Types Alcohol

Over 100 different types Ethanol Methanol Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol
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= = =

C2 H5 OH

Isopropyl

CH3 OH (Ch3)2 CH2 OH

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Background
H H H
Fermentation to make alcohol dates back to 4200 BC Second most used drug in the world (caffeine #1) Luxembourg tops list for legal purchase and consumption (12.6 liters/person) Latvia tops list for legal, illegal, and homemade purchase and consumption (16-20 liters/person) Whites have highest alcohol consumption rates Americans consumed twice as much alcohol in 1830 as they do now.
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c
H

c

H OH

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College and University Use
Students drink 4 billion cans of beer yearly 360,000 of 12 million undergraduates will die from alcohol-related causes while in school. Nearly ½ of college students are binge drinkers Average student spends $900 per year on alcohol (books $450/year)
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Other Social Problems Associated with Alcohol Consumption
Correlated with crime in general Domestic violence Rape DWI Economic costs are huge
>82 Billion in lost productivity 18.8 billion for alcohol problems 9.9 billion for other drug problems

Economic burden of alcohol and drug problems falls on the population that do not abuse alcohol or drugs.
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Get short term reductions and the behavior goes back to normal. 11 Concentration that is ingested Proof of the beverage Speed of consumption Carbon Dioxide Sex of the individual Tolerance Altitude Circadian Variation Ascending vs. 9. 3.5 Death Factors that Influence BACs 1. 5. 7. coma . 10. minerals etc Only contains 210 calories/oz Requires no digestion Once in the system it stays until metabolized Makes it unique Distribution After absorption goes evenly throughout the body Easily crosses the blood-brain barrier Also crosses the placenta and enters the blood stream of a developing fetus.03 . 11. 6.01-02 . 4. Does not depend on the beverage Causes body damage when consumed in greater amounts.10 Decreased motor coordination.08 .. Most laws related to drinking and driving have minimal impacts at changing behavior.20 Severe loss of judgment and muscle coordination .15 .. (Ross studies) 7 Ethanol 8 Background Information Is a simple molecule Is classified as a CNS depressant Contains no vitamins. Descending BACs Fructose RO-15-4513 and others 12 2 . Essentially goes to all cells Impacts all cells 9 10 Behavioral Effects 01 . legal limit . 8..40 . Minimum age drinking laws have mixed effects.Other Comments Can have therapeutic effects when consumed in moderation (1 drink per day). 2.05 Decreased Inhibitions Vision Changes Changes in inhibition Buzz Beginning to decrease motor coordination .30 Passing out.

the greater the concentration. it can inhibit entry until the concentration is reduced. Women have more body fat than men. can decrease bloodstream entry Can shut down the system 50% Ethanol / 50% Water = 100 Proof 40% Ethanol / 60% Water = 80 Proof Is not the same as concentration The greater the proof. Metabolizes alcohol slower Men have more muscle to fat than women. On the rocks is better tha n not on the r ocks Proof of the Beverage Amount of alcohol/volume of water 100% Ethanol / 0% Water = 200 Proof Only e xists in airless environments Usually 190 Proof is as good as you can get If concentration becomes to great. Fat contains little blood in solution. More muscle = more blood in solution dilutes the ethanol and lowers the BAC. the faster it enters the bloodstream. the female will get drunk faster than the male Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase than men. Less solution the higher the BAC 17 18 3 . the faster the entry into the blood stream To high (>100 proof).Concentration that is Consumed Generally. the faster the BAC rises Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide makes ethanol cross the mucosal membranes faster than straight ethanol Makes you drunk faster Scotch and Soda gets you faster than Scotch and water. 15 16 Reasons Sex of the Individual If a male and female are the same body weight. 13 14 Speed of Consumption The faster you drink.

Get drunk faster 19 20 Circadian Variation Circadian Rhythms will influence how drunk you will get Ascending vs. Descending BACs You are drunker on the ascending side of the BAC curve than at the same level on the Descending side of the BAC curve. Note: BAC is still the same Altitude The greater the altitude. 21 22 Why B A C Neurons have adapted somewhat Beginning Tolerance Time 23 24 4 . the better the person will function when under the influence. the faster the ethanol crosses the mucosal membranes.Tolerance The greater the tolerance.

25 26 Effects of Ethanol on Body Structures 27 28 Mouth Trace amounts absorbed here Causes Irritation lesions ulcers oral cancer Esophagus Is a tube surrounded by muscles and blood vessels Has a mucosal lining Causes Damage to mucosal lining Esophageal ulcers Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Varices 29 30 5 .Fructose Increases the metabolism of the liver Slightly decreases the BAC RO-15-4513 and others Block the effects of alcohol on receptor binding sites. Have the same BAC but no behavioral effects.

