DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: A database management system (DBMS) is a software package with computer programs that control

the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows organizations to conveniently develop databases for various applications by database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A database is an integrated collection of data records, files, and other objects. A DBMS allows different user application programs to concurrently access the same database. DBMSs may use a variety of database models, such as the relational model or object model, to conveniently describe and support applications. It typically supports query languages, which are in fact high-level programming languages, dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application programs. Database languages also simplify the database organization as well as retrieving and presenting information from it. A DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after failures and restoring it from backup files, as well as maintaining database security. A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the system organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. The DBMS accepts requests for data from an application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. The queries and responses must be submitted and received according to a format that conforms to one or more applicable protocols. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are also used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs typically rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions.

A management information system (MIS): It provides information needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively Management information systems involve three primary resources: people, technology, and information. Management information systems are distinct from other information systems in that they are used to analyze operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Initially, in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was produced manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some

information began to be distinguished from data and systems were developed to produce and organize abstractions. customer billing and payments to suppliers. accounting and other performance-related information 3. which stores large amounts of data relevant to problems the DSS has been designed to tackle. TYPES OF MIS: 1. Transaction-processing systems are used widely today. Managers use operations information systems to obtain sales. Transaction-Processing Systems:  Transaction-processing systems are designed to handle a large volume of routine. 2. recurring transactions. Operations Information Systems:  Operations information systems were introduced after transaction-processing systems. and dialog generation and management system (DGMS). As computational technology developed. which provides a user-friendly interface between the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training. Managers often use these systems to deal with such tasks as payroll. Data was organized manually according to the requirements and necessity of the organization. A DSS has three fundamental components: database management system (DBMS). provide an objective system for recording information and support the organization's strategic goals and direction. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM: A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. model-based management system (MBMS). relationships and generalizations based on the data. Decision Support Systems (DSS):  A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without help from computer specialists. An operations information system gathers comprehensive data.additional statistic(s). . An MIS should be designed to enhance communication among employees. Banks use them to record deposits and payments into accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. summaries. inventory. These types of systems access data from a transaction-processing system and organize it into a usable form. A DSS provides managers with the necessary information to make informed decisions. and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. They were first introduced in the 1960s with the advent of mainframe computers. organizes it and summarizes it in a form that is useful for managers. which transforms data from the DBMS into information that is useful in decision-making.

formulate and solve a problem. in addition to solving problems they also can serve as a teacher. hence. These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user. and learn from experience. Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence:  Expert systems and artificial intelligence use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily need human expertise.4. Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires the computer to do the following: recognize. They use flexible thinking processes and can accommodate new knowledge . explain solutions.