Types 1 and 2 indicate constipation.

Types 3 and 4 are optimal, especially the latter, as these are the easiest to pass. Types 5–7 are associated with increasing tendency to diarrhea or urgency.

Color variations of feces
Human fecal matter varies significantly in appearance, depending on diet and health. Normally it is semisolid, with a mucus coating. It normally has a brown coloration, which results from a combination of bile and bilirubin that is derived from dead red blood cells.

Yellow
Yellowing of feces can be caused by an infection known as Giardiasis, which derives its name from Giardia, an anaerobic flagellatedprotozoan parasite that can cause severe and communicable yellow diarrhea. Another cause of yellowing is a condition known as Gilbert's Syndrome. This condition is characterized by jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia when too much bilirubin is present in the circulating blood.

Black
Feces can be black due to the presence of red blood cells that have been in the intestines long enough to be broken down by digestive enzymes. This is known as melena, and is typically due to bleeding in the upper digestive tract, such as from a

for example. such as blue curaçao or grape soda. Fecal contamination of water sources is highly prevalent worldwide. coli O157 if blood is visible in the stool sample Hematochezia is similarly the passage of feces that are bright red due to the presence of undigested blood. resulting in silver stool. cesium. It can also suggest a carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. black liquorice. or foods such as beetroot.g. Black feces can also be caused by a number of medications. [4] A quick test for fecal contamination of water sources or soil is a check for the presence of E. such as Black pudding orTiết canh. such as bismuth subsalicylate (the active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol). which is cooler than usual  Campylobacter incubated at 42 °C (108 °F). E.. and thallium poisoning. coli bacteria uniquely develop red colonies at temperature of approximately 43 °C (109 °F) overnight. [5] Silver A tarnished-silver or aluminum paint-like feces color characteristically results when biliary obstruction of any type (white stool) combines withgastrointestinal bleeding from any source (black stool). undergoing cancer treatment)  E. Although most strains of E.bleeding peptic ulcer. in a special environment   Aeromonas Candida if the person is immunosuppressed (e. or blueberries. and hence an increased possibility of the presence of more dangerous organisms. The same color change can be observed after consuming foods that contain a substantial proportion of animal blood. accounting for the majority of unsafe drinking water. The main pathogens that are commonly looked for in feces include:    Bacteroides species Salmonella and Shigella Yersinia tends to be incubated at 30 °C (86 °F). including the passing of red-black stool. can turn the feces blue. their presence is indicative of fecal contamination. Substantial consumption of products containing blue food dye. Alcoholism can also provoke abnormalities in the path of blood throughout the body. Blue Prussian blue. and dietary iron supplements. or from a more active source in the upper digestive tract. used in the treatment of radiation. colibacteria performed with the help of MacConkey agar plates or Petri dishes. Even in developed countries events of sanitary sewer overflow are not uncommon and regularly pollute the Seine River (France) and the River Thames (England). coli are harmless. Fecal contamination . In developing countries most sewage is discharged without treatment. which will result in gastrointestinal bleeding and biliary obstruction. either from lower in the digestive tract. can have the same effect.

increasing the rate of expulsion of the intestinal pathogens. For example. .6[7] Also. Patient type Upper limit Unit 2–9 years 166[7] Calprotectin 10–59 years 51[7] Fecal markers The feces can be analyzed for various markers that are indicative of various diseases and conditions. This results in a very liquid stool. ulcerative colitis and neoplasms (cancer). Diarrhea occurs when the large intestine fails to reabsorb water to the normal extent. Lactoferrin ≥ 60 years 112[7] µg/g of feces 2–9 years 29[7] ≥ 10 years 4. fecal calprotectin levels indicate an inflammatory process such as Crohn's disease.  Cryptosporidium Entamoeba histolytica Marker Reference ranges for fecal markers Diarrhea Many viruses. which is indicative of a gastrointestinal bleeding. feces may be analyzed for any fecal occult blood. parasites and bacteria cause diarrhea.

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