Interview Questions

1. What are the optimization tools you use? Drive test, analysis, others? 2. Are System Information Blocks (SIB) transmitted all the time? No, system information block is multiplexed with synchronization channel. Synchronization channel occupies the first time slot (TS) and SIB occupies the other 9 time slots. 3. How does UE camp (synchronize) to a NodeB? 1. UE uses the primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) for slot alignment (TS synchronization). 2. After aligning to NodeB time slot, UE then uses secondary synchronization channel (S-SCH) to obtain frame synchronization and scrambling code group identification. 3. UE then uses scrambling code ID to obtain CPICH, thus camping to a NodeB. 4. What could be the cause of soft handover failure?
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UE issue. Resource unavailable at target NodeB. Inadequate SHO threshold defined. Etc. 5. What are the three sets in handover? The 3 sets in handover are:

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Active set – the list of cells which are in soft handover with UE. Monitored set – the list of cells not in active set but RNC has told UE to monitor. Detected set – list of cells detected by the UE but not configured in the neighbor list. 6. What are the major differences between GSM and UMTS handover decision? GSM: Time-based: mobile measures of RxLev and RxQual – mobile sends measurement report every SACH period (480ms).BSC instructs mobile to handover based on these reports. UMTS:

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Event-triggered reporting – UE sends a measurement report only on certain event “triggers”. UE plays more part in the handover decision.

Interview Questions
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7. What are the events 1a, 1b, 1c, etc.? Event 1A – a Primary CPICH enters the reporting range, i.e. add a cell to active set. Event 1B – a primary CPICH leaves the reporting range, i.e. removed a cell from active set. Event1C – a non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH, i.e. replace a cell. Event 1D - change of best cell. Event 1E - a Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold. Event 1F – a Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold. 8. What are event 2a-2d and 3a-3d? Events 2A-2D are for inter-frequency handover measurements and events 3A-3D are for IRAT handover measurements.

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Event 3A: the UMTS cell quality has moved below a threshold and a GSM cell quality had moved above a threshold. Event 3B: the GSM cell quality has moved below a threshold. Event 3C: the GSM cell quality has moved above a threshold. Event 3D: there was a change in the order of best GSM cell list. 9. What may happen when there’s a missing neighbor or an incorrect neighbor? Access failure and handover failure: may attempt to access to a wrong scrambling code. Dropped call: UE not aware of a strong scrambling code, strong interference. Poor data throughput. Poor voice quality. Etc. 10. What can we try to improve when access failure is high? When access failure is high we can try the following to improve RACH performance:

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Increase maximum UE transmit power allowed: Max_allowed_UL_TX_Power. Increase power quickly: power_Offset_P0. Increase number of preambles sent in a given preamble cycle: preamble_Retrans_Max. Increase the number of preamble cycles: max_Preamble_Cycle. Increase number of RRC Connection Request retries: N300. 11. What are the conditions you typically set to trigger IRAT handover? RSCP and Ec/Io are used to trigger IRAT handover:

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RSCP ≤ -100dBm. Ec/Io ≤ -16dBm. 12. What are the typical KPIs you use to measure a network and what criteria? Access failure rate (≤ 2%). Call setup time (CS: over 95% of the time < 6-second for mobile-to-PSTN, 9-second for mobilemobile. PS: over 95% of the time < 5-second).

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Interview Questions
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Dropped call rate (≤ 2%). BLER: over 95% of the blocks ≤ 2%. Average DL/UL throughput for PSD: 210kbps for loaded, 240kbps for unloaded. 13. What is the typical UE transmit power? Varies – most of the time below 0dBm. 14. Have your used Ericsson TEMS? If so: Do you know how to create command sequence? What are the call sequences you typically have? CS long call, CS short call, PSD call, etc. What are the typical commands you have for CS and PS call? Do you regularly stop and restart a new log file? Why and when to stop and start a new file? How do you stop a log file? Stop command sequence first, wait and make sure all equipment are in idle mode before stop logging. 15. Did you work on neighbor prioritization? Prioritzation is based on geographical location of the cell defined in the neighbor list. 16. What is the typical event sequence of IRAT Handover from 3G to 2G

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Event 2D – entering into compressed mode – measurement of 2G candidates – Event 3A – Verification of 2G resources – Handover from UTRAN Command from 3G RNC to UE. 17. What are the possible causes for an IRAT Failure? Missing 2G relations Non availability of 2G Resources Poor 2G Coverage Missing 3G Relations 18. What is Paging Success Ratio? What is the typical PSR that you have seen in a UMTS

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network? PSR – Paging Responses to the Paging Attempts About 90% 19. What are the possible causes for a lower PSR? Non-continuous RF Coverage – UE going in and out of coverage area frequently Very High ‘Periodic Location Update Timer’ – Keeping UEs in VLR long time after it moved out of coverage Lower Paging Channel Power Access Channel Parameter Issues Delayed Location Update when crossing the LA / CN Boundaries

Stronger and meets the criteria for Event1a or Event1c. What is Soft Handover Overhead? What is the typical value in UMTS network? Soft Handover Overhead is calculated in two ways. a SC is coming in to Monitored Set and Event1a is triggered. Add the neighbor. A UE is served by 2 or 3 SC in AS. 1) Average Active Set Size – Total Traffic / Primary Traffic. But SHO did not happen because of missing neighbor relations? How do you optimize this issue? Study the Pilot spillover from the 3rd Tier SC and control its coverage Even after controlling the coverage. It is identifying a SC from 3rd tier. A UE is served by 2 SC in AS. if the spillover is there. What is the typical Call Setup Time for a 3G UE to 3G UE Call? What are the possible • • • • • • • • • • • • • RF related causes for a delayed CST in this type of call? 6 to 9 seconds Multiple RRC Attempts (UE is on poor coverage – need more than Access Attempt) Delayed Page Responses High Load on Paging and/or Access Channel Paging / Access Parameters 25.7 (Avg Active Set Size) or 35% (Secondary / Total ) • .Interview Questions • • • • • • • • • • • 20. But UE is not receiving Active Set Update from NodeB and the call drops. What are the possible causes for a Drop Call on a UMTS network? Poor Coverage (DL / UL) Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spillover Missing Neighbor SC Collisions Delayed Handovers No resource availability (Congestion) for Hand in Loss of Synchronization Fast Fading Delayed IRAT Triggers Hardware Issues External Interference 21. 2) Secondary / Total Traffic Typical Values are like 1. What is Hard Handover in UMTS? When will it happen? Hard Handover in UMTS is a break before make type Handover It can happen in the inter RNC boundaries where there is no Iur link. What could be possible causes for this drop? Delayed Handover Loss of Synchronization Fast Fading Pilot Pollution / Spillover issues 23. 22. 24.

What are the possible causes for an Access Failure in UMTS? Missing Neighbors Poor Coverage Pilot Pollution / Spillover Poor Cell Reselection Core Network Issues Non – availability of resources.Interview Questions 26. 27. which reduces the pilot spillovers. What are the typical values for 'reportingrange1a' and 'reportingrange1b'? 3 dB and 5 dB respectively. Admission Control denies Hardware Issues Improper RACH Parameters External Interference 28. Reduction in Pilot Spillover will reduce the Soft Handover Overhead. (FOR ERICSSON EXPERIENCED) What is RTWP? What is the significance of it? Received Total Wide-band Power It gives the Total Uplink Power (Interference) level received at NodeB 29. 31. the interference (load) increases. This leads to reduction in Ec/Io of a Pilot. which could lead to a drop call or increase in Average Power Per User (reduction in cell capacity) • • • • • • • • • . What will be the impact when you change 'reportingrange1a' from 3 to 4 dB and 'timetotrigger1a' 100 to 320 ms. without changing any other parameters? Reduction in number of Event1a Delayed Event1a trigger Reduction in Average Active Set Size Delay in Event1a could increase DL interference. What will happen to the Soft Handover Overhead when you apply OCNS on the network? And Why? With OCNS(Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator). (FOR ERICSSON EXPERIENCED) What is the System Reference Point at which all the Power Levels are measured in Ericsson NodeB? System Ref Point for E/// NodeB is at the output of TMA (Between TMA and Antenna) 30.

