Nutrients RDA/AI

`
Possible implication to hypertension and CVD Food sources Serving
size/g
Amount
/mg
Reference
(s)``
Nutrients with an inverse relationship with BP and CVD
Calcium 1000 mg- Ior both
Iemales & Iemales
aged 19-50 years

1200mg/d-
Iemales aged 51-
70 years |1|
Low Ca

level stimulates release oI parathyroid
hormone and 1, 25 hydroxyvitamin. This in turn
stimulates calcium inIlux in a variety oI cells,
including vascular smooth muscle cells to
promote contraction and increase peripheral
vascular resistance. ThereIore, BP increases.|4|
Smooth muscle hypertrophy,increases eIIects oI
endothelin, arrythmogenesis, lonI QT, torsades
de pointes and ventricular Iibrillation.|5|
Skim milk, powder
Milk- whole, Iluid, 2° milkIat
Milk-canned, condensed
Yogurt-plain, whole milk
Cheese, cottage
Sardine, canned with bone
Salmon, canned with bones
ToIu
Almonds
60
70
306
277
28.35
85.05
90
81
30
377
276
869
227
204
325
181
163
70
|17|
Magnesium 420 mg/d Ior
males above 30
and 320 mg/d Ior
Iemales above
30|1|
Mg

competes with Na
¹
Ior binding sites on
vascular smooth muscle and acts like calcium
channel blocker, increases prostaglandin E,
binds with potassium and induces vasodilation.
Peripheral vascular resistance decreases and BP
decreases |5|
Chickpeas
Cocoa powder
Crustacean- crab
Lobster
Dates
Garlic
100
100
100
100
100
3
48.2
84.7
63.5
43.5
43.3
1
|17|
Zinc 11mg/d Ior males
~ 19 years old and
8 mg/d Ior
Iemales ~ 19 years
old |1|
Decrease eIIicacy oI metalloenzymes like super
oxide dismutase (Iree radical scavenging
system).Low Zn

level causes oxidative stress
through induction oI AP-1 and NF-kB in
endothelial cells, causing inIlammation. |7|
Fish- Tuna
Sardine, canned in oil
Oyster
Egg
Chicken
100
100
85
50
100
0.561
1.3
33-74.06
0.65
1.0-6.0

|17|
Copper 900µg/d- both
males & Iemale ~
19 years. An
additional 100µg
Ior pregnant
women |1|
Low levels causes decreased cytochrome C
oxidase activity, reduction in mitochondrial
activity, myocyte damage, abnormalities oI
vascular myocardial tissues. ThereIore, more
contractile Iorce is needed to pump blood. Cause
copper deIicient cardiomyopathy |6|
Crustacean- Crab
BeeI-liver
Mushroom, white
Cashewnuts
100
100
100
25
0.814
14.6
0.90
0.61

|17|
Selenium 55µg/d- both
males & Iemale ~
19 years. An
additional 5µg/d
Ior pregnant
women|1|
Decrease antioxidant capacity oI glutathione
peroxidase, oxidative stress, and decreased
release oI nitric oxide, reduced smooth muscle
relaxation leading to increase BP |5|.




Barley, raw
Carambola
Couscous
Duck, domesticated, meat only
Egg, whole
Fish- Herring
Halibut
Tuna- canned in oil

100
100
100
100
50
100
100
100
37.7
0.55
27.5
22.4
15.4
58.6
55.4
76.0
|17|
Nutrients and foods with possible relevance to blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Potassium 4700 mg/d Ior
both males and
Iemales aged
above 19 years |1|
Increase sodium elimination, decreasing
plasmatic volume |8|
In salt sensitive hypertension model, NADPH
oxidase is a major source oI ROS in
cardiovascular system. Increase in extracellular
potassium boosts the membrane sodium pump
activity, hyperpolarizing the cell membrane and
turning oII` the NADPH oxidase activation |9|
GrapeIruit
Dates
Spinach
Banana
Leavening agents, Baking
powder
Cocoa powder
Dried prunes
Malted drink
JackIruit, ripe
100
100
100
100
5

