Kingdom Tower

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Kingdom Tower

‫ب رج ال مم ل كة‬

Computer rendering released on 2 August 2011

Former names

Mile-High Tower

General information




Mixed-use; office, hotel, residential, apartments, observation, retail

Architectural style

Supertall skyscraper


Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


21.733°N 39.090°ECoordinates: 39.090°E


Construction started Estimated completion Cost August–December 2011 (planned) 2016–2017[C] SR 4.280.000 m (3. Smith. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture.Kingdom Holding Company Management Main contractor Architect CB Richard Ellis Saudi Binladin Group Adrian D.873 sq ft)[B] 59 Design and construction Owner Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal.84 ft)[A] Technical details Structural system Floor count Reinforced concrete and steel. USA Developer Emaar Properties Jeddah Economic Company (JEC)[2] Engineer Langan International (sub-grade and transportation planning)[3] Structural engineer Thornton Tomasetti References [4] .6 billion (US$1.000 m2 (5. all glass façade >200 total ≥160 habitable[E] Floor area Elevator count 530.704.23 billion)[1] (preliminary) Height Antenna spire ≥1. Chicago.

000 metres (3. and forecast that it will actually have negative financial consequences.23 billion).[5] It will be the centerpiece and first phase of a US$20 billion (SR75 billion)[6] proposed development known as Kingdom City that will be located along the Red Sea on the north side of Jeddah.1 Reception 5 Construction 6 Notes 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit]Overview The building has been scaled down from its initial 1. the tower will reach unprecedented heights. which was never fully designed. is a supertall skyscraper approved for construction in Jeddah. Contents [hide]     1 Overview 2 Timeline 3 Design 4 Impact o      4.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development. The creator and leader of the project is Saudi Arabian Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal. while others question its socioeconomic motives.[7] and nephew of King Abdullah.Not to be confused with Kingdom Centre or Mile High Illinois Kingdom Tower (Arabic: ). If completed as planned. incorporates many unique structural and aesthetic features.6 km (about one mile) proposal. to a height of at least 1. however. the largest company in Saudi Arabia. and a partner in Jeddah Economic Company (JEC). The design.[12] . becoming the tallest building in the world.[8] Reception of the proposal has been highly polarized. the geography of the area proved unsuitable for a tower of that height.[10] would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date. Talal is the chairman of Kingdom Holding Company (KHC). the wealthiest Arab in the Middle East. receiving high praise from some as a culturally significant icon that will symbolize the nation's wealth and power.[8] which owns the project. at about one kilometre. which was formed in 2009 for the development of Kingdom Tower and City.6 billion (US$1.[11] standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.280. previously known as Mile-High Tower (Arabic: ). created by architectAdrian Smith.[A][9] which. as well as the first structure to reach the one-kilometer mark.6-kilometre (1 mi) high. The tower was initially planned to be 1. similar to the Burj Khalifa).Saudi Arabia at a preliminary cost of SR4.