840. How to Calculate Max Numbers of Users in Cell? Ans:.Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate over data bit rate. In addition. Eb/No Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is an important parameter in digital communication or data transmission. Take CS12.8 The number of users could also be hard-limited by OVSF code space.2k bearer needs 1 SF128 code.2kbps as example: M = W / (EnNo * (1 + i) * R) * η = 3.200) = 25dB 35. or terminating existing users.Interview Questions 32.840.6) * 12. the congestion resolution actions will cease. with 3. also known as the "SNR per bit".84MHz chip rate and 12. • Consider soft-handover factor of 1. What is Congestion Control? Congestion Control monitors the dynamic utilization of specific cell resources and insures that overload conditions do not occur.200 kbps for CS-12. usually represented in decibel (dB) scale. Congestion Control will immediately restrict Admission Control from granting additional resources. 34. and Admission Control will be enabled.000 (3 * (1 + 0.2k) i: other-cell to in-cell interference ratio (assuming 60%) R: user data rate (assuming 12. the processinggain is: PG12. if a cell is heavily a loaded and enough resources in terms of power.5 = 32. . It is especially useful when comparing the bit error rate (BER) performance of different digital modulation schemes without taking bandwidth into account.8 and loading factor of 50%: 124 / 1.2k = 10 * log (3.8 *. What is Admission Control? Admission Control is an algorithm which controls the Resource Allocation for a new call and additional resource allocation for an existing call. codes or CEs are not available.2k for example: • A CS-12.2k = 128 – 2 (1 SF64) – 2 (4 SF256) = 124. Incase. If overload conditions do occur. admission control denies permission for the additional resource requirement. Once the congestion is corrected.000 / 12. For example.840.200) * 0.2k data rate. 33.W: chip rate (for UMTS 3.000 chips per second) EbNo: Eb/No requirement (assuming 3dB for CS-12. What is processing Gain? Ans:.2k) η: loading factor (assuming 50%) Take 12. It is a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measure.05 = 34 uers/cell. • Total available codes for CS-12. Congestion Control will attempt to resolve the congestion by either down switching.

06 .200 kbps for CS-12. the interference level is equal to the noise level.Ec/I0 [dB] 38. When the uplink noise approaches infinity then no more users can be added to a cell – and the cell loading is close to 100% and has reached its “pole capacity”.α +f) * 10^(EbNo/10)) = 64. Ec/Io: This is the ratio of the received energy per chip (= code bit) and the interference level. at the coverage border. What is SIR? Ans:. Therefore. Definition of pole capacity? Ans:.000 chips per second) R: user data rate (assuming 12. usually given in dB. to calculate the uplink pole capacity we need to know: W: chip rate (for UMTS 3. Mathematically. 39.RSSI and Ec/Io RSCP: The “Received Signal Code Power” (RSCP) is the collected RF energy after the correlation / descrambling process. however. In case no true interference is present. the interference level can be higher than the wanted signal level. Only this code power is of interest for the following receiver stages when judging on the quality of the reception.840. usually given in dBm.2k) f: other-cell to in-cell interference ratio (assuming 65%) EbNo: Eb/No requirement (assuming 5dB) AF: Activity factor (assuming 50%) Pole Capacity = (W/R) / ((1+f) * AF * 10^(EbNo/10)) = 120.SIR is the Signal-to-Interference Ratio – the ratio of the energy in dedicated physical control channel bits to the power density of interference and noise after dispreading. the effective gain comes from noise figure reduction and the gain is close or equivalent to the feeder loss 37.6 To calculate the downlink pole capacity we also need to know: α: downlink channels orthogonality factor (assuming 55%) Pole Capacity = (W/R) / ((1.The uplink noise increases with the loading exponentially. the value of Ec/I0 is usually negative RSSI: The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a value that takes into account both RSCP and Ec/I0. Because of the system gain (see 1). It is usually given in dBm and can be calculated as follows: RSSI [dBm] = RSCP [dBm] . Definition RSCP. What is Typical Gain of TMA? Ans:.Interview Questions 36.TMA typically has a 12 dB gain.

41. slow fading margin is set to 7-10. • Reduced Node B power which in turn decreases interference and increases capacity. When multi-path signals arriving at a UE. Slow fading is also called shadowing. the constructive and destructive phases create a variation in signal strength. 43. By maintaining multiple links each link could transmit at a lower power. RNC selects the better signal coming from multiple NodeB. decreasing interference and increasing battery life.e. i. Why open loop power control is needed and how it works? Ans:. • Downlink load sharing over multiple RF links. NodeB rake receiver combines signals from different paths and forms a stronger signal. When a UE moves away from a cell the signal strength drops down slowly. • Micro diversity gain over fast fading. An estimate of the required power is made from measurements and system information. i. the fast fading margin is usually set to 2-3. resulting in lower interference therefore a gain.e. we need to have a margin in the link budget and they are called fast fading margin and slow fading margin. .Interview Questions 40. Disadvantages: • UE using several radio links requires more channelization codes.To factor in the fast fading and slow fading. and more resources on the Iub and Iur interfaces. In link budget. Advantages: • Overcome fading through macro diversity. i. 44. Why is there “soft handover gain”? Ans:. What are Fast Fading and Slow fading? Ans:. as a result of multi-path propagation. •Soft handover uplink: RNC performs selection combining. 42. UE combines multi-path signals and form a stronger signal.Fast fading is also called multi-path fading.Soft handover gain comes from the following: • Macro diversity gain over slow fading.e. How does soft/softer handover work? Ans:.Soft/softer handover downlink: UE rake receiver performs maximum ratio combining.Open Loop power control is used when no feedback mechanism is possible. This is used for initial network access and finding initial power settings during dedicated mode. What are fast fading margin and slow fading margin? Ans:. •Softer handover uplink: NodeB performs maximum ratio combining. • Reduced UE power (up 4dB).

Interview Questions 45. WCDMA KPI-ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS Ans:. Mobility The ability to provide the requested service to the user with mobility.RETAINABILITY ANALYSIS The ability of user to retain its requested service once connected for the desired duration. These are the five steps to check Accessibility Analysis. • • • • • RAN Capacity utilization Analysis and monitoring Transport and RNC Load Capacity utilization analysis and monitoring Audit Node B Hardware and License Capacity Consistency check RBS and RNC parameter Admission parameter adjustment 47. We will see each of them in detail with parameter. 46. WCDMA KPI-RETAINABILITY ANALYSIS Ans:. Availability The percentage of time that a cell is considered available. Integrity The ability of a user to receive the requested service at desired quality.ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS: The ability of a user to obtain a requested Accessibility service from the system. Retainability The ability of user to retain its requested service once connected for the desired duration. Steps to Check Retainability Analysis • • • Drop speech due to soft handover actions Drop speech due to missing neighbor Drop speech due to UL Synchronization lost . 3G KPI Ans:--3G KPI Introduction KPI Category Accessibility Analysis The ability of a user to obtain a requested Accessibility service from the system.

