher hlsLorlcalţ myLhologlcalţ or allegorlcalŦ 8eadlng
and reflecLlng on novelsţ ln whlch flcLlonal characLers Lry Lo cope wlLh challengesţ helps us
undersLand and cope wlLh challenges ln our own llvesŦ
So Lheme essenLlally concerns Lhe lessonsţ Lhe wlsdomţ Lhe morale conLalned wlLhln a sLoryŦ
Curlouslyţ some novellsLs say Lhey donƌL belleve ln Lheme Ŷ or aL leasL Lhey donƌL belleve ln
glvlng any LhoughL Lo Lhe maLLer whlle wrlLlngŦ 1hey prefer Lo concenLraLe on Lelllng a good
sLory raLher Lhan dellverlng a profound messageŦ
Poweverţ Lheme cannoL be excludedŦ Lvery wrlLer has lnLeresLsţ oplnlonsţ blasesţ and aLLlLudesŦ
Some are consclousŤ some are unconsclousŦ Some you galn from experlence and honesL
reflecLlonţ whlle oLhers you plck up uncrlLlcally from oLhersŦ ?ou cannoL avold your personal
ºwlsdom" creeplng lnLo whaL you wrlLeţ creaLlng paLLerns LhaL can be ldenLlfled as ºLhemesŦ"
lf you donƌL pay some aLLenLlon Lo Lhemeţ you could geL some unlnLended resulLsŦ lor
exampleŦŦŦ
* ?our LhemaLlc message mlghL seem LrlLe or oldŴfashlonedŦ lor lnsLanceţ lf you are wrlLlng a
novel abouL a heroţ some of Lhe ways people vlew herolsm and whaL makes a hero vlrLuous
change over Llmeţ and you donƌL wanL your book Lo seem ouL of daLeŦ
* ?our novel could lmparL a message whlchţ upon reflecLlonţ you would dlsagree wlLh or
lnsplres oLhers Lo Lake unwlse acLlonsŦ (lor exampleţ whaL lf your superhero characLer lnsplres
vlgllanLlsm? WhaL lf your ºsplrlLual" message unlnLenLlonally encourages rellglous lnLolerance?)
Cn Lhe oLher handţ you may be Lhe klnd of wrlLer who comes Lo a new pro[ecL wlLh a speclflc
LhemaLlc lssue you wanL Lo exploreŦ ?ou may have some wlsdom you wanL Lo share wlLh your
readersŦ lf soţ you wanL Lo make sure your novel expresses whaL you wanL lL Lo expressŦ
MosL lmporLanLlyţ a solld LhemaLlc sLrucLure can be a ma[or organlzlng force ln a novel LhaL
renders lL meanlngfulţ LhoughLŴprovoklngţ and emoLlonally lmpacLfulŦ A wellŴexpressed Lheme
can be as valuable Lo your novel as characLer and ploLŦ

1eme ft ts |mp|est
Cne of Lhe ma[or conLrlbuLors Lo Lhe Loplc of Lheme was La[os Lgrlţ who wroLe 1be Att of
utomotlc wtltloqŦ Lgrl advlsed wrlLers Lo work from a premlseţ whlch ls essenLlally an
overrldlng LhemaLlc message whlch Lhe sLory wlll conveyŦ lL ls a [udgmenL LhaL a cerLaln
aLLlLudeţ quallLyţ or bellef wlll achleve cerLaln resulLs Ŷ an axlom whlch Lhe reader could Lake
from Lhe sLory and apply Lo real llfe declslonsŦ
lor lnsLanceţ you mlghL begln your novel wrlLlng process by chooslng a premlse such asţ ºÞrlde
goeLh before a fallţ" or ºLove conquers allŦ" lrom such asserLlonsţ you would derlve ldeas for ŦŦŦ
1) a maln characLerţ
2) confllcLţ and
3) a resoluLlonŦ
WlLh a premlse of ºÞrlde goeLh before a fallţ" you mlghL creaLe a maln characLer who develops
excesslve prlde whlch puLs her lnLo confllcL wlLh Lhose around her and ulLlmaLely leads Lo her
downfall (or Lhe frusLraLlon of her goal)Ŧ Crţ lf you chose ºLove conquers allţ" you mlghL creaLe
a sLory abouL someone who faces Lerrlble hardshlps or problems whlch he overcomes Lhrough
loveŦ
lf you already have a novel youƌre worklng onţ you may flnd lL helpful aL some polnL ln your
plannlng/revlslng Lo ask yourself whaL premlse you wanL your novel Lo proveŦ WhaL LhemaLlc
message do you wanL lL Lo dellver? WhaL values does your maln characLer hold LhaL prove Lo be
elLher helpful or unhelpful ln achlevlng hls goal