300.67%).725 sq ft) (the Kingdom City plot) with a value of SR7. (ESD)[24] is a part of the AS + GG design team that serves as the building services engineering consultants.[20] AS + GG was formed in 2006 by Adrian Smith.048.202. as well as the tower's own contractor.[26] Besix Group (Belgian Six Construct).000 square metres (247. Kingdom City was designed by HOK Architects.[13] It was originally planned to cover 23. and the third phase has not yet been disclosed.[19] for which he worked almost 40 years. a three-phase project proposed for a large area of undeveloped waterfront land with an area of 5. Four Seasons serviced apartments. and that the tower was expected to take 63 months (5 years.35%).[27] contributing SR1. construction was going to start soon.000 m2 (57. and businessman Abdulrahman Hassan Sharbatly (16.6 percent stake in Jeddah Economic Company.[18] Although the Kingdom City plot is nearly isolated from the current urban core of Jeddah.[31] JEC's assets have a book value of nearly SR9 billion. Saudi Binladin Group (16.[14] The area is located roughly 20 km (12 mi) north of the port city of Jeddah. the investment company. and luxury condominiums.[23] and Environmental Systems Design. that a contract had been signed by Saudi Binladin Group(SBG). Kingdom Tower's primary purpose will be to house a Four Seasons hotel. no land tracts of such size were available closer to the city. and Robert Forest. which is owned by Samaual Bakhsh.The tower and its 50-hectare plot. 3 months) to complete. Abrar Holding Company (33. it was publicly announced by Kingdom Holding. but did not win.[12] the same architect who designed the Burj Khalifa while he was working for Skidmore. Owings & Merill (SOM).63%).35%).5 billion (US$400 million) towards the development of the project. Class A office space. Inc.569.[16] The second phase of the project will be all the infrastructure development needed to support the city.[25] On 2 August 2011.[30] Jeddah Economic Company is a closed joint stock company (PJSC) formed in 2009 as a financial entity for Kingdom Tower and City.[17] The tower is being designed primarily by Chicago-based architect Adrian Smith of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture (AS + GG). will be the first phase of the Kingdom City development.[17] The focal point of the development.000.[21] The development of the tower is being managed by Emaar Properties PJSC.000 sq ft) (2 square miles).[29] Besix admitted in 2010 that they expected Binladin Group to win the contract. it will also have the world’s highest observatory. which will include other buildings.000.[6] It will essentially become a new district of Jeddah.[15] and it is estimated that it will cost at least US$20 billion (SR75 billion) and take around 10 years to build.[28] and holding a 16.940 sq ft) (8.3 billion that will be used as collateral to attain .570 square metres (56. Regardless of this. was previously considered for the contract. which constructed the Burj Khalifa. It is made up primarily of financiers (stakeholders) Kingdom Holding Company (33. broken down between a land bank of over 5. Gordon Gill. northward is generally considered the direction in which the fast growing city will spread in the future.[22]Thornton Tomasetti has been selected as the structural engineering firm. partially because SBG invested in Jeddah Economic Company (JEC).9 square miles) and cost SR100 billion. anyway.

Skidmore. but it was still listed to be over 1 kilometer. Time Warner. and SR1.[43] Kingdom Holding said construction was progressing. It and the surrrounding City would have had the ability to accommodate 80. and Citigroup.[42] The four buildings are all among the top eleven tallest in the world. Adrian Smith has designed several other recent supertall towers. and geothermal mass.000 sq ft) and would have utilized futuristic wind aversion and energy producing technology for sustainability. mile-high designs). and the Pearl River Tower is a unique tower that uses zero net energy as it gets all its power from wind.5 billion).[5] This design was going to be drastically larger than the current design. and Foster + Partners. and MEEDreported that the project had been scaled back. soil testing in the area cast doubt over whether the proposed location could support a skyscraper of the proposed one mile height. China. parachutes would be part of the fire .[19][44] In March and April 2011.000. sunlight.[39] which was the final competitor in the competition before AS + GG was chosen. as well as real estate in London through its Songbird Estates division. Owings and Merrill.[38] Later.[45] according to RIA Novosti."[35][36] Kingdom Holding Company quickly criticized the news reports."[34] Reports in 2009 suggested that the project had been put on hold due to the global economic crisis and that Bechtel (the former engineering firm) was "in the process of ending its involvement with the project. the Trump International Hotel & Tower in Chicago.[17] Kingdom Holding is an investment company founded in 1980 and 95% owned by Prince Talal[32] that has assets valued at over $25 billion. the Nanjing Greenland Financial Center in Nanjing. China.640 ft) shorter. they won a design competition between eight leading architectural firms including Kohn Pedersen Fox. with interests in many major companies such as Walt Disney. as well as the firm Smith formerly worked for. The final height of the building was questionable. several news agencies reported that the Mile-High Tower design had been approved at that height and that the building would cost almost US$30 billion (SR112.Newscorp. when the proposal was more serious.[5] Many things were rumored about the mile-high loans.000 residents and one million visitors. making it "up to 500 metres (1. Apple. Illinois. Pickard Chilton. Hewlett Packard. Pepsico.[40] In addition to Burj Khalifa. Adrian Smith of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture (AS + GG) was selected as the preliminary architect (though they deny involvement in the earlier. and the Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai.316 m2 (38.5 billion in cash.530.[20] In October 2010. the owners (Kingdom Holding Company) signed a development agreement with Emaar Properties PJSC. which is still under construction in Guangzhou. with a floor area of 3. Kodak. helicopters would be used for construction. Pelli Clarke Pelli. Motorola.[41] as well as the Pearl River Tower. insisting that the project had not been shelved.[33] [edit]Timeline In May 2008.[37] In March 2010. such as that it would be so high the top would freeze at night.