However.In Idle mode. How many slots are there in a WCDMA Frame? How big is a frame in ms. Number of chips in a slot = 38400/15= 2560 chips 50. For this. Different Idle mode tasks UE performs Ans:. In urban areas where in-building coverage is taken care of by in-building installations.1 ~ 33dBm). There are 2560 chips in one slot. the following procedures need to be performed: • • PLMN selection and reselection Cell selection and reselection . Ec = Effect energy Io = Total energy and noise. the UEs must still be able to access the system and be reached by the system with acceptable delays. the value of Ec/Io is always negative.log[Effect energy / (total energy+noise)] < 10. the UE has no connection to the radio network Keeping UEs in Idle mode minimizes the use of resources both for the UEs and in the network. Chip rate is 3840 Kc/s Length of frame = 10 ms Number of chips in a frame = 3840 *10=38400 chips. Thus. how many chips are there in a slot? WCDMA Frame is 15 slots wide.Pilot channel power is always less than the total cell power. Why Ec/Io is negative? Ans:. What is a typical CPICH power? CPICH power typically takes about 8~10% of the total NodeB power. It is 10ms in length. and 2) More power can be allocated to traffic channels. when measured in decibels. For a 20W (43dBm) NodeB. Ec/Io = 10.PICH-Paging Indicator Channel PCH-Paging Channel PICH is used to indicate UE to when it should read to S-CCPCH (Carries PCH) whereas PCH is used to carry RRC Message “Paging type 1” which contains actual Paging information 52. Here is the calculation.Interview Questions 48. the ratio of the Pilot power (Ec) to the total cell power (Io) is always less than one. CPICH is around 2W (35. the CPICH may sometimes go as low as 5% because: 1) The coverage area is small since users are close to the site. What is PICH and PCH? Ans:. 51.log(1) = 0 Ec/Io always negative 49.

Open Loop • Inner Loop Outer Loop • Open Loop Power control-The Open loop power control technique requires that the transmitting entity measures the channel interference and adjusts its transmission power accordingly. but the problem is that the interference estimation is done on the received signal.the power of the first preamble . 55. Power Control in WCDMA? • Ans:. which differs from the received frequency by the system’s duplex offset.During Power Control. As uplink and downlink fast fading (on different frequency carriers) do not correlate. . This can be done quickly. and the transmitted signal probably uses a different frequency. How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of fading it compensates? Ans: 1500 Hz and compensates Fast Fading 57. This parameter is configurable and decides at which level below RTWP preamble ramping will start. How much power usually a Node B is allocated to control channels? The power allocated to control channels may depend on equipment vendor recommendation. P_PRACH = L_PCPICH + RTWP + constantValueCprach Where L_PCPICH is the path loss estimated by UE since it knows transmit & receive CPICH power RTWP is received Total Wideband Power(uplink interference) measured by RBS . Transmit Power control(TPC) commands are used to power up or power down based on SIR target in the step of 0. if HSDPA is deployed on the same carrier then the total power allocated to control channel may go up to 25 to 30% because of the additional HSDPA control channels required. Typically no more than 20% of the total NodeB power is allocated to control channels.The initial power on the PRACH . 56. How is Initial RACH Power is calculated? Ans:.is determined according to equation. including CPICH.Interview Questions • • • Location Area (LA) and Routing Area (RA) updating Paging System information broadcast 53.5 dB ( 1 dB if the connection is made over Iur). Constant Value Cprach is used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH . Explain the functionality of TPC Ans:. 54. this method gives the right power values only on average. However.

different coding and interleaving methods. minimize interference and to keep the signal quality to optimum level.. In downlink. the motive in both the cases are different.Uplink inner-loop power control . In case of uplink.microsecond period (i. The transmit power control (TPC) bits are sent in every time slot within the uplink and the downlink. the RNC manages the outer-loop and Node B manages the inner-loop and for downlink. and the resulting quality parameter is then used to adjust the required SIR value. Power control is necessary to keep the transmitted signal power level under control so as to minimize the interference and keep the quality of signal to a desired level. for example. and adjusts the required SIR value (SIRtarget). all power control signals contain either an increase or decrease command. one time slot). which is then used in the inner loop control. However.Uplink outer-loop power control . constitute a channel’s parameters. Note that the delay inherent in this closed-loop method is compensated for by making the measurements over a very short period of time. Different channel parameters may require different SIRtarget values.Downlink outer-loop power control (b) Inner-loop power control . 9633747429 Closed-loop power control can be divided into outer-loop and inner-loop power control. UE manages the outer-loop and Node B manages the inner-loop. signals from different UEs reach NodeB with different power strength. This change in the outer loop will trigger the inner loop power control to increase the mobile station transmission power accordingly. there is no near-far effect. but the UEs near the cell-edge or in high interference region may need extra power to overcome the increased other cell interference and weak signal due to Rayleigh fading. Open-loop power control (a) Uplink open-loop power control (b) Downlink open-loop power control Closed-loop power control is the power control mechanism used in UMTS to solve near-far problem. a decision is made about whether to increase or decrease the transmission power in the other end of the connection. The main functions are: 1. Closed-loop power control (a) Outer-loop power control . In uplink. Different channel types.Downlink inner-loop power control 2.Interview Questions Inner Loop Power Control-In this method the received signal-to interference ratio (SIR) is measured over a 667. then the outer loop power control must increase the SIRtarget value. . and based on that value. Outer Loop Power Control-The outer loop power control functions within the base station system. resulting in near-far effect. If the used SIR value still gives a low quality bit stream.e. thus causing the stronger signal blocking the weaker one. which can be characterized by. Closed-loop power control is used in uplink (UL) as well as downlink (DL). The final result of the transmission process can only be known after the decoding process. There is not a neutral signal.

i. The upper bound. UE maximum output power.e. Also. The open loop power control tolerance is ±9dB under normal conditions and ±12dB under extreme conditions.5 kHz) [From where did this value of 1. This results in a power control frequency of 1500 Hz (15/10ms)] and relies on the feedback information from the opposite end of the link (or channel) to maintain the signal to interference (noise) ratio to a target level set by the outer-loop power control. What is the family of codes used for Chanelization in WCDMA? Ans:. operates at 1500 times per sec (1. the Node B can ignore the TPC commands from UE. The UL inner-loop power control lets the UE adjust its output power in accordance with one or more TPC commands received in the downlink direction.e it adjusts the target SIR in Node B which is used during inner-loop power control. Too high quality will waste the resources. and shall be less than -50 dB. i. UE and broadcasted cell/system parameters are used to set initial access power on RACH. is set depending on the Power class of UE. Precise power control can lead to optimum use of bandwidth resulting in increase cell capacity. the measurement report of UE is used to set the initial power of downlink channels.Family of codes used for Chanelization in WCDMA used is Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor. where it is difficult to send each UE the necessary TPC commands. 57. i. However. Technically it is the minimum signal to noise needed by infrastructure . in case of congestion (high load scenario). Remember the increase and decrease in power is limited by upper and lower bounds as defined in 3GPP TS 25.5 kHz come from? Answer: A UMTS 10 ms frame consists of 15 TPC commands. UE minimum output power defined as the mean power in one timeslot (TS). The DL inner-loop power control is used to control the transmission power of downlink channels at Node B as per the TPC commands received from UE.Eb_No is related to QOS of a service which in terms related to bit error rate. This can also be set below the maximum capability of the UE through signaling when the link is established. this is useful in setting the power level in case of common shared channels. What is Significance of Eb_No? Ans:. And in case of downlink. Now the question is why do we need to adjust the target SIR? Outer-loop power control tries to keep the quality of a connection to desired value.101. in some situations Node B may ignore the increase/decrease these TPC commands.(OVSF) 58. The TPC commands used in inner-loop power control are relative. For example. The lower bound. The transmission power is increased or decreased by a certain fixed step size depending on whether the received SIR is below or above the target SIR.e.Interview Questions Inner-loop power control (also called fast closed-loop power control). Open-loop power control is used to set the initial power of UE (in random access) and downlink channels. In case of uplink. Outer-loop power control is used to set the target quality value for inner-loop power control. so it needs a starting point and this is defined by open-loop power control.