Jft s 1eme n L|teftue?
Jft |s teme? Accordlng Lo Lhe Cxford Lngllsh ulcLlonaryţ Lheme ln llLeraLure ls ƍLhe sub[ecL
of a plece of wrlLlngŦƍ
nowţ LhaL mlghL be facLually correcL (who am l Lo argue wlLh Lhe dlcLlonary people?)ţ buL l sLlll
donƌL belleve lL ls helpful Lo anyone [usL sLarLlng ouL ln novel wrlLlng who ls Lrylng Lo work ouL
whaL llLerary Lhemes acLually areŦ
O 1he ƍsub[ecL of a plece of wrlLlngƍ suggesLs ƍsub[ecL maLLerƍ Ŵ andţ for meţ a novelƌs
sub[ecL maLLer ls someLhlng concreLe and deflnlLeŦ So Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a horror
novelţ for exampleţ mlghL be vamplres and spooky casLlesŦ
O A llLerary Lhemeţ on Lhe oLher handţ ls noL concreLe aL allŦ lL can usually be summed up
by a phrase llke ƍgrlefƍ or ƍunrequlLed loveƍ or ƍbllnd falLhƍ Ŵ someLhlng lnLanglble llke
LhaLŦ
So leLƌs sLarL agalnŦŦŦ
A love sLoryţ for exampleţ ls ƍabouLƍ Lwo people meeLlng and falllng ln loveŦ ln oLher wordsţ lL ls
abouLŦŦŦ
O 1he characLers
O 1he ploL (or whaL Lhe characLers o)
O 1he seLLlng (or bete Lhey do lL)
ŦŦŦand Lhese Lhlngs are all on Lhe novelƌs surfaceŦ ln facLţ Lhey are Lhe novelƌs sub[ecL maLLerŦ
1he Lheme of a novelţ however Ŵ or Lhe meooloq of a novel Ŵ happens beneaLh Lhe surfaceţ and
lL ls essenLlally Lhe |esson LhaL Lhe surface sLory Leaches usţ or Lhe nonn|us|on LhaL can be drawn
from Lhe novelƌs evenLsŦ
lf all of Lhls ls soundlng klnd of vagueţ LhaLƌs because Lheme ln llLeraLure ls klnd of vagueŦ 8uL
we are slowly edglng closer Lo a more concreLe deflnlLlonŦŦŦ


8fn to so|v|ng te pob|em of ƍJft s 1eme?ƍ
So farţ we have declded LhaL Lheme ls whaL Lhe evenLs of a novel ƍmeanƍ (or whaL Lhe novel ls
ƍabouLƍ on a phllosophlcal level)Ŧ
1he surface sLoryLelllng saLlsfles Lhe readerƌs need Lo escape and Lo be enLerLalnedŦ
1he subŴsurface ƍmeanlngƍ of Lhe sLory saLlsfles Lhelr need Lo draw a moralţ or a lessonţ or a
concluslon from Lhe evenLsţ Lhus furLherlng Lhelr undersLandlng of Lhe human condlLlonŦ
See WhaL ls a novelƌs Þurpose? for more on Lhe need Lo provlde boLh enLerLalnmenL and
undersLandlng Lo readers of flcLlonŦ
1hls ƍundersLandlng of Lhe human condlLlonţƍ lncldenLallyţ neednƌL be psychologlcal ln naLureŦ
lL can be pollLlcalţ soclologlcalţ whaLever you llkeŦ
Pere ls a selecLlon of lssues LhaL a novelƌs Lheme mlghL be abouLŦŦŦ
O Pow love wlLhouL LrusL ls doomed (!ack and Sarah)Ŧ
O 1he deaLh penalLy Ŵ ls lL rlghL or wrong?
O 1he desLrucLlve naLure of gullLŦ
O 1he fuLlllLy of warŦ
O 1he necesslLy of warŦ
O An exploraLlon of happlnessŦ
O CorrupLlon ln local governmenLŦ
O Pow frlends are more lmporLanL Lhan famllyŦ
O Pow famlly ls more lmporLanL Lhan frlendsŦ
O 1he balance beLween work and lelsure ln modern socleLyŦ

