‫1‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎم ﺧﺪا‬

‫‪Reading Comprehension through Syntax‬‬
‫درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ روﺧﻮاﻧﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ "ﻧﺤﻮ"‬

‫ﺗﺎ ﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫دﮐﺘﺮ ﻣﻴﺘﺮا اﺣﻤﺪﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫5831‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫اﻳﺮان‬

‫2‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان............................................................................................................................ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ.............................................................................................................................3‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ اول: ﻧﻬﺎد..................................................................................................................5‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ دوم: ﻓﻌﻞ.................................................................................................................04‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺳﻮم:ﻣﻔﻌﻮل.............................................................................................................96‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﭼﻬﺎرم: ﻗﻴﺪ..............................................................................................................37‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ............................................................................................................601‬

‫ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ:‬ ‫اﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎت..................................................................................................................551‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ..........................................................................................................................561‬

‫3‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎم ﺧﺪا‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫دو ﻣﻬﺎرت اﺻﻠﯽ در زﺑﺎن وﺟﻮد دارد:‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎرﺗﻬﺎﯼ ‪ Receptive‬ﻳﻌﻨﯽ روﺧﻮاﻧﯽ و ﺷﻨﻴﺪارﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎرﺗﻬﺎﯼ ‪ Creative‬ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﮔﻔﺘﺎرﯼ و ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎرﯼ.‬ ‫هﺪف از درس زﺑﺎن داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﯽ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ روﺧﻮاﻧﯽ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮان ﻗﺎدر ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ از ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺧﻮد ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ. درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻮن ﺑﺪون ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن اﻣﺮﯼ ﻧﺎ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ اﺳﺖ و ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﮔﺮاﻣﺮ‬ ‫هﻢ ﺧﺎرج ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﯽ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. زﻳﺮا اﺻﻞ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ در هﺮ زﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ، ﭘﻴﺪا ﮐﺮدن ارﺗﺒﺎط ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﺗﺌﻮرﯼ و‬ ‫ﮐﺎراﻳﯽ ﺁﻧﻬﺎﺳﺖ و دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن هﻢ از اﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻨﯽ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺁﻣﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻧﮑﺎت رﻳﺰ و درﺷﺖ ﮔﺮاﻣﺮ اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫وﻗﺘﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﺑﻪ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ‪Comprehension‬ﻧﺮﺳﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻓﺮار و ﺑﯽ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫در ﺗﺪوﻳﻦ اﻳﻦ ﮐﺘﺎب ﺳﻌﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ از ﮐﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰ ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﺷﻮد ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﺤﺚ را ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ و اﺟﺰا ﺁن ﺷﺮوع ﮐﺮدﻩ اﻳﻢ.‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع، ﺳﻌﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﻮال زﻳﺮ را در دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺑﻴﺎد ﺑﻴﺎورﻳﺪ. ﺳﭙﺲ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ اﻳﻦ اﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎت در اﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﮐﺘﺎب ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.‬ ‫1- ﻧﻬﺎد ‪ Subject‬ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫2- ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ Verb‬ﭼﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﯽ دارد؟ ﻓﺮق ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ‪ auxiliary‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫3-ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ‪ object‬ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫4- ﭼﻪ اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ اﺣﺘﻴﺎج ﺑﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل دارﻧﺪ؟ ﻣﺜﺎل ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ.‬ ‫5- ﻗﻴﺪ ﭼﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﯽ دارد؟ﻣﺤﻞ ﻗﻴﺪهﺎ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫6- ﻓﺮق ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫7- ﻓﺮق ﻋﺒﺎرت ‪ phrase‬ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ‪ Clause‬ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫هﺪف از ﻃﺮح اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮاﻻت ﺁﻧﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﻢ ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ زﺑﺎن دوم ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ درﮎ ﺁﮔﺎهﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎرهﺎﯼ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن ﻣﺎدرﯼ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﺟﺰا ﺟﻤﻠﻪ:‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت هﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ را دﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ و ﺣﺪاﮐﺜﺮ در ﭼﻬﺎر ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﻢ و اﻳﻦ اﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﮐﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﻧﺪارد. اﻳﻦ ﭼﻬﺎر ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از:‬ ‫اﻟﻒ- ﻧﻬﺎد: ﺟﻨﺲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ در ﻓﺮ هﻨﮓ ﻟﻐﺎت ‪ Noun‬اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ب- ﻓﻌﻞ:ﺟﻨﺲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ‪ Verb‬اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ج- ﻣﻔﻌﻮل: ﺟﻨﺲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ‪ Noun‬اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫د- ﻗﻴﺪ : ﺟﻨﺲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ‪ Adverb‬اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ اﺳﻢ هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و هﻢ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل.‬

EnchantedLearning. ﭼﻮن اﮔﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺣﺪس ﺻﺎﺋﺒﯽ در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁورﻳﺪ و ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ را ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ وﺟﻮد ﻳﺎ ﻋﺪم وﺟﻮد ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺟﺰا ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺣﺪس ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ. Syntax Analysis http://web. ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺺ ﺳﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ/ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﯼ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و اﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺮاﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮان ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد:‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺘﻮن و داﺳﺘﺎﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺁﻣﻮزش زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ:‬ ‫‪Rong-Chang Li & Bill Bailey.Free ESL Stories and Exercises.grinnell.‪Krohn Robert.اﻳﺮان‬ . Jeananda. Graphic Organizers. English Sentence Structure. http://www. USA The University of Michigan Press‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ دﻳﺎﮔﺮاﻣﻬﺎﯼ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ:‬ ‫/‪Dobbs. Elizabeth. در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ادﻋﺎ ﮐﺮد ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﯼ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ و از ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ و ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ در اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﻗﺮار دارد.html‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ دﻳﺎﮔﺮاﻣﻬﺎﯼ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ :‬ ‫)5002-8991( ‪Col. http://www.‫4‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﮔﺮوﻩ در اﻳﻦ ﮔﺮوهﻬﺎ، ﻓﻌﻞ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫در ﻧﮕﺎرش اﻳﻦ ﮐﺘﺎب از ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﮐﺘﺐ ﺗﺪرﻳﺲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮاﯼ زﺑﺎن ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ در داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻬﺎﯼ ﺁزاد، ﺗﻬﺮان، ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺸﺘﯽ و ﭘﻴﺎم‬ ‫ﻧﻮر از اﻧﻘﻼب ﻓﺮهﻨﮕﯽ ﺗﺎ ﮐﻨﻮن اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.com/qa‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت ﮔﺮاﻣﺮﯼ:‬ ‫1791 .rong‬‬‫)6002 – 4991( 2‪chang. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ اﮔﺮ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﯽ از ﻟﻐﺎت داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ و ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را‬ ‫ﻧﺪارﻳﺪ اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ را ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ.edu/individuals/dobbs/drsyntax‬‬ ‫)6002-8991( ‪trans1.com‬‬ ‫دﮐﺘﺮ ﻣﻴﺘﺮا اﺣﻤﺪﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎر 5831‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮان.

ﺻﻔﺖ و ﻣﻮﺻﻮف وﻗﺘﯽ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﺖ‬ The man who is sitting there is my student. ﺟﻮاب ﺳﻮال زﻳﺮ ، "ﻧﻬﺎد" اﺳﺖ‬ John called the girl.‫ﻧﻬﺎد اﺳﻤﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺧﺒﺮﯼ راﺟﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺁن دادﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﻣﺜﻞ‬ The apple An apple My apple This apple He:‫5-ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ The old:‫6.:‫1.ﻣﻀﺎف و ﻣﻀﺎف اﻟﻴﻪ‬ The big girl eats a lot.:‫2-ﺻﻔﺖ و ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬ The man in the blue dress came.5 ‫ﻓﺼﻞ اول‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎ د‬ :‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ‬ .ﺻﻔﺖ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ اﺳﻢ‬ :‫*اﺳﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ The classroom is big.اﺳﻢ ﺧﺎص ﻣﺜﻞ‬ coffee :‫2. :‫*ﻧﻬﺎد ﮐﺎذب‬ It is not difficult to study English. :‫*ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻣﺼﺪرﯼ‬ To understand this lesson is difficult /Understanding this lesson is difficult. WHO called? John=>subject The book was read.اﺳﻢ ﻋﺎم ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻣﺜﻞ‬ apples :‫3. . :‫3.اﺳﻢ ﻋﺎم ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ : ‫4-اﺳﻢ ﻋﺎم ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻣﻔﺮد ﮐﻪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ. What was read? The book=>subject :‫در ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻧﻬﺎد ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان هﺮ ﻳﮏ از اﻗﻼم زﻳﺮ را ﻗﺮار داد‬ :‫*اﺳﻢ‬ Professor Miller ‫1. :‫4-ﺻﻔﺖ و ﻣﻮﺻﻮف ﮐﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ :‫*ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ‬ That they are good students is known to everybody.

‬ ‫ج.ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ و ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ را درﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻧﻬﺎد را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﮐﺐ و ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.‬ ‫ز.ﺿﻤﻴﺮ و اﻧﻮاع ﺁﻧﺮا ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﻴﺪ.‬ ‫د.‫6‬ ‫در اﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﻴﺪ:‬ ‫اﻟﻒ: اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش و ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش و ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.‬ .‬ ‫ب: اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ و اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮد را از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺮ روﯼ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ارﮐﺎن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﻴﺪ.‬ ‫ح.‬ ‫و.ﺻﻔﺖ و ﻣﻮﺻﻮف –ﻣﻀﺎف و ﻣﻀﺎف اﻟﻴﻪ را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻓﺘﺮاق دهﻴﺪ.واﺣﺪ ﻧﻬﺎد را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ دهﻴﺪ.

.‬ ‫‪W‬‬ ‫.‬ . please‬‬ ‫اﻳﻨﮑﻪ اﺳﻤﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ از ﻧﻈﺮ "ﻧﺤﻮ" ﻳﺎ "ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ" ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ زﻳﺮا ﺑﺮ روﯼ دو ﺟﺰ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺛﺮ‬ ‫دارد : ﻓﻌﻞ و ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ) ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ(. اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫در ﺟﺪول 1-1 ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات "ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ" ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ اﺳﻢ ﺁوردﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‫7‬ ‫اﺳﻢ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ‪ Count Nouns‬و ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ‪:Uncountable nouns= mass nouns‬‬ ‫در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ هﺮ اﺳﻤﯽ در ﻳﮑﯽ از دو ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش و ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. please‬‬ ‫**‪ :Many/Much‬در ﻣﻮارد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ و اﺳﻢ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود ." ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش هﺴﺘﻨﺪو ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﺎورﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﮏ ﺗﮑﻪ، ﻳﮏ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ، ﻳﮏ ﭘﺎﮐﺖ را ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. ﻣﺜﻼ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻗﻬﻮﻩ ‪ coffee‬ﻳﮏ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش اﺳﺖ وﻟﯽ اﮔﺮ در رﺳﺘﻮراﻧﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ و دو ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﻗﻬﻮﻩ ﺑﺨﻮاهﻴﺪ ، ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻴﺪ:‬ ‫.‪ٌ ould you like some apples? Yes. ﻣﺜﻼ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ"ﺷﮑﻼت، ﺑﺮﻧﺞ، ﻧﺎن، ﮐﺮﻩ، ﮔﭻ و. ﻣﺜﻼ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻨﺎد ﺑﻪ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﺨﻮد را ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻤﺎرﻳﻢ ﺁﻧﺮا ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﻢ!ا ﺑﺎدام ‪Almond‬‬ ‫‪Pea‬‬ ‫هﻢ ﺷﻤﺮدﻩ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد وﻟﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﯽ از اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺪد ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫* ‪ Some‬در ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر ﺟﻮاب ﻣﺜﺒﺖ وﺟﻮد دارد..‬ ‫*** ‪ : a lot of/ lots of‬در ﺗﻤﺎم ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﺜﺒﺖ،ﻣﻨﻔﯽ، ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد دارد.‪Two coffee.

‬ ‫.‪needed‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪Another apple grows‬‬ ‫‪Another two apples are‬‬ ‫.‪Many apples grow here‬‬ ‫‪**Many‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪاد زﻳﺎد‬ ‫‪**Much‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر زﻳﺎد‬ ‫‪***A lot of‬‬ ‫‪Lots of‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار زﻳﺎد‬ ‫‪ = A few‬ﺗﻌﺪاد ﮐﻢ‬ ‫‪ = few‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ هﻴﭻ‬ ‫‪= A little‬ﻣﻘﺪار ﮐﻢ‬ ‫‪ = little‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ هﻴﭻ‬ ‫‪another‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪Other apples grow‬‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ Some /any‬ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ:‬ ‫‪Some other time‬‬‫‪some other work‬‬ ‫‪The Other‬‬ ‫.‪The other apples grow‬‬ ‫.‬ .‪Some milk is here‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﮐﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد + ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻔﺮد‬ ‫?‪Is any of the ink red‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﮐﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد + ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪The other apple grows‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪A lot of apples grow‬‬ ‫.ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮاﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ اﺟﺰا ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ:‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬ ‫*‪Some‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻣﻘﺪارﯼ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺧﺒﺮﯼ و ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Other‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‪Some apples grow here‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ + ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫?‪Do any apples grow here‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش‬ ‫.‫8‬ ‫ﺟﺪول1-1.‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Any‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ هﻴﭻ )در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ و ﻣﻨﻔﯽ(‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ + ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫.‪A lot of milk is here‬‬ ‫.‪A few apples grow‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪ A little milk is here‬ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‪Much milk is here‬‬ ‫.

Some milk .9 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-1: ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺪل اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ Model: Would you like an apple? Teacher: Some bread Student: Would you like some bread? 1.bananas 7.car 20.chairs 3.cheese 9.toothbrush 13.soap 12.Some fruit 13.tomato soup 6.coffee 16.An orange 2-some orange juice 3-some coffee 4-a sandwich 5-some tomato juice 6-some soup 7-a hot dog :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-2 را ﺑﺎ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ Model: He buys a house.milk 17.books 11.table 2.‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁﻧﮑﻪ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش را ﺑﺸﻤﺎرﻳﻢ ﻣﺠﺒﻮرﻳﻢ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯽ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ‬ A cup of coffee A slice of bread A loaf of bread A piece of paper A bottle of ink A piece of chalk A bar of soap A kilo of butter A tube of toothpaste 15.book 10.tomatoes 5.bread 8.chalk 8-a banana 9-some tea 10-some sugar 11-an egg 12.toothpaste 14.furniture 4.sandwich 18. Teacher: Apples Student: He buys some apples.butter 19. 1.orange juice .

4.radio 13. 5.fruit 8.soap 9.coffee 3.Do you drink a large quantity of milk? . 2. 1.‫ را هﻢ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮد‬Many ‫ﭼﻮن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺪل دو ﻣﻨﻔﯽ اﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان‬ 1. ---> I need a little sugar.apple 2.tomato juice 18.They have a small quantity of money. MODEL2: I didn’t see a large number of students.tea 12. در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﮑﻪ در زﺑﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ اﺳﻢ ﮔﺮوﻩ اﺳﻢ ذات ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-4: ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ A few ‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬A small number ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ A little ‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬A small quantity ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ Many/A lot of ‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬A large number ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ Much/A lot of ‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬A large quantity ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ MODEL1: I need a small quantity of sugar. ---> I didn’t see a lot of students.We don’t have a large number of classes today.milk 4.chair 14. 3.orange 7.‫* در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ اﺳﻢ ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ اﺳﻢ ذات و ﻣﻠﻤﻮس ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻳﺎ اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ ﻳﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم اﺳﺖ‬ . .table 15.bread 6.butter 11.tomato 17.banana 5.fruit .‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁن اﻟﺰاﻣﯽ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. Teacher: ink Student: That store sells ink. You can buy a pen there.We need a large quantity of bread.apple 10.furniture 16.10 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-3:ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ Model: That store sells pens.* You can buy a bottle of ink there.He has a small number of apples.

All of it is white.Do many of the students live in an apartment? 3. 11. 16.Mary drinks a small quantity of coffee.He doesn’t usually buy a large number of pencils.Children need a large quantity of milk. 12.Americans don’t drink a large quantity of tea. 13.Are many of the books open? 7.John doesn’t eat a large quantity of fruit. 8.Are any of the questions difficult? 2.Do many of the students write letters? 5.Does John have a small quantity of ties? 7.We usually buy a small number of bars of soap. 10.Is any of the ink red? 9. Teacher: Is any of the chalk green? Student: No.Are all of the pencils long? 10. )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ 1.Do any of the students eat breakfast in class? 11.Is any of the bread soft? . .11 6.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-5: ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Teacher: Are all of the books here? Student: No not all of the books are here.John doesn’t drink a large quantity of fruit juice in the morning.)ﻏﻠﻂ‬ (‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ اﺻﻄﻼﺣﯽ:" هﻤﻪ ﮐﺘﺎﺑﺎ اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ". none of the chalk is green. 14.We usually buy a small quantity of soap.Was much of the discussion interesting? 6. (‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﻠﻔﻈﯽ "ﻧﻪ هﻤﻪ ﮐﺘﺎﺑﻬﺎ اﻳﻨﺠﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ".This newspaper doesn’t give a great deal of news.Are any of the students sick‫؟‬ 4. Only some of them are here. 15.Are any of the apples good? 8.Mary doesn’t have a large number of books. 9.

‫ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ.Is all of the news good? 17. اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻣﻔﺮد ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﮑﯽ از ﺳﻪ ﻣﻮرد زﻳﺮ ﻣﯽ‬ :‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫1-ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫2-ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ‬ ‫3-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ‬ ،‫ ﺑﻪ اﺳﻢ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﭼﻨﺪ ﻗﻠﻢ از اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ در زﻳﺮ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ‬Irregular noun ‫ﺑﯽ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ .Is much of the furniture new? 14.Did the students eat much of the fruit? :‫اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ و ﻣﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ و ﻣﻔﺮد ﺑﺮاﯼ اﺳﻤﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻣﻄﺮح اﺳﺖ.12 12.‫ﺟﺪول1-2: اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﯽ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮد‬ Man gentleman policeman businessman woman child wife knife loaf shelf foot tooth mouse sheep ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ men gentlemen policemen businessmen women children wives knives loaves shelves feet teeth mice sheep .Are all of the books green? 13.Were many of the students at the meeting? 15. وﻟﯽ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ هﻢ وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ‬S ‫اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﺎ ﺁوردن‬ .Are any of the stories interesting? 16.

the man 14.the police ‫ﺻﻔﺖ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ :‫هﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺳﺖ.‫وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ MODEL: The man is here.happy 15.‫ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﻔﺮد ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁوردﻩ ﺷﻮد‬People/police/clothes ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ اول : اﺳﺎﻣﯽ‬ . Teacher: are Student: The men are here.interesting 4. 1. ﭘﺲ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ را ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺻﻔﺖ داﻧﺴﺖ‬ Article ‫1.good 10.the woman 17.the wives 21. ﻣﻤﮑﻦ اﺳﺖ در اﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺟﺰا‬ .the people 3.is 20.the news 13.the children 19.were 9.here 25.bad 6.the woman 32.good 24.‫ )ﺧﺒﺮ( اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻔﺮد ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬News :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ دوم‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-6: ﻟﻐﺎت زﻳﺮ را در ﺟﻤﻼت ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.was 31.are 16.the women 18.is 22.the news 5.were 28.are 8.the man 27.the tooth 7.13 fish fish .ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ‬ Possessive adjective ‫4-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ‬ Descriptive adjective‫5-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ‬ .the knife 29.the knives 11.ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ Undefined adjective ‫2-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬ Demonstrative adjective ‫3.is 12.the children 30.the police 26.the child 2.the people 23.

‪I like the hat that you are wearing‬‬ ‫)‪Is the door open? (The room has just one door‬‬ ‫‪The Caspian Sea‬‬ ‫‪The blue sky‬‬ ‫‪The sun‬‬ .‪The book on Mr. ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮق ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. The book is about animals‬‬ ‫.‫41‬ ‫6-ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﺸﺘﻖ از ﻓﻌﻞ)ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ و ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ( ‪Participles‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﺧﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁ ﻳﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ و ﻋﺒﺎرات و ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ وﺻﻔﯽ. در ﻣﺜﺎل ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ اول رﺑﻄﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ دوم ﻧﺪارد و ﺻﻔﺎت ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ زﻳﺮ از ﭼﭗ ﺑﻪ راﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ:‬ ‫رﻧﮓ ﺳﻦ اﻧﺪازﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫هﺪف‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬ ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫‪Big old red American plastic swimming sports suit‬‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺎس ورزﺷﯽ ﺷﻨﺎﯼ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﮑﺎﻳﯽ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﮑﯽ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ رﻧﮓ ﮐﻬﻨﻪ ﺑﺰرگ!‬ ‫ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺻﻔﺖ اول ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪Very good man‬‬ ‫‪Cleanly cooked fish‬‬ ‫‪Deeply seated complexes‬‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع ﺻﻔﺖ:‬ ‫1.‪comes from Peru‬‬ ‫ﮐﻞ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ در ﺣﮑﻢ ﮔﺮوﻩ اﺳﻢ اﺳﺖ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻤﺎم ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺁن ﺁﻣﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ.ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ: ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺷﻨﻮﻧﺪﻩ اﺳﻢ را ﻣﯽ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺪ )ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ( ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮاﯼ اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎر ﺑﺎ ﺁن ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ)ﻧﮑﺮﻩ(. Allen’s desk is yellow‬‬ ‫. ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺒﺎرت ، اﺳﻢ را ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ و ﮔﺎهﯽ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ‬ ‫.‪I bought a book.ﺑﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ/ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫‪The/This‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬ ‫‪other‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ اول‬ ‫‪very big‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ دوم‬ ‫‪old‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫‪man‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪The man‬‬ ‫‪A man/an idea‬‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺮد اﺳﺖ .

Smith‬‬ ‫.‪I like coffee‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﻗﻬﻮﻩ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﺷﻴﺪﻧﯽ اﻃﻼق ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.اﺳﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ)ﻳﻌﻨﯽ اﺳﻤﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻤﺲ و ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم اﻃﻼق ﺷﻮد( ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫.اﺳﻢ ﺑﺎزﯼ ‪Football/tennis‬‬ ‫3.‪The Dominican Republic is in Latin America‬‬ ‫.ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﺧﺎص در ﻣﻌﺎﻧﯽ ﺧﺎص ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﺮاﯼ داﻧﺶ ﺁﻣﻮز ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ و ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﻣﯽ رود ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺣﺮف‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. ‪John lives in State Street‬‬ ‫.‪The Mississippi River is in the United States‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‬ .‬ ‫9-اﺳﻢ ﻗﺎرﻩ هﺎ .ﺑﺎ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺧﺎص‬ ‫5.ﺳﺎﻋﺖ.ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﻏﺬا ‪Breakfast-lunch‬‬ ‫2.‪I like English‬‬ ‫4.‫51‬ ‫‪The best‬‬ ‫‪The first‬‬ ‫‪The history of Iran‬‬ ‫.‪Mary is going to Argentina‬‬ ‫7-اﺳﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎن .‪I go to school‬‬ ‫‪Mr. وﻟﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﺘﺎﺑﯽ را در ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎن ﭘﻴﺪا ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺁﻧﺮا ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ، ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ ﺣﺮف‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺧﻮاهﺪ.‪He goes to class at 8 o’clock‬‬ ‫8.‪The west is known as developed countries‬‬ ‫.‪I go to the school where he studied‬‬ ‫.زﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫6-اﮐﺜﺮ ﮐﺸﻮرهﺎ .‪The Netherlands is in Europe‬‬ ‫در ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ اﺳﻢ هﻴﭻ ﻧﻮع ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد:‬ ‫1.‪The Netherlands is in Europe‬‬ ‫01-اﺳﻢ داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ ‪Harvard University‬‬ ‫11.

Mexican music 8.Pacific Ocean 6Pennsylvania Avenue 9.such. Greek architecture 14.Doctor Allen 2. Teacher: Professor Miller Student: I am going to see Professor Miller. art 10. Philosophy of Aristotle 3. algebra 9. architecture 12.Fifth Avenue 8.Movie ‫ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ؟‬The ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-8: ﮐﺪاﻣﻴﮏ از اﺳﺎﻣﯽ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ MODEL: John is studying music.any :‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ 11. ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﺒﻬﻢ هﻤﺮاﻩ‬ Some. music of Mexico 7. philosophy 2.Colombia 11.South America 10.16 ‫ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ؟‬The ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-7: ﮐﺪاﻣﻴﮏ از اﺳﺎﻣﯽ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ MODEL: I am going to see the professor. History of Thailand 5. English 15.Islamic Azad university 7. art of Netherlands :‫2-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ Indefinite Demonstrative Adjectives : ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻣﺒﻬﻢ و ﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ اﺳﻤﯽ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ)ﺟﺪول1-1(. Japanese .other.Canada 5. History 4.another. architecture of Greece 13. 1. Music 6.United States 4.Miss Smith 3. Teacher: music of Mozart Student: John is studying the music of Mozart 1.New York City 12.

John is going to study two grammar lessons. Tom is visiting a museum now. .another. Allen is going to write two letters. Mr. 5. Miss Ford is buying a book now. Tom is going to visit two museums.‫ را ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬The other one ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-9: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﮐﻠﻤﻪ‬ MODEL: Mr. 6. 10. John is studying a lesson in the grammar book now.‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ: او ﻣﯽ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﻳﮑﯽ دﻳﮕﺮ )ﻣﺠﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ دﻳﮕﺮ( را ﻓﺮدا ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﺪ‬ 1. Miller is writing a letter now. Taylor is going to paint two pictures. 11. 3. Taylor is painting a picture now.other.‫ﺟﺎن ﻣﺸﻐﻮل ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﻣﺠﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ He is going to read another one tomorrow.‫هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺪ، ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ هﻢ در ﮔﺮوﻩ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد‬ . 4. Mrs. Bill is attending a concert now.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-9: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺪل ، ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻻزم را اﻳﺠﺎد ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John is reading a magazine now. 2. Miss Ford is going to buy two hats. 4. George is reading a book now. He’s reading one now. George is learning a conversation now. He is writing one now. She’s painting one now. Mr. Mrs. Ross is eating a sandwich now. 6. 3. Student: He’s going to write the other one tomorrow.17 Some. Mr. . They’re practicing one now. He’s studying one now. 1. Mr. She is buying one now. King is drinking a cup of coffee now. He’s visiting one now. The students are practicing a conversation now. George is going to read two books. 12.a/an – such.any:‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮد‬ . 5. 7. 2. The students are going to practice two conversations. Miller is singing a song now. 8.‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬other ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ اﺳﻢ داراﯼ ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ . . 9. .

Three hundred automobiles leave the factory in the morning. 4.18 Another old book The other green bananas Some other old blue shirt Other young American students This other old book His other books Your other old blue shirt Those other young American students A lot of the other old books Many other books A few of these other green bananas None of your other old blue shirts Three of those other young American students Three other young American students . :‫3-ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ Definite demonstrative Adjective The. Ten students read books here in the morning. Three people write letters in this room in the morning.these –those – such –the other :‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ The. 5. 9. Many students study in the morning. Three students eat there in the morning. Many students sing songs in the morning. 2.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-01 : ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Four men work here in the morning. 1. 7. 3. Several students read a newspaper in the morning.this – that – such –the other :‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮد‬ . 8. Student: Four others work here at night. Sixteen people work here in the morning. Some teachers teach in the morning. 6.

