05_ICAM-in_Viet Nam_Dr. Nguyễn Chu Hồi | Coast | Emergency Management

Strategy on Integrated Coastal Management in Viet Nam

Assc. Dr. Nguyen Chu Hoi Deputy Administrator of VASI

Vietnam Administration of Seas and Islands (VASI)

Vietnam is a coastal country: A maritime country Maritime Index = 0,01 (every 100 sq.km of land per 1 km of coastline) A long coast Coastline: over 3260 km (except island’s coastline)

A lot of islands: Some 2773 inshore islands and two offshore archipelago

Population in 2009: Some 30 mill. persons
in 125 coastal districts of 28 coastal provinces,

Some 50% of major cities is in coastal areas with 40% total population.

Rich in biodiversity
- Some 20 types of coastal and near-shore ecosystems - In Vietnam seas there are about 11.000 species are

recorded, among 2.038 species of marine fish. - Fish reserve is about 5,0 million tons

Coastal waters provide 80% of the country’s total fishery catch, which contributes to about US$4,5 billion worth of GDP exports in 2010

Therefore, the Vietnam’s coasts play very important role in the country’s development strategy, as well as in management policy system of the Government

Oil & gas: 3-4 billions oil. Yearly exploited draw oil production has been increasing 30%. Heavy mineral deposits are distributed along the coasts. Salt field are of 60.000 ha in area, among 60% in Quang Ngai-Binh Thuan Sands, crystal sands and other construction materials Coastal tourism potential is high with 125 large beaches, among 26 beaches at international level. 5 world heritages are in or near coastal zone and many other sites with high concervation potentials 60% of coastline are estuaries, some 20 bays and 12 lagoons...they are ideal locations for port and other economic sector development.

Other Potentials

Loss of biodiversity Degradation of marine ecosystems, coastal habitat destruction Land-based impacts

Coastal disasters and oil spills - Coastal erosion, marine pollution and red tide - Viet Nam is one of 05 countries in the world will be most strongly impacted from climate change

Key Fisheries Trend in Viet Nam
Gross output ('000 tons)

 Local community
poverty (157 coastal communes)
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
Source: Ministry of Fisheries, 2002

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Gross output Year M arine capture Aquaculture Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE) - tons/HP/year

Overfishing and overcapacity of coastal aquaculture

Multi-use of coastal resources

Traditionally sectoral policies and management

Multiple Use Issues and Addressing Conflicts

To solve benefit conflicts in context of such multi-use and sectoral management, require effective management of the ecosystems and involve contributions of all stakeholders to coastal issue in a coordinated way

Coastal policy and institutional issues
In the past time, coastal and marine areas in Viet Nam have been managed by 15 ministries/sectors in a sectoral manner which has caused overlap and fragment. Lack of a national agency in crosssectoral coordination for coasts and seas and islands. Lack of inter-sectoral policies in coastal management

Integrated Coatal Management (Activities)

Economic Development

Solid Wate Management Aquaculture Management
Port Management Habitat Restoration

Oil & Gas Leasing & Development

Land-based impacts Watershed Management

Vessel Traffic Management

Sustainable Tourism

Marine Protected Area Management

Fisheries Management

What have been done and on-going?
Before 1995, the ICM initiatives have not yet been formulated at the both central and local level After 1995, the ICM initiatives have been formulated at the central level and implemented at local level as pilot projects supported by government and international organizations

ICM projects
National project on studying development of ICM plan to maintain ecological safety and environmental protection (1996-2000) Vietnam-Netherlands project on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) for 2000-2005 Vietnam-The US of America project on building capacity on ICM for Viet Nam in Tonkin gulf, supported by the US (NOAA) and IUCN (2003-2012) Vietnam-WorldFish Center project on facilitating ICM for Viet Nam (20052006) focused on development of training manual on ICM for coastal provincial level of Viet Nam Vietnam-PEMSEA project on marine pollution and integrated coastal management: regional pilot site in Danang city with 02 phases (20012008). Viet Nam - WB/ADB in poverty reduction for coastal communities (in some case studies in Central) (2003-05). National program on ICM in 14 provinces in central VietNam toward year 2015 and vision 2020 (from Thanhhoa downto Binhthuan province).

Other efforts related to ICM
Agenda 21 for Vietnam (in 2004): Directions of sustainable development in Viet Nam. National program on marine science and technology in years 2006-2010, and 2011-2020. National plan on comprehensive surveys on marine environment and resources in years 2006-2010, vision 2020. A national system of 16 marine protected areas (MPAs) toward year 2020 approved in 2010. The national system of marine environmental monitoring (established in 1995) The national project on socio-economic surveys in coastal areas and islands (2006-2010).