Spreading will increase the bandwidth of a as signal.Periodic LA and RA updating is used to notify the network of the UEs availability. The periodic LA update procedure is controlled by a timer. 61.With same assumptions as above: CS-12. PS-64k: 34. PS-64.What is the processing gain for 384 Kb/s service? Ans:.4 (DL). What effect is there on signal by spreading and dispreading? Ans:. For AMR 12. A separate DRX cycle is also used to page Connected mode UEs in state URA_PCH. The periodicity of these searches is set by the system and the time interval is called Discontinuous Reception (DRX) cycle. A signal of 10 Kb/s will become 40 Kb/s after spreading and will become 10 Kb/s after despreading. This is a value used to compare different infrastructure vendors. Explain Timer T3212? Ans:. PS-384k: 16. PS-384k has only 128k on the uplink. 12. and to avoid unnecessary paging attempts for a UE that has lost coverage and is not able to inform the CN that it is inactive. Eb_No changes with the service type. 64.6 (UL).2k: 120. Different DRX cycles are used for circuit switched and packet switched services in Idle mode.The UE listens to the PICH only at certain predefined times.2 is ~ 8db for MS 59. This gain is the ratio between the spreading chip rate and the actual service bit rate measured at the RLC level.Interview Questions equipment after despreading it signal. The value is sent by the WCDMA RAN to UEs on the BCCH. called t3212.8 (DL).2.1 (DL). reducing power consumption.Processing Gain= 10 log (Chip rate /Bit rate) =10*Log(3840/384) =10*log (10) =10*1 =10 61.2 is ~ 4db for Node B For AMR 12.8(DL). PS-128k: 16. What do you understand by DRX cycle? Ans:. 60:. The processing gain term expresses the gain achieved by spreading a narrow band signal over a wideband spectrum.8 (UL). which gives the time interval between two consecutive periodic location updates. .2 (UL).2 (UL). 62. PS-128 and PS-384? Ans:. 2. What is typical pole capacity for CS-12. therefore the uplink capacity is the same for both. 8.

more resources are needed in the RBSs. . However there is a tradeoff between soft/softer handover & system capacity.Pcompensation • • If S >0 then the cell is a valid candidate. and more resources in the RNC. When a parameter in the system information is changed. the number of radio links involved in the Soft/Softer handover must be limited. When is System information sent to UE? Ans:. adds redundancy and reduces interference. more DL channelization codes. if all the UEs connected to a particular RNC are considered. the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to different RBSs.In Soft Handover. A UE will camp on the cell with the highest S. Consequently. P compensation: a correction value for difference UE classes. In Softer handover.Paging Indicator Channel PCH-Paging Channel PICH is used to indicate UE to when it should read to S-CCPCH (Carries PCH) whereas PCH is used to carry RRC Message “Paging type 1” which contains actual Paging information. • • S = Qmean . 64.The system information is regularly broadcast to the UE on the BCCH. It acts as macro diversity since UE is connected to more than one radio link at any given point.Qmin . • Qmin: minimum required SIR. and more DL power than a single-link connection. the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to the same RBS. What is cell selection criterion? Ans:. Difference between PICH and PCH? Ans:. all UE in a cell are notified by a paging message or by a system information change indication message.Cell selection is based on: Qmean: the average SIR of the target cell. more resources over the Iub and Iur interfaces.Interview Questions 63.PICH . 65. For this reason. 66). Explain Soft and Softer handover? Give some advantage and disadvantage for soft handover Ans:. A UE involved in Soft/Softer Handover uses several radio links.

Typical size of Active set is 3 or 4 & generally a standard practice in all WCDMA networks. Typical handover window size is between 4 to 6dB. when the number of strong cells exceeds the active set size. What is UE maximum transmit power in your link budget? Ans:.Learn about the differences between the GSM handover and the WCDMA handover -WCDMA handover decision algorithm -WCDMA handover procedure -WCDMA handover parameters -WCDMA blind handover and directed retry 72. 71. 69. so if there are more than 3 strong cells then there is pilot pollution.Interview Questions 67. A small active set size may provide more resources available due to less soft/softer handover but at the expense of handover gain thereby reducing the capacity & link redundancy. What is a typical maximum path loss?-UMTS Ans:. For example.The maximum path loss is dependent on the service and vendor recommendations. Define Active Set? Pros and Cons of having a small or longer Active Set Active Set consists of group of cells that takes part in soft/softer handover & measure by UE. if there are more than 2 cells (besides the strongest cell) within 4dB of the strongest cell then there is pilot pollution. Typically the active set size is 3. Define Processing Gain for WCDMA? Processing Gain is ratio between rate of spreaded signal and rate of non spreaded signal. typically it is in between 135 to 140dB for urban areas and between 150 to 160dB for rural areas . How many types of handovers are there in UMTS? Soft/Softer Handover Inter Frequency Handover Inter RAT Handover Core Network Hard Handover Service based handover to GSM HSDPA Mobility 68. Definition of “strong cell”: pilots within the handover window size from the strongest cell. 73. What is Pilot Pollution? Simply speaking. there is “pilot pollution” in the area. WCDMA Handover Fundamentals GSM to UMTS Ans:. Processing Gain = 10 log (Chip rate /Bit rate) 70.UE Transmit Power limit is 21dBm.

packet loss concealment may be used to minimize the effects of lost packets. The causes of packet loss include inadequate signal strength at the destination. unintelligible speech or even the complete absence of a received signal. dBm = 10 * log(W*1000) where W is the power in Watts dB is not a unit.ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request).dBm is a unit of power level. it can cause jitter and frequent gaps in received speech. 77. hardwarefailure. In the worst cases. packet loss can cause severe mutilation of received data.2: -119 dBm PS-64: -112 dBm PS-128: -110 dBm PS-384: -105 dBm HSDPA: -95 dBm . For Ericsson. that is. such as VoIP. What is Difference between ARQ and HARQ? Ans:. Often more than one of these factors is involved. another retransmission will be requested. excessive system noise. a package received in error will be discarded and a retransmission will be requested. This event can cause noticeable effects in all types of digital communications. measured in milli-watts in logarithm scale.The service and load determines the UE sensitivity. 76. the UE sensitivity level is calculated at around: CS12. What is a typical UE sensitivity level? Ans:. natural or human-made interference. Even if the retransmission is faulty.Packet loss is the failure of one or more transmitted packets to arrive at their destination. in no-load condition. If the retransmission is also erroneous. the sensitivity is between -105dBm and -120dBm.Interview Questions 74. What is Packet Loss? Ans:. an erroneous package will be stored at the receiver and a retransmission will be requested. broken-up images. in general. the receiver attempts to combine the two erroneous packages to reproduce the original package. In pure audio LEARN MORE Network Performance Management Networking Resources communications. The effects of packet loss: § § § • • § § In data. it is the difference in dBm 75. In a case where the cause can not be remedied. What is the difference between dB and dBm? Ans:. which is used in UMTS. Using HARQ. In videoconference environments it can create jitter. software corruption or overburdened network nodes. packet loss produces errors.

Also upto 100W 80. Why We have Different AMR Source rates: 12. 81.90. 7. What is a typical NodeB sensitivity level? The service and load determines the NodeB sensitivity. . What is a typical NodeB maximum output power?-UMTS Ans:. Explain HSPA(High Speed Packet Acess)? Ans. For Ericsson. in general. 5. that is.75 kbps? Is there any benefit to keep 7.We have different Source rates to compitable with current technology.40? Ans:. 10.Interview Questions 78.7 kbps is equal to the Japanese PDC codec. which uses very similar methods to those employed by EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) technology for the GSM radio interface.4 kbps is equal to the US-TDMA speech codec.70 (PDC-EFR).2. the NodeB sensitivitylevel is calculated at around: CS12.2 (GSM-EFR).40 (IS-641). 6. 7.The maximum NodeB output power is usually 20W or 40W.95 and 7. 6.2: -124 dBm PS-64: -119 dBm PS-128: -115 dBm PS-384: -115 dBm 79. in a no-load condition. the sensitivity is between -115dBm to -125dBm. The fundamental characteristics which enable the increase in the data throughput and capacity with reduced latency are summarised below: • • • • • • • • • • Time and code multiplexing of the users Multi-Code transmission Fixed Spreading Factor (SF = 16) Shorter TTI = 2ms No DTX (Discontinuous transmission)for the data channel Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) supporting higher order modulation Node B scheduling and link adaptation Node B retransmissions (H-ARQ – Hybrid Auotmatic Repeat-Request) No power control No soft handover 82. 5. For example:7. 43dBm or 46dBm. High Speed Packet Access is a combination of two mobile telephony High Speed Download Packet Access (HSDPA) & High Speed Upload Packet Access (HSUPA) that extends & improves the performance of the WCDMA protocols.15 and 4.Facts about HSDPA:HSDPA represents an evolution of the WCDMA radio interface.95.