The students come from Venezuela.(here) 3.Bill 4.‫ را ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﺟﺰو ﺻﻔﺎت اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﺴﻮب ﮐﺮد‬The ‫هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺪ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ That book is yellow.‫ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﺮاﯼ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ در ﻣﺪل زﻳﺮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬Here /there ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-11 : ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﻮد‬ MODEL: The exercises are easy.(there) Students: Those exercises are easy.(here) 2.‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ The group was camping. 1.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-21 :ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Mary is leaving.(there) 4. Mary wants these books. .Your father 7.My wife 6. The book has a green cover. The students comes from Peru. :‫در اﺷﺎرﻩ ﺑﻪ دور‬ :‫در اﺷﺎرﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺰدﻳﮏ‬ . The group put up their tents near the river.the students 2.John and Mary 3. The ideas are new and interesting.Your friend .(here) :‫4-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ‬ Possessives(my-your-his-her-its-our-your-their) :‫اﻳﻦ ﺻﻔﺎت ﺑﺮاﯼ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ و ﻣﻔﺮد ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺷﮑﻞ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. The chairs are comfortable. ﺑﻪ ﻧﮑﺎت زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ the ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ اول: ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪاﻣﻬﺎ و اﻋﻀﺎ ﺑﺪن، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود ﻧﻪ‬ Team –family – group – class ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ دوم: ﺑﻌﻀﯽ از اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻔﺮد ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ روﻧﺪ وﻟﯽ اﮔﺮ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ در ﺣﮑﻢ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ و‬ . Does he have his books? 1.You and I 8.The man 5.(there) 5. Teacher: John Student: John is leaving.19 .

John owns it.They’re glasses.They’re problems. 13. 11. Miller.They’re letters. 3. Mr. The teacher uses it. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﻮم ﺷﺨﺺ‬ :‫’ ( ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ ﺑﺮﻳﻢ.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-31: دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: It’s a book. 7.It was a speech. 10.ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬S )+‫اﺳﻢ‬ His=John’s Her=Mary’s Students’=their Cat’s =its The leg of the table Today’s homework A week’s vacation . 9. Bob has them. They belong to John.It’s a desktop. 14. Student: It’s the boy’s book. .They are wheels. The boy has it.It was a vacation. She married Mr.They’re legs. Allen bought it. They belong to Mary.It’s a desk.It’s a paper*. 4. 8. It’s for today. 17. 5. 1. 6. It’s on this book.20 ‫ﮔﺎهﯽ اوﻗﺎت ﺑﺠﺎﯼ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮد ن ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ از ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ اﺳﻢ ﺑﺎ‬ ( ’S ) ، ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ.They’re toys.It’s a cover. 15. It came today. 16.It’s homework. The children play with them. They’re on a dog. It’s on this table.She’s a wife.It’s a house. Mr.It’s an old coat. They are on my bicycle. 12.They are walls. 2. Miller gave it. It was for a week. They are in this room.

‪The students are hungry‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد .‬ ‫5-ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ:‬ ‫‪Descriptive adjectives‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر از ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺻﻔﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ، ﺳﻦ ، ﺷﮑﻞ، رﻧﮓ ، ﺟﻨﺲ، ﻣﻨﺸﺎ و هﺪف اﺳﺖ.‪6.‪1. اﻟﮕﻮﯼ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ هﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.I like my steak to be rare‬‬ ‫.‪I found the room clean.‪Student: I found the lesson difficult‬‬ ‫.He found that the movie was interesting‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Boy----->boy’s‬‬ ‫’‪Boys----->boys‬‬ ‫ﺳﻪ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ’‪ Boys – boy’s – boys‬ﺗﻠﻔﻆ ﻳﮑﺴﺎن دارﻧﺪ.‪2.‪3.‪4.I prefer the soup to be hot‬‬ ‫. اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎت ﺑﻪ دو ﺷﮑﻞ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﻴﺮوﻧﺪ: ﺻﻔﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ و ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ.‪7.‪The yellow cat eats meat‬‬ ‫.I like my coffee to be black‬‬ ‫.‫12‬ ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ : ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ‪S‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ )ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ( Nargess‬ﻳﺎ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ ، دﻳﮕﺮ ﻟﺰوﻣﯽ ﻧﺪارد‬ ‫) ‪ ( ’S‬اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ و ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ apostrophe‬ﮐﺎﻓﯽ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ‪ Paper‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ، اﺳﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎرش اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﺴﺘﻦ ﺁن ﻳﺎ ﺁوردن ﻋﺪد ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻋﺒﺎرت ‪ A piece of paper‬ﮐﻤﮏ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‪MODEL: I found that the lesson was difficult‬‬ ‫.I had someone cut my hair‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‬ ‫. ‪ Paper‬در ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-31 ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ روزﻧﺎﻣﻪ اﺳﺖ.‪I found the room to be clean‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-41: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ، ﺻﻔﺖ را ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ.‬ ‫.‪5.Mary found that New York is very exciting‬‬ .‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻬﺎ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﺮدد. ---> I found that the room was clean‬‬ ‫‪OR‬‬ ‫.John wants his TV to be fixed‬‬ ‫.

It’s small. 5.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-51 :ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I want somebody to clean the room.Mr. Student: I want the room cleaned. ‫ﻳﮏ اﺳﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﻣﻀﺎف هﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.John wanted his bread to be toasted.It’s a watch.‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد‬ Bookstore . I carry the watch in my pocket. 1.It’s a pocket. They’re large. I want the house painted white. 2.I want somebody to correct the mistakes. I wear the watch on my wrist. . I want the house painted. Student: It’s a small class.‫ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺻﻔﺖ ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ و ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻋﺎدﯼ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Complement ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻣﺴﻨﺪ‬ I want the house white.I want somebody to paint the house red. 9. I carry my watch in the pocket.I want somebody to boil the eggs.22 8. 4.I want somebody to fry the potatoes. 1. 3. .ﺑﻴﻦ واژﻩ هﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻬﻢ‬ .‫وﻟﯽ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺎن اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎهﺎﻳﯽ هﻢ دﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ furniture store – grocery store – grammar book :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-61: دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ را ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: It’s a class. 2. ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ اﺳﻢ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺷﻮد. . Miller had someone fix his car.They’re classes. 4.I want somebody to wash the dishes. 3.It’s a watch. در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻣﻀﺎف و ﻣﻀﺎف اﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ.

(Describe the movie)(Describe John) 2. (‫6-ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﺸﺘﻖ از ﻓﻌﻞ )ﺻﻔﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ و ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ‬ Participles ‫ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﺻﻔﺖ‬ING ‫ را از ﺁن ﺣﺬف ﮐﻨﻴﻢ و ﺑﻪ ﺁن‬To ‫هﺮوﻗﺖ ﻣﺼﺪرﯼ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ‬ :‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ درﺳﺖ ﮐﺮدﻩ اﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ " ان" ، "ﻧﺪﻩ" ﺑﻌﻼوﻩ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻓﻌﻞ در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﯼ ===<ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫رو =====< روان‬ To interest---->interesting ‫و هﺮ وﻗﺖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﻮم ﻓﻌﻠﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ درﺳﺖ ﮐﺮدﻩ اﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ "ﻩ " ﺑﻌﻼوﻩ ﺑﻦ‬ :‫ﻣﺎﺿﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻓﺴﺮد ===< اﻓﺴﺮدﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺖ ====<ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬ Interest---->interested---->interested Go----->went------>gone ‫ﻣﺜﻼ "داﺳﺘﺎن ﺟﺬاب ، ﻣﺎﻳﮑﻞ را ﻣﺠﺬوب ﮐﺮد." ﮐﻪ ﺟﺬاب و ﻣﺠﺬوب ﺻﻔﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ و ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ ﻋﺮﺑﯽ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ‬ :‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ The story is interesting. Smith broke the dish. 6.It’s a tree. 9. MODEL2: Mr.(Describe the dish) .It’s a table.It’s a store. It’s fried. 1.It’s an egg. They’re on the desk.The movie bored John. (Describe the door) Student: The door was closed. 8. It has apples. Smith closed the door.23 5.Mrs.----> Michael is interested in the interesting story. Michael is interested. 7. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-71: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ و ﺷﺮح داﺧﻞ ﭘﺮاﻧﺘﺰ ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL1: The story interested John. It sells book. (Describe the story) Student: The story was interesting. It’s for cards.They’re lamps.

MODEL2: The girl is studying here. Smith was watching some children. The student with Mary is nice.The shoe store is very good.The trip tired the professor. The children amused Mr.The good news excited John. (Describe the children ) ( Describe Mr. Smith) 4.‫ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ زﻳﺮا ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺮوع ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ( ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ ﺧﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬prepositional phrase ‫ﻋﺒﺎرات ﻗﻴﺪﯼ‬ :‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ The student from Canada speaks French. Miller.The magazine disgusted the artist. The student at the door is new.24 3.(Describe the animals)(Describe the children) 13. The chair near the door is old.Mr. (Describe the story)(Describe the class) 12.(Describe the explanation)(Describe the class) 8.The tiger frightened the little boy. The desk in this room is small.The news disappointed the class. 1. She is tall. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-81: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ، دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ادﻏﺎم ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: The girl is studying.John’s story amazed the class. It’s large. Student: The tall girl is studying. Miller) 7.( Describe the trip)(Describe the professor) 11.(Describe the answer)(Describe Mr. The shoe store on the State Street is very good. . وﻟﯽ ﻋﺒﺎرات وﺻﻔﯽ )ﮐﻪ در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ‬ . (Describe the news)(Describe John) 6.(Describe the news)(Describe the class) 10.The animals entertained the children. Student: The girl from Iran is studying here. She is from Iran.It was an intelligent answer. It surprised the people. (Describe the answer) ( Describe the people) 5. (Describe the tiger)(Describe the little boy) 9.The explanation convinced the class. Smith.(Describe the magazine)(Describe the artist) :‫7-ﻋﺒﺎرات وﺻﻔﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ اﮔﺮ اﺳﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺘﯽ ﺑﺨﻮاهﺪ اﺳﻢ اﺻﻠﯽ را ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ.The long answer confused Mr.

4. Miller. Allen. 6. 1. 7. 8. It’s on the corner. 13. 5.That man is a doctor. 9. He has a banana in his ear! :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻗﻴﺪهﺎ هﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻓﻮق ، ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ و ﺁﻧﺮا ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬ The shoe store is very large.The student knows the answers.That boy is John.That man is a clown. He has a dog. He’s in my class. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-91: دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ادﻏﺎم ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The man is a lawyer. It’s near the bank. He’s in my class. He has blond hair.The student is from Argentina. :‫ ﺑﻴﺎورﻳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻣﺎﻟﮑﻴﺖ را ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﻢ.25 2. 3. 3. The shoe store downtown is very large.The bookstore is good. 16.That tree is an apple tree.The tall girl is friendly. 12. Miller. Student: The man with a briefcase is a lawyer.That house is interesting. It has big windows. He has a tie. He has a briefcase. It’s about baseball. He’s from Brazil.The store is interesting. It’s big. She’s tall.The shoe store is very good. It’s large. . 5. He’s from Chicago. ﻣﺜﻞ‬With ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: وﻗﺘﯽ در ﻋﺒﺎرات ، ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ The man with a book is a teacher. 6.The story is interesting. 11.The large bookstore is good.The man is Mr.The big store is interesting.The girl is friendly.The man is intelligent. He’s short. She’s from New York. It is downtown. 15.The boy speaks slowly. He has a newspaper. It has one funny little green apple. 2. 7. It’s on State Street. 14. 4. 8.The doctor gave me a book. It has adverbs.The doctor is learning English. He is beside Mr.That sentence is interesting.The short boy speaks slowly. 10.The man is nice. He’s with Mr.

who‬ﮐﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‪The table upstairs is long‬‬ ‫.‪The man who drove the bus gave me a map‬‬ . ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫هﻤﺎن " ﮐﻪ " اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﺮو را ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ وﺻﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪" : Why‬ﮐﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪" : Whom.‪The teachers here are American‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪" :Where‬ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﮑﺎن" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻣﮑﺎن ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‫62‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫. اﻟﺒﺘﻪ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎهﺎﻳﯽ هﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ دادﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﭘﺲ ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﺮدن " ﮐﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ" ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ‪ who‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫"ﮐﻪ ﮐﻠﯽ"! ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ‪ That‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ را ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺗﺰرﻳﻖ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫.‪The man gave me a map‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪": Whose‬ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﮑﻴﺖ" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﮏ ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪" : That‬ﮐﻪ ﮐﻠﯽ"!ﮐﻪ ﺑﺠﺎﯼ ﺗﻤﺎم اﻧﻮاع ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﻴﺮود. در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ " ﮐﻪ " ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻤﺎم‬ ‫اﺳﺎﻣﯽ وﺟﻮد دارد وﻟﯽ در اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ اﻧﻮاع " ﮐﻪ " وﺟﻮد دارد:‬ ‫‪" :Who‬ﮐﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﻪ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫.‪The lecture yesterday was good‬‬ ‫8-ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ اﺳﻢ:‬ ‫‪Relative Clause‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ ﺧﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ و ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع اﺳﻢ ، ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ دارد.‪People everywhere want peace‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪" : When‬ﮐﻪ زﻣﺎن" اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪" :Which. ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم ﺣﮑﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ را دارد و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از واژﻩ ‪ man‬ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ.‪The man drove the bus‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اول ﺣﺎوﯼ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت اﺻﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ، ﭘﺲ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ. what‬ﮐﻪ ﺷﯽ" ﺷﯽ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻴﻮاﻧﯽ را ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.

The book fell down.The book. John bought the book. 8. Olsen. . John was looking at the book.‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮارد درﺳﺖ اﺳﺖ‬ The man Mary talked to is in New York. ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ :‫ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The man. Student: The man that/who was here yesterday is in New York now. They are teachers.The man wrote the letter. It came yesterday. 2. Mary made the cake. John wants the car. Whom/who/that ‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮل در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ " ﮐﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ" ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ‬ ‫وﻗﺘﯽ اﺳﻤﯽ را ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻮدﻧﺶ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل را ﺣﺬف ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. 1. 3. It smells good. It is not very expensive. Mary called the doctor.The person called on the telephone. It’s a grammar book. It’s at home.The doctor. He will talk to you tomorrow. ،‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-12: ﺣﺎل ﺟﻤﻼﺗﯽ دارﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻮدﻧﺶ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﻣﺜﺎل زﻳﺮ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: The man was here yesterday. 6. Smith.The book.27 ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-02: ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺣﺎوﯼ ﭘﻴﺎم اﺻﻠﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ اﺳﺖ. He is in New York. Mary talked to the man.The man sold the car.The student wrote the poem. 6. 3.The doctor gave the prescription. ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اول را در‬ :‫داﺧﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ.The cake. He asked for Mr. 4.The book. He is from Panama. 5. The man is in New York Student: The man that/who/whom Mary talked to is in New York now. You ordered the book. It can go a hundred and twenty miles an hour. . John spoke to the men. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ هﻢ در‬ .The man. He is from Spain. 7.The men. 2. 5. He is my brother. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ را دارد و در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﺮو ) ﮐﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد( اﺳﻢ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل را دارد. He is Mr. I talked to the man.The car. 1. 4. He came yesterday.

nonrestrictive. 4. We visited the teacher’s home.‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﮐﺮد‬ The girl who lives in New York brought the book. 2.John wrote to the girl.‫ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺬف اﺳﺖ‬To be ‫ ﺁﻣﺪ ، هﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل و هﻢ ﻓﻌﻞ‬To be ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ : هﺮ ﺟﺎ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل در ﮐﻨﺎر اﺷﮑﺎل ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ :‫ ﺑﺎ اﻓﻌﺎل ﻏﻴﺮ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺣﺬف ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬That ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: وﻗﺘﯽ‬ . brought the book.The man came yesterday. The girl’s book is here. John bought the man’s car. 2. Smith introduced the teacher. appositive relative clause ‫ﮐﻪ در ﻧﻮع دوم ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وﺻﻔﯽ در داﺧﻞ دو ﮐﺎﻣﺎ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد و از ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ دارد وﻟﯽ‬ that ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ، ﺣﺎوﯼ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺿﺮورﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. Student: The teacher whose home we visited bought a new car.John lent his pen to the teacher. 1. 3. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-32: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ، دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The teacher bought a new car. 3. We visited the teacher’s home. (with a defining relative clause) The girl. The girl’s father visited our class. We visited the teacher’s home. (with an appositive relative clause) .28 ‫ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬Whose ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ:1-22: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اول را ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ و ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬ . who lives in New York. 5. ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ وﺻﻔﯽ اﻳﻦ درس ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ، ﻣﺤﺪود ﻳﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬ Limiting.The teacher lent John a book. 1. We visited the teacher’s home. در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﻧﻮع دوم ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮان از‬ . We visited the teacher’s home. Student: John met the girl whose father visited our class.The teacher laughed at the joke. We visited the teacher’s home.Mr.John helped the teacher. defining relative clause ‫در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ وﺻﻔﯽ زاﻳﺪ ،ﺑﺪل ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﺤﺪود هﻢ دارﻳﻢ‬ Additive.‫دوم را ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John met the girl.John called the girl. restrictive. The girl’s father visited our class.

That John was happy made me happy. Smith is on the table. 2. My brother is the man (that is) sitting in the car.00.---> Peter bought a bicycle costing $1. --->He wrote a sentence containing a relative clause.----->The book belonging to Mr. I know how he tolerated. 3. ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ :‫در اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ اﺳﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻣﻮﺻﻮل ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.The book that belongs to Mr. This is the reason why he left early.‫"ﮐﺠﺎ"----< "اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﮐﺠﺎ" و اﻟﯽ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ .29 The man (that is) sitting in the car is my brother.00. The store (which is) near the bank sells briefcases.belong ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-42: ﺷﮑﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻓﻮق ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ 1. ﻣﺜﺎل‬ I heard that John was happy. How he tolerated was easy to discover.contain. Why he left early is a difficult question. Smith is on the table. ---->He used a relative clause beginning with “that is”.He used a relative clause that began with “that is “. :‫در اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎ ، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت زﻳﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ "‫" ﭼﺮا "-----<"اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭼﺮا‬ "‫"ﭼﻄﻮر"-----<"اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭼﻄﻮر‬ "‫"ﮐﯽ" -------<"اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭼﻪ وﻗﺖ‬ . 4.Peter bought a bicycle that cost $1. :‫اﻓﻌﺎل ﻏﻴﺮ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ اﺳﺘﻤﺮار ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ Cost –begin. The student (who/that is) from Canada speaks French.He wrote a sentence that contained a relative clause.

I want it.30 :‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ Pronoun ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﻧﺸﻴﻨﺪ و از ﺗﮑﺮار ﺁن ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. I bought one. I bought it.Did you read the New York Times yesterday? 3. I want yours. Student: I want some. MODEL3: I want your new books.I want several black books. . ﺑﻪ ﻧﮑﺎت زﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﺿﻤﻴﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ " ﻳﮑﯽ" ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮد ﻧﮑﺮﻩ را ﺑﮕﻴﺮد. و ﻓﺮق‬One ‫ در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ‬It ‫ ﺑﺎ‬One ‫ﻓﺮق‬ . Student: I want your new ones. 1. MODEL2: I want these new books.Did you bring the grammar book? ‫ اﻳﻦ‬a/an ‫ ﺑﺎ‬One ‫ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ ﻧﮑﺮﻩ ﻣﯽ ﻧﺸﻴﻨﺪ.I want those black books. 1.Did you visit a museum today? 4.Did you visit the art museum today? 5. ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬One :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ اول‬ .Did you read a newspaper today? 2. Student: I want this one. Student: I want these new ones. MODEL2: Did you buy that pen yesterday? Student: Yes.Did you bring a book today? 6.‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ‬Ones :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-52: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ، ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﻮاﻻت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Did you buy a pen yesterday? Student: Yes.‫ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻧﮑﺮﻩ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺷﻤﺎرش ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ‬a/an ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ "ﻋﺪد ﻳﮏ " اﺳﺖ وﻟﯽ‬One ‫اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬ MODEL1: I want this book. MODEL4: I want some shirts. 2. در زﻣﺎن ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮدن ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ، هﻤﻴﺸﻪ‬ :‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻼ اﺳﻢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻳﮑﺒﺎر در ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.

. 6. A few.Did you help his friend? 2.Did Paul listen to the radio? 4. she learned them yesterday.‫ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ He studied with me.good – red ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮد ﻣﯽ ﻧﺸﻴﻨﺪ و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن‬One ..I want their book. These. 8. and Mrs.I want your books. Miller look at the painting? . I want . ‫ و ﺻﻔﺎت ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ‬This –that – large.I want these books.Did the students repeat the new words? 5.Did Mary study the lesson? 3.‫ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ones ‫ و اﻋﺪاد ﺑﺎ‬Some –these – a few – several Do you want some shirts? Yes. Several. 7. She is standing beside you. Five ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ دوم: ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮ دو دﺳﺘﻪ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.00$. ﻟﺬا ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ones .Mary’s book is about animals.Did Mr. They are coming near us. ﮔﺮوهﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد و ﮔﺮوهﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ .These books are interesting.Some other books cost 1. 5. 1.31 3. 4. 9.‫ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ‬ :‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﯽ ﻧﺸﻴﻨﺪ و ﻓﻘﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ از ﻧﻮع ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن ﺑﻴﺎﻳﻨﺪ. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-62: ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻت ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: Did Mary learn the new words? Student: Yes.I want a few books. • • • • • some.

Did John move the table and chairs? 8. 9. and Mrs.Mr.Mr. 8.My parents are leaving. 2.I am leaving.My friends are living. 12. John bought himself a book.My father is leaving. ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪل ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John is leaving.Did John pronounce the new words? 10.Mary is leaving. Miller is leaving.Did Mary answer the letters? 11. Student: Does he have his luggage with him? 1. 3. :‫( ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﮑﺎر روﻧﺪ‬reflexive pronouns) ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺳﻮم: ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ اﻧﻌﮑﺎﺳﯽ‬ John bought a book for himself.My brother is leaving. 4.Mrs. John himself bought a book. 5. Miller talk to Mary? :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-72: در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ و ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻠﮑﯽ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. Ross is leaving. John bought a book himself.John and Mary are leaving. 10. Ross is leaving. 13. Allen? 12.Did Mrs. Miller are leaving. 11.Did Paul watch the television? 9.John and I are leaving.32 6. Miller visit Mary? 7.Did Mrs.My sister is leaving. 6. .Mr.Did Mary visit Mr. 7.

33 . 10.George found a chair for himself. Student: John bought himself a book.George went to the store. . Miller are going to build a house for themselves. 5. . 6. Student: George bought a car himself. 8. 1. 6. 1. 4. Miller are going to build a house.Mary is going to bake a cake for herself. 8.Mr. and Mrs.George is going to find a job for himself.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-92: در ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ اﻧﻌﮑﺎﺳﯽ ﺑﺠﺎﯼ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎ ر رﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.Mary wrote a note to herself.John is going to make dinner. ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: George bought a car. 3. 7.Mary told the story.John made a sandwich for himself.Alice wrote the letter. ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John bought a book for himself. 2.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-82: در ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ ، ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ اﻧﻌﮑﺎﺳﯽ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ را دارﻧﺪ.George is going to buy a coat for himself.John ordered a hamburger for himself.George sent a package to himself. 3. and Mrs.Mary sewed a dress for herself.Mr. 7. 2.George is going to find a job.Mary is going to bake a cake. 4.George made a sandwich.Bill cut a slice of bread for himself. 11. 9. 5.

To play baseball must be fun. ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﺟﻤﻼت‬ . What season was it three months ago? It was spring. ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎ ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ دو ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ. it’s late. What day is it? It’s Wednesday. What year was it last year? It was 2005 Who is at the door? It’s John.To feed John’s dog can be dangerous. How is the weather? It’s cloudy.‫ در ﺑﻌﻀﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ و ﻓﻘﻂ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻧﻬﺎد را در اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺮ ﮐﺮدﻩ اﻧﺪ‬It/there : ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ دوم‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎد اﺻﻠﯽ ﺟﺎﻳﯽ در داﺧﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ1-13: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت دو ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: A book is on the table.‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺪس اﺳﺖ‬ What time is it? It’s a quarter after ten.To hear an alarm clock at six in the morning isn’t pleasant.34 :‫ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻬﺎد‬It /there ‫ ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮﯼ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺪون اﺳﻢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﻨﺪ. 1. How far is it from Paris to Rome? It is 700 miles.To live in a large house is expensive. 5. 1.A few books are on the table. زﻳﺮا در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ اﺳﻢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬It/there :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ اول‬ .To drive big cars is expensive.To read Mary’s new book is interesting. . Student: It is pleasant to watch musical programs. 2. Who is on the plane? It’s John. 6. 4. .A lot of students are in the classroom. 2.‫دو ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ از ﺟﻤﻼت ﺗﮏ ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ ﺷﺎﻳﻌﺘﺮ و ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 1-03: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت دو ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: To watch musical programs is pleasant. Do we have much time? No . 3. What month is it? It’s February. Student: There is a book on the table.

necessary to do..35 3. 3.. 7. 7.... Student: It is interesting to visit foreign countries.Much milk isn’t in that glass. 12. There’s some book on the table...important to do. Dummy Subject ‫ در اﺻﻞ ﻗﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ "ﺁﻧﺠﺎ" اﺳﺖ وﻟﯽ در ﺟﻤﻼت دو ﻧﻬﺎدﯼ ﻧﻘﺶ‬There :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺳﻮم‬ ... 4.good to do...... 4.. 5...polite to do..exciting to do..easy to do....dangerous to do. TELL ME SOMETHING THAT IS....Three elephants are in the city zoo.hard to do.. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺖ 1-23: ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت اﻣﺮﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Tell me something that is interesting to do..A little milk is in that glass. 6.....nice to do.‫را دارد‬ There’s a book there....impossible to do. ..Several chairs were in the room..simple to do. 10.. 6. 9.Many students were not here yesterday... 8. 1. 11. Where’s the pen? There it is. 5.difficult to do 2.

Three hundred automobiles leave the factory in the morning.All water contains oxygen. 3.36 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ .It is a bookstore.To pronounce long words is often difficult. 9. .Approximately eight million people live in New York. 2. Time adverbials beginning with “for”: ‫ﮐﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ Time adverbials:‫ﻣﻀﺎف و ﻣﻀﺎف اﻟﻴﻪ‬ Beginning with “for”: ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ وﺻﻔﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل ﺁن ﺣﺬف ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ 1. 6. 10.The doctor who gave the prescription is my brother.There weren’t many students here.A milk bottle is a bottle for milk.I don’t know who that man is. 7.Why he left early is a difficult question. 13. 5.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 1:در ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ واﺣﺪ ﻧﻬﺎد را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ذﮐﺮ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ اﺟﺰا واﺣﺪ ﻧﻬﺎد ﮐﺪاﻣﻨﺪ‬ MODE1: Not many of the students write letters. The students from Canada::‫ﮐﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ The students:‫اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ From Canada:‫ﻋﺒﺎرت وﺻﻔﯽ‬ MODEL3: Time adverbials beginning with “for” may be used here. 12. 11. 8.The book is new.Four others work here at night. 4. Not many of the students :‫ﮐﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد‬ Not many of :‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ اﺳﻢ‬ the students :‫اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ M ُ ODEL2: The student form Canada speaks French.The book John described was interesting.