23 billion) contract.000 square metres (5.[1] which is less than it cost to build the Burj Khalifa (US$1.704.[47] One source even corrected its article and clarified the misunderstanding.[55] Also. and that an elevator ride to the top would take 12 minutes (multiple transfers would be required)[46] in a typical elevator and five minutes in a high-speed elevator.[54] in addition to KHC already having reported a 21% rise in second quarter net profit.escape plan.[45] Adrian Smith denied that he was a part of any of the earlier designs.[49] New renderings were revealed and on 2 August it was widely reported that the project was a go at the 1.5 billion). architects Gordon Gill and Adrian Smith officially announced their involvement in the project.[53] Announcement of the main construction contract signing caused Kingdom Holding Company's stock to jump 3.6 billion (US$1. which had been purported in the media.[9] Construction is expected to start no later than December 2011. [48] In early August 2011.[52] The foundation for the tower has already been designed and the contract for the piling is being tendered.2% in one day.281 ft) height[A] with a building area of 530.[56] [edit]Design .873 sq ft). the Binladin Group was chosen as the main construction contractor with the signing of a SR4.000 m (3. for the first time.[B][50][51] and will take 63 months to complete.

including the Kingdom Centre in nearby Riyadh.[57] is intended to look like a desert plant shooting upwards as a symbol of Saudi Arabia's growth and future. which is generally considered to have sparked the recent significant commercial developments around it in the .[39] of which. as well as other residential and commercial developments. the tower's site alone will take up 500.[59] The 23 hectare (57 acre) area around Kingdom Tower will contain public space and a shopping mall.[60] As with many other very tall skyscrapers.[58] The designer's vision was ―one that represents the new spirit in Saudi Arabia" (Smith).000 m2 (5.Detailed rendering of Kingdom Tower cut out to show floors The triangular footprint and sloped exterior of Kingdom Tower is designed to reduce wind loads. which will be located near both the Red Sea and the mouth of the Obhur Creek (Sharm Ob'hur) where it widens as it meets the Red Sea. and be known as the Kingdom Tower Water Front District. as well as to add prominence to Jeddah's status as the gateway into the holy city of Mecca.955 sq ft).381.[39] as well as having frontage on a man-made waterway and harbor that will be built around it.[53] The overall design of the tower. its high surface area also makes it ideal for residential units.

[17] much of the intention of Kingdom Tower is to be symbolic as well as to raise the surrounding land value rather than its own profitability. ―Kingdom Tower will be a landmark structure that will greatly increase the value of the hundreds of other properties around it in Kingdom City and indeed throughout North Jeddah. as its surrounding malls.[59] Smith states that the tower will create a landmark in which it and the surrounding Kingdom City are interdependent. outdoor sky terrace will overlook the Red Sea and have an area of over 697 square metres (7. to which high speed elevators will travel at up to 10 meters (33 feet) per second (slightly over 35 km/h (22 mph)) in both directions. where it has proven successful. circular sky terrace that will overlook the Red Sea from over 610 metres (2.[63] The elevators cannot go faster because the rapid change in air pressure over .[62] A rendering showing the bottom of the unique. five of which will be double-deck elevators.[40] Talal Al Maiman. hotels and condominiums in the area known as Downtown Dubai[61]have generated the most considerable revenue out of that project as a whole.000 ft) The large. glass-floored.500 sq ft)[D] The building will have a total of 59 elevators.‖[60] The concept of profitability derived from building high density developments and malls around such a landmark was taken from the Burj Khalifa.district of Olaya. said that the tower "evokes a bundle of leaves shooting up from the ground–a burst of new life that heralds more growth all around it". a board member of Jeddah Economic Company. said. the tower's architect. Adrian Smith. as well as 12 escalators.[60] while the Burj Khalifa itself made little or no profit. It will also have the highest observation deck in the world.[52] To that effect.