87. the resource usage is more efficient. When the user moves into worse channel conditions. 2) Each UE reports about the channel quality after every TTI by sending the CQI. . Brief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft Handover? Ans:. decreasing interference and increasing battery life. 3) CQI is sent after the very short period of time of 2 ms. • Reduced Node B power which in turn decreases interference and increases capacity. HSDPA manages to lower the delay times in transmission to around 100ms. and 3) Shorter Transmission Time Interval (TTI) 85.Interview Questions 83. What are the main technologies used for HSDPA Ans:. If a user is in favorable conditions. the transmission parameters will be changed accordingly and thus the data rate will be decreased. and more resources on the Iub and Iur interfaces. which means the way of transmission is changed according to the quality of the channel conditions.Latency is the time a packet needs to travel from sender to receiver. WHAT IS LINK ADAPTION? Ans:. What is benefit of shorter TTI in HSDPA? Ans:.Advantages: • Overcome fading through macro diversity. WHAT IS LATENCY IN HSDPA? Ans:. for example close to the nearest antenna tower. While UMTS typically features an end-to-end latency of approximately 200ms. Disadvantages: • UE using several radio links requires more channelization codes. 86.HSDPA uses link adaptation. it is possible to effectively perform link adaptation even in rapidly changing conditions.1) After every TTI the resources can be redistributed among the users. Therefore.Main Technology 1) Link adaptation (AMC) 2) Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ). this user will be assigned a high data rate. • Reduced UE power (up 4dB). for example far away from the antenna tower. 84.

UE would have to move in CELL_FACH state to update the location area.URA PCH: . (1) UE doesn’t require continuous circuit connection with n/w. If UE is traveling. (2) UE is forced to release the n/w resources to decrease the congestion problems (flip-flop between DCH and FACH).Interview Questions 88) What are the RRC states? a. Selects a PCH(based on algo.g. URA PCH 89) Describe different RRC States? a. when it was in CELL_FACH state. E. Cell DCH b. UE will keep monitoring to DL common transport channel FACH ‘continuously’ and receives packet data meant for UE itself. E. Cell PCH d. Cell DCH: When UE is switched ON.) and keep monitoring (receiving) it in ‘discontinuous’ mode(DRX). Can commute only into CELL_FACH state. d. still UL transmission will be ‘discontinuous’.g. So. c. it has to go via CELL_FACH. E. this update will become frequent because of changing cells. but not vice versa. but this time it’s based on the last cell update it made. it uses RACH for 1-2 frames or CPCH for few more frames. Call on hold(CS). Voice call(CS). Logical channels DCCH+DTCH are mapped to transport channel DCH. but now in the cell where UE made its last update. No outgoing call or data receive for long time UE is still identified on cell level. but DL packets will work. as it’s expecting a n/w initiated or terminated call(CS or PS) in future. (3) Eventual location updates to support CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states (flip-flop between FACH and PCH). At regular time interval. UE is known on cell level.Cell FACH: This happens when. depending on common access procedures. When UL transmission is required. UE is characterized at cell level according to its current Active set. File downloading(PS) No dedicated UL/DL is provided. Cell FACH c. it assumes the CELL_DCH State by default.g. Video telephony(CS+PS) b. It exists when UE really requires UL/DL dedicated resource. In some cases UE can have the transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_PCH. But still needs to be connected. Cell PCH: This happens when UE doesn’t require an active connection(common/dedicated). However. no UL transmission is allowed.

The slot timing is detected via detection of peaks in the output of the matched filter.Scrambling Code Identification: The UE attempts then to read the P-CPICH so as to extract . d. this condition is avoided. Eventual location updates to support CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states (flip-flop between FACH and PCH). but DL packets will work. By assigning URA_PCH state. UE is forced to release the n/w resources to decrease the congestion problems (flip-flop between DCH and FACH). The output that gives maximum correlation gives the group of the Primary Scrambling Code used in the cell. That is. Because all the characteristics are same except one. If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another. SRNC identifier + SRNTI makes URNTI 93) Describe the CELL search procedure? The Cell Search procedure can be summarised into the following steps: a. this condition is avoided.Cell Selection: Determine the cell whose received carrier power is the strongest b. UE doesn’t require continuous circuit connection with n/w.Interview Questions This can be considered as a general case of CELL_PCH state. UE is known on URA(UTRAN Registration Area) level rather than cell level. E. File downloading(PS) 91) What is the difference between Cell PCH and URA PCH state? UE is known on URA(UTRAN Registration Area) level rather than cell level If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another.Frame Synchronisation and Scrambling Code Group Identification: the UE reads the S-SCH of the strongest carrier. 90) In which conditions UE will be in Cell FACH state? This happens when. By assigning URA_PCH state. This process also gives the frame timing since the Secondary Synchronisation Code is different for each slot and the group tells the mapping between slots and SSCs. Call on hold(CS). It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update. c. It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update.Slot Synchronisation: the UE reads the P-SCH of the strongest carrier and feeds the received signal through a matched filter (that is matched to the Primary Synchronisation Code).g. It listens to PCH(and updates URA when required). and correlates the received signal with all the possible 64 Secondary Synchronisation Codes. since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa 92) What is U-RNTI? URNTI is a 32bit identity. since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa.

Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible to the user. Hard handover can be seamless or non-seamless. except for the RRC messages carrying higher layer (NAS) signalling. performs some specific measurements etc. Since the Primary Scrambling Codes are grouped into 64 groups of 8 Scrambling Codes and the S-SCH has given the Scrambling Code group only 8 possibilities remain. DL: RLC-UM). 94 ) Radio bearer configuration mappings? Signalling radio bearer RB0 shall be used for all messages sent on the CCCH (UL: RLC-TM. Spreading Factors. Additionally.Read Broadcast Information: Since the P-CCPCH is always scrambled by the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell (which has now been determined) and is always spread using SF=256 with OVSF index=1. Signalling radio bearer RB2 shall be used for all messages sent on the DCCH. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency (inter-frequency handover) is always performed as . when using RLC acknowledged mode (RLC-AM). The P-CPICH is always scrambled by the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell and is spread a factor 256 and an OVSF whose index is zero. Transport Formats etc. Signalling radio bearer RB1 shall be used for all messages sent on the DCCH. RBs whose identities shall be set between 5 and 32 may be used as signalling radio bearer for the RRC messages on the DCCH sent in RLC transparent mode (RLC-TM).) and can then decodeother downlink channels. 95) What are the types of hand over? Here are following categories of handover (also referred to as handoff): Hard Handover Hard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are removed before the new radio links are established. The UE can read the P-CCPCH without any problem. So the P-CPICH is unscrambled separately withevery possible Scrambling Code (8) in the group and only one output will produce correct results and the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell is determined.g. initiate a PRACH procedure. e. Signalling radio bearer RB3 and optionally Signalling radio bearer RB4 shall be used for the RRC messages carrying higher layer (NAS) signalling and sent on the DCCH in RLC acknowledged mode (RLC-AM).Interview Questions the Primary Scrambling Code used in the cell. Measurement Parameters. important parameters for PRACH transmission. The UE can acquire at this stage various information (e. when using RLC unacknowledged mode (RLC-UM). OVSF indexes and Scrambling Codes used in other downlink channels. The PCCPCH carries the BCH where system information blocks are broadcast throughout the entire cell.