. 18. the restaurant manager. 15. he watched television.m. Herman Sherman of Northville suffered a mild burn about 9:00 p. the McRap.In questions. He was given a fresh refill.It was such an early problem that everybody got the answer.Letters were written yesterday. gave him two free gift certificates--one for an extra-large coffee and one for the restaurant's newest sandwich. He refused medical aid. Sherman said the coffee was hot but not scalding. saying the only problem was the stain on his slacks. She said it was the man's fault for ordering something that she might be able to spill. Before Sherman drove off. when a young female employee accidentally spilled a cup of coffee into his lap. 19.37 14.‫ﺑﻌﺪﯼ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪو ﻧﻬﺎدهﺎﯼ ﺟﻤﻼت را ﭘﻴﺪا ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ Story 1 Man Injured at Fast Food Place A 79-year-old man was slightly injured on Saturday while waiting in his brand new convertible in a drive-through lane at Burger Prince Restaurant. The employee. She was quite upset. John Johnson.Mary sewed herself a dress.John himself bought the tire. but it would wash out. who was a new hire.Sitting in a chair. 17.Writing short stories takes great talent. She said she would probably sue Burger Prince for letting her go. 16. was let go later that evening. 20. the use of that indicates that the action or situation described is still possible at the time of speaking. ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ2 : ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁﻧﮑﻪ هﺪف اﺻﻠﯽ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﺮاﻣﻮش ﻧﺸﻮد، ﺳﻪ داﺳﺘﺎن زﻳﺮ را ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع ﻓﺼﻞ‬ .

She was one of 19 cows that Nancy lost. who attached Nancy to a life-support hoist. The water was now waist high. Finally.” said Nancy sobbingly. As she tried to herd her cows to higher ground. she slipped and hit her head on a fallen tree trunk. A helicopter lowered a paramedic. Lizzie.38 Story 2 A Life-Saving Cow Six consecutive days of spring rain had created a raging river running by Nancy Brown’s farm. a small island now in the middle of acres of white water. “I owe my life to her. the sky was so dark and the rain and lightning so bad that it took rescuers another two hours to discover Nancy. When the flood subsided two days later. Even though it was about noon. where the Red Cross had set up an emergency shelter. all she could do was to throw her arm around Lizzie’s neck and try to hang on. was licking her face. Lizzie managed to successfully pull herself and Nancy out of the raging water and onto a bit of high land. . When she came to. one of her oldest and favorite cows. Nancy’s pace got slower and slower. The fall knocked her out for a moment or two. The water was rising. They raised her into the helicopter and took her to the school gym. Nancy immediately went back to the “island.” Lizzie was gone. Nancy got up and began walking slowly with Lizzie. About 20 minutes later.

Sam flipped a coin.39 Story 3 Better to Be Unlucky Sam. Sam correctly guessed 1000X. 100X. The first thing was an Afghan blanket at a church raffle when he was 25 years old.000 worth of repairs. He picked right. but he still had to choose between two variables. Sam dreamily left the lottery studio. Finally. said it was only the second thing he had ever won in his life. This was a tough decision. the contestant must then guess which of two selected variables is going to be greater. One variable was the number of cars that would run the stop sign at Hill Street and Lake Avenue in six hours. or $120.000. a contestant must first guess which number a spinning cube will stop on. for he had just won 1000 times 120. To win.000! He had won the Big Cube. He says it’s better to be unlucky. a state lottery game. So. . Also. Sam doesn’t play the state lottery any more.000. He was in the hospital for a month. but the teen clicked 120 times. Sam is slowly getting better. The cube has six numbers on it: 1X. The stop sign was run only 76 times. and 1000X. he got hit by a little sports car. His hospital bill was $110. 10X. 50X. It came up heads. Sam still has to pay federal taxes on his winnings. Talking excitedly on his cell phone while crossing the street. The other variable was the number of times that a teenage boy would change TV channels in a three-hour period. But this was much bigger: it was $120. just guessing which number appears on the cube does not guarantee that you will win any money. an unemployed piano tuner. Sixtyyear-old Sam jumped for joy. 500X. If he is correct. so Sam picked the teenager. And the insurance company for the little sports car’s owner sued Sam for $9.

Verb + that Clauses :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ‬ 1.Verb 1 +To +second verb 2.Verbs that can be used with patterns 2 & 5 7.Modal auxiliary 4.Verb + indirect object + direct object 3.Main verb( transitive or intransitive or ditransitive) 2.Verbs that can be used with patterns 1 & 3 6.Verbs that can be used with patterns 1&2 5.Verb + direct object + for + indirect object 6.Auxiliary 3.40 ‫ﻓﺼﻞ دوم‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ :‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ‬ :‫ﻓﻌﻞ از ﺟﻨﺒﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ و ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ 1.Verb 1 +Second verb 3.Verbs that can be used with patterns 2 &3 :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع‬ 1.Linking Verb :‫در اﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‬ .‫ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ ، اﺟﺰا ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺣﺪس ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ‬ .Verb 1 + Second verb +ING 4.‫ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ ، ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺟﺰﺋﯽ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎظ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﯽ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﯽ ﺣﺬف ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ ، ﺁﻧﺮا ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ .Verb+ direct object + to + indirect object 2.Verbs that can be used with patterns 1 &2 &3 5.‫اﻓﻌﺎل ﻳﮏ ﻣﺘﻦ را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ .Verb + direct object + from + indirect object 4.

Al 8. 1.Phil 13. Teacher: (Dick) Student: They named their son Richard.Jack 6.Sue 4.‫ﻻزم و ﻣﺘﻌﺪﯼ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ :‫ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ : ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﯽ را ﺑﻪ ﻧﻬﺎد ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ. Get. Mrs.Dave 11. ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺑﻪ‬ .. It became cloudy.Barb 7.Jim 9.Bill 2... He is nice. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-1: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺪل ﺑﺎز ﺳﺎزﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They named their son Richard. :‫اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ هﻢ دارﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ، ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ.‫اﺳﺖ ، ﺑﻮد ، ﺷﺪ و ﮔﺸﺖ اﺳﺖ‬ : ‫در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ اﻓﻌﺎل رﺑﻄﯽ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬ To Be Verbs. در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ اﻳﻦ اﻓﻌﺎل‬ .Mary 14. Clark made her husband crazy.41 ‫ﻓﻌﻞ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ در ﻳﮑﯽ از ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮوﻩ ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ) اﺳﻨﺎدﯼ ( ، ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﻳﺎ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. Become. It seems late.Tom 12. ﻣﺜﻞ‬ Appoint. It gets warm. Seem.Bob 5.Cathy 10. They call William Bill. but they call him Dick.Joe .Ron 3.call – choose – designate – elect – make – name – nominate –select They elected Kennedy president. He is a student.

How do you have your windows at night-open or closed? 8. Smith named John secretary. Teacher: Secretary Student: Mr.Secretary 11.Chairman of the committee 6Made the younger man 12.How do you like your coffee-black or with cream? 5. ﻣﺜﻞ‬ He pushed the door open.Mary 9.42 . ﺻﻔﺖ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ رﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﺖ ﻓﻌﻞ ، ﺻﻔﺘﯽ در ﻣﻔﻌﻮل رخ دادﻩ اﺳﺖ.Jack 5.Appointed 2.Jim 4.Tom 13.Appointed 10.Do you prefer girls that wear their hair long or short? . medium or well-done? 6.How do you like steak.Him 3.Treasurer 8. Smith named John treasurer. fried or mashed? 4.How do you like tea-iced or hot? 7.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-2: ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Mr.The student 14. 1.How do you prefer bread-plain or toasted? 2.Nominated 15.How do you like tomatoes-cooked or raw? 3.How do you like potatoes-baked.Manager of the team 7. 1.rare. (.strong or weak? Student: I like it strong.‫او در را ﺑﺎز ﮐﺮد.Made ‫ﺑﻌﻀﯽ از اﻓﻌﺎل از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع اﺻﻠﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ وﻟﯽ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ، رﺑﻄﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ‬ :‫ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.) او در را هﻞ داد و در ﺑﺎز ﺷﺪ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-3 : ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻت زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: How do you like your coffee.

. 7.She cut her hair. It is open now. ‫ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﯽ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮرد در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻧﻤﯽ رود. 2. John wiped them.43 .‫ را ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ اول ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﻣﯽ ﺑﺮﻧﺪ‬Shall ‫در ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎر‬ . Now they are clean.The cold weather froze the milk. 6.John painted the table.John cracked the nut. ﺑﻌﻼوﻩ در درﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻮدﺑﺎﻧﻪ و در‬to be going to ‫ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ و ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ هﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ‬will .The boys washed their shirts until they were clean.‫ را ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬Was able to ،Could ‫و ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮزﻩ رﻓﺘﻴﺪ، ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ When we were in London we were able to visit the British Museum.The table was wet.‫ اﺳﺖ‬Be able to ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺴﺘﻦ اﺳﺖ و هﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﺎ‬Can Now she can speak three languages. It is close now. 1.be :‫و ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ هﻢ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺷﺨﺺ هﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ Can – will – must – may – might – could (modal auxiliary) ‫ اﺳﺖ.The windows were dirty. :‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ: ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ دو ﻧﻮع اﺳﺖ‬ :‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ زﻣﺎن دارﻧﺪ و ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻬﺎد ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ Have.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-4: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﻨﺎدﯼ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They painted the house with green paint. 5. It is short now. Student: They painted the house green. 8. . ﻣﺜﻼ اﮔﺮ ﺳﺎل ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﯽ ﺁﻣﺪ‬Could . It is solid.‫ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﻨﻔﯽ در رد و اﻣﺘﻨﺎع از اﻣﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﻣﯽ رود‬ Will you help me? None of my friends will lend me money. 4. It is blue. 3.He pushed the door. Last year she could speak only one. Mary wiped it until it was dry.

It is possible that Mary is home now.My brother is in your class.It is possible that George is going to study business administration.Mr. 3. 5. MODEL7: Paul has to take an exam. I conclude that you know him. 9.It is possible that George is a very good tennis player. Student: The students may smoke in the hall.It is possible that Helen will make an apple pie. 8.Paul ought to write a letter to his parents every week. 12.Paul and George are going to play tennis tomorrow. Student: George might go to Chicago. 15. 7.We have to get up at six tomorrow morning.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-5: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺎزﺳﺎزﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Paul is going to write a letter tomorrow. 1. MODEL5: Mary ought to write to her parents. Student: George can speak French very well. MODEL3: The students have permission to smoke in the hall. 2. 10.George is going to study in the library tonight. 11. Student: Paul must take an exam.Mary is able to play the violin. Student: Mary should write to her parents. 16. Moro has to get a new passport soon.John is able to swim very well. MODEL2: George is able to speak French very well. Moro has to take another English course.You have permission to come in and see the doctor.Paul is able to read Japanese.It is possible that George will watch television tonight.Mr. 4. MODEL4: It is possible that George will go to Chicago. . Student: Paul will write a letter tomorrow. 13. Student: The girls must be studying. MODEL6: It is very probable that the girls are studying.44 . 6. 14.

George plays the piano very well. he must be about eighteen years old.Every student ought to read one good book every week. 3. Therefore.‫ اﺳﺖ‬Must ‫ / ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺒﺎر ﺑﺎ ﻋﻮاﻗﺐ ﺟﺪﯼ‬Have to ‫ / ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺒﺎر‬Should ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺖ‬ :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ:ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ He must go = He has to go. Juan is from Mexico.‫ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد‬Mustn’t ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت‬not ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‬Must ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: وﻗﺘﯽ‬ :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺷﮑﻞ اﺳﺖ‬ He has to wait-------He had to wait. ‫ در اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ دو ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ)اﺟﺒﺎر( و ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد و اﻓﺮاد ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ زﺑﺎن هﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ‬Must . . :‫ هﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬Modal ‫ﺑﻪ اﺷﮑﺎل ﻣﺨﻔﻒ‬ Will not= won’t Cannot=can’t Could not=couldn’t May not= ----Might not=--Should not = shouldn’t Must not = mustn’t .) 18. . He must be mad. 5. He mustn’t go# He doesn’t have to go. George knows every one in the class. Paul recently finished high school. 6. He must have practiced a lot.Last year all of the students were able to read and write.45 17. He must speak Spanish. he must know Paul. Helen lived in Japan for ten years. 4.( I conclude that you spend a lot of time in the laboratory. (‫او ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻳﻮاﻧﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ:)ﻏﻠﻂ‬ (‫ﻓﮑﺮ ﮐﻨﻢ او دﻳﻮاﻧﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ:)ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ 2. 19. Therefore.It is very probable that you spend a lot of time in the laboratory.‫ﮔﺮﺗﻪ ﺑﺮدارﯼ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﯽ ، ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺎق از ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬ 1. She must speak Japanese.

Must ‫ اﺳﺖ. tomorrow 3. Student: She should have saved her money. could have 2.‫ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Must have + past participle . MODEL2: Did she live in the dorm last year? I conclude that she did. MODEL3: Did she decide to get a job? I think it’s possible. yesterday 21. go to the bank 10. should have :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-7: ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL1: Does she live in an apartment? I suppose she does. tomorrow 9. yesterday 12. must have 13. Student: She could have stayed with her sister. might not 19. Student: She might have decided to get a job. return the books 20. gone to Chicago 16. Student: She must have lived in the dorm last year. heard the news 14. help us 18. yesterday 5. 1. play tennis 4. . might have 15. tomorrow 17.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-6: ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪل اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: we should return the books tomorrow. we 22. Teacher: yesterday Student: We should have returned the books yesterday. should 11.46 He must wait-------> He had to wait. MODEL4: Did she save her money? It was desirable but she didn’t. it’s the only reasonable conclusion. در ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬Had to ‫ در ﻣﻔﻬﻮم اﺟﺒﺎر‬Must ‫ﭘﺲ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ . they 7. you must have 6. might have 8. MODEL5: Did she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but didn’t stay. Student: She must live in an apartment now.

He knew English quite well before he entered the university. 8. Did she forget to mail the letter? I think it’s possible. Did she tell the children not to sing? I think it’s possible. He spoke Italian very well when he came back from Europe. 10. 6. Did she hear us come in? I conclude that she did. 3. 7. 12. Did she look in the wrong book? I think it’s possible. 2. His music teacher told him he played the piano like an expert. 2. He knew what was going to happen every minute during the whole movie. Does she own a bicycle? I conclude that she does. He had souvenirs and photographs of many different cities all over the world. 11. 9. He was very sleepy this morning. Is she a very good dancer? I conclude that she is. 5. . MODEL: Your sister laughed after she talked with Ralph. 3. His glasses were broken and his nose was bleeding. 4. 9. Tom was coughing and sneezing yesterday. but she didn’t ride with us. 11. 1. but she didn’t. but she didn’t. Did she shop by phone? She had that opportunity but didn’t shop by phone. Student: He must have told her something funny. Did she ride the car with us? She had the opportunity. Did she sell her car? I conclude that she did. 12. Did she find your address in the phone book? I think it is possible 8.47 1. What did he do with his car? 4. MODEL: David failed his examination yesterday (study harder) Student: He should have studied harder. 5. 6. 7. He came back from the city with lots of money and no car. Did she help you clean the typewriter? It was desirable. MODEL: Helen lost her wallet last week (be more careful) Student: She should have been more careful. This morning he left suddenly and went to the dentist’s office. The doctor had everything ready for us when we arrived. He made a date to meet us at the hotel last night. 10. but he never showed up. Did she invite her uncle? It was desirable.

(rob the post office) 11.( sleep more last night) 4.( drive without a license) 10.(must) Student: He must have been writing letters. The basketball team lost a game yesterday(practice more) 2.( notify the students) 6. Smith was late for work this morning.(throw away the receipt) MODEL: Why didn’t Paul hear us knock on the door? (take a shower) Student: He might have been taking a shower. 1. Jones wrecked her car last night. Mrs. John feel asleep during his last class. Mr. Why were all the women students absent?(attend a meeting) 3. Why couldn’t you see the dog?(hide behind the sofa) 5.(look earlier) 3. Mary caught a cold(go outside without a coat) 8. You can’t get your money back now. Why was Mr. Why were Donald’s hands getting sore?(wear his gloves) :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-8: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: He had a pen in his hand when he came to the door.(might) . Karim feels sleepy.48 1. William failed all his exams. Jones kitchen?(bake the chickens) MODEL: She didn’t understand anything the professor said. Professor Smith didn’t give a lecture today. (pay attention) Student: She might not have been paying attention. The thief was sent to prison for two years.m?(prepare for a test) 2. Johnson answer the telephone?(work in the garage) 4. 1. MODEL2: He still had his lights on at one o’clock in the morning. The students weren’t able to find an apartment for this semester.( drive more carefully) 7.(miss so many classes) 9. Why was he studying at two a.(drink wine with his lunch) 12. Betty was fined twenty dollars by the judge. Why was it so hot in Mrs. Why couldn’t they understand the explanation?(try very hard) 3. Why were the students discouraged?(make progress) 6.(get up early) 5. Why wasn’t she worried about the weather?(travel by air) 2. Why did Mike keep his bicycle in the basement?(use it) 4. Young doing worse than the others?(attend regularly) 5. Why didn’t Mrs.

(should) 2.(might) 4.(should) 2.(could) 3. but she wasn’t studying when I saw her last night. I saw Mr. Last Sunday morning. Paul has an examination today. Lands. I don’t know what George was doing when I saw him in the bank.(might) 8. but I saw him at the basketball game last night. Alice got some money form her uncle. but he didn’t study for it yesterday. I don’t know why he had all those maps and airline schedules on his desk. MODEL3: George had money to buy shoes. Brown walking down the street and they were all dressed up. and Mrs. During the lesson. We were all working very hard and Peter was just sitting there watching us.(could) Student: He could have bought shoes. MODEL2: Alice has a test too.49 He might have been preparing for a test.(must) . He was talking to Professor Johnson when we entered the classroom and the professor was laughing . 1. George was near the bank yesterday. When we went to see Mr.(must) 6.(might) 4.(should) 5. He wasn’t doing anything when I passed by his room this morning. but he didn’t buy any. He was home last Saturday when I saw him. but I know he was there. but he didn’t cash his check.(must) 9. 1.(must) :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-9: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ هﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: George has a test today. the people next door were singing making a lot of noise. George often visits his friend on Saturday. (should) Student: She should have been studying. he had old clothes on and he was carrying some tools. He didn’t answer when I called him on the phone.(must) 3.(should) 7. (should) Student: He should have studied. but she didn’t thank him for it.

Did Alice go to work yesterday? 5. 1. but yesterday she had been working very hard and she decided not to play. Alice sometimes plays tennis after supper.(must) 7. When we met George. Alice usually plays tennis after supper.( might not) 12. George has a generous roommate who owns two raincoats. but they might. When the hurricane was announced on the radio. Did the mayor promise to welcome us? 3. he was not wearing a raincoat.‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ : در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ هﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﯽ ﺑﺎ اﻓﻌﺎل ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-01 ، ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﺣﺬف ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-01: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Do they make you change planes in New York? Student: I don’t think they do.(must) 11. and it was raining very hard. MODEL2: Did you forget to put a stamp on the letter? Student: I don’t think I did. She didn’t answer when I spoke to her yesterday. Will you pass all your exams? 4.(could) 10. Did you lose anything at the picnic? 8. Did Alex leave his keys in the door? . Will the medicine make me feel better? 7. but yesterday she had been working very hard and she decided not to play. Alice doesn’t always hear people when she’s thinking about something.(should) 9.50 5.(must) 8. We couldn’t study because the students in the next room were making so much noise.(must) 6.(shouldn’t) . I don’t know . George was the first to learn about it. but I might have. Does this train stop in Omaha? 2. It’s possible she didn’t hear me. but George still didn’t have one. Do your friends need any ice cubes? 6.

but I did. I thought I paid the bill. I hit him on the nose. Student: I didn’t go. 5. He didn’t finish the book last night. MODEL3: I thought that she was listening to the radio. but I didn’t.51 MODEL1: Did you go to the dentist yesterday? Student: I should have. Did you write to your family last night? 5. Are you going to work hard tonight? 6. 1. Are you going to help the children now? 3. but I am not going to. MODEL3: Are you going to study now? Student: I should. 1. Did you play chess last night? 4. Aren’t you going to rest a few minutes before you go back? :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-11: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: I didn’t go. Student: He forgot her birthday. Did you buy a lot of new clothes yesterday? 7. 2. The professor spoke rapidly. but I could have. Did you go to your karate lesson last week? 8. MODEL2: Did you drink a lot last night? Student: I shouldn’t have. Student: He doesn’t think that he fell asleep. Did you eat a lot last night? 2. . He didn’t play the piano when he was here. but she might not have been. Student: I thought that she was listening to the radio. Did you pay the mechanic for fixing your motorcycle? 10. 4. but he must have. MODEL4: He doesn’t think he fell asleep. Are you going to stay up late again tonight? 9. MODEL2: He forgot her birthday. 3. but he shouldn’t have.

ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯽ واﺳﻄﻪ )ﺑﺪون ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻳﺎ هﻤﺮاﻩ را(. 10. She wasn’t speaking English. I don’t think they were sleeping. 8. . ‫ﻓﻌﻞ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻣﻔﻌﻮل: ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﯼ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. 7. It seemed that he wasn’t working very hard. 11.‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ، اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ اﺳﺖ‬ Pattern 1: subject + Verb + direct object +to +indirect object Example: He explained the lesson to me. I didn’t open the door for her. 13. They said he had been practicing. It seems that he didn’t see me. We stayed up all night. He didn’t stop for the red light. ﮔﺎهﯽ در ﺟﻤﻼت اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد، در‬ . 9. We thought he knew English. 12. 14.52 6. Pattern 1 verbs: Announce Describe Introduce Mention Prove Repeat Say Speak Suggest Report Explain Pattern2: subject + verb + indirect object + direct object Example: He asked the teacher a question Pattern 2 verbs: Ask Cost Save Charge Wish Pattern3: verbs that can have patterns 1 &2 Example: He is going to give a book to Mary.

Brown .53 He is going to give Mary a book. 8. John and Paul. 2. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-31: ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ در ﮔﺮوﻩ اول ﻳﺎ دوم ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮم اﺳﺖ ، ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: He’s going to ask me a favor. He always says “hello”. He repeated the words. 5. . 3. 11. He described South America. Mary asked some questions. She described her new dress. The boys. I’m going to introduce you. Pattern3 verbs: Write Read Show Teach Tell Sell Send Lend Bring Take Pass :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-21: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎل ، ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: The student. Us. The policeman. 1. 10. 13. They explained the customs of Argentina. 9. 4. He asked their names. I asked the direction to Chicago. My father. We asked a question. Us. Mary. 6. Mary and me. He asked some questions. Me. Our friends. 12. She talked. 7. Student: Mary asked the student some questions. We’re going to describe our house. The secretary. Mr. and Mrs. The teacher.I’m going to ask a favor.

me 5. the sugar 10. the questions 27. his car 13. 1. explain 26. a story 24. tell 23. send Pattern4: subject +verb + direct object + from + indirect object Example: He borrowed something from us. read 4. to me 11. ask 28. give 8. Pattern4 verbs: borrow Demand Steal Take Pattern5: subject+ verb + direct object + indirect object Example: He opened the door for Mary. sell 12. to us 17. they 18. Pattern 5 verbs: Open Answer Close Cash Change Pronounce Prescribe . us 20. send 6. me 9. some news 22. to me 16. some books 15. me 14. the letter 3. explain 2. the answers 25. repeat 29.54 Teacher: the question Student: He’s going to ask me a question. some letters 21. send 19. to me 7.

:‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-51: ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ را ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬ 11. Please buy Mary a cup of coffee. Pattern 6 verbs: Buy Get Make Find Do .John. Miller a chair. 5. 4. 10. The doctor prescribed medicine. Please give John a pen. Please lend Mary a pencil. Mary’s going to make a cake. The bank cashed a large check. 8. I bought a book for Mary. 6. 16.The patients. Please get John some books. Example: I bought Mary a book. 1. 13. 15.55 Pattern6: verbs that can have patterns 2 & 5. 14. 7. Student: Please buy a book for me. 3.Me. The professor is going to ask some questions.John. The teacher explained the lesson. 12. The doctor prescribed medicine. Please get Mary a chair. 9. Please do John a favor. Please give the teacher the homework. Please make John a sandwich.John. Please find Mr. Please teach the class new words.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-41: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮﯼ ﺷﺸﻢ، ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Please buy me a book. 2.The students. .

Verbs of this group: Know Agree Answer Believe Conclude Decide Discover Say Understand Doubt Dream Feel Forget Guess Hear Hope Suppose Imagine Know Learn Notice Realize Regret Remember Think Pattern7-B: subject + verb + pronoun + that (optional) + noun clause Example: I told him (that) Louise came early.John.56 17. I always say ”How are you?” 25-The engineers. I asked a favor. I’m going to buy a cup of coffee. My mother is going to write a letter. 26.My mother. I’m going to write a letter. I’m going to write a letter. I’m going to tell a story. 27. Pattern7-A: subject + verb + that (optional) + noun clause Example: I know (that) John is here.Mr.Mr.The new students.Me. 19. 23-The children. 22.The professor. I asked a question. I am going to sell a house. Jones. The teacher explained the lesson.The director. 20. 24. 21. Miller. Verbs in this group: Tell Assure Inform Notify Remind .

57 Pattern7-C: subject + verb + to + pronoun + that (optional ) + noun clause Example: He explained to us (that) a quick answer is important. Verbs in this group: Write Promise Show Teach Warn :‫ﻓﻌﻞ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ ﺁن‬ Pattern1-A: Verb 1 + to + verb2 Example: George wants to go. Verbs in this group: Explain Admit Announce Mention Point out Prove Read Reply Report Say Suggest Write Pattern7-D: Verbs that can have pattern 7-A and 7-B: Example: He wrote (me) (that) John is in Paris. Pattern1 verbs: Wants Agree Decide Expect Hope Intend Learn Like Need Plan Promise Try Want .

8.Hoped 15.Might 8.Needs 18. 1. 2.can .Should 12. 1.You will study tonight. 6.Has 19.Will try 17.You plan to learn Russian.Would like 16.You like to learn languages.Can 3.Wanted 2. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-71: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: He didn’t go.Must 21.Is going to try 23. I can’t).You will buy a new pencil.Will 13.58 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-61: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺳﻮال ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: You can play the Piano.Is intending 14. Student: Yes. Teacher: Can you play the piano. 10.Hopes 7.Might decide 22. but he plans to.You can play the Guitar.Is planning 4.You can speak three languages.You plan to eat dinner soon.Is expecting 11.You want to learn a lot of English. Teacher: wants Student: He didn’t go.You plan to study engineering. 12.You like to get up at 6 o’clock.Plans 5.You want to go to the bank now. 7. 3. 11.You like to travel by plane. 4. 13. I can (No. but he plans to.Wanted 24.Is hoping 20.You need to study every night.Expects 9.Expected 10.Intends 6. 5. 9.

These shoes are very practical. (watching) .Our water is safe.What did the doctor order Mr. Miller told the students to read the signs. Miller to do?(drive carefully) 3.(living) 7.(driving) 6.What did Mr. Miller told John to study the lesson.Motorcycles can be dangerous.(wearing) 2.What did Mrs.(driving) Change1: To drive big cars is expensive.Mary’s new book is interesting. Miller to do?(walk a mile everyday) Get Persuade Pattern1-B: subject+ linking verb + adjective + to + verb Example: This lesson is easy to understand.(driving) 5. 1.What did John advise Mary to do?(send the letter by airmail) 5. 1.Large houses are expensive.(reading) 3. Miller tell Mrs. Miller invite the children to do?( watch TV) 6. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-91: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Big cars are expensive.(drinking) 4. Change2: Big cars are expensive to drive. Miller tell John to do? (study the lesson) Student: Mr.Cats are interesting.What did John advise Mary to do?(read the whole book) 2.59 :‫ﮔﺎهﯽ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ اول و دوم ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد‬ Mr. :‫در اﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﻪ اﻓﻌﺎل زﻳﺮ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ‬ Tell Advise Order Urge Invite Permit Help Force :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-81: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: What did Mr.John’s car isn’t safe.What did the doctor persuade John to do?(drink some water) 4.