it will also use the condensate water from the air conditioning system for irrigation and other purposes throughout the building. which will provide natural cooling. but it was revealed to be an unsuitable landing environment by helicopter pilots.[69] In addition.972 ft) Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower in Mecca.[40] No official floor count has been given. no elevator will go from the bottom to the highest occupied floor. the elevator distance limit is about 570 metres (1. Kingdom Tower will have three sky lobbies where elevator transfers can be made. such as soft rock and permeable coral. electrical and fire protection engineering. and theTaipei 101 in Taiwan.that much distance would be nauseating. which could cause the piles to settle.000 ft).000 workers and hundreds of projects. which is very strong at one kilometer and had a large impact on the structural design of the tower. cleaner air from the top floors and uses it to air condition the building.[68] It was originally intended to be a helipad. together with structural engineer Thornton Tomasetti. the lower air density.[40] Langan also designed the tower's foundation. but not under the tower for terrorism reasons. There is also significantly more air flow (wind) at heights.[75]Thornton Tomasetti has provided the structural engineering for two of the previous world's tallest building title holders. will cause the outdoor air temperature towards the top of the tower to be lower than the ground level air.[8] as well as teledata. exacerbated by the thin desert atmosphere. at 914 m (3. audio/visual.[66] leading to the inference that Kingdom Tower will have well over 200 floors.5 psi) lower than at ground level (about 10% less air pressure). will be responsible forgeotechnical engineering as well as some ground level site work such as transportation engineering and parking. as well as the largest skyscraper in the world by floor area and . will provide mechanical.700 car underground parking garage[74] that will be located near. security systems and acoustics.[70] Kingdom Tower will be oriented such that no façade directly faces the sun. which will be the tallest building in China after completion. with over 35. roughly 30 m (98 ft) diameter outdoor balcony. known as the sky terrace.[65] Even as such.[71] Chicago based[72] Environmental Systems Design. as well as the under construction Pingan International Finance Center in Shenzhen.[40] The Burj Khalifa actually takes in the cooler. Inc.870 ft) before the cables become inevitably too heavy and the motor size impractical.[E][40] The tower will also feature a large. the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur. however Smith stated in a television interview that it will be about 50 floors over the Burj Khalifa. plumbing.[23] Saudi Binladin Group is the largest construction firm in the Middle East.[63][67] it is not the observation deck. which is the tallest building in Saudi Arabia and second tallest in the world. on one side of the building for private use by the penthouse floor at level 157.[3] including the design of the proposed 3.[40] The building's large notches will also serve as shaded terraces for other areas of the tower and the exterior of the building will use low-condusive glass to save on cooling costs by reducing thermal loads. which has 163 occupied floors.[64] They must also be efficient so the cables are not unbearably heavy.[73] Langan International. They recently constructed the topped-out 601 m (1. which has to be able to support the tower despite the less than optimal subsurface conditions.000–4. the air pressure is over 10 kPa (1.