2G (e.e. Detailed description is found in subclause 14.3G (e. macro diversity with maximum ratio combining can be performed in the Node B.e.g.4. Inter-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set and on downlink physical channels in the active set. handover to GSM) Handover 2G . Generally we can distinguish between intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover. In softer handover. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. downlink transport block error rate. A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in case of BLER. Detailed description is found in subclause 14.g. e.g. e. Traffic volume measurements: measurements on uplink traffic volume. whereas generally in soft handover on the downlink. between UMTS and other 3G systems) FDD soft/softer handover FDD inter-frequency hard handover FDD/TDD handover (change of cell) TDD/FDD handover (change of cell) TDD/TDD handover Handover 3G . macro diversity with selection combining is applied.g. less interference). Inter-RAT measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology than UTRAN. Softer handover Softer handover is a special case of soft handover where the radio links that are added and removed belong to the same Node B (i. GSM. Soft Handover Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN. which refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time. Quality measurements: Measurements of downlink quality parameters. It may however also be performed for other reasons such as system load control. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. Detailed description is found in subclause 14.2. Detailed description is found in subclause 14. 96) What are types of measurements? Intra-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set.3. For UMTS the following types of handover are specified: Handover 3G -3G (i. Normally soft handover can be used when cells operated on the same frequency are changed. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity.Interview Questions hard handover. handover from GSM) The most obvious cause for performing a handover is that due to its movement a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (like less power emission. A measurement object corresponds to one cell.1. the site of co-located base stations from which several sector-cells are served. .

c. CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH (FDD only) state. b. to e. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in idle mode. Upper layers in the network may request initiation of paging. But still needs to be connected.5. establish a signaling connection. 97) What is paging? Why paging is required? Paging: This procedure is used to transmit paging information to selected UEs in idle mode. Detailed description is found in subclause 14. When not stated otherwise elsewhere. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to trigger a cell update procedure.7. Detailed description is found in subclause 14.Cell PCH: This happens when UE doesn’t require an active Connection(common/dedicated). If no cause for paging is received from upper layers. 98) Type of Paging? Paging Type 1 Paging Type 2(UE dedicated paging) 12)When dedicated paging is used? a. and in that case the state of the latter procedure shall not be affected.For a UE in CELL_DCH. UE positioning measurements: Measurements of UE position.Interview Questions A measurement object corresponds to one timeslot in case of SIR (TDD only). as it’s expecting a n/w initiated or terminated call(CS or PS) in future . UE-internal measurements: Measurements of UE transmission power and UE received signal level.This procedure is used to transmit dedicated paging information to one UE in connected mode in CELL_DCH . 99) In what situation UE goes to CELL PCH and URA PCH states? a. UTRAN initiates the procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 2 message on the DCCH using AM RLC.g. CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH (FDD only) state.UTRAN should set the IE "Paging cause" to the cause for paging received from upper layers. UTRAN should set the value "Terminating – cause unknown". Detailed description is found in subclause 14. CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state using the paging control channel (PCCH). CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to trigger reading of updated system information. the UTRAN may initiate the UE dedicated paging procedure also when another RRC procedure is ongoing. UTRAN may also initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to release the RRC connection. Paging can be initiated : Upper layers in the network may request paging.6.

Drift RNC c.URA PCH: In Cell PCH UE is still identified on cell level. By assigning URA_PCH state. 103) What is initial direct transfer message? What is the use? The initial direct transfer procedure is used in the uplink to establish a signaling connection. If UE is traveling. since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa 100) What is Monitor set and detected set Cells? a. It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update. Drift RNC and SRNC? RNC from which the UE is currently getting Served or connected to is called SRNC or Serving RNC. During a soft handover procedure the RNC UE is moving to. b. The RNC which controls the movement of UE from Serving RNC to the Drift RNC is called Controlling RNC. this update will become frequent because of changing cells. which are not included in the active set. It is also used to carry an initial upper layer (NAS) message over the radio interface.Controlling RNC 102) What is the use and difference between CRNC. but are included in the CELL_INFO_LIST belong to the Monitored Set.At regular time interval. is called Drift RNC. but now in the cell where UE made its last update. 101) What are the various types of RNC? a. UE would have to move in CELL_FACH state to update the location area.Cells detected by the UE.Interview Questions b. 104) What is security mode command? Why it is used? Security mode command is a RRC Message. this condition is avoided. The purpose of this procedure : To trigger the start of ciphering or to command the restart of the ciphering with a new ciphering . If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another. which are neither in the CELL_INFO_LIST nor in the active set belong to the Detected Set.Cells. when it was in CELL_FACH state. Reporting of measurements of the detected set is only applicable to intra-frequency measurements made by UEs in CELL_DCH state.Serving RNC b.

It is also used to start integrity protection or to modify the integrity protection configuration for all signalling radio bearers 105) What is CCTrCH? (IMP) A Coded Composite Transport Channel is the result of combining (multiplexing) several Transport Channels of the same type. or other systems (GSM). a CCTrCh made up of DSCHs. Higher Layer Scheduling Higher Layers set restrictions so that only a subset of allowed TFCs are used in Compressed Mode. The UTRAN need to send to the UE all the parameters for the Compressed Mode. . To achieve this one of three mechanisms Puncturing This method is NOT applicable to downlink.e. on the other frequencies/systems and thus higher layers command the UE to enter Compressed Mode.Interview Questions configuration.2FACH: A CCTrCh consisting of the PCH and 2 FACHs 106)What is compressed mode? (IMP) Higher layers can request a UE to monitor cells on other frequencies (FDD. containing at least one transmission gap slot. TGSN is the slot numberof the first transmission gap slot within the first radio frame of the transmission gap pattern. One exception is that we can have one or several FACHs multiplexed with a PCH on the same CCTrCh. So with this method if SF is used in non-compressed frames then SF/2 is used in the compressed frames. TDD). Compressed Mode Parameter: TGSN (Transmission Gap Starting Slot Number): A transmission gap pattern begins in a radio frame. for the radio bearers of one CN domain and for all signalling radio bearers. expressed in number of slots. i.: we can have a CCTrCh made up of one or several DCHs. This implies that the UE has to perform measurements. called firstradio frame of the transmission gap pattern. Compression Methods: When in Compressed Mode the information normally transmitted during a 10 ms frame is compressed in time so that gaps of adequate length are created. A better notation would be for example: CCTrCh4DCH: A CCTrCh consisting of 4 DCHs CCTrCh3FACH: A CCTrCh consisting of 3 FACHs CCTrChPCH. Spread Factor Reduction Actually halving the Spread Factor. • TGL1 (Transmission Gap Length 1): Duration of the first transmission gap within the transmission gap pattern.

From Figure 10 it seems TGPRC is even. expressed in number of slots. If this parameter is not explicitly set by higher layers. 108) Features of Rel99/Rel5/Rel6/7? Release '99 Bearer services 64 kbit/s circuit switched 384 kbit/s packet switched Location services Call services: compatible with Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). then there is only one transmission gap in the transmission gap pattern. 107) What is FACH measurement occasion? GAPs in S-CCPCH to perform measurement on Different Frequencies or Interrat resection. The resulting position of the second transmission gap within its radio frame(s) shall comply with the limitations of TS 25. If this parameter is not set by higher layers. then TGL2 =TGL1. IP transport in UTRAN . The following two parameters (integers) control the transmission gap pattern sequence start and repetition: • TGPRC (Transmission Gap Pattern Repetition Count): Number of transmission gap patterns within the transmission gap pattern sequence. • TGD (Transmission Gap Start Distance): Duration between the starting slots of two consecutive transmission gaps within a transmission gap pattern.101 (Ref [2]). • TGPL1 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): Duration of transmission gap pattern 1. If this parameter is not explicitly set by higher layers.5*TGPRC (TGPL1+TGPL2) • TGCFN (Transmission Gap Connection Frame Number): CFN of the first radio frame of the first pattern 1 within the transmission gap pattern sequence.Interview Questions • TGL2 (Transmission Gap Length 2): Duration of the second transmission gap within the transmission gap pattern. expressed in number of slots. then TGPL2 = TGPL1. based on Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) Release 4 Edge radio Multimedia messaging MeXe levels Improved location services IP Multimedia Services (IMS) Release 5 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) IPv6. therefore the number of slots in TG Sequence is: 0. • TGPL2 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): Duration of transmission gap pattern 2.