What 16.To sleep 9.To drive 20.60 8.Please tell me 11.(walking) . I told him what time to come.What 6. ‫ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻗﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻣﺼﺪرﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺷﮑﻞ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ هﺮ ﮔﺎﻩ ﺑﺠﺎﯼ‬to ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ‬ . Teacher: how Student: He knows how to go.Where 10.How 19.‫ ﮔﺬاﺷﺘﻴﻢ و ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺷﺪ ، ﺁﻧﺮا ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ) ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ( ﻧﻤﯽ داﻧﻴﻢ‬In order to ،To I decide to play.They haven’t decided 17..How 14.Pronounce the word correctly? 12.To practice 4.You must know 13..Where 3.When 5.Parks are pleasant. Do you think he will. (wrong grammar) Pattern4: subject + verb1 + relative pronoun + to + verb2 Example: He knows which road to take. 1.John’s dog can be dangerous.Meet us at the right place? 2.To write 15.He knows 18.To drive 2.To park :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-12: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Do you think that he will come at the right time? Student: Yes. (feeding) 9..‫ اﺳﺖ‬To ‫ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ هﺪف و ﻗﺼﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺁن هﻢ‬ I came to talk to you. 1.I don’t know 7.How long 8. I decide in order to play. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ2-02: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: He knows where to go.Where .

61 3- Buy enough bread? 4- Find the restaurant? 5- Choose the correct answer? 6- Take enough money? 7- Get up at the right time? 8- Give the money to the right man? 9- Bring the right books? 10- Send the letters to the right address? 11- Do what we want him to? 12- Make enough ice cubes? 13- Use the machine correctly? 14- Get enough chairs? 15- Address the letter to the right person?

:‫ﻗﺒﻮل ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬TO ‫ و‬ING ‫اﻓﻌﺎل ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ دوم ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺪون‬ Pattern2: Verb1 +Verb2 Example: I should come :‫( ﻣﯽ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻧﺪ‬Verb +ING )‫اﻓﻌﺎل زﻳﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ دوم را ﺑﺼﻮرت اﺳﻢ ﻣﺼﺪر‬ Pattern 3: verb1 + verb2 +ING Example: I enjoy singing. Verbs in this group: Enjoy Keep on Avoid Verbs of patterns 1&3 Example: I saw him go/going. Verbs in this group: See Hear Feel Watch Observe Insist on Finish Get through Consider Help

62 Verbs of patterns 2&3. Example: I like studying/to study English. Verbs in this group: Begin Start Continue Prefer Like (like+ verb2 +ING means enjoy) Try (try + verb2 + ING means test) Remember( remember + verb2 +ING means “verb2” happened before the “remembering”) .‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺑﮑﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ Verbs of patterns 1&2&3 Example: I can’t help laughing.(Help means stop.) I wanted to help her to study/study. Help :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 2-22: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They persuaded me to sell the car. Teacher: made Student: They made me sell the car. 1- Paint the car 2- Wanted 3- Buy the car 4- Advised 5- Wash the car 6- Forced 7- Saw 8- Park the car 9- Push the car 10- Persuaded 11- Told 12- Made 13- Helped 14- Asked 15- Drive the car 16- Permitted 17- Let 18- Watched 19- Moved the car 20- Had 21- Reminded

63

:‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت ﮐﻠﯽ ﻓﺼﻞ دوم‬
‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 1: هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺪ در ﻳﮏ ﺳﺘﻮن ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ و در ﺳﺘﻮن دﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ دوم ﻗﺮار دارد.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ :‫را ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I asked the children to get off the boat. Teacher: saw Student: I saw the students get / getting off the boat. 1- Saw 2- Had 3- Made 4- Let
5Mr. and Mrs. Miller

9- Permitted 10- All my relatives 11- Wanted 12- Expected 13- Asked
14- Professor Johnson

17- Watched 18- Forced 19- The bus driver 20- Invited 21- Helped 22- The secretary

6- Persuaded 7- Ordered 8- Saw

15- Heard
16- The other people

:‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ2: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ از دو ﻋﺒﺎرت زﻳﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ Teacher: Mary enjoys- swim very much. Student: Mary enjoys swimming very much. 1- She decided –ask Bill and John to go with her. 2- They wanted- go very much. 3- They considered- take the bus. 4- John insisted on – take his car. 5- They needed- change a tire first. 6- They go through- change it at ten o’clock. 7- They started- drive immediately. 8- They enjoyed- drive through the country. 9- They kept on- laugh and sing all the way. 10- They learned –sing some new songs. 11- They stopped –sing when they got to the lake. 12- They had expected –swim before lunch. 13- But Bill insisted- eat immediately.

They avoided – go into deep water.He had planned.swim in the lake.eat at one thirty.She wanted –go there last Saturday. 15. 19. .She likes. 21. 17.64 14.do it that afternoon. 18.think about his homework. 16.Mary had remembered –bring a lunch. 20.They couldn’t help.They continue.They finished.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 3: اﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺘﻮن زﻳﺮ را از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع در ﺟﺪول زﻳﺮ دﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ Verb+ direct object + to + indirect object Verb + indirect object + direct object Verb + direct object + from + indirect object Verbs that can be used with patterns 1&2 Verb + direct object + for + indirect object Verbs that can be used with patterns 2 & 5 Verb Clauses :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ‬ Verb 1 +To +second verb Verb 1 +Second verb Verb 1 + Second verb +ING Verbs that can be used with patterns 1 &2 &3 Verbs that can be used with patterns 1 & 3 Verbs that can be used with patterns 2 &3 :‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع‬ Main verb( transitive or intransitive or both) Auxiliary Modal auxiliary .go into deep water.

000 gangster videos. When a new one came out. While there. new ones. He was the manager of a pizza restaurant. when it went to video.38 caliber revolver for $300. He could tell you the name of the movie. and the bullet went into Jerry’s right knee. he went to the gun club to practice with his new revolver. he would go to the theater and watch the new movie three or four times. Jerry would buy the video at Barney’s Video Store. just like some gangsters. Did you say you liked “Pulp Fiction”? Well. English. So he saved his money for a couple of years. he also bought a couple of boxes of ammunition.65 Story 4 Jerry Decided To Buy a Gun Jerry Baldwin was 30 years old. the director. black and white. Spanish. He was in the club for only 10 minutes when he accidentally dropped his pistol. Jerry loved gangster movies. Jerry would rattle off all the details of that movie. color. he took the bus. When it was raining. Jerry finally decided that he would like to own a gun. Jerry had a home collection of over 1. Then. And then he would invite you to his place to watch it some time. and the plot. the stars. He was a nice guy. Then he went to a gun store and bought a used . . just like the gangsters. The gun went off. Japanese-he loved them all. Old ones. He walked to and from work. The following Saturday morning. Jerry now walks with a limp and a cane. He lived in an apartment about one mile north of the restaurant.

The goat herder said he will probably visit San Diego while his goats are in the dump.66 Story 5 Goats Being Hired Goats are being hired to do the work of men in a neighborhood just outside of San Diego. “I want to take one of those hang-glider rides. . “No problem. The council chose the goat herder because he lived closer. The city council asked for bids to remove the brush. bushes. The lowest bid they received was $50. Except for the automobile engines. they will invite the goat herder and his “family” back every three years.” So. When that offer was rejected. the goat herder said. most of which have been rebuilt. nature was regrowing the grasses. While contractors were rebuilding the homes. A sheepherder in Montana and a goat herder in San Bernardino read about the city’s plight while surfing the web on their laptops. The city countered. offering unlimited coffee (black only) and a doughnut a day for each crew member. When told that the city dump was overflowing. the city killed two birds with one stone. the city asked for help on its website. The fires that occurred in Hillborough four years ago destroyed thirty homes. My goats will eat everything in your dump.” he said.000. And that was if the city provided breakfast and lunch for the work crews for the six weeks it would take to clear the overgrown area. of course. I just hope we don’t crash. and shrubs. They both offered to do the job for $25. My goats would miss me a lot.000. for another $5. The area is now so overgrown in brush that it again poses a major fire hazard.000. If all goes well.

He grabbed a flathead screwdriver and a pair of pliers from his toolbox. After a couple of minutes of looking. and the milk glass. Ed had a problem. poured a little dishwashing soap onto a Teflon pad. The employee told him that they did not carry those gaskets and suggested . He left the kitchen to go brush his teeth. it was loose because two of the three screws were corroded. useless gasket. “What is this?” he said aloud. but there was no food. but he didn’t have time to fix it now. The halves were held together by three screws. the sandwich plate. The next day Ed went to the hardware store to buy some screws and a new gasket. and scrubbed the soup bowl. Opening the cabinet door under the sink. he looked down and saw some water on the kitchen carpet. he saw no dripping water. Ed came home from his errands and put the groceries into the cupboard and the refrigerator. Ed jiggled the bottom half of the disposal. The cylindrical disposal was about 7 inches in diameter and had a horizontal seam dividing the top half from the bottom half. he turned on the switch. torn. The bottom half of the disposal was now lying on the cabinet floor. only a hardened. To test his theory. When he shined the light into the cabinet under the sink. but there is a first time for everything. He went to the closet and got a flashlight. he decided what to do. he got down on his hands and knees and turned on the flashlight. Ed unscrewed it. It looked like he had a leaky garbage disposal. In the kitchen. and a stream of water flowed out of a seam onto the cabinet floor and then onto the kitchen carpet. Then he switched on the garbage disposal to grind up the few bits of food that he had scraped off his plate. He had to run some errands. He had never opened up a disposal before. Ed thought for sure that it would be full of months-old food. Only one screw was still doing its duty. But he felt something wet on his bare foot. he saw drops of water on the sides of the dark blue steel cylinder. After he finished lunch. a bowl of chicken noodle soup with a couple of soda crackers. He put some tape over the switch so he couldn’t accidentally turn the disposal on again. a ham sandwich with a sliced dill pickle. Ed put everything in the sink. and a small candy bar.67 Story 6 Water under the Sink The 36-year-old bachelor ate his usual lunch at home. all washed down with an eight-ounce glass of milk. He had an apple. Sure enough.

and crossed his fingers. screwed the two halves back together. Ed knew one thing: it was time to buy a new disposal. from now on he would put his scraps into the kitchen garbage bag. He created his own gasket by using gasket sealant that comes in a tube. . Ed returned home. Ed decided that since the disposal used a lot of energy and the world needed to use less energy.68 that he write to the manufacturer. When he saw the water pouring out of the seam. The good thing was that new disposals started at $79. The next day he turned on the water and switched on the disposal. The bad thing was that it would have to be installed by a plumber. He applied the sealant. He reminded himself to tell everyone at work tomorrow about how he was now helping to solve the world’s energy problems. Plumber rates started at about $80 an hour.

‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ." ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎزﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺮ در دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ "را" ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﯽ واﺳﻄﻪ و "از ، در ،‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ،. ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﯽ واﺳﻄﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﮐﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ Complement‬اﺳﺖ..‫96‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺳﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮل از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ اﺳﻢ اﺳﺖ و ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﻬﺎد ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل هﻢ ﺻﺪق ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.. و ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ را ﻧﻮﻋﯽ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎب ﺁورد. اﺳﻤﯽ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﯽ واﺳﻄﻪ اﺳﺖ. ﺟﺰ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻬﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﺮا ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ!‬ .‬ ‫.‪She gave me the book‬‬ ‫‪Subject=she‬‬ ‫‪Verb=gave‬‬ ‫‪Indirect object= me‬‬ ‫‪Direct object=book‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺮوع ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل از ﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ" ﺑﺎ ﺑﺤﺚ اﺳﻢ و از ﻧﻈﺮ "ﻧﺤﻮ" ﻳﺎ "ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ" ﺑﺎ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻓﻌﻞ هﻢ ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﯽ دارد. در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ از روﯼ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.

a world where you can park your bicycle unsecured on the sidewalk. Sometimes burglars will break a window. she discovered that her wallet was missing from her purse. that means the elderly are their frequent victims. or force open a side door. as she entered a restroom. After such an intrusion. Of course. as she was about to pay for a moustache remover at a nearby store. Burglars get lucky or make their own luck. They seldom regain the comfort and security level they used to have in their home. . They constantly feel like they are being watched. It’s too bad that all of them can’t be caught and converted into honest people. cut through a screen door. Some thieves are very clever. Thieves have no shame. or burglary. Imagine that: a world with no larceny. she was jostled by a woman behind her. This type of theft is called pick-pocketing. A few minutes later. and they feel uncomfortable when they aren’t home. or leave your purse unattended in your shopping cart. the victims often report a feeling of violation. Sometimes homeowners forget to lock all their windows or doors. They will steal from anyone that they think is vulnerable. All of them make an honest person’s life more difficult. they feel that if they go out. Apparently the woman who had bumped into her had cleverly stolen her wallet. some are very lucky. it can happen. Perhaps an even more personal kind of theft is known as housebreaking. They feel uncomfortable when they are home. Is this only a dream? Some say that if you can dream about it. the burglars will again come in.70 Story 7 Theft Occurs Everywhere An elderly woman told the police that.

Most of the kids cheered and ran toward him. Most of the kids were studying their candy. the search was over. then she started crying even harder. when the orphans climbed into the buses for the return trip home. filled his basket to overflowing. He asked one of the firemen to hold it for him. causing three-year-old Jenny to cry. and one by one the kids came up. walking and running.. She stared at the bunny and at all the kids running toward the bunny. when a fire engine blasted its horn. sat on his lap. A couple of volunteer nurses picked them up and told them that everything was going to be all right. the older kids were allowed to explore the fire engine itself. she sat down. and went to hunt for another egg. But then the fire engine horn blasted again. Even Jenny stopped crying for a moment. unwrapping it. and eating it piece by piece. found her first egg less than a minute after the horn blew. and then took off running for more candy eggs. ranging in age from 2 to 6. Amanda. yelling and screaming. An Easter egg hunt started at 10 a. The bunny was 6’6” tall.71 Story 8 Eggs and a Bunny Easter Sunday was a cloudy but festive day in Memorial Park for about 100 kids from local orphanages.m. After that. and both of them sat down bawling. and got their pictures taken. “Can I drive the fire engine next time?” . A fireman on a bullhorn told everyone to gather around. As soon as he found some.m. and they hugged him. “Can we do this every Sunday?” And more than one boy asked. Then the Easter Bunny sat on a fire engine step. Two little toddlers both saw a candy egg at the same time. dashed throughout the park. or eating it.. By 11 a. Then she spent the next 10 minutes examining it. he put them into the basket of the child closest to him. she put the wrapper into her basket. wiped her hands on her white dress. They banged heads. One little girl.m. Six-year-old Sara asked. Once everyone was settled. the Easter Bunny climbed down out of the fire engine. When she finished. The festivities ended about 3 p. Boys and girls. because a special guest had arrived. Most of them said they had a fun time. The Easter Bunny hugged the kids. Meanwhile Jeff. falling down. Instead of putting it into her basket and continuing to search for more. one of the older boys. exchanging it with others. and quite often. and they both bent over to pick it up.

and gave them free transportation in the hotel limousine. the shower stall. and the bedding was replaced immediately. had booked a room for eight nights. “They wanted a sterile environment. Theodore politely suggested that a hotel more suitable for them was just around the corner. the couple brought all the sheets. and murmured. Early the next evening.” Theodore called room service.” said Theodore. the TV. all the door handles. “We need a can for each night. the couple marched to the front desk again and demanded seven cans of spray disinfectant. told a middle-aged couple that they would have to leave the hotel after just one night. They stood there next to this pile of bedding while other guests looked.” Theodore said. How dare you doubt us? We know the filth is there. and any hotel staff entering our room.” Worried about what their demands might be in the following days. the manager of the Paradise Hotel.” Theodore said that. and bedspreads down to the main lobby and just dropped them next to the front desk. . He then called ahead to reserve a “very clean” room.72 Story 9 Hotel Says Goodbye to Clean Couple Theodore. That’s all the proof you need. and they really liked the limousine service. maybe an operating room. “They should have rented a room in a hospital. the toilet handle. When Theodore asked the couple what the problem was. but they liked the idea that I didn’t charge them for the second day. The couple. “We’re paying good money to stay here. pointed. but it isn’t that clean. We have to spray the phone. pillowcases. they said that their bedding was filthy and they wanted it replaced. however. the sink. “They seemed surprised that I suggested a different hotel. on the very first day. The wife just said. visiting from Texas. the faucet. This hotel is clean. The couple could not identify any specific “filth” on the bedding. The hotel got three cancellations within the hour from people who witnessed this strange event.

. with..often – sometimes –seldom –never‬‬ ‫2-ﻗﻴﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ:‬ ‫.‪However.. to‬‬ ‫6-ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ:‬ ‫... well‬‬ ‫3-ﻗﻴﺪ ﻣﮑﺎن ، زﻣﺎن ، ﮐﻤﻴﺖ، ﻋﻠﺖ، ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ..‪Since.too/And. for.‬ ‫ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﻴﺪ را از ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎﯼ دو ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ دهﻴﺪ.... because. during. by...‬ . whether.‬ ‫ﻓﺮق ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻗﻴﺪهﺎ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ.‫37‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺟﻬﺎرم‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ:‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع ﻗﻴﺪ:‬ ‫1-ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﮑﺮار:‬ ‫‪Always –usually.. too.. although. until.that‬‬ ‫8-ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ:‬ ‫.‬ ‫4-ﻗﻴﻮد درﺟﻪ:‬ ‫‪Intensifiers like very...‪Carefully.. regardless of‬‬ ‫... whenever.. enough‬‬ ‫5-ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻬﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ:‬ ‫‪Because of.‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﺷﺮﻃﯽ را ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ دهﻴﺪ. therefore. unless.‪If.either/So. in spite of. also‬‬ ‫درﭘﺎﻳﺎن اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ:‬ ‫ﻣﮑﺎن ﻗﻴﺪ را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.. after‬‬ ‫7-ﻗﻴﺪهﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ اﺟﺰا ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﺪا ﺷﺪن دارﻧﺪ:‬ ‫‪And. before.

Miller almost never drinks milk in the morning. 10. 13. Mr. 12.ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮑﺮار‬ Frequency adverbs ‫ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮑﺮار ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﺸﺎن دادن ﻋﺎدت ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ و ﻣﺤﻞ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ و ﺑﻌﺬ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ و ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ‬ . He almost never drinks tea. Mary almost never eats in a restaurant. 8. 5.m all of the time. and Mrs.‫ اﺳﺖ‬To be Always= all of the time Usually = most of the time Often =much of the time Sometimes =some of the time Seldom = almost never Never = not at any time :‫ اﻣﮑﺎن ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﮑﺎن دارد و در ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ و ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. 4. Mrs. . Mrs. She eats at home most of the time. 6. Allen eat in a restaurant much of the time. Student: Mary always drinks milk. 11. 14. and Mrs. Miller has coffee at 10a. Miller eat in a restaurant some of the time. Mrs. 2. I sometimes don’t know the answer.74 ‫اﻧﻮاع ﻗﻴﺪ‬ :‫1. Mr. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 4-1: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Mary drinks milk all of the time. Mr. She drinks tea most of the time.m some of the time. 7. 1. Miller has coffee at 10 a. She has coffee in the morning most of the time. John eats in restaurants all of the time. ﻣﺜﺎل‬sometimes Sometimes I study at night. John drinks milk most of the time. Allen drinks coffee much of the time. Allen almost never drinks coffee. Mr. 3. 9.

9. and Mrs. 2. Mr. Mr. 6. You always eat breakfast in the morning. Allen is busy much of the time. 2. Student: Is the teacher usually busy? 1. She drinks tea most of the time. He is at home most of the time. They are almost never sad. 10. Mrs. Student: John is always busy. Mr. 7. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-3: ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮑﺮار ﺗﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ را در ﻣﮑﺎن ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﺪ‬ 1. Miller is thirsty most of the time. Mr. 1. Mr. He is almost never wrong. 4. 3. The windows are always open. 8. 6. You are often busy. 12. She is tired some of the time. 3. You are sometimes tired. 3. He is thirsty most of the time. 11. Allen is at home some of the time. Allen is right most of the time. Allen are happy most of the time. 5. He is sleepy at breakfast all of the time. 13. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-4: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The teacher is usually busy. . John is hungry much of the time. 4. 14. Allen is at home some of the time. He has cornflakes for breakfast all of the time. 2. He is late to class some of the time. 4.75 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-2: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮑﺮار ﺗﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ را در ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John is busy all of the time. Miller is almost never tired. He studied at night all of the time. Mr. 5. Mr. Miller almost never drinks coffee. He is hungry some of the time.

yesterday 4.76 5. correctly 9. در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎهﺎﻳﯽ‬LY” ‫2-ﻗﻴﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ: ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺮدن‬ :‫هﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد‬ Good--->well Fast--->fast Hard---->hard Loud-->loud/loudly He drives his car carefully in the city at night. Or : Yes. Or :Yes. he 5. I . pronounce 2. Or : Yes. but not often. Or : No. ﻣﺜﻼ‬ He studies English here in the morning. seldom. an hour ago 13. rapidly 14. the sentence 11. Or : No. ‫ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ" ﺗﺎ ﺣﺎﻻ " ﮐﻪ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﮑﺮار اﺳﺖ و ﻓﻘﻂ در ﺳﻮاﻻت ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. but seldom. Teacher: Correctly Student: John spoke English correctly in class last year.Yes. You usually have coffee for breakfast. در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ‬ever ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﮐﻠﻤﻪ‬ :‫را ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮدﻣﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﮑﺮار‬To be ‫ ﻳﺎ اﺷﮑﺎل‬do ‫از ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﮑﺮار ﻣﯽ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﺪ، ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ‬ -Do you ever have cornflakes for breakfast? . Mr. 1. but rarely. The teacher is usually in the room. these words 3. never :‫ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻗﻴﺪ ﻣﮑﺎن ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-5: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ هﺎﯼ دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ را ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John spoke English rapidly in class last year. this word 10. this morning 8. ‫“ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ ، ﻗﻴﺪ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﻢ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. I always do. read 12. rapidly 6. White 15. a week ago 7. 6.

24. John stopped at a hotel to rest. everywhere :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻗﻴﺪ درﺟﻪ در ﻣﮑﺎن ﻗﻴﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﺖ. The barber talked about fishing. Mary learned geometry quickly. 11. Student: Walking to town. John noticed a cut on his finger. 6. She doesn’t like very much milk :‫در ﺑﺤﺚ اﺳﻢ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ ﮔﺎهﯽ اﺳﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ اﺳﻢ دﻳﮕﺮ ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. 3. he watched TV = He watched TV while he was sitting in a chair. 2.77 16. Tom waited in the dormitory. John saw an interesting sight. Tom expected a call. Fred went to a movie. 9. 8. The barber cut John’s hair. Dorothy couldn’t go to school. ﻣﺜﻼ‬ The table upstairs is big. The car turned the corner. The director tried to help him. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-6: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎرﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: John walked to town. Mary broke her arms. the lesson 21. Dorothy was sick. gave 23. 13. The director saw the new student. ﻣﺜﻼ‬ She doesn’t like milk very much. John felt tired. The photographer took the picture. Fred had no assignments. 7. =After he saw the police. Thomas flew to the United States. :‫ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ دارد‬ Sitting in a chair. Yesterday 19. he became worried. in the city 20. promptly . he became worried. at 8 o’clock 26. Jim called a doctor. explain 22. the story 18. 4. Having seen the police. Mary is intelligent. quickly 25. 10. John saw an interesting sight. John washed his hands. Mary fell downstairs. 12. Jim was feeling sick. You 17. 5. 1. Thomas made the trip in one day. The car hit a tree.

. 13. He will be tired. 14. Study English .زﻣﺎن. 4.: ﻗﻴﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻗﺼﺪ و ﻏﺮض را ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ.‫دو ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ John went to the store to buy some books. 5. 6. He is working very hard. The boys are playing baseball. They will eat a big lunch. Now he is unhappy. John went to the store for some books. Then he became worried.. Teacher: for Student: He came for the books.. Student: Having seen the police. We are visiting the art gallery. 8. در ﺻﻮرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬to ‫اﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻮد در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال" ﭼﺮا. Afterwards they investigated the cause. Then he went to the doctor. He is looking at her picture. 12. 11.؟" از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ و ﺑﻌﺪ از‬ :‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ ﻣﻴﺂﻳﺪ‬for :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-8: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: He came to get the books.78 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-7: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: He saw the police. The firemen put the fire out. He was nominated. 9. Hear the concert 3. ‫3-ﻗﻴﺪ ﻗﺼﺪ و ﻏﺮض. The next day he looked weary in his classes. Paul forgot his notebook. Later he went to the movie. اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﻗﻴﺪهﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ . She purchased a stamp. Later he will feel sad. 10. 1. Next we will go through the library. He stayed up all night. He worked very hard. 1.ﻣﮑﺎن-ﻋﻠﺖ-ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ. 3. He took a taxi to the dormitory. Later she mailed a letter to her family. He will examine the report. ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. He became tired. he became worried. Afterwards he is going to write a letter. 7. Tom arrived at the airport. He read the newspaper. He was worried.. 2. The concert 2. Then he began a campaign.

His coat 10. For 9. Get me 7. All of his books 11. Cash the check 5. Get some coffee 8. Tell me the news . Get all of his books 12. Meet me 6.79 4.

80 13. Miller has to go to the bank in order to cash a check.‫ ﺑﮑﺎر رود‬ING :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-9: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ دادﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاﯼ هﺮ ﮐﺪام ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮال و ﻳﮏ ﺟﻮاب ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John called up Mary in order to ask her a question.‫ﻗﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﺖ در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮا از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ . 8. John put his glasses on in order to see the blackboard. 3. An exam 24. Mr. Lunch 17. We have to study hard in order to pass our exams. John went to Detroit in order to see a movie. Matches 16. For 23. Buy some matches 14. John went to the post office for some stamps. 1. :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﮐﺮدن ﻗﻴﺪ "ﻋﻠﺖ" ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت اﺳﺖ‬ He came in order not to miss the concert. 7. Eat lunch 18. We learn the meaning of new words by looking them up in a dictionary. Buy matches 15. Find a chair 19. 2. Take a test ‫ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺁن‬in order to/To . We can improve our pronunciation by imitating native speakers. Student: Why did John called up Mary? (in order)To ask her a question. 4. :‫ﻗﻴﺪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال "ﭼﻄﻮر"ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. John answered the question by shaking his head. 5. 10. John got here early by running fast. For 20. 6. 9. Pick up his radio 22. Watch a TV program 21. John talked to his mother by phone. ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﻗﻴﺪ در اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ .

6. How did John entertain the class?(play a guitar) ‫ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود، ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮان‬WITH ‫ و هﻢ ﺑﺮاﯼ‬BY ‫ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﮐﺮ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻮن "ﺑﺎ" ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ هﻢ ﺑﺮاﯼ‬ . How did John go to Chicago?-------car. :‫4-ﻗﻴﻮد درﺟﻪ: ﻣﻴﺰان ﻗﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ را ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. How did John find the post office? (ask a policeman) 7. 1.81 By + verb +ING -John passed the test. Miller learn English?(watch movies) 4. Miller’s address?(look in the telephone book) 2. Miller open the can?-------can opener.‫ﻣﻮارد ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را اﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬ They sent the news by radio. How did John improve his English?(practice everyday) 6. How did he go to New York?--------plane. He opened the door with a key.‫ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ اﺳﺖ‬WITH. 4. How did he send the package?----airmail. 8. How did John find Mr. 2. 5. He was killed by his wife with a stone! :‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬WITH ‫ ﻳﺎ‬BY ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-11: در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻت زﻳﺮ از‬ 1. How did he open the box?---his hand. How did John earn money?(sell radios) 3. How did John learn pronunciation?(imitate the teacher) 5. How did Mr. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-01:ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎﯼ دو ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: How did John learn English? (Practice constantly) Student: He learned English by practicing constantly. How did Mrs. Miller answer?---nod. How did Mrs.‫ "ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ" ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬BY . How did Mary eat the cake?--------fork. She came to class by taxi. How did he go downtown?-----bus. -How? -By studying hard. 7. 3.ﻣﺜﻼ‬ .

82 John is very tired. :‫ را ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬Too /enough ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-31:ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد‬ MODEL: John is tall. 13. 2. John is very angry. He can’t reach the ceiling. The water is warm. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-21: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John is short. They can’t study. He doesn’t work. 6. He can’t take a trip. The television set is very heavy. He can’t drive. We shouldn’t drive it. The car is old. I can’t wear them. He can’t go to New York. Peter is very lazy. MODEL: John is very busy. 5. We won’t drink it. The shoes are small. John is very busy. I can’t carry it. He can reach the ceiling. Student: The ceiling is too high for us to reach. We have time enough. The pencil is short. MODEL: The ceiling is high. The boy is young. She can’t watch TV. 9. 1. 14. We won’t eat them. The students are very tired. 12. 7. John is old enough. 3. Student: John is tall enough to reach the ceiling. We can’t use it. 11. Mary is very tired. 8. The coffee is sweet we won’t drink it. :‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺧﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ وﻟﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ هﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ‬Enough :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ‬ We have enough time. He can’t think clearly. . John is too tired. 4. We can’t reach it. She can’t go to the class. The bananas are soft. Student: John is too short to reach the ceiling. 10. Mary is sick.

4.Alice still can’t speak Japanese. Brown lived in New York. Mr. 5. 11. She doesn’t play the piano. We can do it. Black doesn’t live in New York anymore. MODEL3: Paul played the piano two years ago. 1.Mary is very sick? She can’t come to class.83 Student: John is too busy to take a trip. Mr.The exercise is easy for us. 15. Brown lives in New York now. 1. 2. 3.Mr. 10. John can reach it.John is well.The bananas are very soft. Mr.The chalk is very short.Mr. 16. Black lived in New York. :‫دﺳﺘﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ از ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ دﻻﻟﺖ ﺑﺮ زﻣﺎن ﻧﺎﻣﻌﻠﻮم دارﻧﺪ.The window is low.John was eating breakfast.The meeting is important for John.This hat is small for George. 3. He plays the piano now. 4. The price is five dollars. We can’t eat them. 9. 6. Student: Paul still plays the piano.Mr. Student: John still doesn’t play the piano. Black had been living in New York.The suit is small. He can’t wear it. John is eating breakfast now. Miller can’t wear it.The chalk is very short. 12. He doesn’t play the piano now.John still lives in New York. Black was living in New York when I left. 7. We can throw it away. Mr. He shouldn’t miss it.ﻣﺜﻞ‬ 14. We can’t use it. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 4-41: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Mary often played the piano last year.The price was five dollars. Student: Mary doesn’t play the piano anymore. 5.It is very cold.Alice isn’t here anymore. He can come to class. We can go skating. 8. We can do it. You can’t go swimming.It is very cold. . MODEL2: John didn’t play the piano before. 13. 2.The exercise is very easy.

I expected them yesterday. but Mr. . I want to study now. 7.I expected them to go early. 11. Student: The class should begin now. Alice is already in New York.I expected them today. ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ "از ﻗﺒﻞ "اﺳﺖ. 6. 12.They didn’t expect to come early. Green isn’t here.They had a lot of work. He doesn’t speak very well now.‫5-ﻋﺒﺎرات ﻗﻴﺪﯼ :ﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺮوع ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﻧﻘﺶ ﻗﻴﺪ را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ‬ . Appleton is tired. but they haven’t left. but they aren’t here. 1. 4. 7. but Mr. 5. Brown is here. but they aren’t here. Student: It’s only eight o’clock.They expected to come yesterday. Appleton was tired. I want him to study now. but they haven’t come.I expected them to go later.‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ( ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ Alice is in New York already. I am trying to study now. 11. but they speak very well. but they are here. but Mr. Brown is here already. 10.They had very little work today.I tried to study yesterday.84 6. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-51: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: It’s only eight o’clock.These students began to study English a short time ago. He doesn’t attend the university now.They complained about the heat last week. در ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ) ﻳﺎ در اﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ و ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ و‬Already . but they haven’t finished. MODEL: The class should begin now. They are complaining now.My father walked there last year. 9. but they have left. 9. 8. He doesn’t work there now. but he hasn’t come yet. 12. and Dr.We had just started to work when you came. but they haven’t finished.I wanted him to study before. and Dr. Paul hasn’t read the book yet.He attended the university last semester.We have just started to work. 10. Green isn’t here yet.He didn’t speak very well last year.I wanted to study last night. but Mr. 3. 8. 2.I’m waiting for a friend.

:‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-71: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎل دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Bill own this house. Miller. They watched television in the evening.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 4-61: در ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻗﻴﺪﯼ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ‬ MODEL: John waits for Mary everyday. He bought it in January. . Alice waited for her friend.85 Paul studied in the morning. . I’ve been waiting here from 10 to 2 o’clock. 10. 2. The painting was from Spain. John works on Wednesday. :‫ﺣﺮوف اﺿﺎﻗﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬ ‫ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺮوع وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ‬since How long ‫ در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ‬For when‫در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ‬during We studied for twenty minutes. John talked to Mr.(adverbial phrase) 1. 5.‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ He is from Canada. 6. John lives on Main Street.(phrasal verb) John arrived in September. 3. John looked at a new painting. Mary looked at the painting. ‫اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻗﻴﺪﯼ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺸﯽ از ﻓﻌﻞ دو ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ . 4. John calls on Wednesday. They were hungry at 5 o’clock. 7. How long have you been waiting here? From 10 to 2 o’clock. We studied during the noon hour. 9. Where is he from? Canada. 8. He waited in the museum.

Dr. They moved there in January. 2. Betty owes me a dollar. 11. She joined it three weeks ago. 1. Alice is in the hospital. 7. Mrs. We learned it three weeks ago. I wanted to see this movie a year ago. She borrowed it in January. 13. 10. He caught it three weeks ago.and I like them now. 12. Charles belongs to the Socialist Party. She obtained the position in January. I had blond hair when I was a child. 9. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-81: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I worked hard for two hours. 4. and I still work here now. We know Mr. We met him three weeks ago. Smith. I liked American movies in 1965. Teacher: The summer Student: I worked hard during the summer Several days The course A little while The night Three weeks Many years The afternoon A few minutes The evening :‫ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در ﻋﺒﺎرات ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.86 Student: Bill has owned this house since January. The Johnsons live in Canada. She went there three weeks ago. George has a cold. I began to work here in March. 3. ﻣﺜﻞ‬OF Six years The day My vacation Two days Several hours The school year A long time A little while . Student: Jane has belonged to the club for three weeks. 8. and I want to see it now. We know this song. 6. Brown holds the position of treasurer. and I still have blond hair now. He bought it three weeks ago. 5. Hill owns this machine. MODEL2: Jane belongs to the club. He joined it in January.

21. Student: I stayed home because of the rain. We went in George’s car although the engine was in a bad condition. 11. 10. Mary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. We wanted to go there although the road was not very good. 16. 14. 17. Miller is going to move to California because he likes the weather there. 8. George couldn’t answer the letter immediately because he had a lot of homework. 12. Student: We went on a picnic in spite of the cool weather. We got there in an hour although George’s car was very old. 2.87 Because of / in spite of/ regardless of I stayed home because of the rain. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-91: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I stayed home because it was raining. Mr. 9. We decided to go to Fish Lake although the distance was great. 18. 5. 4. John can’t go to the movies tonight because he has an exam tomorrow. 6. John got home late because the traffic was heavy. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-02: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: We went on a picnic although the weather was cool. 15. I come here because I wanted to take the English course. 3. We sat on the ground although the grass was wet. . 19. Jack went with us although he had a lot of work to do. 1. We enjoyed our lunch although the coffee was cold. 13. John didn’t wear a raincoat in spite of the rain. Jones moved to Arizona because the state has a dry climate. George went too although he had a class. The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday. 20. Mr. Alice is going to Florida because she wants to visit her sister. Ruth went too although she had a cold. We swam in the lake although the water was cold. We didn’t wear coats although the weather was cool. 7. Betty went too although her mother didn’t want her to. I wear a raincoat regardless of the weather.

Student: My friends arrived while I was studying. 4. I was practicing my lesson when he arrived.را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دارد‬ :‫در ﺷﺮوع اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﻣﻮﺻﻮل ، ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت دﻳﮕﺮ هﻢ دﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد: ﻣﺜﻼ‬ If/unless/before/until/after/while/when ‫ در اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد ﮐﻪ دﻻﻟﺖ ﺑﺮ زﻣﺎن اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ دارﻧﺪ و در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬while . We stayed all afternoon although it began to rain. . 5. 13. My friends arrived. 6. 9. I was watching the baseball game when it began to rain. 12.‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-12: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I was studying when my friends arrived.John was watching television. 10. . MODEL2: I arrived. I was listening to some music when the phone rang. 1. John came when I was eating.. It began to snow while I was working in the garden. 1. I began to write. I found the pencil while I was moving the furniture. 11. John was working.‫ﺑﻪ" در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ" ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ "‫ در اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ دﻻﻟﺖ ﺑﺮ زﻣﺎن اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﻳﺎ زﻣﺎن ﻣﻘﻄﻌﯽ داردو "وﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ‬When . I was having a cup of coffee when he took my picture. Student: I was studying when my friends arrived. 7. 8. I was working when he opened the door. John came while I was writing a letter. we started home at 6:00 although Betty wanted to stay longer. 3. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-22: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: I was studying. I dropped the book while I was drinking some tomato juice.88 22. I saw John while I was walking to class. 23.‫6-ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ : ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺣﮑﻢ ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن، ﻣﮑﺎن، ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ، ﻋﻠﺖ،و . 2. I was reading when the storm began. The taxi broke down while I was going to the airport. Student: I arrived while John was working..

Until it got dark John and Paul played tennis. Mary was playing the piano.89 2. 5.Before lunch John wrote a letter to his parents. Smith went to work after breakfast. 6. Smith went to work. John answered the telephone.‫: ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ‬Afterwards . Afterwards he went to class.The train was moving.The child woke up. 4. (adverbial phrase) . I found the pencil. 4.John was listening to the radio.John called.After it saw the cat the dog made a lot of noise. 7. John ate breakfast. 6.I dropped the book. Mary got off. John was fixing his bicycle.Mary was playing the piano. ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-32: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ وﻗﺘﯽ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪ اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮐﺎﻣﺎ از ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺟﺪا ﺷﻮد، ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﻣﺎ را در‬ :‫ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Before he went to the movies. MODEL2: John ate supper before he went to the movies.I was cleaning my room.(adverbial clause) The phone rang before five o’clock. Mary was sleeping. (adverbial phrase) Mary studied before eating. 1. John ate supper.Mr.‫ : ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ اﺳﺖ‬after He went to class after he ate breakfast. :‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﮐﻠﻤﺎت زﻳﺮ هﻢ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻬﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و هﻢ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ‬ Before Until After The phone rang before John arrived .John was very hungry until he ate a sandwich. 8. 5. 9.It began to rain. 3.After breakfast Mr. The phone rang. . 3. I was walking to class. 2.

I will see the Eiffel Tower if I am in Paris. If he is reading the answer. he would tell her.I will visit Amsterdam next if my friends invite me. . he told her. 2. 8. he would tell her. If he read it. he would tell her. 5. he tells her.I will spend at least a week in Paris if I go to France. Student: I would go by plane if I went to Europe.I will stop in Germany if I travel to Italy. he will tell her.90 :‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻗﻴﺪﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺮط ﺑﺎ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت زﻳﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ IF UNLESS WHETHER UNTIL :(‫ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺮط ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ)ﺷﺮﻃﯽ ﻧﻮع اول‬ If he reads the answer. (‫ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺮط ﮐﻪ اﻣﺮﯼ ﻧﺎﻣﻤﮑﻦ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ اﻃﻼق ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد)ﺷﺮﻃﯽ ﻧﻮع ﺳﻮم‬ If he had read it.I will see Stockholm if I visit Sweden. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-42: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ را ﺣﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I will go by plane if I go to Europe. 7.I will learn a little German if I stay in Germany.I will go to London first if I go to England. 4. he would have told her.I will rent a car if I decide to go to Sweden. 3. 9. If he was reading it. If he had read it.I will visit Buckingham Palace if I am in England. If he read it. he will tell her. (‫ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺮط ﮐﻪ اﻣﺮ ﻧﺎﻣﻤﮑﻦ را ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﻳﺎ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ دهﺪ)ﺷﺮﻃﯽ ﻧﻮع دوم‬ If he read it. 6. 1.I will take the train if I decide to go to France. If he read it. 10. he tells her.

I would go to a doctor.What would you do if you had an exam today? 15. 1.00 on the street.What would you do if you tore your coat? 11.What would you do if you were in Paris now? 16.I will fly to Berlin if I have time.What would you do if you were president? 4.What would you do if you thought it was going to rain? :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-62:ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺷﺮﻃﯽ ﻧﻮع ﺳﻮم ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: I would go to Chicago if I had a car. 14.I will see many famous museums if I stop in Florence.What would you do if you had a vacation next week? 12. 13.What would you do if you were a king? 13.What would you do if you had all the money you wanted? 6.What would you do if you needed a pencil? 9. 12.I will cross the Alps if I go to Italy.What would you do if you discovered a gold mine? 7.What would you do if you didn’t have class today? 14.What would you do if you were sick? 10. 8.I will write many postcards if I don’t write letters.What would you do if you were a millionaire? 2. .What would you do if you found $ 50. 15.I will spend a lot of money if I stay in Europe long. Student: I would have gone to Chicago if I had had a car.What would you do if you had a car? 3.91 11.What would you do if you were ten years younger? 5. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-52: ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻت زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: What would you do if you were sick? Student: If I were sick.

I would go to the museum if it stayed open in the evening. I would get mad if George raised his hands too often. I would go to the party if you sent me a special invitation. 13. 2. 14. you had lost all your money last week? 10. you had stayed in your country. 11. I would study the irregular verbs if I didn’t know them. I would visit John if he were home. 3. I would buy a new car if you lent me the money.. 6. you had gone to France last year? 4. 8. you had torn your coat yesterday? 9. I would bring my friends if you asked me to. I would work in the garden if he needed exercise.. 15. I would bring an umbrella if I knew it was going to rain. I would raise my hand if I didn’t understand something. 16. 1. 10.92 1. you had had a vacation last week? 11. 5. 3. What would you have done if . I would take an aspirin if I had a headache.. 7. I would wear my raincoat if it were cloudy. 4. you had been Napoleon? 6. 9. someone had stolen your car yesterday.00 bill on the street yesterday? 5. you had been born in 1400? 7. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-72: ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: What would you have done if you had been sick yesterday? Student: If I had been sick. I would watch television if I didn’t have so much homework. 2. I would have gone to a doctor. I would study if I had to. you had been Adam? . I would buy a toothbrush if I needed one. you had found a $50. 12. I would throw away my ballpoint pen if it didn’t work. you had needed money last week? 8.

Miller worked hard. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-03: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎل ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John went to bed early last night. Student: Mary came to class today although she wasn’t feeling well. 4. John usually goes to the movies on Friday if he doesn’t have to study. 7. 1. I’ll go to the movies if I finish my homework. 3. John went swimming yesterday. 6. 12. you had lived 100 years ago? 13. I can’t work these algebra problems unless you help me. She had a headache. I like to go swimming if the water is warm enough. Paul will never know where you lived if you don’t tell him. 2. MODEL: Mary came to class today. Joe will take the bus unless he has a date. 5. The weather was nice. I can’t work these algebra problems if you don’t help me. Student: John won’t go swimming unless the sun comes out. Mr. He won’t study unless he has to. I am going to Florida unless I get a good job there. you had been Columbus? :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-82: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John will buy a new bicycle unless he can fix his old one today. 6. He was Tired. 4. Student: John will buy a new bicycle if he can’t fix his old one today. John completed the course. I can’t buy any new shoes if you don’t give me any money. She wasn’t feeling well. John might go to New York unless it costs too much. It was very hot. 1. He is very friendly. 3.93 12. 11. 10. :‫در ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﮐﺮدن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John will go swimming if the sun comes out. Juan can’t go home for two hours. 5. Mary stayed at home yesterday. 2. John will call Mary if he has time. . Student: John went to bed early last night because he was tired. 8. It was difficult. Everyone likes John. 9. He is very homesick.

. His father wants him to. Can John understand Americans when they speak fast? 3. 11. Can you study when your friends are talking? 5.. Mr. Do you want to get something to eat after the movie if it isn’t too late? :‫7.ﻗﻴﺪهﺎ ﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ اﺟﺰا ﺟﺪا ﺷﺪﻧﯽ دارﻧﺪ‬ So.94 7. It is very expensive. Or I wear a raincoat whether it’s raining or not. Juan is studying English here..that Such .too And. 9. Miller want to sell their furniture. Mary feeds her cat the last cat food. :‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ Model: I wear a raincoat if it is raining../I wear a raincoat if it’s not raining.. Alice is going to Florida. Are you going to go to (Are you going to) Chicago if John goes? 2.. 12. 8. Juan wrote to the university. Her car was very old. Student: I wear a raincoat whether or not it is raining. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-13: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎل ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Do you study if you are tired? Student: I study whether or not I am tired. Do you like your friends to visit you when you are studying? 6. Susan drove from New York to California... It was easy for him.either And so. They are moving to New York.that And . . Do you continue to study if there is a good television program? 8. Do you like to study before dinner if you are tired? 4. Do you want to go to the movies if there is a good television program? 7. 1. 10. John helped Mary write the letter. It was difficult for him... She wants to visit her sister. 13. and Mrs..

She will have an exam tomorrow. George didn’t play tennis yesterday. 1. She studied French last year. George might not be here tomorrow. She is studying it now. Student: He has to learn Spanish. and she does too. Mary can speak English. 3. Paul doesn’t sing well. 3. She might pass the exam. 13. He studied French last year..95 And neither. Paul wasn’t at the movies yesterday. George isn’t always early. She must be a good student. She has to take the exam. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-33: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: George doesn’t sing well. He will have an exam tomorrow. 14. He might pass the exam. 4. Student: George doesn’t sing well. We had to study last night. John and Mary have to do a lot of homework. Paul might not be here tomorrow. 1. He should study for it tonight. 8. 4. 12. Homework is necessary. 2. He is going to study French tonight. 5. 10. We have to do a lot of homework. He must be a good student. . Paul didn’t play tennis yesterday. He is taking a course in French now. George wasn’t at the movies yesterday. He is studying it now. Student: John can speak English and Mary can too. She studied every night 6. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-23: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: John can speak English. and Paul doesn’t either.. He studied every night. Paul isn’t always early. She has to learn Spanish. 11. She should study for it tonight. She passed the last exam. 7. He has to take the exam. She is going to study French tonight. 9. 2. They had to study last night. Examinations are necessary. He passed the last exam. She is taking a course in French now. MODEL2: He has to learn Spanish.

Alice read a good book. Alice can’t go to the party tonight. We don’t have to come. We shouldn’t arrive late. 15. The teacher shouldn’t arrive late. and so did Alice. George isn’t studying. We have to arrive on time. I won’t go to the store. His friends arrived late yesterday. Smith plays volleyball very well. 6. John should write home. 10. 5. He doesn’t have to arrive early. 1. Alice doesn’t like cigarette smoke. Bob and Alice will be here tomorrow. They won’t go to the store. George is going to visit Canada. She can play the piano. He has to arrive on time. 11. He can play the piano. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-53: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ . George can’t go to the party tonight. 4. 6. 14. We will be here tomorrow. Alice isn’t studying. John isn’t tired now. John is going to visit Canada. Mary should write home. John studies everyday. Alice isn’t hungry. We don’t have to arrive early. They don’t have to come. Mr. 8. 9. Mary studies everyday. Mary wasn’t very busy yesterday. Alice isn’t going to be late. Hill plays volleyball very well. 2. MODEL2: George isn’t hungry.96 5. Alice might not go to the movies tonight. Mary isn’t going to be late. John arrived late yesterday. Alice wasn’t very busy yesterday. My suit was expensive. 12. Mr. 13. Mary might not go to the movies tonight. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-43: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: George read a good book. 16. Mary doesn’t like cigarette smoke. Student: George isn’t hungry. My shoes were expensive. 7. and neither is Alice. George isn’t tired now. 3. 7. Student: George read a good book. 8.

5. 9. Miller talks very fast. 1. I can’t sit comfortably. San Francisco is a very interesting city to visit. 2. John has little money. 14. He won’t work. . 17. John’s car is very old. He can’t go to Chicago. 18. 13. He sleeps only six hours a night. 8. 4. John can’t reach it.97 MODEL: John is very busy. I want to go there as soon as possible. John is a very busy student. The lead broke. 7. She was busy all day. Mr. The football team has very good players. John can’t buy one. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-63: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: It was a very cold day. Their pronunciation improved a lot. Mr. They fell asleep during the movie. 10. I can’t understand him. Susan saw it twice. 2. She received a ticket for speeding. 15. John couldn’t buy it. A Cadillac is a very expensive car. I couldn’t understand him. The new car was very expensive. Bob is very sick. Mary is very homesick. Susan stayed home. The Smiths are very friendly people. He’s going to go to the doctor. 11. Some of the students were very sleepy. It has never lost a game. Mary is a very good student. The movie was very interesting. He can’t come to class. Mrs. John pressed his pencil very hard. Mr. 3. Smith is very tired. The students practiced in the lab very often. 7. Smith drove car very fast. 16. He can’t buy the book. Taylor is very pleasant. Mary had much work. 5. 1. 6. The ceiling is very high. Mrs. He won’t stay up late tonight. John spoke rapidly. My chair is very hard. John has a very severe headache. Jones is very lazy. Student: It was such a cold day that Susan stayed home. 3. Student: John is so busy that he can’t go to Chicago. 6. She can’t study. 12. She is going to pass all of her exams. Everyone feels welcome at their house. He can’t sell it. 4. Everyone likes her.

3. John told a very funny story. Mary was happy. However. This book is too difficult for the new students to read. It was a very cold day. ‫8-ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ: ﻗﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﻳﯽ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ اﺳﻢ ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ را ﻣﻘﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان از ﻗﻴﺪهﺎﻳﯽ ﻧﺎم ﺑﺮد ﮐﻪ ﮐﻞ‬ :‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. She is too young to go to school. Alice was sad. Alice. Or: Paul is such a short boy that he can’t reach the apple on the tree. Peter is too old to become a soldier. ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ در داﺧﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ‬conjunction ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اول ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ ﻳﺎ‬ . Susan stayed home. John can’t buy one. Mary was happy. Alice was sad.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ Mary was happy. 4. 9. These shoes are too small for me to wear. however.‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم رﺑﻂ ﭘﻴﺪا ﮐﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. Student: Paul is so short that he can’t reach the apple on the tree. but Alice was very sad. This hill is too steep for us to climb. 11. Mary wanted to hear it again. 2. 6. The museum is a very interesting place. This town is too small to have a fire department. A Cadillac is a very expensive car. 9. He is too sick to stand up. however. 8. 1. ‫ﺟﺪول4-1: ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ و ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ‬ . 7. 5. . :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-73: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Paul is too short to reach the apple on the tree.98 8. The students want to visit it again. was sad. The professor is too busy to leave his office.‫وﻟﯽ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ Mary was happy. This coat is too long for me to wear. 10.

99
‫ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ‬ But yet ‫ﻗﻴﻮد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ However Nevertheless Still On the contrary On the other hand In contrast In spite of that conversely and Also Besides Moreover Furthermore Indeed Likewise Similarly In addition In fact As a matter of fact So Therefore Consequently Thus As a result or In other words In summary In a word In brief Briefly In general To summarize

100 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-83: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ، ﻗﻴﻮد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬ MODEL1: He is sick. He can’t come. Student: He is sick. Therefore, he can’t come. MODEL2: He has a cold. He has a cough. Student: He has a cold. Also, he has a cough. MOFEL3: He is in bed. Nevertheless, he has to get up tomorrow. 1. We like Mr. Miller as a teacher. We like Miss Smith better. 2. Tom has a good vocabulary. He pronounces well. 3. I don’t have a driver’s license. I don’t drive. 4. We haven’t seen the new building. We don’t know what it looks like. 5. I can’t come today. I’ll come tomorrow. 6. She bought her books today. She bought some pencils. 7. The carpenters worked hard. They didn’t finish. 8. They are studying hard. They are learning English rapidly. 9. She knows how to play the piano. She can dance. 10. We like potatoes. We like rice. 11. I bought a boat last week. I haven’t used it yet. 12. Bill left town. He won’t be able to keep his appointment. ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﮔﺎهﯽ اوﻗﺎت دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ و اﮔﺮ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم را از اﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ اﺑﺘﺪاﯼ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﯽ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ :‫در ﮐﻞ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.ﻣﺜﻼ‬ We have breakfast at eight o’clock. At nine o’clock we have class. ‫ در اﺑﺘﺪﻟﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ اﻳﺠﺎد‬There ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: اﮔﺮ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دوم اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻓﻌﺎل زﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ، ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان از ﮐﻠﻤﻪ‬ :‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﯽ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﮐﺮد. در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎزﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺬاﺷﺘﻦ ﮐﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻗﻴﺪ در اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.ﻣﺜﺎل‬ To be – come – rise – lie – grow 1. New Mexico and Arizona were the first states we visited. Next there was California. 2. Los Angeles was the first city we visited. Next there came San Francisco. 3. Driving to San Francisco, we had the ocean on our left. On our right there rose high mountains. 4. San Francisco is on the west side of a large bay. On the east side there lies the city of Berkeley.

101 5. We hadn’t seen many forests in Tehran. North of Tehran There grow large forests. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ4-93: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬

MODEL: He gets up at 8:00. He eats breakfast at 8:30. Student: He gets up at 8:00. At 8:30 he eats breakfast. 1. They grow cherries in Michigan. They grow peaches in Georgia. 2. He studied from six until nine. He reads the newspaper from nine until ten. 3. John stated his trip on Tuesday. He was in Chicago on Wednesday. 4. Ted saw an accident. He ran for the police immediately. 5. Mr. Martinez does not like American food. He will get accustomed to it eventually. 6. Bill has one class in the morning. He has three classes in the afternoon. 7. Mary had a headache yesterday. She feels better today. 8. The library has a reading room on the first floor. It has a large reference room on the second floor. 9. We find salt water in the Great Salt Lake. We find fresh water in other lakes. 10. It is 6:30 on my watch. It is 6:40 on Jim’s watch.