particularly Saudi Arabia. most significant work in Saudi Arabia was done by them.5 billion). Bart Leclercq.[76] whom the family disavowed long before his death. the main challenges are along practical and architectural lines. it may be possible if there are improvements in concrete quality.[78] ―At extreme heights. and hightech. it is considered virtually impossible to create enough demand to justify such a tower.562 feet) high. brilliantly sculpted. Nonetheless. but that at some point someone with a great excess of money will likely do it anyway. Over that. architect of Kingdom Tower In addition to its primary functions. But 2km is too big a figure –it’s just a step too far at the moment.[57] The building's design has been applauded as simplistic and buildable. physical sustainability and practicality issues come into play in towers of this height.[80]The future towers' site is located in very close proximity to King Abdulaziz (Jeddah) International Airport. the building is slated to include a significant amount of retail as well as a wide variety of other unique ammentities with the intention that it functions as a nearly self-sustaining entity. it has sparked some minor media buzz. which will have an effect on the airspace. head of structures for WSP Middle East recently said. approaching the concept of a "vertical city". and that three shifts will work around the clock to expedite the process. and 34% cheaper than the United Arab Emirates. even two kilometers (6.volume.000 m) six lane Al Qassim Expressway through Saudi Arabia.[57] While skyscraper experts have stated that towers well over one kilometer. yet bold.‖ — Adrian Smith. not material or structural. a report by consultancy EC Harris found that Saudi Arabia is the cheapest country in the Middle East to build in.23 billion. the firm has also constructed many major infrastructure projects.6 kilometres—is within range. whose runways nearly align with the towers' site. and that it is a very large family that shouldn't be stereotyped by one of its members. which is less than that of the Burj Khalifa (US$1. such as the King Abdulaziz (Jeddah) International Airport expansion and the 775 km (775.[81] From a real estate perspective. Aside from buildings. can be attributed to cheap labor in the Middle East. As for physical restraints.[49]Construction costs have also declined since the global financial crisis. half as expensive as Bahrain.‖[82] . 2011. cost-efficient and highly constructible design.[77] When asked his thoughts about this in an interview.[33] Saudi Binladin Group is owned by the family of the late al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Ladin.‖ — Bob Sinn. ―I truly believe that 1 mile—1. are technically buildable."[53] The estimated construction cost of US$1.[67] with AS + GG describing it as "an elegant.[40] ―An elegant. principal of Kingdom Tower engineering firm Thornton Tomasetti [79] In July. where Burj Khalifa is located. Adrian Smith simply stated that they are the largest construction firm in the Middle East. cost-efficient and highly constructible design.

which would rock the building from side to side due to the variances in pressure. The core size consumes a significant amount of the space on the lower and middle floors. and velocity. and supercolumn settling.[40] Traditionally. were considered to make a building become increasingly less profitable past 80 floors or so. thus creating a more stable structure. which. allowing it to have a more conservative core overall. I think there’s also a market -people will always want to be in the world’s tallest tower. which generally applied to single use buildings. head of structures for WSP Middle East[82] Both towers share a similar three-petal triangular footprint for stability[40] and a tapering form. Kingdom Tower will also utilize copious stiffening materials to prevent the excessive sway that would otherwise make the occupants of upper floors nauseous on windy days. This. as well as improved building technology. the dynamic façade of Kingdom Tower creates an infinite timing differential (wheras Burj Khalifa is limited by the number of steps) in air pressure exertion in any one particular direction. board member of Jeddah Economic Company Sustainability of such a tall building would include issues such as vertical transportation limitations.[84] with sheer height and wind being the biggest structural design challenge. is also intended to prevent catastrophic failure of the structure in the event of a terrorist attack. offers superior aerodynamic performance over "stepped" designs such as the Burj Khalifa. sloped façade of Kingdom Tower particularly induces a beneficial phenomenon known as "wind vortex shedding. direction. a smooth taper is more aerodynamic .‖ — Talal Al Maiman. caused by wind.[82] Additionally. it would create tornado-like vorticies. along with the highly integrated steel frame and shear walls.―Kingdom Tower’s height is remarkable.[83] ―Is there such as thing as too high? I think mankind is always going to be challenged by finding the next frontier. which is where the steel columns settle more than the concrete core and cause the floors to be unlevel. More recently. Its form is brilliantly sculpted. these physical constraints. sloped-exterior design.[27] The smooth.[40] Put simply. making it quite simply the most beautiful building in the world of any height."[60] whereas normally when wind swirls around theleeward side of a building. that have outdated this rule of thumb. although more expensive to build. as there is no broad area of outstanding pressure or depression at any given time. with elevators only being able to go so far. building sway. obviously.[82] including very high strength concrete that will be up to several feet thick in certain parts of the core.[65] One of the ways Kingdom Tower attempts to overcome these issues is with its smooth. namely the space consumed by elevators. rushing in from both sides to fill the low pressure zone.‖ — Bart Leclercq. a very large core size is required in very tall buildings to support the structure as well as to house the large number of elevators needed. but the building’s iconic status will not depend solely on that aspect. This was determined by wind tunnel tests performed at Burj Khalifa. it has been the advent of truly mixed-use design such as Shanghai Tower and Burj Khalifa.