A particular Channelisation code is the “identity” for the channel. Scrambling Channelisation is performed before scrambling. etc HSDPA Release 6 WLAN integration Multimedia broadcast and multicast Improvements in IMS HSUPA 109) MIB/SB/SIB details? MIB: The Scheduling of MIB is Static. IMEI used? . 112) Why we perform Channelisation or spreading before scrambling? Before sending a data we need to identify the channel to send the data. The number of chips per data symbol is called the Spreading Factor (SF). Channelisation is the basis for Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) encoding.TMSI . It consists of two distinct operations: a. Channelisation and b. P. IMSI . Mexe. The bandwidth of the resulting signal occupies a much larger bandwidth typically 5 MGHz and therefore the name Wideband-CDMA or W-CDMA. 110) What is Channelisation / scrambling? Spreading is applied to the Physical Channels (except SCH). Hence we use Channelisation code to select the channel and then scramble it so as to send the identity of the UE over the channel 113) When TMSI . Scrambling: 111) When secondary scrambling code used? When there is any conflict with the Primary Scrambling code then Secondary Scrambling Code will be used. This operation transforms every data symbol of a signal into a number of chips.Interview Questions Improvements in GERAN. Channelisation: The term spreading is also used to refer to channelisation.

e. Will do a PS attach then the PS call. If UE is not Location updated i. 117) Where CK and IK gets stored? . SIM LAI differs from the Cell LAI then UE will perform Location Area Update PS Call Same RRC connection can be used for the PS call. NMO I and GPRS MS that operates in Mode A or Mode B will do a simultaneous IMSI attach for GPRS and non GPRS services and shall use the Combined GPRS attach. for making it unique. SIM LAI is same as Cell LAI Then it will do nothing.Interview Questions TMSI (GSM-MAP): The TMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available. 116) Where CK and IK gets generated? In RRC CK and IK gets generated. combined and periodic routing area updating procedures instead of the corresponding MM specific procedures IMSI attach and normal and periodic Location area updating.e. 114)What is Auto attached? Auto Attach Enabled Disabled When Power On If MNO I It will perform a combined Attach If NMOII It will do a LAU and Attach. The IE "LAI" in the IE "Initial UE identity" shall also be present when TMSI (GSM-MAP) is used. IMEI: The IMEI shall be chosen when none of the above three conditions are fulfilled. The IE "RAI" in the IE "Initial UE identity" shall in this case also be present when P-TMSI (GSM-MAP) is used.e. for making it unique. 115) Why we do a Combined Attach? If the network operates in Network Mode Of Operation I i. P-TMSI (GSM-MAP): The P-TMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available and no TMSI (GSMMAP) is available. IMSI (GSM-MAP): The IMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available and no TMSI (GSM-MAP) or P-TMSI is available. If UE is Location updated i.

) 120) What are the important RACH parameters and which SIB contains this information? SIB 7/5 121) Which SIB contains S criteria information? SIB 3 122) Which NAS message contains the information about Qos and where Qos is been decide on the network side? PDP context req. 125) What is Multiple PDP and what is meant by Multi RAB and multi call? 2 PS .RRC.3. 123) What is SHO and HHO? Which are the layers which are impacted with SHO and HHO? SHO .Interview Questions In USIM CK and IK will get stored.SGSN. 119) What are the mandatory SIB’s which UE has to read before campign? SIB 1.5.7.L1 HHO – L1 124) LAI and RAI structure and where is it broadcasted? MNC+MCC+LAC=LAI LAI+RAC=RAI SIB 1. And for TM mode security procedure start at MAC layer.11(It contains neighbor cell Information.Multiple PDP . 118) Where the Security procedure will start? Security Procedure will start in RRC but Ciphering will start for AM and UM data security procedure will start at RLC layer.Need to check on MNC can be 2 bit also.

It varies with user bit(data) rate . The power of HS-SCCH is fixed. HS-DPCCH power is an offset relative to DPCCH depending upon whether the UE is in soft handoff or not. 126) Training WCDMA Handover Fundamentals GSM to UMTS Training WCDMA Handover Fundamentals GSM to UMTS Learn about the differences between the GSM handover and the WCDMA handover -WCDMA handover decision algorithm -WCDMA handover procedure -WCDMA handover parameters -WCDMA blind handover and directed retry 127) What can we try to improve when access failure is high? Ans:. 131). Increase power quickly: power_Offset_P0. What is Eb/No for requirement for HSDPA? Ans:.Initial power is set in the same way as open loop power control of DCH & there is no further power control on HSDPA shared channel HS-DSCH.) 2.HS-PDSCH-High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel HS-SCCH-High Speed Shared Control Channel 130) How power control is implemented in HSDPA? Ans:. The principle & functionality of the power control for the HSDPA associated dedicated channels are the same as for the DPCH power control. What fixed SF is used for HSDPA? SF 16.) Inc Maximum UE transmit power allowed: Max_allowed_UL_Tx_Power. typically 2 for 768 kps & 5 for 2 Mbps. 129). What HS Channels are introduced in HSDPA in L1? Ans:.When access failure is high we can try the following to improve RACH Performance 1. .) 3. Increase number of preambles 128). maximum of 5 codes.Interview Questions PS+CS – Multi RAB 2CS – Multi Call.The channel rate is controlled by adaptive modulation & coding format.

Due to the propagation path loss. 133) What type channel coding is used for the voice & data services? Ans Voice-Convolution Coding Data-Turbo Coding 134) What is the relationship of SF & data rate? Ans) They are inversely proportional. Hence.4 139) SCH channel consists of how many chips? Ans) 256 Chips 140) Cell Reselection is valid in both Idle and in which Sate in Connected mode? Ans:. To achieve a considerable capacity.Channel Quality Estimation for HSDPA sessions only.All users use the same bandwidth at the same time and therefore users interfere with one another.Idle Mode Behaviour is managed by System information send on which L3 Channel? Ans:.Lower SF more power required 136):.BCH 137) How many Radio Bearers (RB) are involved in CS voice call? 3 138 ) How many Service Radio Bearers (SRB) are involved in CS voice call? Ans:. all signals. In order to aid scheduling & TFRC selection in the RBS. Lower the SF higher the data rate. the UE sends a channel quality indicator (CQI) report on the uplink.Interview Questions 132). irrespective of . This is called the near-far effect. The CQI report estimates the number of bits that can be transmitted to the UE using a certain assumed HS-PDSCH power with a block error rate of 10 %. the signal received by the base station from a UE close to the base station will be stronger than the Signal received from another terminal located at the boundary.CELL FACH 141) Explain Near far effect? Ans:. What do you understand by the CQI Measurements? Ans:. the distant user will be dominated by the close user. 135) What is the relationship of SF & power reuired? Ans:.

