Development and Implementation of Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) in the South-East Asian Region

Dragon Institute, College for Environment & Natural Resources, Can Tho University (CTU) by Stefan Alfred Groenewold

<stefan.groenewold@cimonline.de>

01

Objectives

i. How did the ICAM approach develop in South East Asia, and what are the differences, common grounds and new challenges? ii. Which lessons we can learn and which good practices we possibly can transfer from experiences for the implementation of ICAM in Vietnam?

02
Facts & Figures South East Asia

Outline
ICAM Concept & development in SE Asia; global issues Conclusion & Outlook

Implementation of ICAM in ASEAN

Pilot projects, Lessons learned

03
SING CAMB BANG TIMO

Facts & Figures: coastline

THAI
VIET MALA PAPU CHIN AUST PHIL

INDO
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Length Coastline in km

04
250 200 150 100 50 0

Facts & Figures: population

Population in millions

05

Facts & Figures: HDI

Human Development Index HDI

0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0

06 Facts & Figures: Fish catch (FAO 2009)

Fish catch in tons x 1000

5000

4000
3000 2000 1000 0

07 Facts & Figures: Aquaculture (FAO 2009)
2500

Aquaculture production in tons x 1000

2000
1500 1000 500 0

08 Facts & Figures: coastal habitats - mangroves

Mangrove forest in sqkm x 1000

INDO MALA

MYNA BANG
PHIL THAI VIET CAMB

SING 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

09 Facts & Figures: coastal habitats- coral reefs

Coral Reefs in sqkm x 1000

INDO PHIL MALA THAI

PAPU VIET
SING CAMB BANG 0 10 20 30 40 50

10 Facts & Figures: Economic Value of coastal
habitats
INDO MALA
INDO PHIL MALA THAI

MYNA BANG
PHIL THAI VIET CAMB

PAPU VIET
SING CAMB BANG

SING 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0

10

20

30

40

50

Economic Value of Mangroves in SE Asia: 5,168,000,000 USD (UNEP 2007)

Economic Value of Coral Reefs in SE Asia: 1,157,000,000 USD (UNEP 2007)

11

Facts & Figures: Climate Change Impacts

Vulnerability map

12

ICAM implementation: Marine Protected Areas

MPA‘s are considered as highly effective tools for conservation & sustainable use of marine resources (FAO MDG database 2009, map ACB = Asian Centre for Biodiversity, PHIL)

13
MALA THAI Europe INDO VIET SING PHIL MYNA BANG CAMB

ICAM implementation: Marine Protected Areas

0

1

2

3

4

5

% (percentage of territorial waters per country)

14

ICAM development SE Asia some events with impact: Bali CC Conference roadmap

2010 2004 2000 1997 1994

Tsunami Indian Ocean

Millenium Development goals
Kyoto protocol
PEMSEA founded, ASEAN context

1998
1992

FAO ICAM guideline Earth Summit - Rio Declaration

15

ICAM: Cloud of components Sustainable land-use Disaster mitigation Sustainable tourism Waster management Watershed-management Climate Change adaptation & mitigation

Fishery regulations Aquaculture Livelihood (general) Habitat conservation Habitat rehabilitation Coastline protection Coastal Resource mapping Law enforcement Legal framwork (local & national) Education (formal & informal)

16

ICAM: Process, roadmap

Resource assessment Risk assessment Policy vision Participatory planning & spatial zoning Capacity development, vocational training Information-Education Campaign (IEC) Monitoring & Evaluation

17

ICAM: Principles & Objectives

Environmental Sustainability Precautionary Principle & EIA Equitable Development Multiple sectoral approach Eco-system based Management

18

ICAM: International players

Just one Example: Lessons learned from USAid Fish project: Long-term commitment Stepwise integration & multi-level intervention Adoptation of global issues (Ecosystem based management, good governance, CC adaptation)

19

ICAM: Knowledge network Universities with certain ICM knowledge development

Others: National Ministries for Environment, Fisheries, Planning, Marine Resources

SEAFDEC institutions

20

ICAM: Asian Initiatives & Players

SEAFDEC South East Asian Fisheries Development Center (Bangkok, K, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines) <ASEAN 1967)

21

ICAM: Asian Initiatives & Players PEMSEA Partnership in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia, 1994 in partnership with UN. Since 1993 ICM program, before mainly working on Marine Pollution, situated in Quezon City PHL.