about 900 new homes are needed a day to meet the demand of the rapidly growing population. with increasing demand and rising prices due to high population growth and a short supply of housing. At Kingdom Tower's height.000 homes throughout the country. and that as with all buildings. even in such supertall designs. costing more and generating less than expected. while both are advantageous over rectangular geometries. and plumbing (MEP) systems.[69] which accounts for nearly 75% of government revenues and 90% of exports. which has nearly quadrupled in the past four decades. To boost growth.[85] Despite all the physical challenges. which allows transfers to be made between elevators serving a specific area with no elevator being overburdened. is currently largely dependent on its crude oilexportation. which may include a demand for high-end luxury units. but in methods for designing practical mechanical. it is considered essentially unfeasible to use a traditional square design.[29] .[40] [edit]Impact The recent announcement of the tower has provoked widespread and highly divided reaction throughout the media. There is an impending real estate boom in Saudi Arabia.than an irregular or jagged taper.[87] Kingdom Tower is also an attempt to diversify Saudi Arabia's economy. such as those in Kingdom Tower. Kingdom Tower's form and was primarily derived respective of what the building's uses would be. while others see it as nothing more than the result of self-centered and attention seeking competition between oil-rich gulf nations that will serve no purpose other than as a white elephant. Those who support the project see it as an investment that. as well as adhering to local regulations and international building codes. Much was learned from Burj Khalifa that helped with the design of Kingdom Tower[84] not only structurally.‖ — Rory Olcayto. deputy editor of The Architects' Journal speaking negatively of the project. This generates enough income to support Saudi Arabia as a welfare state. the tower will use its large number of efficient elevators as well as its three sky lobbies. then in accordance with the structural factors that would have to be considered to deliver it. which.[86]According to Saudi officials. electrical. holding a quarter of the world's oil reserves and being one of the founding OPEC nations. will have positive social and economic effects on the area as well as the country in the long term. Adrian Smith states that practicality is still the greater challenge over structural durability. ―The race to build the highest skyscraper is quite futile –where do you stop? These buildings are a symbol of an old-fashioned way of thinking. although visionary. if it even gets built.[82] To overcome elevator issues.[88] which spends billions of dollars on job creation and housing for its lower income residents. the Saudi Arabian government is going to invest US$67 billion (SR251 billion) in building 500.