Hurrying home. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ2: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: Going to lunch. 4. Then I went to lunch. Oscar has many friends because------. Jim mailed it. Standing there. 3. Sailing to Europe. she smiled at him. I saw him. He doesn’t have any good shirts because----. He spends his money freely if---. 8. Norman met an old friend. MODEL3: I saw him going to lunch. He can’t take his friends to parties at the end of the month because---. از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﯽ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻤﮏ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ Oscar is friendly and carefree. 2. MODEL2: Having seen him. He is still happy at the end of the month although----. 4. 12. She smiled at him standing there. He had a good time. He is happy to give everything to his friends who spend most of his large amount of money. I went to lunch. 10. He was going to lunch. . 1. Having written the letter. Student: I was going to lunch. Oscar can’t buy any clothes in spite of---. 2. Most of his friends like him because---. 11. 1. I saw him.102 ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت ﮐﻠﯽ ﻓﺼﻞ ﭼﻬﺎر‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 1: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. 6. He is always carefree whether or not----. I looked at the leaves blowing in the breeze. Student: I saw him. A few of his friends like him because-----. Oscar’s uncle should send him clothes in place of check because---. 5. He acts like a poor man in spite of---. Student: I saw him. 6. 9. 13. 3. He likes all of them although-----. 5. 7. He gives away his books when----.

we began to do our shopping. 15. Norman met an old friend hurrying home. 17. the ship creaked noisily. the volleyball team. Having finished his lesson. He seeks to have her grade changed from a C to an A and asks for unspecified financial damages. Having parked our car. 9. Having eaten breakfast. Virginia's father said her heart was broken when she got the C. Since her first year in school. 11. Jane heard me laughing loudly. "She cried the whole weekend. 16. Having shouted his name. . Virginia Brown is in the ninth grade at Ashley High School. Having finished school.103 7. he hit the tree. 13. She's the class president. He alleges that the teacher. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ3 : ﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ اﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ را ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ و ﻗﻴﻮد ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ Story 10 A School Girl Sues Her School A straight-A student got a C in cooking class and didn't like it. Driving too fast. She is a member of the Girl Scouts and sings in her church choir. the kitten imitated its mother. She belongs to the chess club. Washing its face." Virginia is a model student. he walked to school. 18. "She wouldn't come out of her room." he said. they ran through the streets. 12. 14. she has had perfect attendance and all her grades have been A's. and the track team. She's on the swim team. John took a vacation in Florida. 10. Bob worried about typing too much. Having tossed in the storm. who is black. Having walked all afternoon. Her eyes were red and puffy. he went to the program. She didn't like it so much that her dad filed a complaint in federal court about it. The kitten imitated its mother washing its face. My little girl hasn’t been this upset since her cat got run over by a car when she was 6 years old. who is white. they felt hungry. 8. discriminated against his daughter. 19.

many college instructors change textbooks year after year. then works three evenings a week as a pizza cook. I talked to my students. Smith 100 percent. and many of them. it’s killing these kids. Jason decided to make life a little easier and a lot cheaper for his students by writing his own book on public speaking. “The price of books for our students is just getting higher and higher and. “This isn’t a black and white problem. “Remember. and to the Point." she said.” The school principal. So. and on weekends she does manicures at a beauty salon. that book has no resale value. and lots of graphics. said that he supported Ms.D. they either upgrade to a new edition or switch to an entirely different textbook. Concise. “Compared to most other public speaking primers.” Textbook prices are traditionally high. Adding to that problem. I called it Successful Public Speaking: How To Be Brief. during a sabbatical a few years ago. “Some of my best friends are African-Americans. I wrote my own textbook.104 The home economics teacher is 28-year-old Jessica Smith. $30 instead of $90. She is a part-time sales clerk at a clothing store three days a week. That is. This is her first year teaching. Ph. one of my students has three jobs.” said Peter Jason. I’m going to sue them for defamation of character and whatever else my lawyer comes up with. Smith said that discrimination was absolutely not the issue. Plus. And she still manages to have a high GPA and go to school full-time. I made sure that it wasn’t longwinded. Almost half of them have at least one part-time job. Story11 Books Don’t Grow on Trees A local community college professor decided to fight back. He said that Virginia is an excellent student who would have no problem getting into the best universities even with a C in cooking. Ms. Dr. who grew up in India. students are one of the poorest groups of people in America. This further hurts students because if an instructor no longer uses a particular textbook. In fact. “Many books have an increased price because of bells and whistles: CD-ROMs. it is published in a three-ring . lots of color photographs. mine is half the number of pages. prefer to keep things simple. and one-third the price. combined with the rising cost of tuition. like me. Everybody in America wants to sue everybody else.

But such reports were rare. Many immigrants prefer not to get involved with police for fear of being sent back to their native country.m. was an unpleasant surprise to people who thought they were early birds by arriving at 7:00 a. they had upgraded to the new edition. So. Where there are lines.” Story 12 Immigration Goes Online Thousands of immigrants who need to file papers related to immigration status. They would start lining up outside the building at 6:00 p. there might be 200 people in line. For only $7. immigrants in Los Angeles used to get in line the night before. No one had to worry about going hungry in line because of the variety of hot and cold food and drinks being sold all night long. green cards. there are vendors. To beat the crowds. The immigration office now has a new system called Info Pass. students only had to buy the 35 new pages and delete 35 of the original pages. Sometimes people would sell their place in line to others for $50 or more. Occasionally the police received reports about people being pickpocketed while waiting in the overnight lines.00. occasionally. . of course. Before Info Pass. Info Pass is a website that they can access on their home computer or a library computer. This. Applicants simply schedule a time and a date to meet with an immigration officer using Info Pass. Maybe the word will get out. in the rain.105 binder format. it was about 40 people an hour. and resident cards no longer have to stand in line for hours on end.m. They don't even have to go to the immigration office. and more writers and publishers will try it. people with appointments are in and out of the building within an hour. and spend the night in the cold or. By the following morning. I’ve had great feedback from my students about this loose-leaf concept. Applicants show up 15 minutes before their appointment time. With the new system. when I wrote a second edition last year. Things are so efficient now that about 120 applicants per hour can be processed through the immigration office.

‬‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮم و ﻣﺠﻬﻮل را ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺺ در زﻣﺎن ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﺪ.‬‫اﻧﻮاع ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل را ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﺪ.‬ ‫در ﭘﺎﻳﺎن اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ:‬ ‫از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻴﺎن زﻣﺎن ﻣﻘﺼﻮد ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮد اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﮐﻨﺪ.‫601‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ:‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع ﺟﻤﻠﻪ:‬ ‫1.‬ ‫-ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎرهﺎﯼ ﮐﻠﻴﺸﻪ اﯼ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻌﺎرﻓﺎت ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﻮد.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ زﻣﺎن:ﺣﺎل)ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎدﻩ – ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ –ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ(، ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ) ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺰدﻳﮏ، ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ دور(‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ)ﻣﺎﺿﯽ ﺳﺎدﻩ-ﻣﺎﺿﯽ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ-ﻣﺎﺿﯽ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ-ﻣﺎﺿﯽ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﯽ(‬ ‫2. در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ در هﻨﮕﺎم ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺨﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ ، ﺟﻤﻼت ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺧﻮد را‬‫ﺑﻪ اﻧﻮاع ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ و در هﻨﮕﺎم روﺧﻮاﻧﯽ و درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺷﻨﻴﺪارﯼ ﺟﻤﻼت ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ را ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﺎدﻩ ، ﻣﺮﮐﺐ ، ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫6.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻣﺘﻤﻢ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺜﯽ ارﺋﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ در ﺁن ﺗﻤﺘﻢ اﺟﺰا ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دﺧﺎﻟﺖ دارﻧﺪ.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ: ‪Tag Questions‬‬ ‫5. ﻣﺜﻼ "زﻣﺎن" ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﺮ ﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﯼ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ در ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ زﻣﺎن دﺧﺎﻟﺖ دارﻧﺪ.ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل:ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺧﺒﺮ،ﺑﺮاﯼ اﻣﺮ، ﺑﺮاﯼ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ‬ ‫4.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻬﺎد: ﻣﻌﻠﻮم و ﻣﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫3.‬ .‬‫ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﺎدﻩ را از ﻣﺮﮐﺐ و ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ اﻓﺘﺮاق دهﺪ.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻌﺎرﻓﺎت:‪Functions‬‬ ‫7.

The windows are open‬‬ ‫.‪Example: John visits New York every year‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﯽ ، ﮐﺎرهﺎﯼ ﻋﺎدﺗﯽ و ذﮐﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ) ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت ،‬ ‫و ..( ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود.‪Student: Is the book green? Yes. You’re from England‬‬ ‫. The comb is heavy‬‬ ‫. اﻳﻦ ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮ ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ زﺑﺎن ، در ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮدن ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎدﻩ و ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ‬ ‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ اﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻔﺘﺪ.‪4. You’re a doctor‬‬ ‫.‪MODEL: The book is green‬‬ ‫.‪10.‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-1: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ:‬ ‫. The students are hungry‬‬ ‫.. The pencil is heavy‬‬ ‫. D are in the room‬‬ ‫.‪6.‪2. ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ ، ﻗﻴﻮد ﺗﮑﺮار ، ‪ already . You’re hungry‬‬ .‬ ‫در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن" ﻣﯽ" اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻀﺎرع اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ هﻢ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود. The books are new‬‬ ‫.‪5. Mr. yet‬هﻢ ﻧﺸﺎن دهﻨﺪﻩ اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‪8.‪7. it is‬‬ ‫.‪9.‪1. The door is open‬‬ ‫.‪3. C and Mr.‫701‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫1-اﻟﻒ: زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎدﻩ:‬ ‫‪Simple Present Tense‬‬ ‫‪Pattern= infinitive without “TO”+ S for third person singular‬‬ ‫.

108 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-2: ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ Teacher: reads Student: John reads in the morning, and we read in the afternoon. 8- practices 9- reads 10- signs 11- studies 12- works 13- arrives :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-3: هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﺮدن ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: We have coffee here in the morning. Teacher: John Student: John has coffee here in the morning. 1- He 2- John and Mary 3- They 4- Mr. Allen 5- He 6- Mary 7- She 8- The students 9- They 10- Mr. Miller 11- He 12- You 13- I 14- You and I :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-4: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﺳﻮال )ﺑﺎ ﺟﻮاب ﺑﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ( ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John studies at night. Student: Does John study at night? Yes, he does. 1- Mary studies in the afternoon. 2- John and Mary have coffee at 10 o’clock. 3- Mrs. Allen has coffee at 11 o’clock. 4- The students understand English. 5- They practice everyday. 6- John has a coke in the afternoon. 7- He studies at night. 8- The students study here. 9- They understand the lessons. 14- leaves 15- writes

109 10- John has a book. 11- John and Mary speak English. 12- John likes coffee. 13- John and Bill practice in the morning. 14- Mr. Miller is from New York. 15- The books are in the room. 16- Mary eats lunch at noon. 17- Mr. Green is very hungry. 18- The teachers arrive in the morning. 19- Mr. Allen and Mr. Miller leave in the afternoon. 20- Mary writes letters every week. 21- The teachers have coffee in the afternoon. 22- John is a student. 23- Mrs. Taylor eats breakfast at 7 in the afternoon. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-5: ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻮاب ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ 1- Is the door closed? 2- Do you have tea for dinner? 3- Do you speak Spanish? 4- Do you live in the United States? 5- Is your friend a teacher? 6- Do you study in the afternoon? 7- Do classes begin at 6 a.m? :‫1-ب : زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ‬ Present Continuous/Present progressive Pattern=to be verbs + verb + ING Example: John is visiting New York this week. ‫ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﻳﮕﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﮐﻨﻮﻧﯽ در ﺣﺎل اﻧﺠﺎم ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ اﺳﺖ. ﻗﻴﻮد اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن‬ :‫ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬

‫011‬ ‫‪At the Present moment‬‬ ‫‪Now‬‬ ‫‪This week‬‬ ‫‪Today‬‬ ‫‪This morning‬‬ ‫‪This afternoon‬‬ ‫‪Tonight‬‬ ‫‪This century‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰ دو ﻣﻮرد اول ﺗﻤﺎم ﻗﻴﻮد ذﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺎل ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ. "اﻣﺸﺐ " ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻪ در‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ 8 ﺻﺒﺢ اﺳﺖ ، زﻣﺎن ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد و ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻪ در ﺳﺎﻋﺖ 8 ﺷﺐ اﺳﺖ، ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-6: ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ:‬ ‫.‪MODEL: Mary is watching a movie now‬‬ ‫‪Teacher: every day‬‬ ‫.‪Student: Mary watches a movie every day‬‬ ‫‪1- John‬‬ ‫‪2- We‬‬ ‫‪3- Studying a lesson‬‬ ‫‪4- Now‬‬ ‫‪5- He‬‬ ‫‪6- They‬‬ ‫‪7- Use the eraser‬‬ ‫‪8- Move my chair‬‬ ‫‪9- We‬‬ ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻌﻀﯽ از اﻓﻌﺎل ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. اﮔﺮﭼﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در ﻣﻔﻬﻮم‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﺼﺪر ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ‪ ING‬ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ. اﻓﻌﺎل اﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از:‬ ‫‪Like‬‬ ‫‪Want‬‬ ‫‪Be‬‬ ‫‪Have‬‬ ‫‪Know‬‬ ‫‪Mean‬‬ ‫‪See‬‬ ‫‪Understand‬‬ ‫‪Hear‬‬ ‫‪Need‬‬ ‫‪Prefer‬‬ ‫‪10- Look at the book‬‬ ‫‪11- In the evening‬‬ ‫‪12- Today‬‬ ‫‪13- Three days a week‬‬ ‫‪14- Today‬‬ ‫‪15- Stand‬‬ ‫‪16- Leaving the room‬‬ ‫‪17- You‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-7: ﮐﻠﻤﺎت دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬

We are speaking English. 13.You are standing. 5.Eat 6.Mr.Understand 3. 2.Bananas 18.Help 2.We are practicing English.We are speaking slowly. 11.Know 14. 14. Teacher: like Student: They like John 1.Study 13. 15.The word 15.You are studying English this semester.Study 7. 4.Hear 16.111 MODEL: They are waiting for John. 8. :‫1-ج: زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ‬ .The teacher is walking.You are studying in the United States. 1. 9.Prefer 19. 7.Like 10.The book :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-8: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ را ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The teacher is standing.You are sitting.We are watching television.See 17. 12.Want 11. he is. Student: Is the teacher standing? Yes. 10.Visit 4. Allen is writing.The history of California 8.See 12.Miss Miller is reading.Read 9.We are eating dinner. 6. 3.The teacher is looking at his book.The teacher is sitting.We are speaking Japanese.Know 5.

This morning 5.Before he came to class 12.I wanted to see this movie a year ago.This week 11. 4. and I like them now.Before he ate breakfast 10.Last week 8.112 Present Perfect Tense Pattern: have (has) + past participle Example: John has visited New York three times.This week 6. and I want to see it now.Ten minutes ago 4. / No. . I haven’t.)ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ‬ MODEL: I liked American movies in 1965. and I need one now. Teacher: today Student: John has answered all our questions today.Before George came 7.From seven o’clock to eight o’clock this morning :‫ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻗﻴﺪ اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬ Just Recently So far Since For Already ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-01 : ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ و از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪو ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ‬ (‫دهﻴﺪ. 1.I had blond hair when I was a child. Present perfect tense: I’ve liked American movies since 1965. and I still have blond hair now. 2. 3. 1.Last night 2. Question: Have you liked American movies since 1965? Answer: Yes.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-9: در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ را ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John answered all our questions.Yesterday 3. and I still want to visit it.Today 9.I wanted to visit Washington when I came to the United States.I needed a new coat two years ago. I have. Yet .

6. John has given a talk recently. John has just opened the window. Mary has recently written home. 3. Have you seen any American football games? 6. Have you had any coffee today? 4. . They have already left. John has been here for ten minutes. 9. Have you played American football? 7. Have you read any interesting books recently? 2. Have you studied mathematics? 8.Monday was the last time I played baseball. Have you learned any new words today? 5. 4. 5. I’ve lived in this city for one month and have liked it so far. They have gone already. 7. Have you seen the Empire State Building? (‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-21: از ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﺳﻮال ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ) ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻗﻴﻮد در اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ 1. Have you received any letters from your family this week? 3. I haven’t eaten breakfast this morning. They haven’t finished yet. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-11: ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬ 1.113 5. 6. and I haven’t smoked again. 10. Have you attended any concerts this semester? 9.I stopped smoking last Monday. 8. We’ve completed 17 lessons so far. Have you visited New York? 10. 2.

2.‫از ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ دو زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ و ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-31: زﻣﺎن ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John is talking to the teacher. He was wide awake yesterday morning. 12. Mary is watching television. Bill is writing letters. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-41: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺎهﻢ ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: John studied very hard. Mary is singing folk songs. Student: John answered all the questions correctly because he had studied hard. Allen. John’s old car broke down.114 ‫1-د:زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮا رﯼ‬ Present perfect progressive tense Pattern= have (has) +been + verb +ING Example: John has been talking to the teacher for two hours. 10. The boys walked for a long time. Bob is listening to the radio. George is painting a picture. He bought one yesterday. 5. 8. . Mrs. 7. The teacher is explaining a difficult pattern. John is working. Student: John has been talking to the teacher for two hours. 6. He bought a new one. John slept for ten hours. 2. 9. Mary saved enough money for a plane ticket. John is studying mathematics. 7. Mary waited for the bus for a long time. Paul is looking up words in the dictionary. She went to Europe. 4. Then they decided to rest. John is studying at the library. 5. 3. Miller is talking to Mrs. 11. He took a long vacation. . John worked hard all year. She decided to take a taxi. 6. 4. He answered all the questions correctly. 3. George is doing his homework. 1. 1. John needed a new coat for a long time.

Did Mr.Did John write a letter? 3.Did Mr.Did Mary read a book? 10. :‫ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ ﭘﺴﺮﯼ روﯼ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ درﺧﺖ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎزﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ‬ He is going to fall. He played the piano very well yesterday. ﻣﻨﻈﻮر از ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺰدﻳﮏ ، ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪاﺗﺶ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ واﺣﺘﻤﺎل وﻗﻮع ﺁن زﻳﺎد‬ :‫اﺳﺖ . Pattern: to be + going + to + verb :‫در زﺑﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﺸﺎن دادن ﭼﻨﻴﻦ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ " داﺷﺘﻦ" در ﻣﺤﺎورﻩ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫" دارم ﻣﯽ روم". :‫2-اﻟﻒ: ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺰدﻳﮏ‬ Near Future Example: It is going to rain. and Mrs.Did Mary repeat the words? 9. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-51: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ Teacher: Did George study yesterday? Student: No.Did Mary work in the garden? 4.Did the students learn the new words? 6. Miller play tennis yesterday? 2. .Did George move the table? 8. ﻣﺜﻼ اﮔﺮ هﻮا اﺑﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ‬ It is going to rain. John practiced for many years. he’s going to study tomorrow.115 8.Did George buy a wrist watch? ‫در ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬ . 1.‫ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻮاردﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ )ﺑﺪون ﺁﻣﺎدﮔﯽ( و ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻄﻮر ﮐﻠﯽ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود‬Will I will pass the university exam. Miller Visit the museum? 7.Did you eat dinner at a restaurant? 5.

14.At the present moment 17. She’s going to visit the museum. Teacher: Now Student: I am practicing now.We 12. 11.He :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-71: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They’re going to study. Mr.Next week 10. He is going to be an engineer.Next week 2.She 8. 16. 7.Tomorrow 9. Allen is going to eat dinner at a restaurant.Now 5. 8. John’s going to study engineering. The boys are going to be late. 1. 15.I 19. 10. She’s going to attend the university. He’s going to be here next week. Mr. She is going to have a vacation this summer.Next year 11.He 6. George is going to get up early tomorrow.Tomorrow . 4. They’re going to learn English.He 18.They 16. Mary is going to arrive at 9 o’clock.We 3. 5.116 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-61: ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ زﻣﺎن ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: I’m going to practice tomorrow. 3. George is going to be busy. George is going to work at home tonight. 13.Tomorrow 4. 2. 9. 6. they are/ No.They 7. 15. John’s going to play baseball. Student: Are they going to study? Yes. Allen is going to study Japanese. 12. they aren’t. The students are going to eat lunch.Study 14.I 13. 1.

5. I study everyday. she wasn’t. 9. 8.117 :‫3-اﻟﻒ: ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺳﺎدﻩ‬ Simple Past Tense Pattern= infinitive without to +verb+ ed (in cases of regular verbs) Example: We worked here last year.I 8. Mr.Now 10.Yesterday 11.The teacher 12. 6. 7. and Mrs. Student: Mary was tired yesterday.The students 3. 1.They 9. 3. She is sad today. Miller are happy today.Last night 7.Last night 14. The students are here today.)ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ‬ MODEL: Mary is tired today.Now 2. Allen is sleepy today. 2. 1. Mr.Mary 5. .Yesterday 4.Now 6.Now 13. Teacher: John Student: John was here yesterday./ No. The doctor works here everyday. 4. Was Mary tired yesterday? Yes. John walks home everyday. The book is open today.The books (‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-91: ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺒﺮﻳﺪ، ﺳﻮال ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﺪ و ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-81 : ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: We were here yesterday. John is busy today. she was.

Do you like New York? 2. Did you ever visit the Empire state Building in New York? 3. Is London in England? 10. We attend class everyday. John wants a glass of milk everyday. 11. The students study everyday. We study everyday. Is Paris in Italy? 9. Allen watches a television program everyday. 17. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-02: ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻت زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ Teacher: Were you in New York last night? Student: No. 14. Is San Francisco in California? 6. We learn new words. John visits Mr. Did you ever visit California? 4. Is Chicago in California? 7. I was. Mary wants coffee after dinner everyday. Did Shakespeare live in England? 11. 19. 16. 15. 20. 21. Did Shakespeare write plays? 12. 1. We learn new words everyday 18. We repeat the exercise everyday. 13. I wasn’t/Yes. 12. Mr. Mary listens to the radio everyday.118 10. Were you in California last night? 5. Allen everyday. We practice everyday. Was Shakespeare here yesterday? . Is Caracas in Venezuela? 8.

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-12: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول، ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They came yesterday. I drank eight glasses of water yesterday. 2. I began to write yesterday.Did he tell Alice any stories? 4. It became dark at six o’clock yesterday. he gave her some. 1.Did he buy Alice any ice-cream? 9.Did he bring Alice any food? 8.Did he make Alice any sandwiches? . 12. 11. I tore my paper yesterday.Did he lend Alice any money? 3. 6. 14. 3. 10. He gave me a cigarette yesterday. 8. I got a letter yesterday.Did he teach Alice any new words? 5.Did he write Alice any letters? 7. I met him yesterday. 13.119 . I forgot my book yesterday. I sat here yesterday.Did he send Alice any postcards? 2. 7. He ate breakfast yesterday. I saw your car yesterday. 1. 5. but he didn’t give me any.Did he give Alice any new books? 6.Did he cut Alice any cake? 10. I spoke English yesterday :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-22: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ Teacher: Did he give Alice any stamps? Student: Yes. I wore my new shoes yesterday. 4. He read it yesterday. 9. Student: They come everyday.

Student: John answered all the questions because he had studied very hard.(I –drink) 8. از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ دهﻴﺪ‬ (‫)ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ‬ MODEL: John studied very hard.The boys walked for a long time. She decided to take a taxi. he did.move) 9.Mary waited for the bus for a long time.The taxi broke down. She was tired last night.It began to snow.(I -practice) 5.‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در دورﻩ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-32: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: My friend arrived.120 ‫3-ب: ﻣﺎﺿﯽ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ‬ ./ Had he studied very hard?/ Yes.(I –listen) 7.He opened the door.Mary played tennis all afternoon yesterday.‫ﺟﻤﻼت ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ اﻟﻘﺎ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ .John came.It began to rain. .He took my picture. (I – walk) 12. 3. (I.( I – walk) 11. 1. (I – have) 4. (I – go) :‫3-ج: ﻣﺎﺿﯽ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬ :‫اﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻧﺸﺎن دهﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ رخ دادﻩ اﺳﺖ. Then they decided to rest.I saw John.work) 3.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-42: دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ادﻏﺎم ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. (I.I found the pencil.The phone rang. (I -work) 10.He arrived .I dropped the book.The storm began. (I – watch) 6.read) 2. He answered all the questions correctly. 2. (I. (I-Study) Student: My friends arrived while I was studying a book. ﻋﻼﻣﺖ اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﮐﻠﻤﺎت زﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ Before After . 1.

6. He took a long vacation.‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ: اﯼ ﮐﺎش او اﻳﻨﻘﺪر ﺁدم ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﻧﺒﻮد. He bought a new one. 9.John slept ten hours.‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ: اﮔﺮ ﭘﻮل داﺷﺘﻢ اﻻن ﻳﮏ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺧﺮﻳﺪم. )ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺑﻪ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬ (!‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮف ﻣﻦ ﮔﻮش ﻣﯽ داد. (. He bought one yesterday.John’s old car broke down. (. ) ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬ He was a nice man. .) ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬ If I were a rich man. He was wide awake yesterday morning. 7. ﺑﺮاﯼ هﺮ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﯽ ﻣﯽ زﻧﻴﻢ‬ It is raining. (.John practiced for many years. (.Mary saved enough money for a plane ticket. I would have bought a house.‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ : اﯼ ﮐﺎش اﻻن ﺑﺎران ﻧﻤﻴﮕﺮﻓﺖ. (. She went to Europe.)ﮐﻪ ﻧﺪاد‬ He should have listened to me. I wish it wasn’t raining now.‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ: اﮔﺮ ﭘﻮل داﺷﺘﻢ ، ﺁن ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﻮدم .John needed a new coat for a long time. : ‫3-د: ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﻣﺎﺿﯽ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﯽ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻴﻢ.‫ﻣﻌﻨﯽ: اﯼ ﮐﺎش ﻓﺮدا ﺑﺎران ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻣﺪ.121 4.John worked hard all year. 5.)ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬ If I had been rich. در ﺑﻴﺎن‬ . I would buy a house. He played the piano very well yesterday.‫ﺷﺮط )ﻧﻮع ﺳﻮم( در ﺑﻴﺎن ﺁرزو)اﻓﺴﻮس( و ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد دارد.)ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل و ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬ It will rain. در اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎم ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. I wish it wouldn’t rain tomorrow. 8. I wish he hadn’t been so nice.‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد ﺷﺎهﺪ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ ﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ ادﻋﺎﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﮕﺮ زﻣﺎن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ I wish :‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻋﺒﺎرات زﻳﺮ اﻳﮑﺎش اﺳﺖ‬ I wish You wish She wishes He wishes They wish We wish .

They don’t sell groceries here. I wished I had studied harder.Alice doesn’t live in the city.I think that John’s father is old and weak. 11.‫در ﻃﯽ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻓﺴﻮس ﺧﻮردم ﮐﻪ اﯼ ﮐﺎش ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ درس ﻣﯽ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﻮدم‬ " ‫ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ " اﯼ ﮐﺎش‬Wish ‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ وﻗﺘﯽ زﻣﺎن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ ﻳﮏ درﺟﻪ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ از‬ . 8. . Student: I wish the doctor were in now. 6. 5. Student: I wish it were easy.It won’t rain. 7. .I imagine that Mary feels sad.122 .Mary doesn’t play football. 2.‫اﯼ ﮐﺎش اﻻن ﻳﮏ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ داﺷﺘﻢ‬ During the exam.I believe Mrs. 5. 3.The students don’t understand the lesson.I understand that the streets downtown are narrow. 12.The dentist doesn’t work on Sundays.Paul can’t drive a car. Smith is sick.‫ اﺳﺖ‬Wish ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻋﺒﺎرت اﻳﮑﺎش زﻣﺎن اﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. 3.I heard that classes begin early.John isn’t coming to class today. .Your sister doesn’t feel well. 4.You don’t know the director. 1.I discovered that Professor Jones speaks fast.‫ﺑﺮاﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﺑﻪ درﺳﺘﯽ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-52: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮﯼ زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: The doctor isn’t in now. 1. 2.I can’t play tennis as well as you.John isn’t going with us. 9. در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻣﺎن‬ I wish I owned a car. 10. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-62: ﺑﺎ ﻣﺘﻀﺎد ﮐﺮدن ﺻﻔﺖ ، ﺟﻤﻼﺗﯽ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: I think this pattern is difficult. 6. 4.