100
100
100
100
484.0
656.2
466.1
243628.
2
505
2700
730
1195
191-407
|17|
Vitamin C 90 mg /d Ior males
& 75mg/d Ior
Iemales above 19
years |1|
Antioxidant; Improve arterial compliance,
improve endothelial Iunction, reduce serum
aldehydes, enhance eIIicacy oI amlodipine,
decrease the binding aIIinity oI the AT 1
receptor Ior angiotensin II and enhance
antihypertensive eIIects oI vitamin E and
medications, reduces leukotrienes and increase
production oI nitric oxide and aortic
collagen.|10|
Red pepper
Green pepper
Chilli
Kiwi
Orange
Broccoli, raw
Parsley
100
100
45
100
100
30
10
127.7
80.4
109.1
93.0
53.2
27.7
13.3

|17|
Thiamine 1.2mg/d Ior
males ~ 19 years
& 1.1 mg/d Ior
Iemales ~19
years|1|
A deIiciency is associated with high cardiac
output, and peripheral edema, reduced cardiac
contractile perIormance |5|.
Pork, roasted
Malted drink
Wheat Ilour
Oat bran
100
100
100
100
0.961
0.277
0.674
1.17
|17|
Riboflavin 1.3mg/d Ior
males ~ 19 years
& 1.1 mg/d Ior
Iemales ~19
years|1|
A deIiciency leads to reduced activity oI Ilavin
mononucleotide and Ilavin adenine dinucleotide,
leading to abnormal Iat metabolism and a
reduction in µ- oxidation oI Iatty acids. Increase
risk oI atherosclerosis |5|.
AlIalIa sprout
Chicken- liver
Rice, long grain, raw
Cocoa powder
Lamb
100
100
100
100
100
0.127
1.99
1.28
1.4
0.271
|17|
Vitamin B
6
/
Pyridoxine
1.3mg/d Ior
males & Iemales
aged 19-50 years
|1|
Impaired immunity, elevation oI homocysteine
level with a deIiciency |5|.
Salmon
Banana
Potato baked, with the skin on
100
100
100
0.693
0.366
0.613
|17|
Folate 600µg/d pregnant
women, 400µg/d
Ior both males &
Iemales ~ 19 years
|1|
DeIiciency leads to increased serum
homocystein levels- the mechanism oI
vasodilatation, which depends on nitric oxide,
increases proliIeration oI smooth muscle cells,
and Iinally leads to the impaired release oI nitric
oxide by endothelial tissue, BP increases |11|
Rice, long grain, parboiled
Wheat Ilour
Lentils, boiled
Spinach, raw
100
100
100
430
288
180
193
|17|
Vitamin B
12
2.6µg/d pregnant
women, 2.4µg/d
Ior both males &
Iemales ~ 19
years|1|
Homocysteine level raised, during a deIiciency,
increase risk oI endothelial dysIunction by
oxidative stress |5|.
BeeI
Turkey
Mollusks- clam

100
100
100
83.1
33.2
18.6
|17|
Vitamin A 770µg/d
pregnant women,
900µg/d Ior males
~19 years and
700µg Ior Iemales
~19 years |1|
Potent antioxidant, reduce oxidative stress and
improves endothelial health. DeIiciency leads to
impaired cell immunity |5|.
Carrot
Mango
Red pepper
Papaya, ripe
GrapeIruit
Apricot
JackIruit, ripe
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
16705.5
1081.8
3131
950
1150.4
1925.7
175-540
|17|
Vitamin D 10µg/d Ior
pregnant women,
Iemales & males
~19 years |1|
Known to have antiinIlammatory actions,
reducing levels oI TNF-u in patient. Vitamin D,
act directly and via increasing circulating
calcium levels, leads to reductionsin parathyroid
hormone, and PTH itselI has been postulated to
be vasculotoxic |12|.
Salmon
Tuna
Sardine
Milk, whole, 3.25 ° milk
100
100
100
100
525.8
269.2
192.8
50.8

|17|
Vitamin E/
o-tocopherol
15µg/d Ior
pregnant women,
Iemales & males
~19 years |1|
The antioxidant action has been ascribed to its
ability to act chemically as a lipid based Iree
radical chain-breaking molecule, thereby
inhibiting lipid peroxidation through its own
conversion into an oxidized product, u-
tocopheroxyl. u-Tocopherol can be restored by
reduction oI the u-tocopheroxyl radical with
redox-active reagents like vitamin C or
ubiquinol. |10|
Nuts- almonds, sunIlower
seeds
Peanuts
Hazelnuts
Oil- sunIlower

100
100
100
13.6


26.2
10.9
15.02
5.59
|17|
Omega 3
fatty acids
1.4g/d pregnant
women, 1.6g/d Ior
males ~19 years
and 1.1g/d Ior
Iemales ~19 years
*
|1|
- suggested to have hypotriglyceridemic eIIects,
a moderate hypotensive eIIect, a decrease in
platelet aggregation, improved endothelial
Iunction, and potential antiarrhythmic eIIects.
May improve insulin and leptin levels,
decreasing sympathic nervous activity and
arterial constriction, Modulate lipogenic
enzymes and Iavour lipid oxidation. |2|
Flaxseed oil
Walnuts
Canola oil
Soybean oil
Herring
Salmon
Sardine
5
30
5
5
100
100
100
7.3
2.6
1.3
0.9
2
1.6
1.32
|17|
Omega 9
fatty acids
Act via same mechanisms as omega 3- Iatty
acids. The MUFAs tend to increase HDL-C
more than PUFAs, and the oleate-rich LDL-C is
more resistant to oxidation than to oxidized
Olive oil
Canola oil
Almonds
Cahewnuts
10
10
100
100
7.30
6.33
31.0
27.3