economists have found large new skyscrapers to be a negative economic indicator.2 billion (SR27.[91] According to a representative of Standard Chartered.[95] with several incidences of new tallest buildings being finished and opening into a bad economy.‖ — Adrian D. and the Burj Khalifa built during the late-2000s recession. a research director atDeutsche Bank who created the "skyscraper index. Prince of Saudi Arabia and visionary behind Kingdom Tower Furthermore..[83] It has even been likened to the Tower of Babel.[61] Kingdom Tower and City themselves are intended to set an example of green development. It has a political depth to it to tell the world that we Saudis invest in our country.. which invested US$75 million in Saudi Binladin Group. $220 billion worth of development. will be directly or indirectly beneficial to Kingdom Tower. there are many infrastructure and revitalization projects underway and planned throughout Saudi Arabia. [90] such as the flash floods in early 2011 that damaged 90% of the roads and over 27. 40 Wall Street. Smith. such as the US$7. including severe flooding.[62] However. there is also an increasing problem of poor education levels in Arab countries due to a lack of spending in research and education. It represents new growth and high-performance technology fused into one powerful iconic form.1 billion) new airport terminal under construction at King Abdulaziz (Jeddah) International Airport. the World Trade Center and Sears Tower built during the 1970s economic downturn. Kingdom Tower Just as the Kingdom Tower will complement the Kingdom City development that will be built around it.000 buildings in Jeddah.[94] ―Building this tower in Jeddah sends a financial and economic message that should not be ignored. Saudi Arabia is going to spend over US$400 billion (SR1.[96] as they generally start during a financial boom when money is easy and investment is strong.this tower symbolizes the Kingdom as an important global business and cultural leader. which it is argued should be invested in rather than building skyscrapers.[97] Much of the study on this phenomenon was done in 1999 by Andrew Lawrence. which has been likened to a Third World country with crumbling infrastructure and widespread disasters.[93] and that the tower is nothing more than a symbol of hubris.―. Examples include the Singer Building andMetropolitan Life Insurance Building after the Panic of 1907. using modern technology and having a low carbon footprint relative to the number of people they will support. the Petronas Towers built during the Asian Crisis and Contagion of the late 1990s.‖ —Al-Waleed bin Talal. but do not finish until the bubble has burst.5 trillion) on infrastructure over the next few years. designer and architect.[89] that will complement the Kingdom City as well as develop Saudi Arabia. accounting for 36% of all construction spending in the MENA region. the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building built during the Great Depression." . and demonstrates the strength and creative vision of its people.[92] According to reports by Citi Investment Research & Analysis.

stopped architects and developers from producing concept drawings of mega-monolithic spires and gleaming shards of steel and glass to drum up publicity.‖ said Talal Al Maiman.[59] However. Rory Olcayto. It has a political depth to it to tell the world that we Saudis invest in our country.. a board member of both Kingdom Holding Company and Jeddah Economic Company.[79] ―We intend Kingdom Tower to become both an economic engine and a proud symbol of the Kingdom’s economic and cultural stature in the world community. the Burj Khalifa’s record remains intact. It’s a clever ploy. "We envision Kingdom Tower as a new iconic marker of Jeddah’s historic importance as the traditional gateway to the holy city of Mecca.600 meters. also known as the French Spiderman. was expressing his willingness to climb Kingdom Tower after it is complete if he is given official approval. Prince AlWaleed said. said ―The race to build the highest skyscraper is quite futile –where do you stop? These buildings are a symbol of an old-fashioned way of thinking. and demonstrates the strength and creative vision of its people. While . and minor site preparation evidenced by pictures of the site. of course. It represents new growth and highperformance technology fused into one powerful iconic form‖. columnist for ConstructionWeekOnline[99] The developers' theory is that the international attention gained through large developments and having the world's tallest building will incur gentrification of the country[100] and even be a financial success in the long run. "."[69] The project's primary proponent. heard that it may be up to 1.‖ but that if the height is 1. but it robs genuine projects of their rightful claims with little more effort than a few hours in front of a computer.‖ — Stephen White. nothing has been achieved other than a nice set of drawings and a lot of internet forum comments. Bob Sinn. principal engineer at Thornton Tomasetti.this tower symbolizes the Kingdom as an important global business and cultural leader. but it does get you bragging rights. That hasn’t..‖[69] while architect Adrian Smith states."[1] When Alain Robert. "Building this tower in Jeddah sends a financial and economic message that should not be ignored. "That doesn’t make much sense.000 meters that it will be achievable. It’s cheating.[98] [edit]Reception ―Of course.[101] [edit]Construction Aside from the geotechnical investigation (soil testing) that took place in 2008.originally as a joke. work on the foundation has not yet begun. Until a project breaks ground and construction starts. until it’s built.[91] He continued. he said. stated that the practical challenges of building supertall buildings are greater than the structural challenges. but that illustrated the very real fact that many of the world's tallest buildings have been built on the eve of financial collapse. despite the fact that he will be well into his fifties. however. deputy editor of The Architects’ Journal.

