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Court Case Journal Mia Shin 11. Citizens United v.

Federal Election Commission (2010): Facts of the Case: Before the 2008 presidential election, Citizens United, a non-profit organization, created a on-demand documentary called Hillary: The Movie. The film criticized the then frontrunner of the Democratic party, Hillary Clinton. However, the 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act does not allow organizations to fund "electioneering communications" (television advertisements that directly target a canidate) a month before a primary nor two months before an election. Citizens United argued that this documentary was not a violation of this act. Conclusion/Significance: In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Citizens United, ruling that that the law preventing the spending of independent groups was invalid. This violated the groups First Amendment rights as well. 12. Buckley v. Valeo (1976): Facts of the Case: In January 1976, a lawsuit was filed by Senator James Buckley against the Secretary of State and FEC member at the time, Francis Valeo over the constitutionality of this Act, arguing that it violated First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and Fifth Amendment rights to due process. Conclusion/Significance: In a ______ decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Valeo, saying that the acts limits on individual donations and reporting were valid, however, they ruled that the limitations on campaign spending as well as limitations on contributions by supporters and from personal funds were, in fact, unconstitutional. 13. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971): Facts of the Case: Pennsylvania in 1968 passed a Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, in which the Superintendent of Public Instruction reimbursed these schools for the salaries of their teachers who taught secular material. The Supreme Court ruled this to be unconstitutional. Conclusion/Significance: With a unanimous vote, the Supreme Court decided this was unconstitutional because it violated separation of church and state implemented by the constitution in First Amendment Establishment Clause. They then wrote the Lemon Test, which now defines the rules for secular legislation. 14. Engel v. Vitale (1962): Facts of the Case: In Hyde Park of New York City, families were concerned with the prayer to Almighty God, although voluntary, was conflicting with their Jewish views and pressing Christian ones upon them. This case was to decide if saying prayers in public schools was constitutional. Conclusion/Significance: In a 6-1(one judge had a stroke, and one was not involved in this case to begin with) ruling, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Engel, saying that reciting prayers, even if optional, in public schools is unconstitutional. This, the court ruled, violates the First Amendment Establishment Clause, which creates the separation of church and state. 15. Abington, Pennsylvania School District v. Schempp (1963):

Facts of the Case: Schempp, a Unitarian Universalist, did not approve of the fact that Pennsylvania public schools had made it part of their curriculum to make their students, including his child, to read parts of the Bible. Conclusion/Significance: In an 8-1 ruling, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Schempp, saying that reading a religious text in a public school is unconstitutional. This violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, which separates the church from state. Because this is a public school, you need to separate the church from it.