onn|us|on of teme
1he Lheme of a novel ls Lhe deeper layer of meanlng runnlng beneaLh Lhe sLoryƌs surfaceŦ Whlle
Lhe surface sLory enLerLalns Lhe readersţ Lhe Lheme helps Lhem Lo reach a new undersLandlng
of some aspecL of Lhe human condlLlonŦ
Lheme ls a sLaLemenLţ or serles of relaLed observaLlonsţ abouL some aspecL of Lhe human
condlLlonţ lnLerpreLed from Lhe unlque vlewpolnL of Lhe auLhorŦ
1he Lheme of arL ls Lhe Lheme of llfe lLselfŦ
1he Lheme of a novel ls Lhe deeper layer of meanlng runnlng beneaLh Lhe sLoryƌs surfaceŦ
Accordlng Lo my deflnlLlonţ Lhe Lheme of a novel ls slmply whaL a novel ƍmeansƍŦ
l Lhlnk l have sLaLed elsewhere on Lhls slLe (perhaps ln Lhe secLlon on Pow Lo WrlLe a novel)
LhaL a novelƌs Lheme ls whaL lL Lhe sLory ls ƍabouLŦƍ 1hlnklng abouL lLţ Lhoughţ LhaL sounds
dangerously llke ƍsub[ecL maLLerƍ agalnţ whlch ls why l am deflnlng Lheme here as whaL Lhe
evenLs of a novel ƍmeanƍŧŦ
novels are essenLlally abouL people (flcLlonal characLers) undergolng experlences (Lhe ploL)Ŧ
1hese experlences Ŵ Lhelr naLureţ and Lhe effecL Lhey have on Lhe characLers Ŵ wlll cause Lhe
reader Lo come Lo concluslons abouL some aspecL of llfeŦ 1hese concluslons are your LhemeŦ

 @ ¯  @¾ ¾   ¯f©  f   ¯€  f ½ ¯ f ¾       @¾ ¯€  n¾ –€¯  –°°°–  ° ¾  #¾  f¾°€°–  ¯  ¾f°¯n  ¾ f ¾€€  n½½fnn ¾€½ ½ ° ½   ¾¯½f° °–fn f°½°f €    .

°€n @  n°€n   °¾°  ½  ¯ ¾ f ¯f ¾   ¾ ¯ €    ¯ °¾ € f °  ¾° ¾° € ¯¾¯½f° @ nffn ¾¯ ¾ ¾n°€n  f°   ° f¾¾  ¾ ½  ¯¾f f¯f  ¾ f °–  Jn°€n   ¾°¾    ¾   ½°€f°¯f¾  ½  ¯f¾ ¾ nffn %¾%¯ ¾ ½  ¯ 9  ¯¾  €° ¾¾  °n °f¾ ¾ ¾ff ½  ¯¾  9   @   f  ¯f° €°°¾ € ½   ½ ¾ ¾¾ °f   ¾      °¾ f ¯f  ½ f  ¾f  9 €n¾ ¾ €°  n°€n   ° °f%.

¯°– ¯¾  ¾¾€f¾½¾ € f¯½ %  °f %¾f ¾fn°–– ° % f°   ¾½¾ f  –°ff° °  ¾°– .

¯½ € ½¾f¯f €f¾ ¾¾ ¾ °–%¾nf¾ ¯ ½  %  - ¯f  f   €°° ¾ – °      ¾ ½¾ f  €°    f ¾    ¾¯½  ½f¾  n ° ½   ° °  ¾ f– f¾  .

ffn    ½¯ °   °–°–   nffn ¾  €  °    f  ¾ ¯°  @  nf° f°–  €¯ ¯ °f¾ n ¾ ½   – f  –f½ ¾€ fnnffn   ¾¯½f°°  f €€  °– ° ¾f° ¾ ¾   €€  °½ ¾€nffn   ½¯ ° J°–  ° ¾ ° ¾ °–¾  €€n °n¯½ " ¾ f¾ f°  °¾ nf f– ¾f– ½°"  ¾¾ f½½½f  –f ¯ f°°–    ¾ ¯ °¾nf¾   ¾° €f¾ ° °n " ¾ ff¾ f½½½f €  – ° ¾ °f½½½f ¾ f ¾   € °  f°°f½½½f ¾   ¾©¾   ½½¾   f €n°  ° ¾   f° f  n¯½  ¾ ° °n ¾  –°ff°–f–  @ ¾  ° ¾ ¾  ¯  €€n °¾ ° °n ¾  ¾½ nff¾ ½fn n °¾° °     .