Stomach 15-20% absorbed here Stimulates production of HCL Irritates and damages mucosal lining Changes the electrical properties of the stomach lining Gastritis Ulcers Achlorhydria 31 Pyloric Valve Spasms in the presence of large amounts of ethanol 32 Intestinal Wall Small Intestine Microvilli Blood Vessel V I L L I Majority of Ethanol absorbed here Damages Mucosal Cells. and Microvilli Decreases absorption of nutrients and vitamins Increases Triglyceral and Cholesterol production 33 Food Intestine Passage 34 Intestinal Wall Blood Vessel Microvilli V I L L I Pancreas Increased concentration of Pancreatic enzymes Decreased volume of enzyme secretion Pancreatitis Decreased insulin production – Secondary Diabetes 35 Alcohol Food Intestine Passage 36 6 . Villi.

ion at m m fla In Tubes Narrow Pancreatic Duct 37 Pancreatic Duct 38 Gall Bladder Decreased amounts of Bile Secretion Large Intestine Decreased water and vitamin absorption Diarrhea 39 40 RBC Effects on Blood Cells Decreased Production Anemia 41 42 7 .

Decreases the amount of NT that is released Decreases transmission speed Increases tolerance Demyelination Nervous System 45 46 More Inhibits the function of NMDA – subtype Glutamate Receptor Decreases the responsiveness of NMDA receptors to glutamate Brain Structures of Binds on BZ subunit of GABA receptor Inhibits other neurons by increasing Cl into post synaptic element May impact Serotonin receptors (5HT2. 5HT3) located in Dopamine Post Synaptic Elements in Nucleus Accumbens 47 48 8 .WBC Decreased production Decreased response time Get more infections Increased risk for STD’s/HIV Platelets Decreased production Decreased clotting time More bumps and bruises 43 44 Neurons Alters neuronal membrane (Lipid Bilayer) Decreases amounts of Na that enters the axon Decreased height of the action potential Alters Ca influx .

progesterone. testosterone. reproductive failure. and others Males Damages or kills Leydig Cells Increases feminine characteristics Decreased sexual drive. Luteinizing hormone. impotence 53 54 9 . Temporal lobes. Visual System Decreased accommodation time Decreases tracking ability Double vision Decreased recovery time Usually STM is the most affected Poor Prognosis 51 52 Endocrine Effects Inhibits Vasopressin release Decreases thyroid hormones.Alters newer evolutionary structures first. etc Decreases the numbers of dendrites and axons Increases Ventricle Size Decreases blood flow Related Brain Damage Blackouts Sleep Changes Wernicke-Korsakoffs Syndrome Other Psychological and Psychiatric problems 49 50 Wernicke-Korsakoffs Syndrome Due to a lack of B vitamins Results from damage to cortex peripheral nerve cells Key symptom is confabulation Get holes in memory so you fill them in. hippocampus. then older structures Damages Frontal.

pain.Females Early Menopause Premenstrual discomfort Increased menstrual Flows Infertility Muscle Tissue 55 56 Skeletal Muscle Disrupts internal structure of the muscle Cramps. weakness = Alcoholic Myopathy Cardiac Increased Weight of the heart Dilation of heart chambers Scar tissue Cardiomyopathy 57 58 Removal of Ethanol Methods Trace amounts through respiration and sweat. Some through fecal material Most is metabolized by the liver via two systems 59 60 10 .

Alcohol Dehydrogenase System (ADH) Substance Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid CO2 + H20 Respiration Urination 61 Microsomal Ethanol Oxidase System (MEOS) Substance Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid CO2 + H20 Respiration Urination 62 Degrading Enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Degrading Enzyme MEOS Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Ethanol Effects on the Liver Fatty Liver Cirrhosis Portal Hypertension Decreased vitamin production Decreased hormones and other products important for body functioning 63 Other Issues 64 Genetic Differences Decreased ADH metabolic Rates for Europeans Increased ALDH metabolic rate for Europeans FAS Increased numbers of spontaneous abortions Endocrine Changes BAC 65 66 11 .

Drugs Additive effects Benzodiazepines Synergistic effects Barbiturates Decreased effectiveness Antibiotics 67 Conclusion Most damaging drug there is Influence every system Causes major social/economic problems Highly correlated with aggression 68 12 .