LDL-C (oxLDL-C), thus decrease BP |2| Peanuts 100 24.6
Proteins 0.66g/kg body
weight Ior both
males and Iemales,
0.88 g/kg
bodyweight Ior
pregnant
women|1|
Non animal protein Ioods, lean protein with
more omega 3 and omega 6 Iatty acids may help
decrease BP. Whey proteins, sardine muscle
protein, wheat germ protein decrease BP by
inhibiting ACE activity and altering
catecholamine responses |3|
Chicken
Crustacean- crab, squid
Fish, Irozen
Halibut
Sardine
Nuts- almonds, cashewnuts
100
100
100
100
100
100
21-31
15-20
23
27
25
21.3
|17|
Other compounds/foods with inverse relationship with hypertension and CVD
Ubiquinone
(Coenzyme
Q10)
1-2 mg /day
*
|1| Regenerates vitamins E, C and A, inhibits
oxidation oI LDL, membrane phospholipids,
DNA, mitochondrial proteins, and lipids,
reduces total cholesterol and triglycerides,
raises HDL-C, improves insulin sensitivity,
reduces Iasting and random and postprandial
glucose, lowers SVR, lowers BP, and protects
the myocardium Irom ischemic reperIusion
injury
BeeI, Iried
Herring
Chicken
Soybean oil
100
100
100
45
3.05
2.70
1.65
1.3
|3|
L-carnitine No RDA has been
established |3|
Diuresis, decreased risk oI arrhythmias, a
deIiciency leads to altered Iat metabolism |5|
BeeI
Pork
Milk
100
100
100
95.2
28.2
3.38
|3|
Lycopene Has a singlet oxygen quenching ability that is
twice as high as that oI µ -carotene and 10 times
higher than that oI u tocopherol, increase the
concentration oI SOD, GSH-Px, reduce plasma
LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting
HMGCoA reductase |13|
Tomato puree, canned
Tomato, juice, canned
Tomato paste
Guava
Papaya
100
100
100
100
100

8-12
1-11
49-94
5.2-5.5
Up to
5.3
|17|
Alpha- lipoic
acid
200-400 mg/day
*
|1|

u-lipoic acid binds endogenous aldehydes,
normalize the membrane Ca channels, decrease
cytosolic Iree C,raises levels oI glutathione and
cysteine, which binds aldehydes, increasing
their excretion. It also increases antioxidant
vitamin levels oI ascorbic acid and vitamin
E,which improves endothelial Iunction |2|
Wheat germ, chicken, red
meat
- - |3|
Taurine 2-3 g/day
*
|4| Decreases hypercholesterolemia, increase
expression oI LDL receptors, increases urinary
Na, decreases arrhythmias, asodilation
increased atrial natriuretic Iactor, reduced
homocysteine, improved glucose andinsulin
Turkey
White Iish, cooked
Mussels, raw
Octopus
Scallop
100
100
100
100
100
306
172.1
655.4
388
827.7
|5|
`Adequate Intake (AI), is typed marked with (`), to distinguish from Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) ``References -refer to food sources, serving size and amount
sensitivity |14| Squid, raw 100 356.7
L-arginine No RDA has been
established |3|
substrate Ior vascular nitric oxide Iormation,an
elevation in l-arginine uptake in endothelial
cells can lead to a reduction in arterial blood
pressure by directly altering vascular resistance
or by increasing sodium and water excretion|16
- - -
Flavonoids-
Resveratrol
Decrease carbohydrate absorption and insulin
levels and may reduce the lipid accumulation in
the liver |3|
Red wine
Red grapes
100
100
0.838
0.573
|3|
Seaweed-
Wakame
- EIIect oI Wakame appears to be through its
ACEI activity Irom at least 4 parent
tetrapeptides, their dipeptide and tripeptide
metabolites, containing amino acid sequence
TYR-LY.Reduce BP by reducing intestinal Na
absorption and increasing intestinal K
absorption |2|.
- - -
Tea: green/
balck
- Tea catechins reduce the serum cholesterol
concentrations and suppress postprandial
hypertriacylglycerolemia|3|
- - -
Pycnogenol 200mg/day* |3| Counteracts kidney damage caused by
hypertension, lowering urinary proteins and
improving blood Ilow to the kidneys
French marine bark extract - - |2|
Nutrients with a direct relationship with BP and CVD
Sodium 1500mg/d- both
males & Iemale ~
19 years |1|
High dietary sodium increases oxidative stress
in the kidney causing nephroitic injury,
endothelial cell stiIIness, inhibition oI
endothelial NO synthase. Changes in plasma
sodium concentration are transmitted into the
cerebrospinal Iluid triggering the release oI
cardiotonic steroids, which cause
vasoconstriction|16|
Asparagus- canned
Baked beans-canned
Cheese- cheddar
Crustacean-Crab
Leavening agents, baking soda
Table salt