#@ ¯ # ° n° ¯   ° #¾  ¯  ¾   ¯f°  f f     ½ ¾¾ ¾  @ ¯  nf° f¾  €°  f¾   ° °–¯ f°°–€ ¾  @  ¯ €f° ¾¯ f°¾¾ © n¯f   nf¾ f°f#¾ n° nf°½ff¾¾°–f  °  ½°–f ¯ f¾ fn°¾€ nffn ¾   f¯½ ¯ nf°° ¾J– . n  .f°   n¯¯° ¯ °° ¾¾ n°€n  °f½½ ff°n f°  f  f¯½ @  f¾f °  °  %%  ¯ nf°   .¾#¾  n°  ¾  ¾    €–#¾ fn° f¾ f ––  f nf¾ ¾ fn€ € nffn ¾ f¯ nf°¾½ nf¾  ¯ ¯   °¾€¯ ½f¾   f  nf° f ° #¾  ¯   ° ½   ° ° °  f  nf¾  €    °– € ° ¾  f°    f¾nffn ¾ n°€n¾ f° ¾n ° ¾€° ° ¯  f ¾nf°f €€  °f¾½ n¾€    °n  €€  ° ° ½ f°¾ €   ¯ f°°– €   f  ¾ ° ¾  –   ¯°¾f ¾°¾¾  ¾€° ¾@ f¾.¾ ½ ¾ ° fn°€ ½f¾f° ½ ¾ °°¾@   €I¾°%% n¾ ¾  f f €– ° .

f¾° .n.

 ¾ n°n °¾ ° °–   f ¯f°  nf°° ¾½ f   f  -    ¾¾    ¾  ¾ f¾ f ¾ € n°€ ¾¾  f –½ € ° – ¾  @ ¾  ½ ½   f  ¯ f¾ f ¾ °  #fn ¯f° ¾n    ¯  f¾   ¾  ¯  # f°  °  °  ¯¾  ¾  ¾½ f°–  ¯        f¾ f °–  nf°° ° ¾f°    ½ ½  f°  f  °° ¾f° ¯  f     ° n¯¯¾¾n  ° n¯¯° ¯ ¾ ¾ fn€½ ¾°f ° @ .

fn °  %% ¯ nf°    f°– n°°n°– ½n¾ °.

f@f° @   ¾  €  ¯ nf°.f€  f °f–  f ¾f ¾°°– f n  ¾°  f €f   °#¾ ¾½ f ¾ fn€ °f¾nf½   ¯f–°f°€– ° f°¾€f  ¾n ° f ¾  @  ¯ €f°°  f¾ ¾f° €fn   ¾¾ °¯f°¾ ° €  ¯¾€f¯¾°¾f°n ¾¾°n °°%% ¯ nf°° ¾.

Jf% % ¾f f  n nf°° °    ¾n°¾€ ¾ €  ° f ° f°–   .¾¾¾¾½½      °¾ ff f°  f€¾ °      f°–   f n¯°–€ ° ¾f° ¾nf½ ¾f °f¯ ¯  ¯  ° ¾ € f  ½ ½   nf°°  f €¯   ¾n #¾ n° °°¾ f°  °¾ f  n¯  ¾¾°  n°€n  ° f¾½f°¾f°   f€  ¾ ¯ nf°° ¾ °D½   ½ ¾ ¯ °f  °%% f f€¯ –¾n f¾  f¾f ¾ ¾f½½° ¾¯ff– °¾     €¾€¾n f° °f½½¾© f¾f ¾ nf¾f ¾¯f°    n¯¯° ¯ ¾°° ¾°n ff° € f  € n °° f°   ¯ f°°–€  –° f°    n°– ½¾½ ½   ¾ff¯€f¾½ n€¾n   .

 .

¾°–f@ ¯ €-  @ ¯ ¾° f f  f¯fnf  n ¾ f¯fnf¯f¾f f ¾ °– ¾  .