more resources over the Iub and Iur interfaces. should arrive at the base station with the same mean power. A solution to this problem is power control.is determined according to equation P_PRACH = L_PCPICH + RTWP + constantValueCprach Where L_PCPICH is the path loss estimated by UE since it knows transmit & receive CPICH power RTWP is received Total Wideband Power(uplink interference) measured by RBS . What is “noise rise”? What does a higher noise rise mean in terms of network loading? For every new user added to the service.The power of the control part of the RACH message is determined by the power of the last transmitted preamble and by a configurable offset power Offset Ppm.the power of the first preamble .Iur 146).A UE involved in Soft/Softer Handover uses several radio links. constantValueCprach is used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH . To summarize. In theory. 144) However there is a tradeoff between soft/softer handover & system capacity? Ans:. more resources are needed in the RBSs. and each user has to transmit higher power to overcome the higher noise level. additional noise is added to the network. which attempts to achieve the same mean received power for each user. This means smaller path loss can be tolerated and the cell radius is reduced. more DL channelization codes. a higher noise rise means higher capacity and smaller footprint.The initial power on the PRACH . Consequently. This parameter is configurable and decides at which level below RTWP preamble ramping will start. if all the UEs connected to a particular RNC are considered. the “noise rise” is defined as the ratio of total received wideband power to the noise power. . and more DL power than a single-link connection. That is. a lower noise rise means smaller capacity and bigger footprint. the number of radio links involved in the Soft/Softer handover must be limited. For this reason. A typical target for soft handover in WCDMA network is less than or equal to 30% 145) Which link is required to perform Inter RNC SHO? Ans:. and more resources in the RNC. Higher “noise rise” value implies more users are allowed on the network. 142) How is Initial RACH Power is calculated? Ans:. each new user causes a “noise rise”. 143) What power RACH message Control Part is sent? Ans:.Interview Questions distance.

the NodeB also needs to transmit higher power as more UE are being served.Node B reaches its maximum transmit power. Dedicated Monitored Resource Handling: tracks utilization of critical resources of the system. Later a Loaded Network becomes Downlink Limites. if a UE receives power down request from one cell and power up request from the other 2 cells. It also helps in maintaining low interference level for other surrounding UE’s. resulting in less power for other UE – therefore consumes more “capacity 149) Under what circumstances can a NodeB reach its capacity? What are the capacity limitations? Ans:. as more and more UE are served by a cell.UE will power down because if a cell is able to sustain a good connection with one cell on lower power level it will discard power up messages from other cells. As a consequence. Is UMTS an uplink-limited or downlink-limited system? Answer – Initially.The cell coverage shrinks as the loading increases. the UE with weaker link (poor RF condition) uses more “capacity”. It consists of 3 main functions: 1. 152) If you have 3 cells in your Active Set and a drop call occurs. etc 150) What is “cell breathing” and why? Answer . uplink noise rise reaches its design target. each UE needs to transmit higher power to compensate for the uplink noise rise. In the uplink. 151) . In the downlink. the UE with weaker link (UE at greater distance) may not have enough power to reach the NodeB – therefore a coverage shrinkage.Interview Questions 147) When in 3-way soft handover. runs out of its channel elements. which Cell a Drop call would be pegged? Answer . why does this mean? Answer -The UE with weaker RF link will require NodeB to transmit higher traffic power in order to reach the UE.Serving Cell in Active Set 153) Briefly describe Capacity Management and its functions? Answer . . should the UE power up or down and why? Ans. this is called cell breathing. As a consequence UE with weaker link (greater distance) may not be reachable by the Node B. 148) Suppose two UE are served by the same cell. A typical WCDMA network is Uplink Limited.Capacity Management is responsible for the control of the load in the cell. .

• Event 2a: Change of Best Frequency • Event 2b: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold and the estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold • Event 2c: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold • Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold • Event 2e: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold • Event 2f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold The Inter-Frequency Handover Evaluation bases its decision on P-CPICH quality measures on the currently used frequency and on one or more non-used frequencies. Inter-Frequency Handover is a hard handover where the UE is ordered by the network to tune to another frequency. This means that there will be small interruptions in the data flow to and from the UE. If the evaluation result is positive. Generally it will set an Event as well along with the measurements. . Admission Control: accepts/refuses admission requests based on the current load on the dedicated monitored resources and the characteristics of the request 3. one cell on a non-used frequency is proposed to Inter-Frequency handover Execution.Interview Questions 2. The following are list of Events that can trigger Measurement Report. Congestion Control: detects/resolves overload situations 154) What Resources are monitored for Capacity Management? Answer – *DL Power *Received Total Wideband power *OVSF Codes *RBS Channel Elements 154) What Radio Measurements are used for Congestion Monitoring? Answer – Downlink Received Power Uplink Received Total Wideband Power 155) How is inter-frequency Handover triggered? The network decides that inter frequency measurements need to be performed and sends the MEASUREMENT CONTROL MESSAGE with Measurement type set to Inter-Frequency measurements.

5G/HSPA for the end-user? As a result of the enhancement. HSUPA will support a maximum of 1. Therefore. and mobile multi-player games.5G/HSPA promises a better broadband multimedia experience. high-quality music downloads.)What is HSDPA and how is it different from the current 3G/GPRS network available today? HSDPA stands for High Speed Downlink Packet Access and is an evolution of 3G technology. the target cell must be co-located with the WCDMA cell. It offers higher data transfer speeds.)What are the benefits of using 3. and improves the uplink performance in networks which support HSUPA. 159. 3G networks support a maximum of 384kbps on the uplink. increased efficiency and greater system capacity for operators. 160. For the business user. Co-located GSM cells are assumed to have similar coverage and accessibility as their respective WCDMA cells. The average uplink speed will be about 1Mbps. 3. IFHO 157) What do you understand by Directed Retry? When there is a co-existing GSM RAN.9Mbps. HSDPA is a technology for improving the download performance of the current 3G network.5G/HSPA networks support Voice? HSPA is purely a data network. HSDPA enables high-speed Internet access and rapid download of emails with attachments. It is sometimes called 3. 158. .5G. Mobile TV.)Do 3. HSDPA allows faster downloading of high-resolution digital images. 161. using the Inter-RAT handover procedure. For the consumers. All Voice traffic is supported on the current 3G network.Interview Questions 156) What kind of Handover takes place in Load Sharing? It’s a blind handover to the co-located cell. excess traffic in a WCDMA cell may be off-loaded to GSM If a call is chosen for Directed Retry to GSM. This handover is a blind one since the target cell is chosen not based on UE measurements.)What is HSUPA? HSUPA stands for High Speed Uplink Packet Access. the request for the speech RAB will be rejected with cause "Directed retry" and then a request is made to the core network to relocate the UE to a specific GSM cell.

What is the benefit for shorter TTI? 1)After every TTI the resources can be redistributed among the users. the mobile equipment that you are using and the bandwidth it supports 2. level of congestion on the Internet 165). it is possible to effectively perform link adaptation even in rapidly changing conditions. If the retransmission is also erroneous. the actual bandwidth experienced will have to take into account network and protocol overheads and therefore the actual addressable bandwidth might be lower.) 164. with download speeds of up to 3. 163. Therefore. internet traffic and destination server.) Difference between ARQ HARQ? ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request). 2)each UE reports about the channel quality after every TTI by sending the CQI.Interview Questions 162.76Mbps (upload). 3)CQI is sent after the very short period of time of 2 ms.5G/HSPA network currently supports download speeds of up to 21Mbps.)What is the maximum download speed of StarHub's 3. the radio conditions 5. .6Mbps and upload speeds of 384kbps.5G/HSPA services. In addition to this. a package received in error will be discarded and a retransmission will be requested. another retransmission will be requested.)What do I need to enjoy the enhanced experience using 3. software used. and upload speeds of up to 5.)What affects the download and upload speeds when using the HSPA service? As with any network. Presently only the Mobile Broadband Modem supports up to 21Mbps (download) and up to 5. performance will also be affected by the following: 1. 166. (Note: Actual bandwidth and speeds experienced are dependent on a combination of factors including the mobile equipment.76Mbps. which is used in UMTS.5G/HSPA network? StarHub's 3.5G/HSPA? To enjoy 3. the types of Applications being used 4. you will require a HSDPA-enabled phone and a 3G USIM. the resource usage is more efficient. the websites and servers you are accessing 3. Most handsets available today only supports HSDPA.

166. an erroneous package will be stored at the receiver and a retransmission will be requested. and 3)Shorter Transmission Time Interval (TTI) . the receiver attempts to combine the two erroneous packages to reproduce the original package.) What are the main technologies used for HSDPA? Main Technology 1)Link adaptation (AMC) 2)Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ).Interview Questions Using HARQ. Even if the retransmission is faulty.