100
100
100
100
5
6
287.5
337.06
20.8
841.2
1573.8
2325
|17|
Micronutrient with no relationship with BP and CVD
Pantothenic
acid/ vitamin
B
5

6mg/d pregnant
women, 5mg/d-
both males
&Iemales ~19
years |1|
No evidence |5| BeeI
Lobster
Artichokes

100
100
100
6.94
1.67
0.240
|17|

References
1. United States Department oI Agriculture (USDA). Dietary ReIerence Intakes: Recommended intakes Ior Individual, National Academy oI
Sciences. Institute oI Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.2011.Available Irom:
|http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/~/media/Files/Activity°20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/5¸Summary°20Table°20Tables°201-
4.pdI|
2. Houston, M.C. Nutraceuticals, Vitamins, Antioxidants, and Minerals in the Prevention and Treatment oI Hypertension. Progress in Cardiovascular
Diseases . 2006 ;47 ( 6 ) : 396-449

3. Micronutrient InIormation Center Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Research Ior Optimum Health. Oregon State University. 2010.Available
Irom: |http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/inIocenter/othernuts/coq10/|
4. Zemel , M.B. Calcium Modulation oI Hypertension and Obesity: Mechanisms and Implications. Journal oI the American College oI Nutrition.
2001; 20 (5): 428S435S
5. Klaus, K.A., Clark, W. and Clark A.L. Micronutrient and Cardiovascular disease. CRC Press. 2004
Kisters, K., Al-Tayar, H., Nguyen, Q.H., Liebscher, H., Wessels, F., Büntze. J. Micke, O., Mücke, R., Gremmler,B., Hausberg, B. and Tokmak,
F. Magnesium metabolism and cardiovascular diseases, Trace Elements and Electrolytes, 2011, 28 (1) . 70-73

7. Reiterer., G, Toborek, M, and Hennig B. Zinc and Cell Signaling During InIlammation: Implications in Atherosclerosis. Current Nutrition &
Food Science. 2006; 2. 23-28.

8. Russo, P., Barba, G.Venezia, A. and Siani, A. Dietary Potassium in Cardiovascular Prevention: Nutritional and Clinical Implications. Curr. Med.
Chem. Immun., Endoc. & Metab. Agents. 2005, 5. 21-31.

9. Ando, K., Matsui, H.,Fujita , M. and Fujita , T. Protective EIIect oI Dietary Potassium against Cardiovascular Damage in Salt-Sensitive
Hypertension: Possible Role oI its Antioxidant Action. Current Vascular Pharmacology. 2010; 8. 59-63.

10.Rodrigo,R., Guichard, C., Charles, R. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use oI antioxidant vitamins. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Fundamental
& Clinical Pharmacology. 2007; 27 (1):11127.

11. Papandreou,D., Malindretos,P., Arvanitidou, M., Makedou, A. and ROUSSO, I. Homocysteine lowering with Iolic acid supplements in
children: EIIects on blood pressure. International Journal oI Food Sciences and Nutrition, February 2010; 61(1): 1117.

12. Adnan Nadir,M.Benjamin R. Szwejkowski& Miles D. Witham. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Prevention. Cardiovascular Therapeutics. 2010
;28: e5e12.
13. Subhash, K.,Bose, C., Agrawal, B.K. EIIect oI Lycopene Irom Tomatoes (Cooked) on Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation Rate and
Lipid ProIile in Grade-I Hypertension. Annals oI Nutrition and Metabolism. 2007; 51: 477481.


14. Yamori, Y.,Taguchi, T., Hamada, A., Kunimasa, K., Mori, H. and Mori, M. Taurine in health and diseases: consistent evidence Irom
experimental and epidemiological studies. Journal oI Biomedical Science. 2010;17 (1) :S6

15. Rajapakse, N.W and Mattson, D.L. Role oI l-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. Clinical and Experimental
Pharmacology and Physiology .2009 ; 36: 249255.

16. Ritz, E. Salt and hypertension. Nephrology. 2010 ,15 :4952.
17. United States Department oI Agriculture (USDA). National Nutrient Database Ior Standard ReIerence, Release 24. Available Irom:
|http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid÷6231|
18. United States Department oI Agriculture (USDA). Database Ior the Flavonoid Content oI Selected Foods, Release 3 .2011) Available Irom:|
http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid÷8964|.





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