¾°– °–  f¾¯ ¾ff ¾½nf°f°    ¾  °      n¯ fn¾¾  @ ¯ ¾¾nf –½n nf¾  ¾n ¾¾  f €€  °¾nf  ¯ °¾°€n°      –°– ¾n¾¾ ¯¾¯½f°  ¯ °  ° nf¾  –– ¾¯½fn ° f ¾  nf¾ – ¾–  f€  f°  ¾ ¾  €¾f°¯f –  n¾°¾°€ J f° f° fn–f¾f°     ¾ –°–¾€¾  ¾ € ° ¾ €f¯ n¯¯° @ f  °¾°n  f°¾ ¾ °°– f °– ½ ½ ¾¾ ¾   ¾f° ¾ €  f¾  ½½  nf¾¾ n  ° %€ °   ° ° ¾  –  f° nf°% f  ° f– ¾  ¾ ¾ € ½f¾  f ¾  ¾   n   f° €¯   ¯½¾ f°  €f ¾€ ½ n ¾¾¾ ¯f  –¾ f ¾f ff¾°°f  ¾f ½f¾¾°¾ ¯¾–¾ ¾   ¾nf ¯–nf f –nf  f °– f°   € n°– ° ° ¾  ° n €n°f nffn ¾   n½   nf °– ¾   ½¾ ¾ ° ¾f° f° n½ nf °– ¾°° ¾   ¯  ¾¾ °fn°n °¾  ¾¾°¾  ¾ ¯  ¯f n°f° °f¾  .

¾  ¾¯  ° ¾¾ ¾f   °     °  ¯    f  f¾   °     ° –°– f° –    ¯f    °–  @  ½ €   n°n °f  °  °– f –  ¾f f°  °–f½€° ¯ ¾¾f–      ¯ nf°°  n   f¾°  ¾¾ ½°°¾  f¾ ¾ f° f ¾  ¯  f  n°¾n¾  ¾¯  f  °n°¾n¾  ¯   –f° €¯ ½  °n  f°  ° ¾  € n°     ¾  ½n ½ °nnf €¯  ¾   nf°° f   ½ ¾°f #¾ ¯#n ½°–°f n f°–½f °¾fnf°  °€ f¾# ¯ ¾ # €  °  ½f ¾¯  f °°   ¯   n  –  ¾¯  °° °   ¾¾   f¯½  & ¯fn¯ ¾¾f– ¯–¾ ¯  €f¾° °¾f°n €f °–f °  f  f    ¾¯  €   f¾ ½ ½     ¾¯ f°  f ¯f ¾ f   ¾ nf°–  ¯ f°  ° f° ¾ ¯€ f  &  °  n  ¯½f f ¯ ¾¾f–  n  ½°  € n°     ¾f–    °¾½ ¾ ¾f °¾ fn°¾ % f¯½ f€¾½  nffn °¾½ ¾ –f°¾¯"Jf€#¾½f#¯ ¾¾f– °° °°f °nf– ¾ –¾° f°n "% .

¾ ¯½f°  f ¾   ¯fn ¾n  nf°  f ¯f© –f°°– €n  ° f °  f  ° ¾¯ f°°–€ – ½°– f°  ¯°f¯½fn€   ½ ¾¾  ¯  nf° f¾ff  ° f¾nffn f° ½   @ ¯ f¾¯½ ¾ °  €   ¯f© n° ¾    ½n €  ¯  f¾ f©¾ –     @   € f¯fn J°–  – f ¾   ¾   €¯ f ½ ¯¾  n ¾ ¾¾ °f f°   °–  ¯fn ¯ ¾¾f–  n   ¾  n°    ¾ f © –¯ ° f f n f° f f   €fn  n f° ¾¾ f°f¯n  f n f  €¯ ¾f° f½½ f€  n¾°¾  °¾f°n ¯– –°° °–½n ¾¾ n¾°–f½ ¯¾ ¾nf¾ #9  –  € f€f ## n° ¾f #¯¾nf¾¾ °¾     f¾€  %f¯f°nffn   %n°€n f°  %f ¾°  Jf½ ¯¾ €#9 –  € f€f #¯–n f f¯f°nffn   ½¾ n ¾¾ ½ n½¾ °n°€n¾ f°  f° ¯f  f ¾  °€f% €¾f°€ –f%  €n¾ # n° ¾f #¯–n f  f¾f ¾¯ ° €fn ¾   f ¾½¾½  ¯¾n  n¯ ¾–   €  f f  f  f °     °– °   ¯f €°    ½€ f ¾¯  ½° °  ½f°°°–$ ¾°–f¾¾ €f½ ¯¾ f° °  ½ Jf ¯fn ¯ ¾¾f–  f°  "Jff ¾  ¾¯f°nffn  f½     ½€° ½€°fn °–¾–f  Jf¾@ ¯ ° f " Jf¾ ¯ "nn °– € °–¾n°f  ¯ ° f ¾  ¾ © n €f½ n €°–  .°  f° ¯f  ° € n¯ ¾f° ½© nf¾½ n€n  ¯fn¾¾ f° ½ ¯ff ¾¯ ¾ ¯f°¾f   f ¾ €¾ f°¯f ¾ °  ½ ¾¾ ¾ff° ½ ¾¾  .