Joe feels very sad. 2. 6.Paul didn’t know how to swim last year. 5. 1.Joe will leave tomorrow.123 7.Joe knows your name.I think that John’s answer is wrong. Student: I wish he wouldn’t. 2. 5. Peters didn’t sell his car. 12. 10. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-72: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Joe will help us.Joe’s a piano player.Joe can play the violin. 4. . 6.Joe can sing. 9.Joe lives on our street.Joe will lend you money. 3. and Mrs. Miller came in at the same time.Joe has a motorcycle.I heard that the store is closed. 10. Student: I wish they hadn’t come in at the same time.John didn’t come to class yesterday. 11. 1. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-82: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL1: The doctor wasn’t in his office yesterday.Joe’s a doctor.Joe’s hungry. 4.Mr.Professor Jones’s lecture wasn’t as interesting as yours. MODEL2: Mr. 8. 8.Mr. Smith didn’t work in his garden last week.Joe will go with you.I believe that the exam is hard. 7. 3. 9. Student: I wish the doctor had been in his office yesterday.I think that this tea is weak.John didn’t speak French last year.

He doesn’t know the answer. didn’t) live in the country.The governor refused to have dinner with us last night. 12. 6. 10. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-92: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﺘﻀﺎد ﺑﻴﺎورﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: I’m afraid Mary felt sad. 3. would.Mary failed all her examinations.I knew that all the classes began early. 3.Dr. 13.124 7. 4.I found out that the library was closed.He won’t tell us the truth. 14.He can’t ride a horse. . 5. 4.I discovered that the mayor was old. 8.It’s too bad Mrs. 16.Mr. Smith was sick.Helen didn’t speak English at that time.Alice broke her leg.Mrs.I thought the tea was weak. 1. 6. 15. Green lost his notebook.The children felt sad.He didn’t bring any food. Student: I wish she had felt happy.I played tennis all day yesterday. 2.He wasn’t carrying his umbrella. 8. Jones was sick. had) 1. 9. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-03: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺁرزو)اﻓﺴﻮس( ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: Jack (doesn’t.It’s too bad they made the streets narrow.It’s too bad the announcer spoke fast.He won’t play tennis with us.I’m sorry the tickets were expensive. Student: I wish (did. 2. 5. won’t.He wasn’t smiling when I saw him. 11. 7. Miller had to work downtown yesterday.

ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺪﯼ ﮐﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﺪ ذﮐﺮ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺷﻮد.He didn’t remind me to get up early‬‬ ‫. دﻟﻴﻞ وﺟﻮد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از:‬ ‫1.‬ ‫4-ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ از ﺗﻌﺪاد زﻳﺎدﯼ اﻓﺮاد ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪Shift of subject‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﻮم ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ از ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫3. He is called” Genius “by‬‬ ‫.‫521‬ ‫.‪7.ﮔﺎهﯽ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫6.He doesn’t like the music they play here‬‬ ‫. اﮔﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ، ﻧﻬﺎد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل اﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول 5-1 ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ . ﻓﻌﻞ ‪"to be‬هﻤﻪ" در ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ اﺳﺖ و‬ ‫در ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﻣﻘﻮﻟﻪ زﻣﺎن و ﺷﺨﺺ روﯼ ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﭘﻴﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ . ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ هﺎﯼ ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﺠﻬﻮل را ﺑﺎ ﺁوردن ﻓﺎﻋﻞ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ و ذﮐﺮ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ وﻟﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺪس ﻣﺜﻞ : "ﻣﺮدم" ، "دﻳﮕﺮان" ،‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.He wasn’t listening last night at this hour either‬‬ ‫.‪11.He isn’t listening to the radio‬‬ ‫.‪8.در ﻣﺘﻮن ﻋﻠﻤﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﻣﻮﺛﺮﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ.‪his friends‬‬ ‫ﭘﺮهﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد. He gets “A” in all his study subjects.‬ ‫2. ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت‬ ‫زﻳﺮ در ﻳﮏ ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫‪John is a good Student.‬ ‫در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺗﺮ و ﺷﺎﻳﻊ ﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫5.ﮔﺎهﯽ در ﻧﮕﺎرش ﺑﺮاﯼ زﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﻮدن و ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﻌﯽ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ از ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻬﺎد ﺑﭙﺮهﻴﺰد.‪10.ﮔﺎهﯽ اهﻤﻴﺖ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل از ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.‪9.He won’t let me use his bicycle‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻧﻬﺎد:‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺸﺎن در ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﻬﺎد ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.

The government spends billions of dollars everyday. Letters will be written.‫ ﺑﺮاﯼ ذﮐﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬BY ‫از ﮐﻠﻤﻪ‬ The letters was written by Mary. Letters should be written. Student: Letters are written every day. 11. The doctor is going to bring the books tomorrow. We should build more houses next year. Some one explains the lesson every day. 6. Letters were written. 7. 13. . 8. 3. Someone closes the window everyday. They have to write letters. 9. Letters have/had been written. 2. Letters have to be written. 4. Letters are going to be written They should write letters. They completed the building before I left. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-13: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت زﻳﺮ را اﻧﺠﺎم دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: They write letters everyday. The Egyptians constructed the pyramids many years ago. ‫ﻣﺠﻬﻮل‬ Letters are written. They are going to write letters. People lose many things every day. They will write letters tomorrow. 12. Letters are /were being written. 14. 5. The Romans built Rome a long time ago.126 ‫زﻣﺎن ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎدﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺳﺎدﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺒﺎر‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮم‬ They write letters. They wrote letters. 10. ‫ﺟﺪول 5-1: زﻣﺎن در ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل‬ . 1. The doctor is going to perform the operation. We need action now. They will write letters. They are/ were writing letters. We must stop inflation now. The teacher explained the lesson yesterday. They have /had written letters.

18.‫3. ﻣﺜﺎل‬ He writes a letter to Mary.‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ را ﺑﻪ اول ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ‬INVERSION ‫در ﺁن ( ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﮐﺮد. 21. 19.‫1. :‫دوم-ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم دارﻧﺪ‬ Who Who-Whom Where When How What Whose How many How much :‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﺳﻮاﻻت ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮح زﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ He is talking to the man in the street yesterday.-----------------> Does he play football. ﺳﭙﺲ ﻃﯽ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ He plays football. Does he write a letter to Mary? Who does he write a letter to Mary? . They are reading the book now. 17.‫2. :‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺮﺳﺸﯽ‬ :‫ﺳﻮاﻻت ﺳﻪ دﺳﺘﻪ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫اول -ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻮاب ﺑﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ دارﻧﺪ: اﺑﺘﺪا ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺧﺒﺮﯼ را ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ و ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ) واﺿﺢ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ‬ . They have done the homework. They have made the telephone call.ﺣﺬف ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ Who/whom is he talking to in the street yesterday? ‫ ( ﮐﻨﺎر ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬MODAL ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﭘﺲ از ﺣﺬف ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ، ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ )ﺑﺠﺰ‬ :‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ و اﺻﻠﯽ را ﺑﺎ هﻢ ادﻏﺎم ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. 16. .127 15. 20. They have written letters. They are completing the building.درﺳﺖ ﮐﺮدن ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮال ﺑﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ‬ Is he talking to the man in the street yesterday? . = He does play football. They have sharpened the pencils. They are writing the letters.اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﺮدن ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ Who /Whom is talking to the man in the street yesterday? .

Mr.(who-whom-what-when) 7. How many apples are there in the basket? :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-23: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮑﺎت ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ، ﺑﺮاﯼ هﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﻮال ﺑﺴﺎزﻳﺪ‬ MODEL: John sells cars in Texas.(who-whom-where) 3. Mr. Miller was an engineer ten years ago.(who-what-where) Student: Who sells car in Texas? What does John sell in Texas? Where does John sell cars? 1.(who-what-which book-when) 10. John saw Mary.what when-where) 6.how much coffee-where) 5.(who-whom) 2.(what.(who-what –when) 4.(how many. Miller drove two hundred miles yesterday. Who How many students What How much food Which animals Which elephants How many elephants Where When .(who-how far-when) :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-33: ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ و ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم دادﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﻮال ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Two students gave a pound of food to the three elephants at the zoo yesterday. A lot of coffee grows in Brazil. John is here in the morning. ﻣﺜﺎل‬ He studies English book.(who-where-when) 8.128 Who does write a letter to Mary? Who writes a letter to Mary? ‫ﺳﻮم-ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم دارﻧﺪ:ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ داراﯼ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. What books does he study? There are 15 apples in the basket.who. John bought the red book last week. John saw Mary in Detroit. ﻧﮑﺘﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﯽ در ﻣﻮرد اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮاﻻت‬ :‫ﺁن اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ.(who-what-when) 9. My teacher read the sentences to me this morning. John visited the museum yesterday. Ten doctors learned English here a year ago.

1. read 4. 1. Miller does a lot of work in the office everyday. A lot of work 3. -------->main clause=He says it. the new teacher 2. the new one 3. two books 5. In the office 4. interesting 6. Everyday :‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل‬ :‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﻧﻮﻋﯽ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ از دوﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ و ﭘﻴﺮو ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ He says. Miller 2. He says that he is kind.” I am kind”. last night MODEL: Mr. /subordinate clause=I am kind. Mr. in the library 7.129 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-43: ﺳﻮاﻟﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ هﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ MODEL: The new teacher read two interesting books in the library last night. :‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻳﮑﯽ از اﻓﻌﺎل زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ Say Order Explain Ask Tell Remind Complain Object Point out Protest Exclaim Inquire Wonder Want to know Offer Suggest Request Advise Beg Command Warn Urge Encourage Entreat Forbid Implore Invite Recommend Remind .

. Where were they? They didn’t say.‫ﻣﯽ رود‬ He said. :‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻣﺮﯼ‬ He ordered us.” Where are you?” He asked me where I was.‫ﺿﻤﺎﻳﺮ و ﻗﻴﻮد ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ :‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ :‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺧﺒﺮﯼ‬ He pointed out.. 5. What time is it? I don’t have any idea. 9. Student: I don’t know who that man is. 2.” The city is in danger”. . When is the party? I don’t know. What is the population of New York? Can you tell me. .... :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-53: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Who is that man? I don’t know. What is his name? Do you know. 4.-------->He said that he was kind. 1.------>He said that they would return. 7.... 3... He said.” I am kind”. Whose book did he find? Do you remember.... 10.. Which book did he want? Do you remember .” They will return”..130 ‫اﮔﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﺮو )ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ ( ﻳﮏ زﻣﺎن ﻋﻘﺐ‬ ... He ordered us to clean our shoes.... How tall is the Empire state building? Ask Alice. 6.. 8.. How far is Detroit from here? I don’t know. What is the date of the party? I don’t know .. He pointed out that the city was in danger.. :‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺮﺳﺸﯽ‬ He asked me.” Clean your shoes”.

Does John speak Japanese? I wonder...‫اﻓﻌﺎل زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ Asked Inquired Wondered MODEL: He said. I said. 3. Are these answers correct? Can you tell me.“Did you see the accident?” the policeman asked. Student: I wonder if he is home.“Shall we meet at the theater?” she suggested.“Do you want to insure your luggage or not?” he asked. Is he going to arrive soon? I wonder. “I’m waiting for Ann”.. 4. 3.. 2. Wanted to know Offered Suggested . ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺖ5-83: ﺟﻤﻼت ﭘﺮﺳﺸﯽ زﻳﺮ را ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. 7. Did he go? I’ll ask..“Should I wait for them or go on?” he wondered. 5....131 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-63: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺟﻤﻼت را ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Is he home? I wonder. 4. He said.” I’ve been waiting for ages”. she said. 3. he said. Does my hair look all right? Can you tell me.“Shall I bring you some tea?” she offered. ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ در ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮال ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ‬ . 4. Is he feeling better? I’ll ask. 2...“Do you know Bill?” he said...” Where is she going?” Student: He asked where she was going.. 6. 1. 5.” I would like to see it”. 2.. 6.. he said. he explained. “I have found a flat”. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-73: ﺟﻤﻼت ﺧﺒﺮﯼ را ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ 1. “I never eat meat”. 5... Is Professor Brown in his office? I’ll ask. 6. 1. “I will be using the car myself on the 24th”.

8. please? 6.Don’t swim out too far. 3.Forget all about this young man.Could I see Tom. boys.Don’t see him again or answer his letters.Go one. please. 12. 2.‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﺮاﯼ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ اﺳﺖ‬ • Simple Sentence (one independent clause) .Go away. apply for the job. 5.Why don’t you take off your coat? 9. I’d stop taking tranquillizers. Warn Urge Encourage Entreat Forbid Implore Invite Order Recommend Remind :‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺑﻪ ﭼﻬﺎر دﺳﺘﻪ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان در ﺟﻤﻼت ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل اﻣﺮﯼ از اﻓﻌﺎل‬ : ‫اﺻﻠﯽ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻤﮏ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ Tell Request Advise Ask Beg Command MODEL: Lie down.You had better hurry. 10. Bill. ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎرهﺎﯼ ذﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ زﻳﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد‬ .If I were you. send me to a warm climate.You might post some letters for me. 11. 7. Tom. Tom! Student: He told Tom to lie down. 4. 1.Get your coat. 13.Do.Do sit down.132 ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-93: ﺟﻤﻼت اﻣﺮﯼ زﻳﺮ را ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮل ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.

There wild life abounded. Jody was Penny’s old child.Penny Baxter had cleared the land.(complex sentence) 4. • Complex Sentence (an independent clause and a dependent clause) After Jack fell down the hill. He had settled there to rear family.Jody often saw hoof marks of deer and fawn. however. • Compound Sentence (two or more independent clauses) Jack went up the hill. or Jack and Jill went up the hill. he felt his head for injuries. :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-04: از ﺟﻤﻼت ﺳﺎدﻩ زﻳﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎﯼ ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ را در ﭘﺮاﻧﺘﺰ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‬ 1. or Jack went up the hill.The Baxters lived on the pine land of Florida.133 Jack and Jill went up the very steep hill to fetch a large pail of cold water. • Compound-complex Sentence (a combination of the compound and the complex structures) After Jack fell down the hill. and he fell down almost immediately.(complex sentence) 2.(compound sentence) 3. but he discovered that he had none.Jody shared his father’s love of nature. or Jack went up the hill. Sometimes he found tracks of twin fawns.(compound sentence) . he fell down almost immediately. he fell down almost immediately. he felt his head for injuries. He built a cabin. a dozen eggs. and a cake for their mother's birthday.

‪7. وﻟﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺮاﯼ "ﺳﻼم" ﮐﺮدن ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ"ﺧﺪاﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺷﻤﺎ". راﻩ و رﺳﻢ ﺧﻮد را دارد. please‬‬ ‫?‪Will you give me this book‬‬ ‫?‪Would you please give me this book‬‬ ‫.A rattle snake bit Penny.‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ در زﻧﺪﮔﯽ روزﻣﺮﻩ ﺟﻤﻼﺗﯽ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ در ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﮐﺮﻩ زﻣﻴﻦ از دهﺎن هﻴﭽﮑﺲ ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ و در‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎل از ﻧﻈﺮ زﺑﺎن ﺻﺤﻴﺢ و ﻃﺒﻴﻌﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ‪ REQUEST‬ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ دارد.‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻠﻴﺸﻪ هﺎﯼ زﺑﺎن در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ را ﺑﺸﻨﺎﺳﻴﺪ.‪3. هﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﺮ روﻳﻢ ﻃﻮل ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯼ ﺁن رﺳﻤﯽ ﺗﺮ و ﻣﻮدﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﺗﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد:‬ ‫.She not only sings at the Opera House.That woman sings‬‬ ‫. she sings beautifully‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻓﺎت‬ ‫در هﺮ زﺑﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻤﯽ وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻼف زﺑﺎن ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ اﻣﮑﺎن ﺧﻼﻗﻴﺖ و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ در ﺁﻧﻬﺎ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. He killed a doe to save his own life. but she also teaches music at the‬‬ ‫. ﺁﺷﻨﺎﻳﯽ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎ رﻣﺰ و رﻣﻮز اﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﻴﺸﻪ هﺎ هﻤﺎن ﺁداب و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺷﺮت و ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﺑﺮاﯼ زﻧﺪﮔﯽ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯽ را‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﺪ. ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺮاﯼ درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﻧﺎن ﺳﺮ ﺳﻔﺮﻩ ﺑﺠﺎﯼ "ﻟﻄﻔﺎ "ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ:" ﺑﻼﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻧﺎن را ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ".To earn her living.Because she has had excellent training..‪1.‪6.That very pretty Canadian woman sings beautifully‬‬ ‫. اﺣﻮاﻟﭙﺮﺳﯽ ،‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯽ ، درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ، ﻗﺒﻮل در ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ، رد درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ، دﻋﻮت ﮐﺮدن، ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد دادن و. that woman sings at the Opera House‬‬ ‫‪5.‪I wonder if you could give me this book‬‬ ‫?‪Could you please give me this book‬‬ .‪Give me this book. she must sing‬‬ ‫.That very pretty woman from Canada sings at the opera House‬‬ ‫..‫431‬ ‫‪5.‪conservatory‬‬ ‫.‪2.‪4.(compound-complex sentence‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-14: ﻧﻮع هﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ:‬ ‫. therefore. Jody kept the doe’s‬‬ ‫)‪fawn.‪Give me this book‬‬ ‫.She is an artist.

5.135 . :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-24: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﻬﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را ﺣﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Close the window. Student: Would you please close the window? Yes. Student: Please don’t speak rapidly. 2.walk to the blackboard 9. I’d be glad to.‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻧﻮﻋﯽ در ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺧﻮد ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ را هﻢ در ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮد‬ Let’s sing a song. 7. 6. .translate the sentence 5. 8.write your name 4.give me that notebook 10. 3.He wastes time.He often misses classes.open your book 2. 1.He sometimes sleeps late.pass the salt 8.He often smokes.He drives fast.go to the store 7. 1.close the door 6. 4.He writes with red ink.He speaks fast.read the sentence 3.cash this check :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ 5-34: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: George speaks rapidly.George is usually late.

8.Go to the new restaurant.‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر از ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﺎ واﺳﻄﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.Write some letters.Go to Los Angeles. 2.Play baseball. 7.Go to the class.Wash the dishes 13.Play ping pong ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﺁن‬ . . 6. In fact.Go to the movies. 1.Write some letters.136 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ5-44: ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﺪ‬ MODEL: Sing some songs. let’s not sing some songs.Play basketball.Go to the movies. 4. Student: Let’s sing some songs. 9. ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻌﻞ‬ COMPLEMENT ‫ﺟﺪول 5-2: ﺧﻼﺻﻪ اﯼ از ﻓﺼﻮل ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ Phrase Type Noun Phrase (NP) Head noun Typical Complements PP Examples respect for human rights the realization that nothing has changed clause Verb Phrase (VP) verb NP David plays the piano They realized that nothing has changed clause She looked at the moon PP Adjective Phrase (AP) adjective clause PP Adverb Phrase (AdvP)* Prepositional Phrase (PP) adverb preposition PP NP PP easy to read fond of biscuits luckily for me in the room from behind the wall *Adverb phrases are very limited in the Complements they can take. they generally occur without any Complement. 11. 3. 5.Speak English. / No. 12. 10.Go to the museum.

Diagram5-2: Hrothgar snores loudly.‫ﺑﻪ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ Diagram 5-1: Hrothgar snores in bed. Hrothgar snores. .137 ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎت ﮐﻠﯽ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ . Diagram 5-3: when he sleeps.

Diagram5-6: Jack and Jill went up the hill after careful consideration of their needs. Diagram5-5: He was very busy when Peter picked peck of pickled pepper. I caught up. .138 Diagram5-4: Running.

Diagram5-9: I am trying to run slowly because I know that you are not in shape.139 Diagram 5-7: Rolling himself around in bed. Hrothgar snores. Diagram 5-8: The two looked in the well when they reached the summit. .

He turned his face to the wall and death was welling in him. Never place your affection in a young willow tree. Thieves will rob you and take what you have but a false-hearted lover will send you to your grave. 2. 6. 5. 3. 9. The teacher says the school board is a fool. You pass my door you pass my gate however you won't get past my thirty-eight. He cut off the head of his bonny brown bride and flung it against the wall.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 1: ﻧﻮع ﺟﻤﻼت زﻳﺮ را از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ و دﻳﺎﮔﺮام ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﮑﺸﻴﺪ‬ 1-On top of Old Smokey I lost my true lover because he courted too slow. 10.140 Diagram 5-10: The grey monkey chased the brown weasel quickly around the mulberry bush. 8. My watch was new and my money too nevertheless she'd fled with both by morning. When we marched down to Fennario our captain fell in love with a lady like a dove. . Once I wore my apron high now my apron strings won't tie. 4. 7. .

“We have too many seniors who act old because they think they’re old. . The new kitten is weaned in about eight weeks. Arizona. but our goal is to produce about 50 kittens and 50 puppies a year.000. “Our facility can handle about a dozen births a year now. “Our goal is to help seniors realize that they’re as young and active as they want to be. A cultured cell is implanted into a female cat that is in estrus. Lee believes that they will be successfully cloning dogs in about a year. you pay half the amount ($25. This is sent to TwIN.” said Lee. your veterinarian must do a biopsy of your cat.000).141 . Inc. Inc. a kitten is born about 60 days later. Nevertheless. where it is cultured to grow fresh new cells. that you are ready for the clone.” said Felix Lee. These new cells are stored in liquid nitrogen until you notify TwIN. Story 14 Getting Older but Not Sitting Around All seniors 55 and older are invited to a special meeting next Tuesday in the Senior Center. TwIN. We already have clients whose clone lives with its donor. Inc.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ2: ﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ و اﻧﻮاع ﺟﻤﻼت را از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬ Story 13 Cloning Pets A company in Phoenix.” said Carter.. “We are a growing company. “you don’t even have to wait until your beloved cat dies.” The company is currently experimenting with stray dogs. First. Some canine clones seem to be perfect. and if all goes well.” The price is steep. “Actually. A clone of your cat will cost $50. says that it can now clone your cat. At this time. delivers the kitten to you after it receives the remaining $25. The meeting will begin with cookies and lemonade.000. President of Twice Is Nice.. the director of a nonprofit organization dedicated to making the golden years fun and interesting. The speaker will be James Carter.. Inc. but some have been bizarre.

He then asked her where a grocery store was.” Story 15 Bathtub Blues A middle-aged man with a long beard was arrested by the police for disorderly conduct and property damage.” Carter will identify the services and activities that are available to seniors locally and statewide. and free blood pressure testing on the first Monday of each month. An active mind helps prevent Alzheimer’s. and an active body helps prevent osteoporosis. “They see no need for a computer. checked into the Motel Five last night about an hour after sunset. some of them may decide to buy their own laptops. The checker asked him what the occasion was. He added warm water to the mix. He opened all seven containers and poured them into the bathtub. Then he placed his boom box on the bathroom floor next to the tub. tax advice. “More charges might be added later. which was only two blocks away.” The checker smiled at the joke. “you need to keep both your mind and your body active. identified as Bill Wild. The city also provides inexpensive dinners called Meals on Wheels. But after they take this course. he paid cash in advance. “I’m trying to become a sweeter person. hopped into the tub. The center is also offering Strength Training classes.” said Carter. and started singing loudly with the music. She said that the nearest grocery store was John-Johns. He tuned the radio to an opera station.142 Getting older does not mean sitting around waiting to die. The police said that Wild went to John-Johns and purchased three gallons of honey and four gallons of chocolate syrup. with a grand prize of $50 each night. An Internet class begins this month for seniors who want to visit the World Wide Web. He got undressed. “As you get older.” said Carter. . “Many seniors still use typewriters. Included are legal aid.” New activities at the Senior Center include Bingo on Friday and Saturday nights. discounts for bus and taxi travel in the city. Telling the clerk that he would be staying four nights. He replied. It means getting out and doing all the things you never had time to do while you were working and raising a family.” said a police officer. Testing for diabetes and for cataracts is offered four times a year for a nominal fee. The man. Volunteers deliver these meals to seniors who are homebound because of illness or injury. Wild drove back to the motel.

but he kept singing. ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻓﺮاﮔﻴﺮان ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ زﻳﺮ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬ www. ‫ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻢ دﻳﺎﮔﺮام ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﺸﻴﺪن دﻳﺎﮔﺮام ﻣﺘﻦ اﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﻣﺘﻌﺪدﯼ از دﻳﺎﮔﺮام ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺟﺪول 5-3 وﺟﻮد دارد. Then she called the police.” said the clerk. who arrived quickly. Who’d have thought he was a bathtub-singing nut?” The police said this was the third time that Wild had been arrested for this kind of behavior. She phoned his room. at least he paid in advance.” said the clerk. The tub remained full of chocolate and honey. “Well. but he didn’t answer.enchantedlearning.143 Fifteen minutes later. “You just never know about people. She banged on Wild’s door.com .” The bathtub drain was completely clogged. “That money will help pay for the plumber. “He seemed so nice and friendly. the lodgers in the room next door phoned the clerk.‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ . ﺷﺮح هﺮ ﮐﺪام از دﻳﺎﮔﺮاﻣﻬﺎ و ﻣﻮارد ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﺁﻧﻬﺎ در ﻣﺘﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ‬FACT OPENION . ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ روش‬ ‫ و هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬Tree ‫ارﺗﺒﺎط دادن ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ "ﻧﺤﻮﯼ" ﺑﺎ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 3 ، از دﻳﺎﮔﺮام‬ ‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.

144 Graphic Organizers Star Pie Chart/ Circle Graph Spider Fishbone Cloud Tree Chain Continuum Cycle Clocks Flowchart Venn Chart/Matrix T-Chart Y-Chart PMI KWHL Semantic Cause and Decision Feature Fact/Opinion Vocabulary Paragraph Persuasion Effect Making Analysis Story NonCharacter Map/ Fiction 5 W's Newspaper Biography Traits Book Book Report Report Animal Report Plant Geography Astronomy Growth Report Report Math Scientific Method ‫ﺟﺪول 5-3: اﻧﻮاع دﻳﺎﮔﺮام ﺑﺮاﯼ درﮎ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‬ .