000 tons. including the high-strength reinforced concrete and the pumps used to elevate it to record heights. others calculate that it will take significantly longer.[69] This means the tower is expected to be completed during the year 2017. Statements that construction will begin soon have been made since 2008. but larger.729 sq ft). Technically I think a 2 km (6. Langan officially announced their involvement and that the foundation and piling had to be uniquely designed to overcome subsurface issues such as soft bedrock and porous coral rock.717 ft) Burj Khalifa to be given the green light for construction. The concrete will have to have low permeability to keep out corrosive salt water from the Red Sea. its depth and size is also considered to be an indicator of what the tower's final height will be. yet even still the building.562 ft)-tall tower could be done. which is 527 metres (1. In a television interview for WTTW in Chicago.[99] [edit]Notes A. is expected to settle. architect Adrian Smith stated that the tower will be a little over twice the height of the Willis (Sears) Tower. It is expected to be around 60 metres (197 ft) deep with a concrete pad of around 7.[75] The foundation will be similar to that of the Burj Khalifa. the construction schedule has been slated as "no later than December. though it is possible that it could be completed by the date the media continues to publish.[53] On 16 August 2011. which is the prior estimate of late 2016.[99] The piles will be up to 200 metres (656 ft) deep and the pad over 300 feet (91 m) across. It’s not a structural challenge.[104] Bob Sinn. based on the duration of Burj Khalifa's construction.the official construction estimate is five years and three months (63 months).280 feet) high.[15] Designs for the foundation were in place by early August and the contract for the piling with Langan International was being tendered.[103] Construction of the building will rely on cutting edge technology." He continued. similar to what was used during Burj Khalifa's construction. but I don’t think it will be done anytime soon. which normally could not support a skyscraper without settling. it is also the only proposal higher than the 828 metres (2."[52] with some saying "immediately." and that construction is imminent. The idea is that it settles evenly enough so that the building doesn't tip or put undue stress on the superstructure.000 metres (3. principal of Thornton Tomasetti states. ―Kingdom Tower is certainly feasible.[87] Only if construction does begin promptly and go smoothly can a late 2016 completion be expected.[102] which was over six years. ―Concrete quality is getting better and better. as is pumping technology. As of August 2011. which will weigh over 900. .‖[79] Kingdom Tower is not only the only approved structure over 1. Computer modeling programs performed tests at the site to confirm that the foundation design would work.500 m2 (80.729 ft) high counting the antennas. over seven years.000 meters (3. There have been very strong advances in reinforced concrete over the last 20 years. stating only that it will be at least 1. but have been postponed each time. The developers of Kingdom Tower are similarly keeping the final height secret.281 ft). ^ a b c The actual height of the Burj Khalifa was not revealed until the opening ceremony.

including SkyscraperPage. but the design it shows is the former kilometer design.512 sq ft)[13] C. 2010.suggesting that Kingdom Tower may be closer to 1. however. which is probably another term for gross floor area. Construction may begin sooner and a 2016 completion date has been cited in many sources. will presumably be less. the actual usable floor space. One source states.[105] D.100 metres (3. This area has also been reported as 540. ^ a b This figure has been referred to as the "total building area" in publications. E. Some sources have even suggested that Kingdom Tower will break Burj Khalifa's record by over 200 metres (656 ft). "Tower residents and visitors will occupy 160 floors within the tower. an older kilometer high design was said to contain over 200 floors."[69] In November. ^ a b No official floor count has been given. ^ a This assumes a December 2011 start date and the estimated completion time of 63 months.[106] It is uncertain but probable that this counts unoccupiedmechanical floors in the spire. which is what buildings are typically measured by.[17] B. ^ a Figure attained using the formula for the area of a circle (πr2) and the given value of 30 m (98 ft) as the diameter.[30] [edit]See also .000 m2 (5.609 ft).812. Adrian Smith said it will be about 50 floors taller than the (163 floor) Burj Khalifa.