- f¯– €fnfn n%f¯f–   n°f½ ½ "%  ¾ °    ¾ ½€f°° ©¾¾f°–°° °–¾°– f f ¯ ¾fnff  @  ¾ © n € f ½ n  € °–  ¾–– ¾¾ ¾ © n ¯f    f°  € ¯  f °  ¾ ¾ © n ¯f  ¾ ¾¯ °– n°n   f°  €°     ¾ © n ¯f  € f  °  € f¯½ ¯– f¯½ ¾f° ¾½nf¾ ¾  O  f ¯ °  f° ¾°n°n  ff nf°¾f ¾¯¯ ½ f½f¾   – €  °    ° €f  ¾¯ °–°f°–    f  O   ¾¾ff–f°   ¾ € f¯½ ¾ f  ½ ½ ¯ °–f° €f°–° °  ¾ ¾ f   O O O @ nffn ¾ @ ½%f nffn ¾ % @ ¾ °–%    % f°  ¾ °–¾f f° °  ¾¾€fn °€fn  f  °  ¾¾ © n¯f   @  ¯ €f°      ¯ f°°–€f°  f½½ °¾ ° f ¾€fn f°  ¾ ¾¾ °f  ¾¾°f ¾€fn ¾ fn ¾¾  n°n¾°fnf°  f° €¯ °  ¾  °¾  €f€¾¾¾° °–° €f– f ¾ nf¾  ¯ ° f ¾° €f–    f ¾ –°–n¾ f¯ n°n   €°°    fn¾°– ½  ¯€ Jf¾@ ¯ "  €f  f  n f ¯ ¾f   °¾€f°  ¯ f° %f ° ¾ f  °f½¾½nf  %  @ ¾€fn ¾ °–¾f¾€ ¾  f  ¾°  ¾nf½ f°   ° f°  @ ¾ ¾€fn  ¯ f°°– € ¾¾f¾€ ¾ °  ff¯f f ¾¾° f n°n¾°€¯   °¾ ¾€ °– ° ¾f° °–€ ¯f°n° °  .

  Jf ¾ f -  ¾ 9½¾ " € ¯  °   °   ½   ° f°¯ ° f°  ° ¾f° °– f ¾€€n°  @¾ ° ¾f° °–€ ¯f°n° ° °n °f ° °  ½¾n–nf°°f  nf° ½nf ¾n–nf f      ¾f¾  n°€¾¾ ¾ff°  ¾ ¯ ¯– f   O O O O O O O O O O  ¾¾ ¯ %fnf° ff%  @  f½ °f ¾–°–" @  ¾n °f €–  @ €€f  @ ° n ¾¾€f  ° ½f°€f½½° ¾¾  .

½°°nf– °¯ °  € ° ¾f ¯ ¯½f°f°€f¯  €f¯¾¯ ¯½f°f°€ ° ¾  @  ff°n   °f°  ¾ °¯ °¾n    .

°n¾°€ ¯  @  ¯ €f° ¾  ½ f €¯ f°°–°°°– ° f ¾ ¾¾€fn J   ¾€fn ¾ ° f°¾  f ¾   ¯  ½¾ ¯ fnf° ° ¾f° °– €¾¯ f¾½ n€ ¯f°n° °   ¯  ¾ f ¾f ¯ °   ¾  ¾ €  f   ¾ f°¾  f  ¾¯  f¾½ n €   ¯f° n° ° ° ½  €¯ °  ½°€ f  @  ¯ €f¾  ¯ €€ ¾ €  @   ¯  € f °  ¾   ½  f  € ¯ f°°– °°°– ° f   ¾ ¾ ¾€fn  nn °–¯ €°°   ¯ €f° ¾¾¯½ff°  ¯ f°¾  °f ¾f  ¾   °¾¾ %½ f½¾° ¾ n°°J f - % f f °  ¾  ¯  ¾ f    ¾ ¾ f   @°°– f    –  f ¾° ¾ f°– ¾   ¾ © n ¯f   f–f°  n ¾   f¯ €°°–  ¯     f¾ f    °¾€f°  ¯ f°  - ¾ f  ¾¾ °f f  ½ ½  %€n°f nffn ¾% ° –°– ½  °n ¾ %  ½%  @ ¾  ½  °n ¾    °f  f°    €€ n   f  °   nffn ¾   nf¾     f n¯ n°n¾°¾f ¾¯ f¾½ n€€ @ ¾ n°n¾°¾f  ¯  .

  .