The brush will be removed first. then the trees will be toppled and removed. we have to make sure dirt bikers don’t try to make the cleared area their personal playground.” said one resident. Residents look forward to the work. “But there are two problems.000 to cut and remove one tree. So what am I supposed to do? These planners with all their big ideas ought to think of the little people. Prices can range as high as $1.000 feet. It is surrounded by thick underbrush and pine trees. what good does that do me?” asked Thelma. It is surrounded by thick underbrush and pine trees. “All the extra trucks are going to make traffic pretty bad. then the trees will be toppled and removed .145 :‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ 3.000 feet.000.) زﻳﺮ ﻧﻬﺎد ﺧﻂ ﮐﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬The mountain town of Canton is at an elevation of 6. if the trees are on private property. “I’m living on social security. The government’s not going to loan me money when they know there’s no way I can pay it back.ﻣﺘﻦ زﻳﺮ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ Trees Are a Threat The mountain town of Canton is at an elevation of 6. I’ve got four trees on my property.” A recent fire burned 4. these plants are a major fire hazard. because it will help their town survive a future inferno. “Well. Thousands of trees and tons of underbrush are going to be removed over the next five years at a minimum cost of $3 million. they must be paid for by the residents themselves. Officials say that residents can apply for state and federal loans if necessary. Because of six years of drought.Because of six years of drought. but a sudden rainstorm put it out. a 65-year-old widow. so they are looking forward to this massive clearing operation. Unfortunately. Residents know that they won’t get lucky twice. Ninety percent of the cutting and clearing will be paid with federal funds. Thousands of trees and tons of underbrush are going to be removed over the next five years at a minimum cost of $3 million. Once the area is cleared.)اﻓﻌﺎل ﭘﺮ رﻧﮓ ﺗﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬(‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﻧﻬﺎد اﻳﻦ اﻓﻌﺎل را ﺟﺪا ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. The fire was raging toward Canton.000 acres and destroyed 11 homes in nearby Hamilton. The brush will be removed first. these plants are a major fire hazard.” (‫اﺑﺘﺪا اﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺘﻦ را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. A cleared nonflammable area will then safely surround the town of 4.

Once the area is cleared. “I’m living on social security. what good does that do me?” asked Thelma. 2-The government’s not going to loan me money when they know there’s no way I can pay it back. “Well. Residents know that they won’t get lucky twice. Prices can range as high as $1. 2-It is surrounded by thick underbrush and pine trees. but a sudden rainstorm put it out. 3-there’s no way I can pay it back.‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎ را ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻬﺎد در ﺟﺪول دﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‬‫ﻧﻬﺎد‬ The mountain town of Canton ‫ﮔﺰارﻩ‬ 1-is at an elevation of 6.000 acres and destroyed 11 homes in nearby Hamilton.” . The government’s not going to loan me money when they know there’s no way I can pay it back. we have to make sure dirt bikers don’t try to make the cleared area their personal playground. are going to be removed will be toppled and removed 1-will be paid with federal funds 2-can range as high as $1. because it will help their town survive a future inferno. Ninety percent of the cutting and clearing will be paid with federal funds.” said one resident.” 1-living on social security. if the trees are on private property. 2-got four trees on my property. 3-ought to think of the little people.000 feet. 4-So what am I supposed to do? these plants/ Thousands of trees and tons of underbrush the cutting and clearing Prices Officials Thelma .000 1-say that residents can apply for state and federal loans if necessary.146 Residents look forward to the work. so they are looking forward to this massive clearing operation. are a major fire hazard. So what am I supposed to do? These planners with all their big ideas ought to think of the little people. “All the extra trucks are going to make traffic pretty bad. Officials say that residents can apply for state and federal loans if necessary. I’ve got four trees on my property. Unfortunately. “But there are two problems. a 65-year-old widow. they must be paid for by the residents themselves.000 to cut and remove one tree. The fire was raging toward Canton.” A recent fire burned 4.

‫ اﺳﺖ‬Tree Diagram ‫ﺟﺪول 5-4 هﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ‬ The town of Canton To those who can pay back surrounded by Trees loans are a major fire hazard Officials clearing Prices private property. There’s no way she can pay a loan back. So what is she supposed to do? .147 . must be paid for by the residents Thelma ? She is living on social security.

the student must also prioritize the information. The . and where each item should be placed in the map. and mind maps) are a pictorial way of constructing knowledge and organizing information. graphic display. The resulting visual display conveys complex information in a simple-to-understand manner. Increasing Understanding by Creating Graphic Organizers: The process of converting a mass of data/information/ideas into a graphic map gives the student an increased understanding and insight into the topic at hand. to help in problem solving. While creating a map. entity relationship charts. studying. planning research and brainstorming. The possibilities associated with a topic become clearer as the student's ideas are classified visually. Uses of Graphic Organizers : Graphic organizers can be used to structure writing projects. To create the map. determining which parts of the material are the most important and should be focused upon. The creation of graphic organizers also helps the student generate ideas as they develop and note their thoughts visually. How to Choose a Graphic Organizer for Your Topic/Task: The task at hand determines the type of graphic organizer that is appropriate. decision making. the student must concentrate on the relationships between the items and examine the meanings attached to each of them.148 . They help the student convert and compress a lot of seemingly disjointed information into a structured.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺁﺧﺮ: ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول 5-3 ،ﻣﺘﻦ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ‬ Learn How to Learn Graphic organizers (some of which are also called concept maps. simple-to-read. Adding color-coding and/or pictures to a graphic organizer further increases the utility and readability of the visual display.

memorizing.149 following is a list of common graphic organizers . etc.choose the format that best fits your topic.). and investigating the factors involved in performing each of the methods. Example: brainstorming. Spider: If the topic involves investigating attributes associated with a single topic. use a tree as your graphic organizer. use a star diagram as your graphic organizer. Example: Examining the effects of improved farming methods. etc. Tree: If the topic involves a chain of events with a beginning and with multiple outcomes at each node (like a family tree). Example: Finding methods that help your study skills (like taking notes. This is like the star graphic organizer with one more level of detail. reading. Fishbone: If the topic involves investigating multiple cause-and-effect factors associated with a complex topic and how they inter-relate. reading. Star: If the topic involves investigating attributes associated with a single topic. Example: Finding methods that help your study skills (like taking notes. Example: Displaying the probabilistic results of tossing coins. use a clustering diagram as your graphic organizer. doing homework. use a spider diagram as your graphic organizer. . Cloud/Cluster: If the topic involves generating a web of ideas based on a stimulus topic. use a fishbone diagram as your graphic organizer.). memorizing. and then obtaining more details on each of these ideas.

and a number of divisions or sequences in between. with a beginning and multiple possible outcomes at some node. Continuum/Timeline: If the topic has definite beginning and ending points. Example: Computer programmers sometimes use flowcharts to organize the algorithm before writing a program. with no beginning and no end. Example: Analyzing the plot of a story. use a cyclic graphic organizer. Cycle of Events: If the topic involves a recurring cycle of events. . use a clock graphic organizer. with a definite beginning. and end. use a continuum/timeline. middle. Example: Displaying milestones in a person's life. with rules at some nodes. Flowchart: If the topic involves a chain of instructions to follow. use a chain of events graphic organizer. Example topic: Documenting the stages in the lifecycle of an animal.150 Chain of Events: If the topic involves a linear chain of events. use a flowchart. Clock: If the topic involves a clock-like cycle. Example topic: Recording the events in a typical school day or making a story clock to summarize a story.

when. use a Venn diagram.151 Venn Diagram: If the task involves examining the similarities and differences between two or three items. including what it looks like. use a T-Chart. and what it feels like. use a chart/matrix. who invented them. Example: Fill out a T-Chart to evaluate the pros and cons associated with a decision. use fact/opinion charts. sounds like. and how the character feels. the opinions in a theme or text. what it sounds like. Example: Examining the similarities and differences between fish and whales. etc. including what the character looks like. Chart/Matrix Diagram: If the task involves condensing and organizing data about traits of many items. T-Chart Diagram: If the task involves analyzing or comparing with two aspects of the topic. Example: Creating a display of key inventions. . Or describe a character in a book. where and why they were invented. Fact/Opinion: If the task involves distinguishing the facts vs. Y-Chart Diagram: If the task involves analyzing and organizing with respect to three qualities. use a YChart. Example: Fill out a fact/opinion chart to evaluate the facts and opinions presented in a news article. or comparing a book and the accompanying movie. Example: Fill out a Y-Chart to describe what you know about an animal.

use Semantic Feature Analysis . Semantic Feature Analysis Charts: If the task is comparing characteristics among a group of items. K stands for what you already KNOW about the subject. use a cause and effect graphic organizer. minuses. Example: Fill out a KWHL chart before. W stands for what you WANT to learn. Decision Making Diagrams: If the task is making a decision. and after you read about a topic. use a KWHL chart. L stands for what you LEARN as you read. Cause and Effect Diagrams: If the task is examining possible causes and effects in a process. Example: Fill out a Semantic Feature Analysis chart to compare and contrast the care needed for various pets. Example: Fill out a PMI Chart to help evaluate the positive. during. use a PMI Chart. Example: Fill out a decision making diagram to help decide which elective courses you'd like to take next quarter. use a graphic organizer to enumerate possible alternatives and the pros and cons of each.152 PMI Diagram: If the task involves analyzing the plusses. . Example: Fill out a cause-and-effect diagram to trace the steps in a feedback loop. H stands for figuring out HOW you can learn more about the topic. negative and interesting points associated with taking a new job. KWHL Diagram: If the task involves analyzing and organizing what you know and what you want to learn about a topic. and implications of a decision or an action.

analyze and understand a story or event. a synonym. verb. When. Vocabulary Map: Graphic organizers can be useful in helping a student learn new vocabulary words. What. a drawing that represents the word. and a conclusion sentence. adverb. including a topic sentence. an antonym. Where. . adjective. etc. Example: Fill out a 5 W's Chart to help evaluate and understand the major points of a newspaper story. and Why) of a story or event. and a sentence using the word. Character Traits: Graphic organizers help the student identify the traits of fictional characters by looking at events surrounding the character in the text. its part of speech (noun. having them list the word. Story Map: Story maps can help a student summarize. use a pie chart.153 Pie Charts: If the task involves showing divisions with a group. Example: Draw a pie chart to show what percentages of a population have blue eyes. sentences with support details. Paragraph Structure: These graphic organizers help you organize the structure of a paragraph. or brown eyes. green eyes.). 5 W's Diagram: If the task involves analyzing the Five W's (Who.

154 Biography Diagrams Graphic organizers are useful to help prepare for writing a biography. Animal Report Diagrams: Many graphic organizers are useful to help prepare for writing a report on animals. the graphic organizer prompts the student to think about and list the major events in the person's life. Geography Report Diagrams: These graphic organizers are useful to for doings a short report on a country or other area. the student should think about and list the major topics that will be researched and covered in the report. Scientific Method Diagrams: Graphic organizers used to prepare and organize a scientific experiment. . charts. The student draws a map and flag. Before writing. flowcharts. star diagrams. Before writing. Math Diagrams: Many graphic organizers are useful to learn and do math. include Venn diagrams. and looks up basic information on the area. trees. etc.

punishment‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ ﮐﻠﯽ و اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ ، ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ را از ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ زﻣﺎن و ﻣﮑﺎن ﺧﺎرج ﮐﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ ﺗﺮ دادﻩ اﺳﺖ.‫551‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫‪Abstract Noun‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ ، ﻣﺠﺮد ، ﻣﻌﻨﯽ: اﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ذات ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪو ﺑﻪ اﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ ، وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫و اﻋﻤﺎل اﻃﻼق ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. idea.‪The bag is heavy‬‬ ‫. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪A heavy bag‬‬ ‫.‪The bag seems heavy now‬‬ ‫‪Adverb‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ: ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻓﻌﻞ ، ﺻﻔﺖ ، ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﯼ را ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﺪ . اﺳﺎﻣﯽ از ﻧﻈﺮ درﺟﻪ اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ ﺑﻮدن ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻗﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮوﻩ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد:‬ ‫‪Adjunct‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻮ د ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﺟﺰو ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر اﺻﻠﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﻓﻌﻞ را ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎل زﻳﺮ دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ: ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯽ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮوﻩ: دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﺤﺴﻮس ﻳﺎ ذات: دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن ﻣﺮوﯼ ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﯽ اﺳﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ )ﮐﻪ در ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ اﺳﻢ ذات اﺳﺖ( دراﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ در زﻣﺮﻩ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. the rich.ﻗﻴﻮد زﻣﺎن ، ﻣﮑﺎن ، ﺗﮑﺮار ، درﺟﻪ و‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ از اﻳﻦ دﺳﺖ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. the old‬‬ ‫‪Adjective‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ: ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﯽ ، ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ، وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﯽ را در ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ :‬ ‫‪Happiness.‪These books make the bag heavy‬‬ ‫. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪The poor.‬ .‬ ‫‪Adjectival Noun‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ اﺳﻢ: ﺻﻔﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺠﺎﯼ اﺳﻢ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود.

‪The book was very good‬‬ ‫‪Auxiliary Verbs‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ : ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رود و ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮدهﺎﯼ زﻳﺮ را دارد:‬ ‫وﺟﻪ، ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﻳﺎ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل ﺑﻮدن، زﻣﺎن ، ﺷﺨﺺ .‫651‬ ‫‪Conjunct‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻮد اﺗﺼﺎل ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ: ﻗﻴﺪ هﺎﻳﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺮ ﺑﻮط ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪Be/have/do‬‬ .‬ ‫. however‬‬ ‫)‪Disjunct(Interjections‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻮدﯼ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﮕﺮش ﻳﺎ ارزﺷﻴﺎﺑﯽ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ.‪Naturally.‪Cats like sleeping‬‬ ‫.‪I had to pay for my own meal. will travel with me‬‬ ‫‪Article‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ: ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ و ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ و ﻧﮑﺮﻩ ﺑﻮدن ﺁﻧﺮا ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‪Silver is a precious metal‬‬ ‫‪Attributive Adjectives‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ:.‪A good book‬‬ ‫‪Predicative adjectives‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ:. Helen Wilson. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫!‪Get out‬‬ ‫‪Apposition‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪل: وﻗﺘﯽ دو ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ، ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ دارﻧﺪ ﺑﺪل هﻢ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪Although. I paid for my own meal‬‬ ‫. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫.‪My sister. اﻓﻌﺎل ﮐﻤﮑﯽ دو ﻧﻮع هﺴﺘﻨﺪ:‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ زﻣﺎن و ﺷﺨﺺ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ هﻴﭻ ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﯽ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻢ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁن اﺳﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪(Zero Article noun‬ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﻣﯽ اﻧﺘﺰاﻋﯽ:‬ ‫. unfortunately‬‬ ‫‪Adverb particles‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﻗﻴﺪ : ﺣﺮﻓﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ و اﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﺣﺮف ﻗﻴﺪ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ.

اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺗﺎﮐﻴﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ.. در‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت از ﻧﻬﺎد ﮐﺎذب اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.‪A good holiday is what I need‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Cleft Sentences‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ دو ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﮐﻪ هﺮ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺧﻮد را دارد..‬ ‫‪ Than /as. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫)‪Will/can/may (modals‬‬ ‫‪Clause‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ: ﮔﺮوهﯽ از ﮐﻠﻤﺎت هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ واﺣﺪ دﺳﺘﻮرﯼ را ﻣﯽ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪو داراﯼ ﻧﻬﺎد و ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ )ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪرﯼ( هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻢ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ را ﺑﭙﺬﻳﺮد.‬ ‫.as‬در اﺑﺘﺪاﯼ اﺳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وار هﺎ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ.‫751‬ ‫و ﺁﻧﻬﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ.‪Prepositional complement: -----------They argued about what to do‬‬ .‪What I need is a good holiday‬‬ ‫‪Comparative clause‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ ﻗﻴﺎ ﺳﯽ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﻳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁن ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.I am glad that you can come‬‬ ‫.‪Adjective complement:---------.‬ ‫.We made her the chairperson‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‪It was Mary that Mrs.‪Jane doesn’t write as neatly as Fiona does‬‬ ‫‪Complement‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﻢ: ﺑﺨﺸﯽ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ و ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﻧﺮا ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ. Smith gave the dress to‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻼت ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﮐﺎذب هﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد ﮐﻪ در ﺁﻧﻬﺎ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ هﺎﻳﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.‬ ‫‪Phrase‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرت: ﻋﺒﺎرت ﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﻓﻌﻞ ﻧﺪارد.‪Subject complement: -----------She is a doctor‬‬ ‫. ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﺟﺰو ارﮐﺎن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ:‬ ‫.‪Tom is much taller than John is‬‬ ‫.ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻬﺎ را ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﺻﻠﯽ ﺷﺎن ﻧﺎم ﮔﺬارﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ :‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ و ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻓﻌﻠﯽ.‪Object complement:-------------.

‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Conjunction‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ: ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﮐﺮدن ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ روﻧﺪ.‪I knew that he was lying‬‬ ‫.‪He is sick‬‬ ‫.‪It rained but I went for a walk‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮاردﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ را ﭘﻴﺮو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ:‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‪Unless it rains.‬ ‫.‪When it rained.‪She looked afraid‬‬ ‫‪Demonstrative‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﺷﺎرﻩ: ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ دورﯼ و ﻧﺰدﻳﮑﯽ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ را ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ. we’ll play tennis at 4 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪Linking verb/Copula‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ:ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ اﺳﻢ را ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ رﺑﻂ دهﺪ. we went inside‬‬ ‫‪Compound sentence‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﮐﺐ: ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ از دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ ﺑﻪ هﻢ ارﺗﺒﺎط ﭘﻴﺪا ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. these.‪I’ll either phone you or I will send you a note‬‬ ‫‪Conditional‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮط: ﻧﻮﻋﯽ وﺟﻪ ‪ Mood/Mode‬اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻓﺮﺿﯽ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺼﻮرﯼ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁورد.‫851‬ ‫‪Complex sentence‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﻳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ، ﻳﮏ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﺮو دارد. that. ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪This .‬ ‫. those‬‬ . ﻣﺜﻞ:‬ ‫‪But/and/so that/as long as/ as if‬‬ ‫دو ﻧﻮع ﺣﺮف رﺑﻂ وﺟﻮد دارد:‬ ‫ﻣﻮاردﯼ ﮐﻪ دو ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ را ﺑﻪ هﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.

زﺑﺎن ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ دارد:‬ ‫‪Descriptive‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﯽ‬ ‫‪Expressive‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن اﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫‪Social‬‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯽ: ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯽ زﺑﺎن هﻤﺎن ‪ Function‬اﺳﺖ. this boy‬‬ ‫ج( ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﻠﮑﯽ:‬ ‫‪Her house‬‬ ‫د( ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻘﺪار:‬ ‫‪Some milk‬‬ ‫ﻩ( اﻋﺪاد:‬ ‫‪Three chairs‬‬ ‫‪Double negative‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ: در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ دو ﺟﺰ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ در ﻳﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻧﻤﯽ رود. در ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ، ﻋﺬر ﺧﻮاهﯽ ، ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ، ﺗﻌﺎرﻓﺎت ، اهﺪاف ﮐﻼم هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‪I never see nothing‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﻢ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﺪارد و اﮔﺮ در ﻟﻬﺠﻪ هﺎﯼ ﺧﺎص ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر رود ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﺎﮐﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ.‪We want to leave‬‬ ‫‪Formal Speech‬‬ ‫ﮐﻼم رﺳﻤﯽ: ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ در اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﮐﻠﻤﺎت و ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺟﻤﻠﻪ هﺎ و ﺣﺘﯽ ﺗﻠﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺪ هﺎﯼ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯽ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ .‫951‬ ‫‪Determiner‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ : ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ اﺳﻢ ﺑﮑﺎر ﻣﯽ رودو ﻣﻌﻨﯽ اﺳﻢ را ﻣﺤﺪود ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Function‬‬ ‫هﺪف ﮐﻼم را ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁن ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ. the garden‬‬ ‫ب( ﺻﻔﺖ اﺷﺎرﻩ:‬ ‫‪That car. ﻣﺜﻞ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت زﻳﺮ:‬ ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ:‬ ‫‪A pencil. ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮان‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت را ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ دﺳﺘﻮر زﺑﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت ﮐﻠﻴﺸﻪ اﻳﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﻼ:‬ ‫.‬ ‫‪Finite Verb‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ: ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ زﻣﺎن و ﺷﺨﺺ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﺪ.

ﻣﺜﻼ‬ He washed his hands of the matter.--------->I saw a very burning house.----------->I read a very interesting book.---------------->I saw a house which was burning.‫ ﺑﻪ ﺁن اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ و ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻢ را ﺑﺎزﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ING ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﺼﺪر: ﻓﻌﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬ Swimming is good for you.‫ هﻮاﺳﺖ‬it ‫ﮐﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر از‬ Infinitive . I need an ironing board.‫ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻴﻮد ﺑﮑﺎر رود ، ﺻﻔﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ‬VERB+ING‫3.اﮔﺮ ﺑﺘﻮان‬ I saw a burning house. I need an ironing board for ironing.‫ﻣﺼﺪر: ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺪون زﻣﺎن و ﺷﺨﺺ را ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬ .160 Gerund .------------------------>I need a board which is ironing.(incorrect) I saw a burning house.(incorrect) . ﻣﺜﻞ‬ It’s cold. I need an ironing board--------------->I need a very ironing board.(incorrect) Idiom :‫اﺻﻄﻼح: واﺣﺪ ﻣﺠﺰاﻳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺁن از روﯼ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﮏ ﺗﮏ اﺟﺰاﯼ ﺁن ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. .اﮔﺮ‬ I read an interesting book.‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ او دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﮐﺎرﯼ ﻧﺪاﺷﺖ‬ Impersonal Construction :‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺑﺪون ﻧﻬﺎد: ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در ﺁن ﺑﻄﻮر واﺿﺢ ذﮐﺮﯼ از ﻧﻬﺎد ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺎن ﻧﻤﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. :‫ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﻳﮑﯽ از اﻗﺴﺎم زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ING ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ، اﺳﻢ ﻣﺼﺪر اﺳﺖ و ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ هﺮ اﺳﻤﯽ ﺟﻤﻊ‬FOR ‫1.اﮔﺮ ﺑﺘﻮان ﺟﻤﻠﻪ را ﺑﺎ‬ . I like swimming.‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد ﻳﺎ ﺣﺮف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﮕﻴﺮد‬ I need an ironing board. :‫ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺮد، ﻓﻌﻞ در زﻣﺎن اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯼ ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮدﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬Which is ‫ را ﺑﺎ‬VERB+ING ‫2. .

‫161‬ ‫‪Intensifier‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ درﺟﻪ: ﻗﻴﺪﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻗﻴﻮد ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺎت ﻗﺎﺑﻞ درﺟﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺷﺪن ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. ﺻﻔﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ درﺟﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن هﻤﻪ ﻳﺎ هﻴﭻ ﺑﺮ ﺁن ﺣﺎﮐﻢ اﺳﺖ ﻗﻴﺪ درﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻔﺖ"ﻣﺮدﻩ" . ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ او ﺧﻴﻠﯽ ﻣﺮدﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. ﻳﺎ او ﮐﻤﯽ ﻣﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ وﻟﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ او ﻣﺮد ﺑﺴﻴﺎر درﺳﺘﮑﺎرﯼ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ او ﮐﻤﯽ درﺳﺘﮑﺎر اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫.‪The book is very good‬‬ ‫‪Modifier‬‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮوهﯽ از ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﮐﻪ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﯼ در ﻣﻮرد ﮐﻠﻤﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﮐﺎر در هﺮ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع ﻋﺒﺎرات‬ ‫اﺳﻤﯽ ، ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ، و وﺻﻔﯽ رخ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ.‬ ‫‪The cat with a stumpy tail‬‬ ‫‪This expensive camera‬‬ ‫‪Mood‬‬ ‫وﺟﻪ: ﺷﮑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ وﺟﻮهﯽ را ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﯽ ﺁورد ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮح زﻳﺮ:‬ ‫‪Indicative‬‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﯼ و ﭘﺮﺳﺸﯽ‬ ‫‪Imperative‬‬ ‫اﻣﺮﯼ‬ ‫‪Subjunctive‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻃﯽ‬ ‫‪Object‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ، ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ ﻳﺎ ﺿﻤﻴﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ اﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺘﻌﺪﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪو ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫هﻨﮕﺎم ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل هﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ و هﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ در ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﻬﺎد ﻗﺮار ﺑﮕﻴﺮد.‬ ‫‪Paragraph‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ ﺗﻔﮑﺮ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ از ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪Parts of speech‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺒﯽ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ هﺎ: ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﺤﻮﯼ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد:‬ ‫1-ﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫2- ﺷﮑﻞ‬ ‫3-ﻋﻤﻞ‬

162

Perfect ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﯽ از زﻣﺎن اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ و ﺟﻤﻼت دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﻣﺜﻞ زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺎ‬ .‫ﻣﺎﺿﯽ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ‬ Phrasal verb .‫اﻓﻌﺎل ﭼﻨﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ: در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺣﺮوف ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﻧﺮا ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ‬ Turn off the light. Turn it off. Proper noun .‫اﺳﻤﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮد ، ﻣﺤﻞ ، ﻳﺎ ﺷﯽ ﺧﺎص اﻃﻼق ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد‬ Stative verb :‫اﻓﻌﺎﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﺘﻤﺮار ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ. ﻣﺜﻞ‬ Believe, have, belong, contain, cost, differ, own Verb .‫ﺑﺨﺸﯽ از ﮔﺰارﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺒﺮ اﺳﺖ و داراﯼ ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ زﻣﺎن ، وﺟﻪ، ﺗﻌﺪاد، و ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ اﺳﺖ‬ Tom and Mary are called to attend the interview. :‫اﻧﻮاع ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺗﻨﺪ از‬
active perfective progressive auxiliary dummy modal passive base form copular ditransitive -ed participle helping (auxiliary) infinitive form inflection -ing participle lexical (main) nonfinite semi-auxiliary

verb phrase

163 Verb Phrase ‫دو ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ از ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ: ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ داراﯼ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ و ﮐﻤﮑﯽ اﺳﺖ و ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ داراﯼ‬ .‫ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ و ﮐﻤﮑﯽ و ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ هﺎ و ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ اﺳﺖ‬ *A phrase consisting of a verb and its auxiliaries, as should be done in the sentence The students should be done with the exam by noon. *A phrase consisting of a verb, its auxiliaries, its complements, and other modifiers, as should be done with the exam by noon in the sentence The students should be done with the exam by noon. Voice .‫ﺑﻨﺎ: ارﺗﺒﺎط ﻓﻌﻞ و ﻧﻬﺎد )ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻳﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ( را ﺑﻴﺎن ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻣﻌﻠﻮم و ﻣﺠﻬﻮل دو ﻧﻮع "ﺑﻨﺎ" هﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics.164 References: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Birjandi. English Sentence structure. Robert. Muhammad. 1971 Maftoon. 1991 Khademzadeh Mehdi . Payam-e. USA. The University of Michigan Press. 1982 Nelson. UK. Longman Publication.grinnell.Parviz.html(1998-2006) Fallahi. Internet Grammar of English.com/qa2 (1994 – 2006) Swan. Graphic Organizer. http://www.http://www. Tehran: Zabane-Daneshjoo 2002 Krohn. 1993 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language.noor Publication. Fourth Edition. Grammar through Patterns.1376 Modiri. The Survey of English Usage. Iran University Press. Contrastive Linguistics and Analysis of Errors. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.Basic English. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication. Thomson and Martinet. Platt . New York: Oxford University Press. Let’s write English.Parviz . Jeananda. and Weber.1375 Col.1993 Wishon and Burk. Ahmad Hossien. University College London 1996-1998 . 1992 Rong-Chang Li & Bill Bailey. http://www. Extensive English Grammar. A Practical English Grammar.ac.EnchantedLearning. 1995 Richards. Martin. General English. New York: Oxford University Press. Gerald. Free ESL Stories and Exercises.htm . Practical English Usage.com (19982005) Dobbs.Syntax Analysis http://web. Tehran. New York: oxford University Press.edu/individuals/ dobbs/ drsyntax/ trans1.uk/internet-grammar/verbs/types. Elizabeth.ucl. Tehran:SAMT Publication.rongchang. Tehran.

Mitra Ahmad Soltani Tehran Iran 2007 .165 In the name of God Reading Comprehension through Syntax By Dr.

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