22

ICAM implementation:

Visiting PEMSEA demonstration sites & SEAFDEC project sites Criteria: ICAM components, process, principles

23

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand Since 2001, 160 (before 28) km coastline, 1,3 million inhabitants, 205 km² sea, 129 km² land

24

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand Main components I: Environmental risk assessment (according to international standards) Mangrove rehabilitation (97% were lost) Sustainable fishery (CFRM) (after sharp decline of small-scaled fishery) Environmental friendly aquaculture

25

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand

Main components II: Waste treatment program Solid waste Program Sustainable tourism (island) Oil spill contingency plan 2010 ICM workshops for municipalities Pollution control program

26

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand

Main components III: Spawning Blue crab shelter project Sea turtle protection program

27

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand Principles & Process: Increasing bottom up community based management, decentralisation (ICM MOA with Provinve National Program: Marine & Coastal Management act draft National CC Adaptation plan 2008-12 (chaired by Prime minister) Department for Marine Resource

28

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Chonburi, Thailand

Lessons learned: Sharing knowledge with neighboring municipalities (up-scaling) Cross visits (to PHL) were inspirating

29

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Sihanoukville, Cambodia Since 2001, 120 km coastline, 130,000 inhabitants, 3207 km² sea, 1283 km² land

30

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Sihanoukville, Cambodia

Main components I: Environmental monitoring Knowledge & skill development Sustainable tourism IEC Information Education Campaigns Coastal Zoning training 2011

31

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Sihanoukville, Cambodia

Main components II: Water pollution Waste management Fish catch survey Mudcrab – and swimming crab Resource management project

32

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Sihanoukville, Cambodia Principles & Process: Bottom up community based management, food security has highest priority

National Program: ICM policy draft but lack of capacity National CC adaptation plan 2007 Disaster Risk reduction strategy 2009

33

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Sihanoukville, Cambodia

Lessons learned: Cambodia has little experience with ICM/ICAM, therefore capacity building, vocational training and baseline survey has priority; IEC creates broad acceptance

34

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia Since 2001, 54 km coastline, 696,900 inhabitants, 612 km² sea, 627 km² land, One of the busiest waterways in the world

35

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia

Main components I: Water pollution Integrated River Bassin Management Strengthening Law enforcement (fishery, mangrove logging, team training, equipment upgrade) Mangrove rehabilitation Wetland protection

36

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia

Main components II: Erosion control program Waste management Marine resource assessment (according to UNEP/PEMSEA standards)

37

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia

Principles & Process: More top down approach, but increasing community based management Strong law enforcement

38

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia

National Program: ICM policy by federal government, CZM Plan 2006-2020 National CC adaptation plan 2007

39

ICAM implementation: Project sites

Where: Port Klang, Malaysia

Lessons learned: Water vision plan 2025 links river bassin management with ICM Still weak institutional capacity at local level Inefficient use of funds, Overlapping responsibilities of government agencies

40

ICAM implementation: Trans-boundary projects

South China Sea Project 2002-2008 Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, China CCI Coral Triangel Initiative 2009-

41

ICAM implementation: Trans-boundary projects

South China Sea Project Outcomes: Intensive Capacity development program Database (website), baseline research Fish ‚refugia‘, 11 demonstration sites 39 sectoral action plans Economic valuation of coastal resources

42

Lessons learned

East Asian Sea Congress 2009 in Manila Four Lessons learned for effective ICM implementation – Coastal Governance 1. Understanding marine economy 2. Facilitating Ecosystem based Managment (EBM) 3. Implementing Marine spatial planning 4. Expanding capacity building in the region by training & advanced education

43

Lessons learned

East Asian Sea Congress 2009 in Manila Main barriers for implementing ICM/ICAM

1. No clear jurisdiction over coastal resources 2. Political resistence of local government and people 3. Local natural resources are controlled by a small selected stakeholder group

44

Conclusions: Matching objectives

Successful ICAM implementation is site-specific! Especially in the starting phase of ICAM implementation, IEC and local capacity training is essential ICAM is suitable for highly industrialized areas as well as for rural areas

ICAM is a long-term committment, a process that needs to be maintained regularly

45

Finish: Food for Thoughts

What is the country-specific challenge and needs for the implementation of ICAM in Vietnam?

46

Finish

Thank you for your attention

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