Quantum computer

A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition andentanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers based on transistors. The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data.[1] A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with nondeterministic and probabilistic computers, like the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. Although quantum computing is still in its infancy, experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits (quantum bits). Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national government and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[2] Large-scale quantum computers could be able to solve certain problems much faster than any classical computer by using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[3] Given enough resources, a classical computer can simulate an arbitrary quantum computer. Hence, ignoring computational and space constraints, a quantum computer is not capable of solving any problem which a classical computer cannot.[4]

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This article is about the non-volatile type of computer memory. For the music device manufacturer, see Sonos. For the second album by Paula Toller, see SóNós. SONOS, short for "Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon", is a type of non-volatile computer memory closely related to Flash RAM. It is distinguished from mainstream flash by the use of silicon nitride (Si3N4) instead of polysilicon for the charge storage material. A further variant is "SHINOS" ("Silicon Hi-k Nitride Oxide Silicon"). SONOS promises lower programming voltages and higher program/erase cycle endurance than polysilicon-based flash, and is an area of active research and development effort. Companies offering SONOS-based products include GlobalFoundries, Cypress Semiconductor, Macronix, Toshiba, and United Microelectronics Corporation.

but uses a positive bias on the inert electrode. flow in the electrolyte and are reduced (converted to atoms) by electrons from the inert electrode. Erasing the cell is identical to writing. one relatively inert (e..PMC PMC is based on the physical re-location of ions within a solid electrolyte. PMC is not the only application of this basic concept. [1] This is likely to prevail at low programming currents (less than 1 microampere) whereas higher programming current will lead to a mostly metallic conductor. which relates to "nanoionics". optical switches. . and is read as a "0". and microfluidic valves. The new technology will presumably be used in commercial products. PMC technology has been licensed to Infineon (Qimonda).. A PMC memory cell is made of two solid metal electrodes. and that is read as a "1". A control transistor can also be included in each cell. If there is no nanowire in the cell.g. which can be measured to indicate that the "writing" process is complete. The "nanowire" dramatically reduces the resistance along that path. The metal ions will migrate away from the filament. and a small voltage applied across the cell. Reading the cell simply requires the control transistor to be switched on. with a thin film of the electrolyte between them. Micron Technology. If the nanowire is in place in that cell. and several other large semiconductor companies and OEMs have also shown interest in the new technology [3]. as well as some originating from the now-positive active electrode. the resistance is higher. Actually the nanowire may not be continuous but a chain of electrodeposit islands or nanocrystals. and Adesto Technologies. the resistance will be low. leading to low current. After a short period of time the ions flowing into the filament form a small metallic "nanowire" between the two electrodes. developed by the university's Center for Applied Nanoionics. and eventually to the negativelycharged active electrode.[2] Arizona State University was among the first to perform studies of PMC. tungsten) the other electrochemically active (e. Other prospective applications include dynamically-reroutable electronics. metal ions in the electrolyte. back into the electrolyte. This breaks the nanowire and increases the resistance again. leading to higher current. When a negative bias is applied to the inert electrode.g. silver or copper).

UMTS. MIHF. WiMAX. that is located in the protocol stack between the layer 2 wireless technologies and IP at layer 3.CDMA2000. including GSM. e. However if the handover is from a WiFi access point in a corporate network to a public WiFi hotspot. or because an access point experiences a heavy traffic load. When a session is handed off from one access point to another access point using the same technology. MIH may communicate with various IP protocols including SIP.11f and 802. since the two access points cannot communicate with each other at the link layer. Biplob. Session Initiation Protocol. [edit]Functionality The key functionality provided by MIH is communication among the various wireless layers and between them and the IP layer. When a session is handed off from one wireless technology to another. using WiFi standards such as 802. MIH may assist the handover process by exchanging messages among the Internet access technologies and IP. for signaling. and are in general on different IP subnets. Handover may be required. Multimode wireless devices that incorporate more than one of these wireless interfaces require the ability to switch among them during the course of an IP session.g. . e. The required messages are relayed by the Media Independent Handover Function.g.11r. For instance a VoIP call from a WiFi handset to a WiFi access point can be handed over to another WiFi access point within the same network. then MIH is required. the handover can usually be performed within that wireless technology itself without involving MIHF or IP. and devices such as laptops with Ethernet and wireless interfaces need to switch similarly between wired and wireless access. because a mobile device experiences a degradation in the radio signal . Mobile IP for mobility management and DiffServ and IntServ for QoS. Mobile-Fi and WPANs. a corporate network.Media-independent handover The importance of MIH derives from the fact that a diverse range of broadband wireless access technologies is available and in course of development. Message are of three types: • Event notifications are passed from a lower layer in the protocol stack to a higher layer or between the MIHF of one device to the MIHF of another device. For instance “wireless link quality is degrading” is an event notification that is passed from the wireless layer to the MIHF layer.

the availability of location-based services.g. A higher layer may request information from a lower layer. One MIHF may request information from another MIHF. the MIHF may request to know the ISP Name from the IP layer. such as delay from the wireless layer. . For instance “Initiate Handover” is a command in which the access point MIHF provides the mobile device MIHF with a list of alternative access points that it could use.g. A lower layer may request information from a higher layer. e.• Commands are passed down the protocol stack or between the MIHF of one device to the MIHF of another device. • Information Service is of three types.g. e. e. the MIHF may request performance information.