Some of the main signed international treaties are: International convention for the protection of pollution by oil from ships in 1997 (MARPOL), International convention on protection of wetlands in 1971 (RAMSAR), International convention on the control of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal, 1989 (BASEL), United Nations convention on the Law of the seas, 1982 (UNCLOS). Foreign donors have brought a significant change in thinking and behaviour in the national administration with an emphasis on broader vision, integrated action, and stronger ownership

Policy responses

The Order No. 36 CT/TW of Gov. on Strengthening Environmental Protection in the Period of Industrialization and Modernization (1998) Law of Criminal Affairs (1999), including 10 environmental convicts Law of Environmental Protection (1993, 2004), Law of Fisheries (2003), Law of Biodiversity (2009), Code of Navigation (1990, 2005) Ordinance of Tourism (2006),…

National policies

National policies…
Governmental Decree No.25/2009/ND-CP on Integrated Marine Resources Management and Environmental Protection dated 6 March 2009 (in force in May 2009) is first integrated governance policy in the field of coast, sea and island management in Viet Nam. The policy offers some items guide ICM implementation in Viet Nam and coastal function zoning and coastal use planning Law of Seas and Law of Marine Resources and Environment are in process of preparation which will be legal documents focusing on ICM and marine spatial planning and management. Law of ICM in discussion.

Institutional responses to ICM

Cenral level VASI

Bureau for sea use management

Centers of ICM and planning

Local level (28 coastal provinces and stakeholders, community)

Relevant sectors

Major challenges/obtacles in ICM implementation in vietnam
- Lack of an institutional arrangement for ICM at different levels - Lack of national system on ICM policy and laws and low enforcement - Collaborative mechanism of interagencies/sectors and stakeholders in ICM development and implementation is very limited - Incorporation of ICM into national and provincial socio-economic plans is weak and lack of special technical guidelines - Incorporation of the climate change and sea level rise impacts into the ICM is still not yet done.

Challenges & obtacles…

- Lack of human resources and capacity in ICM development and implementation - Lack of sustainable financing mechanism for ICM plans at both central and local level - The awareness and participation of local community in ICM cycle is unclear - The academic training and education program on ICM are limited - The skill of the staff from agencies responsible to ICM at both central and local level is still very weak.

Move forwards

VISION Sustainable development of the Vietnam coasts have to be based on ICM effectively implementation to maintain the essentially natural function and connectivity of the coastal systems and marine ecosystems for adaptively economic development, for local community livelihood improvement and coastal hazard mitigation. PRIORITY ISSUES Management and reasonable use of coastal areas / natural resources Management, prevention and mitigation of coastal pollution and environmental hazards Management, mitigation and adaptation of coastal natural hazards, including climate change and SLR Conservation, protection of coastal biodiversity and nature Mitigation of benefit conflicts in multi-use Improvement of local community livelihood

- ICM should be applied in 28 coastal provinces - ICM plan should be developed in 22 coastal provinces - ICM plan should be approved and implemented in 20 coastal provinces - ICM activities should be institutionalised - Human resources and capacity in ICM development and implementation should be upgraded

Main objectives (2020)

Priority activities
To establish institutional arrangement for ICM at central and local levels: ICM Steering Committee, ICM Office and ICM Technical Team with ICM partners networking (domestic and international NGOs, academic, university, private sector, donors,…) To implement the national program No_158 on ICM in 14 coastal provinces in central Vietnam To implement Vietnam-PEMSEA program on ICM scaling up for 7 key coastal provinces (2011-2015): Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Nam Dinh, Khanh Hoa, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Soc Trang and Kien Giang. To develop a national system of policies and laws to facilitate for ICM, including Law of Seas, Law of Marine Resources and Environment, and maybe Law of ICM and of MPAs (?). To upgrade the capacity of national system of ICM, including VASI, coastal provinces and line agencies. To develop technical guidelines on ICM so that support the ICM application at localities To develop a training and education program on ICM in some related universities and learning centers (?)

Activity priorities (2) To develop a mechanism of sustainable financing for ICM To develop and implement a strategy and action plan for ICM To apply a coastal spatial use zoning and planning To develop a guidelines on incorporating climate change and SLR impacts into ICM strategy and plan To conduct international cooperation in sharing and exchanging lessons learnt, experiences and good practices To implement a national plan on marine pollution management from land-based source To implement a MPA plan To develop and apply a set of ICM indicators to measure implementation progress of ICM plan

Major solutions for stratery implementation
Inter-sectoral/ inter-agency collaboration Integration of ICM into socio-economic development plans Integration of ICM into coastal plan to respond to climate change and sea level rise Science-technology: coastal database, state of coasts, coastal function zoning plan, MSP,… International cooperation: (WB, IUCN, NOAA, WB, GTZ, MFF, BCR,…) To organise administrative plan for the strategy implementation (MONRE/VASI, local PPC,…)

Thank you very much !

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